Apologetics護教學

General Information 一般資料

Apologetics is the branch of theology concerned with the intellectual defense of Christian truth.護教學是關注與智力防禦的基督教真理的神學分支。 The Greek word apologia means "defense" and was originally defined as a defendant's reply to the speech of the prosecution in a court of law.希臘詞辯解的意思是“防禦”,最初被定義為被告的答复,檢察機關在法庭上的講話。 The title of apologist was initially applied to a series of early Christian writers who, in the first few centuries AD, addressed their "apologies" to the Roman emperor or to the educated public.最初的標題辯護士了一系列適用於早期的基督教作家,在最初的幾個世紀AD,解決他們的“道歉”羅馬帝國皇帝或受過教育的公眾。 These writers were attempting to show that Christianity was both philosophically and morally superior to paganism (the worship of nature).這些作家試圖表明,基督教哲學和道德優越的自然崇拜異教()。 These early apologists included Aristides, Athenagoras, Saint Justin Martyr, Minucius Felix, Tatian, and Tertullian.這些早期的辯護士包括阿里斯蒂德,哥拉,聖賈斯汀烈士,Minucius費利克斯,塔蒂安,和良。

History歷史

In later ages, apologists became most conspicuous when the Christian faith was under attack.在後世,辯護士成為最引人注目的,當基督教信仰受到攻擊。 For instance, Saint Augustine wrote his City of God (413-426) partly in reply to the accusation that disaster had befallen Rome because the pagan gods were abandoned in favor of belief in the Christian God.例如,聖奧古斯丁寫了他的上帝的城市(413-426)部分答复的指控,災難已經降臨羅馬,因為在基督教的上帝,被遺棄在贊成的信仰異教的神祗。 Similarly, 13th-century Italian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa contra gentiles (1261-1264; On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, 1956) as a defense against the theories proposed by ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, which had been newly introduced into the West by Muslim philosophers.同樣,13世紀意大利神學家聖·托馬斯阿奎那寫了他的大全禁忌的外邦人(1261-1264;關於真相的天主教信仰,1956年),一個由古希臘哲學家亞里士多德提出的理論,已被導入新的防禦西方穆斯林哲學家。

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During periods when Christianity was supported by the state and unbelief was a crime, as was generally the case in Europe from the High Middle Ages to the end of the 17th century, there was little need for apologetic work.期間支持的國家和不信基督教是一種犯罪行為,一般情況下在歐洲,從高中世紀到17世紀結束的,沒有什麼必要為歉疚工作。 During those times, the term apology was usually used in a secondary sense; apologetics were not as much a defense against non-Christian thought as they were a defense against rival Christian interpretations.在這些時候,道歉是通常用在次要的意義;辯護的人並不多非基督教的思想,因為他們的抗辯理由是防禦競爭對手基督教的解釋。 Examples are 16th-century German theologian Melanchthon's Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531) and the apologetic works of Saint Robert Bellarmine, who wrote against what he referred to as Protestant heretics.例子是16世紀的德國神學家梅蘭希道歉的奧格斯堡自白(1531)和道歉的聖羅伯特貝拉反對他稱為新教異端,是誰寫的作品。

With the breakup of the traditional Christian worldview in the 18th century (see Age of Enlightenment), the need for the defense of the Christian faith against the trend toward logic and rationalism became urgent, and a number of apologetic works appeared.在18世紀,傳統的基督教世界觀(見啟蒙時代),需要防禦的基督教信仰對邏輯和理性的趨勢解體成為急了,出現了一些道歉的作品。 Of these works, among the most influential were English bishop Joseph Butler's Analogy of Religion (1736) and English theologian William Paley's Evidences of Christianity (1794).在這些作品中,最有影響力的英國主教約瑟夫·巴特勒的比喻宗教(1736年)和英國神學家威廉·佩利的證據基督教(1794)。 Throughout the 19th century and up to the present the stream of apologetic works has continued.在整個19世紀,到現在流的歉意,工程仍在繼續。

