Early Christian Manuscripts, Patristic Literature早期的基督教手稿,文學教父

General Information 一般資料

(Links to subject listings) (鏈接到主題列表)
Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Polycarp, Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Hermas, misc 克萊門特的羅馬,巴拿巴,波利卡普,伊格內修斯,賈斯汀烈士,愛任紐,黑馬,雜項
Tatian, Papias, Theophilus, Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian 塔蒂安,帕皮亞,哥拉,西奧菲勒斯,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,良
Origen, Hippolytus, Cyprian, Novatian, miscThaumaturgus, Dionysius the Great, Africanus, misc 奧利,西波呂,塞浦路斯,諾瓦蒂安,雜項 - Thaumaturgus,狄奧尼修斯大,非洲種,雜項
Methodius, Arnobius, Lactantius, miscApost. 迪烏斯,阿諾布斯,潭修斯,雜項 - Apost。 Constitutions, Early Homilies, Early Creeds, Early Liturgies 憲法,早期的頌歌,早期的信條,早期的禮儀
The Twelve Patriarchs, Theodotus, Clement of Romeimportant misc texts, Decretals, other misc 十二始祖,奧多托斯,克萊門特的羅馬 - 重要雜項文本,教令,其他雜項
Early Syriac texts, texts related to Gospels, miscHistory of Eusebius, History of Socrates, History of Sozomen, Theodoret (incl. History of Theodoret), Rufinus/Jerome 早期的敘利亞文文本,文本相關的福音,雜項 - 尤西比烏斯的歷史,歷史的蘇格拉底,歷史Sozomen,theodoret公司(包括歷史的theodoret),Rufinus /杰羅姆
AthanasiusGregory of Nyssa, JeromeCyril, Nazianzen, Basil 亞他那修 - 格雷戈里的果樹,杰羅姆 - 西里爾,Nazianzen,羅勒
Hilary of Poitiers, John of Damascus, AmbroseSulpitius Severus, Vincent of Lerins, John Cassian 希拉里的普瓦捷,劉漢銓大馬士革的約翰 - Sulpitius西弗勒斯,文森特的lerins,約翰·卡西安
Leo the Great (A)(B)(C)Gregory the Great (A)(B)Ephraim the Syrian 獅子座大(A) - (B) - (C) - 格里高利大(A) - (B) - 以法蓮敘利亞
Early Ecum. 早期Ecum。 CouncilsSecond through Sixth Ecum. 議會 - 第二至第六Ecum的。 CouncilsTrullo and Seventh Ecum. 議會 - 石頂圓屋和第七Ecum。 Councils 議會
Saint Augustine (A)(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)(G)(H)(I)(J) 聖奧古斯丁(A) - (B) - (C) - (D) - (E) - (F) - (G) - (H) - (I) - (J)
Saint John Chrysostom (A)(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)(G) 聖約翰金口(A) - (B) - (C) - (D) - (E) - (F) - (G)


Patristic literature refers to the writings of the Fathers of the Christian church (the Greek word patristikos means "relating to the fathers") between the latter part of the 1st century AD and the middle of the 8th century.教父文學指的父親之間,以及後者的一部分,在公元1世紀和8世紀中期,基督教會(希臘字patristikos的手段“有關的父親”)的著作。 It can therefore be distinguished from New Testament theology at one end and from medieval scholasticism and Byzantine systematization at the other.因此,可以區分新約神學的一端,在其他的中世紀經院和拜占庭式的系統化。 It reflects the philosophical and religious thought of the Hellenistic and Roman world from which it derived the bulk of its concepts and vocabulary.它反映了哲學和宗教思想的古希臘和羅馬的世界從它派生的概念和詞彙的大部分。 The themes of this vast literature are manifold, but the theological reflection of the Fathers focused for the most part on questions of Christology and the Trinity.這片廣袤的文學的主題是多方面的,但基督和三位一體的問題上,大部分的父親的神學反省的重點。