Recent Schools of Thought最近學校的思想

Many of the more recent apologists aim to show that the Christian faith is not at odds with modern science and philosophy.許多較近期的辯護士目的是表明,基督教信仰與現代科學和哲學的賠率。 They argue that that a true understanding of the development of modern thought, as well as the further progress of it, is actually dependent on Christian insights.他們認為,發展現代思想,以及它的進一步發展,真正的理解,實際上是依賴於基督教的見解。 Current theological writing often has an apologetic overtone because Christian theologians are usually aware of the challenges presented to the faith by contemporary science, psychology, sociology, and philosophy.目前的神學寫作往往有一個抱歉的泛音,因為基督教神學家們通常知道的當代科學,心理學,社會學和哲學的信仰所帶來的挑戰。 However, a recent school of theologians, led by Swiss Protestant Karl Barth, holds that apologetics is not the proper business of the theologian.然而,最近的學校為首的神學家,由瑞士新教巴特,認為護教神學家是不恰當的業務。 This school claims that apologetics is inherently defensive and therefore seems to allow nonbelievers to set the agenda in a dialogue about Christian beliefs.這所學校聲稱護教學本質上是防禦性的,因此,似乎讓非信徒組成的基督教信仰對話的議程設置。 These philosophers argue that the best apologetic is simply a clear statement of belief.這些哲學家認為,最好的歉意僅僅是一個明確的說法的信念。


Apologetics護教學

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The English word comes from a Greek root meaning "to defend, to make reply, to give an meaning "to defend, to make reply, to give an answer, to legally defend oneself." In NT times an apologia was a formal courtroom defense of something (II Tim. 4:16). As a subdivision of Christian theology apologetics is a systematic, argumentative discourse in defense of the divine origin and the authority of the Christian faith. Peter commanded Christians to be ready to give a reason for the hope they have (I Pet. 3:15). Broadly defined, apologetics has always been a part of evangelism.英語單詞是從希臘文詞根,意思是“辯護,作出答辯,給的意思是”辯護,作出答辯,給一個答案,以法律捍衛自己。“在新約時代的辯解是一個正式的法庭防禦的東西(提摩太後書4:16)。作為一個細分的基督教神學,護教學是一個系統工程,議論文語篇中捍衛神聖的起源和權威的基督教信仰。彼得吩咐基督徒要準備放棄的一個原因希望他們(彼前3:15)。廣義的定義,護一直是傳福音的一部分。

Christianity is a world view that asserts some very precise things, eg, that the cosmos is not eternal and self-explanatory, that a Creator exists, that he chose a people and revealed himself to them and worked miracles among them, and that he incarnated himself in a particular Jew at a precise time in history.基督教的世界觀,聲稱一些非常精確的東西,例如,宇宙不是永恆的,不言自明,是一個創造者的存在,他選擇了一個人,並透露自己對他們之間他們創造了奇蹟,和他的化身自己在精確的時間在一個特定的猶太人在歷史上。 All of these claims need to be substantiated.所有這些要求都需要得到證實。 This involves apologetics.這涉及到的辯護。 The only way to get apologetics out of the faith is to drop its truth claims.只有這樣,才能得到護教的信念是下降的事實索賠。

Throughout Christian history apologetics has adopted various styles.在整個基督教歷史的辯護採取了不同的風格。 One could divide them into two broad classes: the subjective and the objective.人們可以將其劃分為兩大類:主觀和客觀。

The Subjective School主觀學校

This includes such great thinkers as Luther, Pascal, Lessing, Kierkegaard, Brunner, and Barth.這包括偉大的思想家,路德,帕斯卡爾,萊辛,克爾凱郭爾,布倫納和巴特​​。 They usually express doubt that the unbeliever can be "argued into belief."他們通常表示懷疑,不信的人可以“爭論的信念。” They stress instead the unique personal experience of grace, the inward, subjective encounter with God.他們強調獨特的個人經驗,而不是恩典,內在的,主觀的與天主相遇。 Such thinkers seldom stand in awe of human wisdom, but on the contrary usually reject traditional philosphy and classical logic, stressing the transrational and the paradoxical.這樣的思想家很少站在人類智慧的結晶,但與此相反的敬畏通常會拒絕傳統哲學與古典邏輯,強調超理性的和自相矛盾的。 They have little use for natural theology and theistic proofs, primarily because they feel that sin has blinded the eyes of man so that his reason cannot function properly.他們很少使用自然神學和有神論的證據,主要是因為他們覺得罪惡蒙蔽了人的眼睛,使他的原因不能正常。 In Luther's famous metaphor, reason is a whore.在路德的著名的比喻,理由是妓女。