Although writers of the East and West had much in common, perceptible shades of difference can be found in their theologies. A scientific theology developed in the East and was marked by a blend of biblical theology and Platonic idealism (especially in Alexandria) or Aristotelian realism (especially in Antioch) .雖然東方和西方的作家有很多共同的,可感知細微的差別,可以發現在他們的神學。在東亞和科學的神學發展的特點是融合了聖經神學與柏拉圖式的理想主義(特別是在亞歷山德里亞)或亞里士多德的現實主義(尤其是在安提阿)。 In the West, Christian writers generally depended on the Greek theological tradition, which they often clarified in definitions or interpreted in juridical categories, until the emergence in the late 4th century of a sophisticated Latin theology.在西方,基督教作家一般取決於希臘神學傳統,他們往往澄清定義或解釋法律類,直到4世紀後期出現在一個複雜的拉丁神學。

Patristic literature falls into three main periods. The ante-Nicene period (before AD 325) includes the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the apologetic and antiheretical literature, and the beginnings of speculative Greek theology. 教父文學分為三個主要時期。產前尼西亞時期 (公元325年)前的使徒父親,的歉意,antiheretical文學的著作,並開始投機希臘神學。 The major figures of this period include Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian, Irenæus, Justin Martyr, Origen, and Tertullian.這一時期的重要人物,包括克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,塞浦路斯,愛任紐,賈斯汀烈士,奧利,和良。 The period between the councils of Nicæa (325) and Chalcedon (451) was the golden age of the Nicene fathers (including Eusebius of Cæsarea, the first major church historian) the Alexandrians (most notably Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria), the Cappadocians (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa), and the Antiochenes (John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia). 尼西亞(325)和迦克 ​​墩(451)間的議會尼西亞的父親的黃金時代(包括優西比烏的愷撒的第一個重大的教會歷史學家)的亞歷山大(最顯著的亞他那修和西里爾亞歷山大),帕多(羅勒大,格雷戈里的高利,和格雷戈里的nyssa),和的Antiochenes(約翰金口,和西奧多的Mopsuestia)。

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This was also the period of the great Latin fathers: Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose, Jerome, and, above all, Augustine.這是一段偉大的拉丁教父:希拉里的普瓦捷,劉漢銓,杰羅姆和奧古斯丁,最重要的是,。 The final period of patristic literature ends with Gregory I (the Great) in the West and John Damascene in the East. 與格里高利一世(大)在西方和約翰大馬士革東方教父文學最後期限結束。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊
Bibliography: 參考書目:
Altaner, Berthold, Patrology, 5th ed. Altaner,:貝特霍爾德,教父,第5版。 (1960); DiBerardino, Angelo, eds., Patrology, trans. (1960年); DiBerardino,報喜鳥,EDS,教父,反式脂肪。 by P. Solari, 4 vols.由P.索拉里,4卷。 (1986); Goodspeed, EJ, A History of Early Christian Literature, rev. (1986年);古德斯皮德,EJ,早期基督教文學,轉的歷史。 ed.編輯。 (1966); Hamell, Patrick J., Handbook of Patrology (1968); Kelly, JND, Early Christian Doctrines, rev. (1966年),“教父(1968),帕特里克J. Hamell JND凱利,早期基督教的教義,轉。 ed.編輯。 (1978); Leigh-Bennett, E., Handbook of the Early Christian Fathers (1980); Quasten, Johannes, and Plumpe, Joseph C., eds., Ancient Christian Writers (1946- ). (1978年);雷 - 本內特,E.,早期基督教教父“(1980年); Quasten,約翰內斯,Plumpe的,約瑟夫·主編,古代基督教作家(1946 - )。


Since we are trying to include EVERY early Church document in this presentation, there are around 4,000 of them now included!因為我們正試圖在此演示文稿中包括每一個早期教會文件,現在他們大約有4000! It is not practical to place them all in a single link listing, so we have divided them up into smaller listings roughly as follows:這是不實際的將它們都放置在一個單一的鏈接列表,所以我們劃分成更小的房產大致如下:


Advanced Information 先進的信息

Collected together are the English translations of the actual texts of many known early Christian manuscripts.的實際文本的許多已知的早期基督教手稿收集在一起的英文翻譯。 These works form an important part of the foundation for virtually every Christian Church.這些作品的重要組成部分,幾乎所有的基督教教會的基礎。

In Christianity, as in all other religions, interpretation by authors and speakers and Clergy is invariably involved.在基督教中,作者和演講者和神職人員的解釋是在所有其他宗教一樣,無不涉及。 Since different people have sometimes interpreted the wording of early manuscripts in different ways, (as also is true of the Bible), there developed many different "human opinions" on many important subjects, which initiated many heresies, many schisms and a large number of Denominations and other Churches, each which have their own human opinions on those important subjects.有時不同的人有解釋的措辭早期手稿以不同的方式,(也就是真正的聖經),因此開發了許多不同的“人的意見”,對許多重要的課題,啟動了許多異端邪說,許多分裂和大量的教派和其他教會,每個有自己的人的意見就這些重要議題。