Thinkers of the subjective school have a keen appreciation of the problem of verification.思想家的主觀學校有敏銳的升值驗證的問題。 Lessing spoke for most of them when he pointed out that "accidental truths of history can never become the proof of necessary truths of reason."萊辛說了大部分時,他指出,“偶然真理的歷史,永遠不能成為必要的證明真理的原因。” The problem of going from contingent (ie, possibly false) facts of history to deep, inward, religious certainty has been called "Lessing's ditch."然(即可能是假的)的歷史事實,深刻的,內在的,宗教的確定性的問題,被稱為“萊辛的溝。”

Kierkegaard complained that historical truth is incommensurable with an eternal, passionate decision.克爾凱郭爾抱怨說,歷史的真相是不可通約的,永恆的,充滿激情的決定。 The passage from history to religious certainty is a "leap" from one dimension to another kind of reality.從歷史到宗教確定性的通過是一個“飛躍”,從一維到另一種現實。 He said that all apologetics has the intent of merely making Christianity plausible.他說,,,所有護教學的目的只是使基督教合理的。 But such proofs are vain because "to defend anything is always to discredit it."但是,這種證明是徒勞的,因為“捍衛什麼是,總是詆毀它。”

Yet, for all his anti-intellectualism, Kierkegaard still had a kind of apologetic for Christianity, a defense developed strangely out of the very absurdity of the Christian affirmation.然而,他所有的反智主義,克爾凱郭爾仍然有一種歉意,為基督教,國防奇怪的開發出了非常荒謬的基督教肯定。 The very fact that some people have believed that God appeared on earth in the humble figure of a man is so astounding that in provides an occasion for others to share the faith.事實上,有些人相信上帝出現在地球上一個人在不起眼的數字是如此驚人,在為別人分享信仰提供了一個機會。 No other movement has ever suggested we base the eternal happiness of human beings on their relationship to an event occurring in history.沒有任何其他的運動曾經建議我們基於人類永恆的幸福,他們的關係在歷史上發生的事件。 Kierkegaard therefore feels that such an idea "did not arise in the heart of any man."克爾凱郭爾認為這樣的想法“並沒有出現在任何人的心臟。”

Even Pascal, who discounted the metaphysical proofs for God and preferred the "reasons of the heart," eventually came around with an interesting defense of the Christian faith.即使是帕斯卡,貼現神的形而上學的證明和首選的心“的原因,”最終到來的時候有一個有趣的防禦的基督教信仰。 In his Pensees he recommended the biblical religion because it had a profound view of man's nature.在他的pensees,他建議“聖經”的宗教,因為它有一個深刻的人的本質觀。 Most religions and philosophies either ratify man's foolish pride or condemn him to despair.大多數宗教和哲學批准人的愚蠢的自尊或譴責他絕望。 Only Christianity establishes man's true greatness with the doctrine of the image of God, while at the same time accounting for his present evil tendencies with the doctrine of the fall.只有確立了基督教的人的真正的偉大的神的形象與教義,而在相同的時間佔他現在的邪惡傾向的教義的秋季。

And we are told that, in spite of his energetic Nein!告訴我們,儘管他精力充沛NEIN的! there is an apologetic slumbering beneath the millions of words in Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics.有一個道歉的沉睡已久的卡爾·巴特的教會教義學在下面的數百萬字。

The Objective School的目標學校

This places the problem of verification clearly in the realm of objective fact.這將驗證問題顯然領域中的客觀事實。 It emphasizes external realities, theistic proofs, miracles, prophecies, the Bible, and the person of Jesus Christ.它強調外部的現實,有神論的證據,奇蹟,預言,“聖經”,和耶穌基督的人。 However, a crucial distinction exists between two schools within the objectivist camp.然而,客觀陣營內的兩所學校之間存在一個關鍵的區別。

The Natural Theology School自然神學學校

Of all the groups this takes the most cheerful view of human reason.在所有的群體,這需要最快樂的人的原因。 It includes such thinkers as Thomas Aquinas, Joseph Butler, FR Tennant, and William Pelye.它包括這樣的思想家托馬斯·阿奎那,約瑟夫巴特勒,FR坦,和威廉·Pelye。 Behind all these thinkers is an empirical tradition in philosophy that can be traced back to Aristotle.所有這些思想家的背後是一個經驗主義傳統,可以追溯到亞里士多德的哲學。 Such thinkers believe in original sin, but they seldom question the basic competency of reason in philosophy.這樣的思想家相信原罪,但他們很少質疑的原因,在哲學的基本能力。 Perhaps reason was weakened by the fall but certainly not severely crippled.也許原因被削弱的下降,但肯定不會嚴重削弱。

Aquinas sought for a common ground between philosophy and religion by insisting that God's existence could be demonstrated by reason but was also revealed in the Scriptures.阿奎那的哲學和宗教之間尋求一個共同點,堅持上帝的存在可以證明的原因,但也發現在“聖經”。 He employed three versions of the cosmological argument and the teleological argument in his proofs for God.他僱用了三個版本的宇宙論和目的論的論點,他證明神。

In his Analogy of Religion (1736), Butler used the basic Thomistic approach but toned it down a bit with his emphasis on probability, "the very guide of life."在他的比喻宗教(1736年),巴特勒的基本的托馬斯主義做法,但緩和下來一點概率論,他強調,“很生活指南。” He thus developed an epistemology very close to the pragmatic attitude of the scientist.因此,他非常接近的務實態度的科學家開發出一種認識論。 Butler argued that geometrical clarity has little place in the moral and religious spheres.巴特勒認為,幾何清晰的道德和宗教領域的小地方。 If a person is offended by an emphasis on probability, let him simply reflect on the fact that most of life is based on it.如果一個人得罪了概率的重點,讓他只是反映了一個事實,即大多數是基於它的生命。 Man seldom deals with absolute, demonstrative truths.男人很少涉及絕對的,示範性的真理。

Apologists of this school often have a naive, simplistic approach to the evidence for Christianity.這所學校的辯護士往往有一個天真,簡單的方法,以基督教的證據。 They feel that a simple, straightforward presentation of the facts (miracles, prophecies) will suffice to persuade the unbeliever.他們認為,一個簡單的,直接的表現,(神蹟,預言)的事實,就足以說服不信的人。

The Revelation School的啟示學校

This includes such giants of the faith as Augustine, Calvin, Abraham Kuyper, and EJ Carnell.這包括奧古斯丁,加爾文,亞伯拉罕·凱伯和EJ Carnell這樣的豪門的信念。 These thinkers usually admit that objective evidence (mircales, proofs of God, prophecies) is important in the apologetic task, but they insist that unregenerate man cannot be converted by mere exposure to proofs because sin has seriously weakened human reason.這些思想家通常承認的客觀證據(mircales,證明上帝的預言)致歉的任務是很重要的,但他們堅持,頑固不化的人,不能單純接觸到的證據進行轉換,因為罪已嚴重削弱了人類的理性。 It will take a special act of the Holy Spirit to allow the evidence to be effective.這將需要特殊的行為,聖靈的證據是有效的。

One should not conclude from this that the revelation school considers the external evidence worthless.不應該由此得出結論,認為外部證據不值錢的啟示學校。 On the contrary, the work of the Spirit presupposes the external Bible and the historical Jesus Christ.相反的,精神的前提是外部的聖經和歷史耶穌基督的工作。 If faith is largely a creation of the Holy Spirit, it still remains true that you could not have the faith apart from the facts.如果真誠是主要聖靈的創造,它仍然是真實的,你可以沒有信仰,除了事實。 In sum, the Holy Spirit is the sufficient cause of belief while the facts are a necessary cause of belief.總之,聖靈的信仰是充分的理由,而事實是必要的事業的信念。

The revelation school, therefore, borrows valuable insights from both the subjective school and the natural theology school.的啟示學校,因此,無論從主觀學校與自然神學學校借用了寶貴的見解。 From one they acquire a distrust of unregenerated reason, from the other a proper appreciation of the role of concrete facts in the Christian faith.從他們獲得的不信任,未再生的原因,從其他適當升值的作用在基督教信仰的具體事實。 As Luther said, "Prior to faith and a knowledge of God, reason is darkness, but in believers it is an excellent instrument. Just as all gifts and instruments of nature are evil in godless men, so they are good in believers."路德說,“在此之前的信念和知識的神,原因是黑暗的,但在信徒,這是一個很好的工具。正如所有的禮物和儀器在不信神的人​​的本質是邪惡的,所以他們是很好的信徒。”