Since much of the argument seems to arise over interpretation of the meanings of works of the early Church Fathers, we are presenting the works here, WITHOUT significant commentary or interpretation.由於許多的爭論似乎出現了早期教父的作品的含義的解釋,我們展示的作品在這裡,沒有顯著的評論或解釋。 The exceptions generally have to do with historical facts which are relevant.例外的情況一般有做相關的歷史事實。 For example, there are some short letters which appear to have been written to Mary, the Mother of Jesus, but the author appears to have lived many years after her!例如,有一些短期的信似乎已經被寫入到瑪麗,耶穌的母親,但在筆者看來多年後,她的生活! Such notes include a brief reference to being "spurious".該等債券包括一個簡略提及是“虛假的”。

There are also assorted "fragments" of manuscripts included.也有各種“碎片”的手稿包括。 In some cases, these fragments result from the illegibility of much of a manuscript, where only certain sentences are readable.在某些情況下,這些片段的結果從多大的手稿,其中只有某些句子是可讀的模糊。 In other cases, they are truly fragments, torn portions of manuscripts.在其他情況下,他們是真正的碎片,蹂躪的部分手稿。

Being English translations, one must remember the need to consult the original language texts for any critical study.作為英語翻譯,我們必須記住,需要諮詢任何批判性研究的原始語言文字。 Similarly, we must remember that, at the time these letters and books were written, even the Bible was written in Scriptua continua , continuous text without spaces for paragraphs, sentences or even words, and there was no capitalization, punctuation or other formatting.同樣,我們必須記住的是,在當時寫這些信件和書籍,甚至“聖經”是沒有空格的段落,句子或什字寫在scriptua連續 ,連續的文本,也沒有大小寫,標點符號或其他格式。 Therefore, the paragraph numbering and Chapter headings in these texts were obviously additions by later copyists or translators to clarify the texts.因此,段落編號和章標題,在這些文本中明顯增加後來的抄寫員或翻譯,以澄清文本。 However, without those improvements, these texts are nearly impossible to read or understand, and so it seems tolerable to accept them.但是,如果沒有這些改進,這些文本閱讀或理解幾乎是不可能的,因此它似乎可以容忍接受他們。

This listing is approximately in chronological order, as is currently understood.上市約按時間順序排列,目前正在了解。 We hope to eventually include all known existing Manuscripts.我們希望最終包括所有已知的現有的手稿。

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Saint Clement I聖克萊門特我

Clement, d.克萊門特。 AD 101, called Clement of Rome, was the bishop of Rome, or pope, from c.92 to 101. AD 101,叫克萊門特的羅馬,羅馬,教皇的主教,從c.92至101。 According to Irenæus, he was the third successor of St. Peter.根據愛任紐,他是第三個繼任者的聖彼得大教堂。 Little is known of his life; the main source of information is his Epistle to the Corinthians (c.96), the earliest piece of Christian literature other than New Testament writings for which the name of the author is certain.鮮為人知的是,他的生活信息的主要來源是他的書信向科林蒂安(c.96),最早的一塊基督教文學以外的新約書卷的作者的名字是一定的。 The high esteem in which Clement was held is evident from the fact that until the 4th century his letter was accepted by some as Scripture.在克萊門特舉行的崇高敬意,直到公元4世紀,他信接受了一些作為聖經的事實是顯而易見的。 He is one of the Apostolic Fathers of the church.他是父親教會的使徒之一。 The epistle was written because of internal discord and division in the Corinthian church.寫的書信,因為在哥林多教會的內部紛爭和分裂。 Clement intervened in the name of the church at Rome and appealed for restoration of peace, harmony, and order.克萊門特在羅馬的教會的名義進行干預,並呼籲恢復和平,和諧和秩序。 The document, which demonstrates Clement's familiarity with Greek Stoic philosophy and mythology, gives a valuable picture of early church organization, belief, and practice.該文件,這表明克萊門特的熟悉希臘斯多葛哲學和神話,早期的教會組織,信仰和實踐提供了寶貴的圖片。 Feast day: Nov. 23 (Western); Nov. 24 or 25 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:11月23日(西部); 11月24日或25(東區)。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安