Oddly, both objectivist schools tend to use the same body of evidence when they do apologetics; they just differ on how and when the proofs persuade the unbeliever.奇怪的是,無論是客觀的學校往往使用相同的證據時,他們做的辯護,他們只是不同的證據是何時以及如何說服不信的人。 Through the centuries Christian apologists of the objectivist school have used a variety of material: (1) Theistic proofs, the ontological, cosmological, teleological, and moral arguments.經過幾個世紀的基督教護教的客觀學校已經使用了各種材料:(1)有神論的證據,本體論,宇宙論,目的論,道德的爭議。 (2) OT prophecies, predictions about the Jewish Messiah that are fulfilled in Christ, such as Isa. (2)舊約的預言,關於猶太人的彌賽亞的預言,應驗在基督裡,如ISA。 9:6; Mic. 9:6;麥克風。 5:1-3; and Zech. 5:1-3;和Zech。 9:9-10. 9:9-10。 (3) Biblical miracles, signs of the power of God which occur in great clusters in the Scripture, the two biggest centering around the Exodus and the coming of Christ. (3)聖經的奇蹟,神的大能發生在“聖經”的偉大集群的跡象,最大的兩個圍繞“出埃及記”和基督的來臨。 (4) The person of Christ, the unparalleled personality and character of Christ, illustrated by his demonstrations of love and concern for all kinds of people, especially the outcasts. (4)所示的,是無與倫比的個性和性格的基督,基督的愛和關心他的示威的人,所有的人,尤其是棄兒。 (5) The teachings of Christ, the unparalleled doctrines, the beautiful sayings and parables of Jesus. (5)基督的教導,是無與倫比的教義,美麗的諺語和寓言的耶穌。 (6) The resurrection of Christ, the greatest miracle of all Scripture, the capstone for the entire building of apologetics. (6)基督的復活,所有的經文最偉大的奇蹟,為整個大樓的頂點護。 (7) the history of Christianity, the benign influence of the Christian faith on the human race. (7)歷史上的基督教,基督教信仰的人類良性的影響。

AJ Hoover AJ胡佛
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
FF Bruce, The Apostolic Defense of the Gospel; A. Dulles, A History of Apologetics; JH Newman, Apologia pro Vita Sua; W. Paley, A View of the Evidences of Christianity; B. Pascal, Pensees; B. Ramm, Varieties of Christian Apologetics; JKS Reid, Christian Apologetics; AR Vidler, Twentieth Century Defenders of the Faith; O. Zockler, Geschichte der Apologie des Christentums. FF布魯斯,福音的使徒防禦; A.杜勒斯國際機場,一個歷史的護JH紐曼,縱容親維他蘇阿·佩利,查看基督教的證據; B.帕斯卡Pensees; B.拉姆,品種基督教護教學;基督教護教學JKS里德,AR維德勒,二十世紀的信仰的捍衛者; O. Zockler,:史德辯護萬christentums。


Apologetics護教學

Catholic Information 天主教信息

A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian religion.一個有其目的,解釋和辯護的基督教神學的科學。

Apologetics means, broadly speaking, a form of apology.護指,從廣義上講,某種形式的道歉。 The term is derived from the Latin adjective, apologeticus, which, in turn has its origin in the Greek adjective, apologetikos, the substantive being apologia, "apology", "defence".這個詞來自拉丁形容詞,apologeticus,其中,有它的起源在希臘形容詞,apologetikos,實質性的辯解,“道歉”,“防禦”。 As an equivalent of the plural form, the variant, "Apologetic", is now and then found in recent writings, suggested probably by the corresponding French and German words, which are always in the singular.的複數形式,相當於“護教”的變種,是現在,然後發現在最近的著作中,建議可能由相應的法語和德語的話,它總是用單數。 But the plural form,但複數形式,

"Apologetics", is far more common and will doubtless prevail, being in harmony with other words similarly formed, as ethics, statistics, homiletics. “護”,是更為常見,無疑會佔上風,和諧換句話說類似的形成,道德,統計,講道。 In defining apologetics as a form of apology, we understand the latter word in its primary sense, as a verbal defence against a verbal attack, a disproving of a false accusation, or a justification of an action or line of conduct wrongly made the object of censure.在界定的護教學為形式的道歉,我們理解了後一個詞,其主要意義,作為一個以口頭對口頭攻擊,一個反駁誣告,或一個行動的理由或線的行為辯護錯誤的對象譴責。 Such, for example, is the Apology of Socrates, such the Apologia of John Henry Newman.這樣,例如,蘇格拉底,這樣的辯解約翰·亨利·紐曼的道歉。 This is the only sense attaching to the term as used by the ancient Greeks and Romans, or by the French and Germans of the present day.這是只可意會,所附的古希臘人和羅馬人所使用的術語,或由現在的法國和德國的。

Quite different is the meaning now conveyed by our English word, "apology", namely, an explanation of an action acknowledged to be open to blame.比較不同的是,現在的意思轉達我們的英文單詞,“道歉”,即,一個動作的解釋,承認是開放的怪。 The same idea is expressed almost exclusively by the verb, "apologize", and generally by the adjective, "apologetic".同樣的想法表示幾乎完全由動詞,“道歉”,和一般的形容詞,“歉意”。 For this reason, the adoption of the word, "Apologetics", in the sense of a scientific vindication of the Christian religion is not altogether a happy one.出於這個原因,通過這個詞,“護”,在這個意義上,基督教的科學平反並不完全是一個幸福的人。 Some scholars prefer such terms as "Christian Evidences", the "Defence of the Christian Religion".有些學者傾向於“基督教的證據”,“捍衛基督教”的條款。 "Apologetics" and "Apology" are not altogether interchangeable terms. “護”和“道歉”是不完全互換的條件。 The latter is the generic term, the former the specific.通用的術語,後者是前者的具體。 Any kind of accusation, whether personal, social, political, or religious, may call forth a corresponding apology.任何形式的指控,無論是個人的,社會的,政治的或宗教的,可致電提出了相應的道歉。 It is only apologies of the Christian religion that fall within the scope of apologetics.只有道歉的的基督教宗教下降,護範圍內的。 Nor is it all such.也不是所有這樣的。 There is scarcely a dogma, scarcely a ritual or disciplinary institution of the Church that has not been subjected to hostile criticism, and hence, as occasion required, been vindicated by proper apologetics.幾乎是教條,幾乎沒有一種儀式或紀律機構的教會,並沒有受到敵對的批評,因此,作為場合的需要,通過適當的辯護平反。 But besides these forms of apology, there are the answers that have been called forth by attacks of various kinds upon the credentials of the Christian religion, apologies written to vindicate now this, now that ground of the Christian, Catholic faith, that has been called in question or held up to disbelief and ridicule.但是,除了這些形式的道歉,已提出要求的各種攻擊後的憑據,基督教,書面道歉,以維護現在這個答案,現在地面的基督教,天主教的信仰,被稱為有問題,或持有懷疑和嘲笑。