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Saint Polycarp聖波利卡普

Polycarp, c.69-c.155, bishop of Smyrna, was a living link between the Apostles and the church of the later 2d century.主教波利卡普,c.69-c.155,士麥那,是一個活生生的使徒和以後的2個世紀的教會之間的聯繫。 As a leader of the church in Anatolia, he visited (155) Rome to discuss with its bishop the disputed date for the celebration of Easter.在安納托利亞的教會作為一個領導者,他訪問了(155)羅馬的主教討論的爭議慶祝復活節的日期。 It was agreed that the Eastern and Western churches would continue their divergent usages.與會者一致認為,東部和西部教會將繼續其不同的用途。 After his return to Smyrna, Polycarp was arrested and burned to death.之後,他返回到士麥那,波利卡普被逮捕和被燒死。 A letter from the church of Smyrna, the oldest known narrative of a Christian martyr, gives an account of his trial and death.函件士麥那的教會的基督徒殉道者,已知的最古老的敘事,敘述了對他的審判和死亡。

A defender of orthodoxy--Irenæus says that he was a disciple of Saint John--Polycarp opposed Marcion and other gnostic teachers.正統的捍衛者 - 愛任紐說,他是聖約翰的弟子 - 波利卡普反對馬吉安和其他諾斯替教教師。 A letter addressed to him by Ignatius survives, in addition to one (or perhaps two combined) by Polycarp to the Philippians that throws light on early Christian doctrine, organization, and use of Scripture.一個由伊格內修斯給他的信中存活了下來除了一個(或者兩個組合)波利卡普給腓立比全光照對早期基督教的教義,組織,和使用的聖經。 Feast day: Jan. 25 (Eastern); Feb. 23 (Western).盛宴的日子:1月25日(東區)2月23日(西部)。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊
Bibliography: 參考書目:
Altaner, Berthold, Patrology, (1960); Harrison, PN, Polycarp's Two Epistles to the Philippians (1936); Musurillo, HA, comp., Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1972). Altaner,貝特霍爾德,教父,(1960年);哈里森,PN,波利卡普的書信腓立比(1936年); Musurillo,HA,排版,使徒行傳的基督教殉難者(1972年)。

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Marcus Aurelius馬可奧勒留(Marcus Aurelius)

Roman Emperor羅馬帝國皇帝

Marcus Aurelius, b. ,B馬庫斯奧勒。 Apr. 26, 121, d. 04月26日,121。 Mar. 17, 180, ruled Rome from 161 until his death. 3月17日,180從161直到他的死亡,統治羅馬。 Born Marcus Annius Verus, he was adopted by the emperor AntoniusS Pius in 138 and married to his daughter Annia Galeria Faustina a few years later.出生馬庫斯Annius真實的,他是通過皇帝AntoniusS庇護在138結婚幾年後,他的女兒的Annia GALERIA傅天娜。 He succeeded to the throne without difficulty on Antoninus's death.他繼承了王位毫無困難地在安東尼的死亡。 Marcus insisted on sharing power equally with Lucius Verus, whom Antoninus had also adopted, even though Verus, who died in 169, was clearly less competent.馬庫斯堅持與盧修斯真實的,就是安東尼也採用了同樣的分享權力,即使真實的,誰死在169,顯然是技不如人。

Educated by the best tutors in Rome and Athens, Marcus was a devotee of Greek learning and of the philosophy of Stoicism.教育在羅馬和雅典的最好的導師,馬庫斯是一個奉獻的希臘學習和斯多葛學派的哲學。 Even during his campaigns (167-175, 178-180) against the Marcomanni and other Danubian tribes he kept a "spiritual diary."即使在他的競選(167-175,178-180)對馬科曼尼和其他多瑙河部落,他一直在“心靈日記”。 This document, the Meditations, reflects Marcus's attempt to reconcile his Stoic philosophy of virtue and self-sacrifice with his role as a warrior-sovereign.本文件,沉思,反映了馬庫斯的企圖調和他的斯多葛哲學的美德和自我犧牲精神,與他的角色作為一個戰士主權。

Marcus's wars and benevolences--he lowered taxes and was charitable toward the less fortunate--were expensive and often ineffective.馬庫斯的的戰爭和benevolences - 他降低了稅收和慈善向幸運 - 是昂貴的,往往是無效的。 His son Commodus, who succeeded him, inherited the Danubian war, which Rome could not win, and a treasury that had been seriously depleted.他的兒子康茂德,接替他的人,繼承了多瑙河戰爭,羅馬不能取勝,和財政部已嚴重枯竭。

John Eadie約翰·伊迪

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Birley, AR, Marcus Aurelius (1966) and rev. 。教育署,AR,馬可奧勒留(1966年)和rev。 ed.編輯。 (1987); Farquharson, Arthur, Marcus Aurelius, His Life and His World, ed. (1987年); Farquharson,亞瑟,馬可奧勒留(Marcus Aurelius),他的生活和他的世界,教育署。 by DA Rees (1951; repr. 1975); Sedgwick, Henry D., Marcus Aurelius (1921; repr. 1971通過DA里斯(1951年再版,1975);塞奇威克,亨利·D.馬可奧勒留(1921年,1971年再版。

Saint Ignatius of Antioch聖依納爵的安提阿

The third bishop of Antioch, Ignatius, dc107, was brought to Rome under Trajan and thrown to wild beasts.第三主教安提,伊格內修斯,dc107,被帶到圖拉真統治下的羅馬,並拋出野獸。 On the way to Rome he wrote to the Christians at Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Rome, Philadelphia, and Smyrna and to Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna.的方式來羅馬,他寫信給基督徒在以弗所,氧化鎂,Tralles,羅馬,費城,和士麥那和士麥那主教波利卡普,。 These seven letters give an enlightening glimpse not only of the beliefs and internal conditions of early Christian communities, but also of the character of their author.這七封信不僅是信念和內部條件的早期基督教社區,但它們的作者的性格也有啟發性的一瞥。

Ignatius wrote about the virgin birth and divinity of Christ, but stressed especially Christ's human nature.伊格內修斯寫道:童女生子和基督的神性,但特別強調基督的人性。 The first writer to call the church "catholic," Ignatius described it as a society of love, presided over in love by a bishop with his presbyters and deacons, and assembled "in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ" (Eph. 20).呼籲教會“天主教作家,”伊格形容這是作為一個社會的愛心,在愛與他的長老和執事由主教主持,並組裝“的恩典,一個信念和一個耶穌基督”(以弗所書20)。

Called Theophoros ("God-bearer"), Ignatius considered martyrdom a great honor and asked the Roman Christians not to save him.稱為Theophoros(“上帝旗手”),伊格內修斯認為殉難一個偉大的榮譽,並要求羅馬基督徒不要救他。 "Let me be given to the wild beasts," he wrote, "for through them I can attain unto God" (Rom. 4). “讓我考慮到野獸,”他寫道,“通過他們,我可以得著神”(羅馬書4)。 Feast day: Oct. 17 (Western); Dec. 17 (Antioch); Dec. 20 (other Eastern).盛宴的日子:10月17日(西部); 12月17日(安提阿)12月20日(其他東歐)。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Corwin, Virginia, Saint Ignatius and Christianity in Antioch (1960); Kleist, JA, ed., The Epistles of St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch (1946); Richardson, Cyril, The Christianity of Ignatius of Antioch (1935); Schoedel, William, Ignatius of Antioch: A Commentary on the Seven Letters of Ignatius (1985).科溫,弗吉尼亞州,聖依納爵和基督教安提阿(1960),克萊斯特,JA,編輯,書信的聖克萊門特的羅馬和聖依納爵的安提阿(1946年);理查森,西里爾,基督教伊格安提( 1935年); Schoedel,威廉,伊格安提:評上的七封信的伊格內修斯(1985)。