Now it is out of such apologies for the foundations of Christian belief that the science of apologetics has taken form.現在,這種道歉的基督教信仰為基礎,採取科學的護形式。 Apologetics is the Christian Apology par excellence, combining in one well-rounded system the arguments and considerations of permanent value that have found expression in the various single apologies.護教學是基督教道歉出類拔萃,結合在一個全面的系統參數和注意事項,永久的價值體現在各種單一的道歉。 The latter, being answers to specific attacks, were necessarily conditioned by the occasions that called them forth.後者,特定攻擊的答案,一定的場合,要求他們提出的條件。 They were personal, controversial, partial vindications of the Christian position.他們是個人的,有爭議的,的部分的vindications的基督徒的立場。 In them the refutation of specific charges was the prominent element.在他們的具體指控的反駁是突出的元素。 Apologetics, on the other hand, is the comprehensive, scientific vindication of the grounds of Christian, Catholic belief, in which the calm, impersonal presentation of underlying principles is of paramount importance, the refutation of objections being added by way of corollary.護,另一方面,是全面的,科學的理由,基督教,天主教的信仰,冷靜,客觀的介紹的基本原則是最重要的辯護,駁斥反對的方式的必然結果。 It addresses itself not to the hostile opponent for the purpose of refutation, but rather to the inquiring mind by way of information.它涉及本身不是敵對的對手反駁的目的,而是以信息方式的探究精神。 Its aim is to give a scientific presentation of the claims which Christ's revealed religion has on the assent of every rational mind; it seeks to lead the inquirer after truth to recognize, first, the reasonableness and trustworthiness of the Christian revelation as realized in the Catholic Church, and secondly, the corresponding obligation of accepting it.其目的是給一個科學演示的索賠這基督的發現宗教具有的同意,每一個理性的頭腦,它旨在引領詢價追求真理認識到,第一,在合理性和可信性,基督教的啟示為實現在天主教教會,其次,接受相應的義務。 While not compelling faith -- for the certitude it offers is not absolute, but moral -- it shows that the credentials of the Christian religion amply suffice to vindicate the act of faith as a rational act, and to discredit the estrangement of the sceptic and unbeliever as unwarranted and culpable.雖然沒有令人信服的信念 - 它提供了確定性也不是絕對的,而是道德 - 它顯示了充分就夠了,基督教的憑據,以維護該法的信仰作為一種理性的行為,抹黑隔閡的懷疑論者,不信是不必要的和有罪的。 Its last word is the answer to the question: Why should I be a Catholic?它的最後一個字是這個問題的答案:為什麼我應該是一個天主教? Apologetics thus leads up to Catholic faith, to the acceptance of the Catholic Church as the divinely authorized organ for preserving and rendering efficacious the saving truths revealed by Christ.護從而導致了信仰天主教,天主教教會作為神授權機關為維護和渲染有效節省基督的真理,揭示接受的。 This is the great fundamental dogma on which all other dogmas rest.這是偉大的根本教條,其它所有的教條休息。 Hence apologetics also goes by the name of "fundamental theology".因此,護教學“基本神學”的名稱。 Apologetics is generally viewed as one branch of dogmatic science, the other and chief branch being dogmatic theology proper.護通常被視為教條式的科學的一個分支,其他行政科教條式的神學,正確的。 It is well to note, however, that in point of view and method also they are quite distinct.這是很好的說明,但是,這點的觀點和方法,他們是截然不同的。 Dogmatic theology, like moral theology, addresses itself primarily to those who are already Catholic.教條式的神學,道德神學一樣,解決主要提供給那些已經天主教。 It presupposes faith.它預示著信仰。 Apologetics, on the other hand, in theory at least, simply leads up to faith.護,另一方面,至少在理論上,只會導致了信仰。 The former begins where the latter ends.前者其中後者的端部開始。 Apologetics is pre-eminently a positive, historical discipline, whereas dogmatic theology is rather philosophic and deductive, using as its premises data of divine and ecclesiastical authority -- the contents of revelation and their interpretation by the Church.護教學是超群絕倫一個積極的,歷史學科,而教條式的神學,而哲學和演繹,作為其樓宇的神和教會的權威數據 - 由教會的啟示和解釋的內容。 It is only in exploring and in treating dogmatically the elements of natural religion, the sources of its authoritative data, that dogmatic theology comes in touch with apologetics.這是只有在探索和教條式地對待自然宗教的元素,其權威的數據來源,即教條式的神學接觸的辯護。

As has been pointed out, the object of apologetics is to give a scientific answer to the question, Why should I be Catholic?對象的護正如已經指出的那樣,是給予科學的回答這個問題,我為什麼要寬容? Now this question involves two others which are also fundamental.現在,這個問題涉及到兩個人,也根本。 The one is: Why should I be a Christian rather than an adherent of the Jewish religion, or the Mohammedan, or the Zoroastrian, or of some other religious system setting up a rival claim to be revealed?一個是:我為什麼要成為一個基督徒,而不是一個堅持的猶太宗教,或回教徒,或瑣羅亞斯德教的,或其他一些宗教系統設置了對手的要求透露嗎? The other, still more fundamental, question is: Why should I profess any religion at all?其他的,更帶有根本性,問題是:我為什麼要在所有信奉任何宗教嗎? Thus the science of apologetics easily falls into three great divisions:因此,科學的護輕鬆地分為三大部門:

First, the study of religion in general and the grounds of theistic belief;首先,一般的理由,有神論的信仰宗教的研究;

second, the study of revealed religion and the grounds of Christian belief;第二,研究發現宗教的基督教信仰和理由;

third, the study of the true Church of Christ and the grounds of Catholic belief.第三,研究的真正的基督和教會的天主教信仰的理由。