Works of St. Ignatius of Antioch聖依納爵的安提阿的作品

Saint Justin Martyr聖賈斯汀烈士

Saint Justin Martyr, c.100-c.165, is recognized as one of the most important early Christian writers.聖賈斯汀烈士,C.100-c.165,被公認是最重要的早期基督教作家之一。 A Samarian, he studied in different schools of philosophy--Stoic, Peripatetic, Pythagorean, and Platonic--before becoming a Christian.一個撒瑪利亞,他曾在不同流派的哲學 - 斯多葛派,逍遙學派,畢達哥拉斯,柏拉圖 - 在成為基督徒之前。 Justin took up the task of making a reasoned defense of Christianity to outsiders.賈斯汀了一個合理的國防基督教為外人道的任務。 He went to Rome and opened a school of philosophy.他去了羅馬,並開設了一所學校的理念。 Justin is the reputed author of a vast number of treatises, but the only authentic remaining works are two Apologies, his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, and fragments of On the Resurrection. Justin是知名的作家了大量的論文,但唯一正宗的餘下工程是兩個道歉,他的猶太人Trypho的對話和片段的復活。 Justin was beheaded, probably in 165.賈斯汀被斬首,大概在165。 Feast day: June 1.盛宴的日子:6月1日。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Barnard, LW, Justin Martyr: His Life and Thought (1967).巴納德,LW,賈斯汀烈士的生平與思想“(1967年)。

Works of St. Justin Martyr作品聖賈斯汀烈士

Saint Irenæus, Irenaeus聖依,愛任紐

Saint Irenæus, b.聖依,。 Anatolia, c.140-60, dc200, known as the father of Catholic theology, is the most important theologian of the 2d century AD.安納托利亞,C.140-60,DC200,被稱為父親的天主教神學,是公元2世紀最重要的神學家。 In his youth, he became a disciple of Saint Polycarp of Smyrna.在他的青年時期,他成為了聖弟子波利卡普的士麥那。 Later he served as bishop of Lugdunum (Lyon) in Gaul.後來,他擔任主教的Lugdunum(里昂)在高盧。

Irenæus is known through several extant works, as well as by his influence on later Christian writers of the patristic era.愛任紐是通過一些現存的作品,以及後來的基督教作家的教父時代受他的影響。 He was a man of peace and of tradition.他是一個愛好和平的人的傳統。 His major efforts were spent in combating Gnosticism, and his great work, Adversus hæreses (Against Heresies), was written for this purpose.他的主要努力都用在打擊諾斯替教,和他的偉大的的工作,Adversushæreses(反對異端),是寫給這個目的。 He developed the doctrine of recapitulation (anakephalaiosis) of all things in Jesus Christ in opposition to the teachings of gnostics such as Valentinus and Basilides.他瓦倫廷和里德的諾斯替教派的教導,如反對在基督耶穌裡的一切事物發展的學說,概括(anakephalaiosis)。 A staunch defender of the apostolic tradition, Irenæus was the first Father of the Church to systematize the religious and theological traditions of the church, so far as they existed.愛任紐的使徒傳統的堅定捍衛者,是第一個父親的教會,以制度化的宗教和神學的傳統,教會,到目前為止,因為他們的存在。 In the Quartodeciman controversy over the date for the observance of Easter, he argued for diversity of practice in the unity of faith.在慶祝復活節的日期Quartodeciman的爭論,他認為實踐的多樣性,在團結的信念。 Feast day: June 28.盛宴的日子:6月28日。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼絲坎寧安
Bibliography: 參考書目:
Nielsen, Jan Tjierd, Adam and Christ in the Theology of Irenæus of Lyons (1968); Wingren, Gustaf, Man and the Incarnation: A Study in the Biblical Theology of Irenæus, trans.尼爾森,1月的Tjierd,亞當和基督神學的愛任紐的里昂(1968);溫格倫,古斯塔夫,人與化身:依,反聖經的神學研究。 by Ross MacKenzie (1959).羅斯·麥肯齊(1959)。

Works of St. Irenæus聖irenæus工程

Hermas黑馬

One of the Apostolic Fathers, Hermas was a 2d-century Christian who was sold in Rome as a slave.其中的使徒父親,黑馬是一個二維世紀基督教在羅馬出售的奴隸。 He was freed, married, and became successful in business, but was denounced by his children during a persecution.他被解救了,結了婚,並成為成功的商人,但,譴責迫害期間,他的孩子。 His famous work, The Shepherd, divided into three parts (Visions, Mandates, Similitudes), is a series of revelations granted by an old woman (representing the church) and a shepherd (an angel) about sin, repentance, and the moral precepts that lead to a new life.牧人,他的最著名的工作,分為三個部分(願景,任務,Similitudes),是一系列的啟示授予一個老婦人(代表教會)和一個牧羊人(天使)罪,悔改,和道德戒律導致了新的生活。 Many early Christians considered it part of Scripture.許多早期的基督徒認為,“聖經”的一部分。

Works of Hermas作品的hermas


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