In the first of these divisions, the apologist inquirers into the nature of religion, its universality, and man's natural capacity to acquire religious ideas.在這些部門中,代言人的性質的宗教,它的普遍性,而人的自然能力獲得宗教思想的探究。 In connection with this the modern study of the religious philosophy of uncultured peoples has to be taken into consideration, and the various theories concerning the origin of religion present themselves for critical discussion.在這個沒有文化的民族宗教哲學的現代研究,必須考慮到,和關於宗教的起源的各種理論,提出自己的批判性的討論。 This leads to the examination of the grounds of theistic belief, including the important questions of這將導致審查的理由,有神論的信仰,包括重要的問題,

the existence of a divine Personality, the Creator and Conserver of the world, exercising a special providence over man;存在一個神聖的人格,創造者和Conserver的世界,對人行使特別的眷顧;

man's freedom of will and his corresponding religious and moral responsibility in virtue of his dependence on God;人的自由意志和他的相應憑藉他的依賴上帝的宗教和道義上的責任;

the immortality of the human soul, and the future life with its attendant rewards and punishments.不朽的人的靈魂,隨之而來的獎懲和未來的生活。

Coupled with these questions is the refutation of monism, determinism, and other anti-theistic theories.再加上這些問題是一元論的駁斥,決定,和其他反有神論的理論。 Religious philosophy and apologetics here march hand in hand.宗教哲學和護3月攜手。

The second division, on revealed religion, is even more comprehensive.第二次分裂,天啟宗教,是更為全面。 After treating the notion, possibility, and moral necessity of a divine revelation, and its discernibility through various internal and external criteria, the apologist proceeds to establish the fact of revelation.處理後的概念,可能性,神的啟示和道德的必要性,以及其差別通過各種內部和外部條件,代言人收益,以確定事實的啟示。 Three distinct, progressive stages of revelation are set forth: Primitive Revelation, Mosaic Revelation, and Christian Revelation.三種截然不同的,累進的啟示載:原始的啟示,摩西的啟示,基督教的啟示。 The chief sources on which he has to rely in establishing this triple fact of revelation are the Sacred Scriptures.主要來源上,他還要靠在建立這三重事實的啟示是神聖的經文。 But if he is logical, he must prescind from their inspiration and treat them provisionally as human historical documents.但是,如果他是合乎邏輯的,他必須prescind從他們的靈感,並把它們暫時作為人類歷史文件。 Here he must depend on the critical study of the Old and New Testaments by impartial scriptural scholars, and build on the accredited results of their researches touching the authenticity and trustworthiness of the sacred books purporting to be historical.在這裡,他必須依靠公正的聖經學者的舊約和新約的關鍵研究的基礎上接觸他們的研究結果的真實性和可信賴的神聖的書籍,看來是歷史的認可。 It is only by anticipation that an argument for the fact of primitive revelation can be based on the ground that it is taught in the inspired book of Genesis, and that it is implied in the supernatural state of our first parents.這是預期的事實,原始的啟示參數可以根據地面教的啟發創世記,這是隱含在超自然的狀態,我們首先家長。 In the absence of anything like contemporary documents, the apologist has to lay chief stress on the high antecedent probability of primitive revelation, and show how a revelation of limited, but sufficient scope for primitive man is compatible with a very crude stage of material and æsthetic culture, and hence is not discredited by the sound results of prehistoric arch ology.在當代的文件什麼的情況下,代言人奠定首席壓力,原始的啟示,先前的概率就高,顯示範圍有限,但足以為原始人的啟示是如何兼容是很簡陋的材料和審美階段文化,因此,沒有良好的業績史前拱易學的狗血淋。 Closely connected with this question is the scientific study of the origin and antiquity of man, and the unity of the human species; and, as still larger subjects bearing on the historic value of the sacred Book of Origins, the compatibility with Scripture of the modern sciences of biology, astronomy, and geology.這個問題是緊密相連的起源和遠古人類科學的研究,和人類的團結,仍有較大的科目軸承上的聖書起源的歷史價值,兼容性與聖經的現代科學,生物學,天文學和地質學。 In like manner the apologist has to content himself with showing the fact of Mosaic revelation to be highly probable.以同樣的方式代言人有自己的內容與顯示馬賽克啟示是極有可能的事實。 The difficulty, in the present condition of Old Testament criticism, of recognizing more than a small portion of the Pentateuch as documentary evidence contemporary with Moses, makes it incumbent on the apologist to proceed with caution lest, in attempting to prove too much, he may bring into discredit what is decidedly tenable apart from dogmatic considerations.的困難,在目前的條件舊約批評,認識更多的書面證據與當代摩西五比一小部分,使得它的代言人,以進行謹慎,以免義不容辭的責任,試圖證明太多,他可能會把抹黑什麼是決定性的成立,除了教條化的考慮。 However, there is sufficient evidence allowed by all but the most radical critics to establish the fact that Moses was the providential instrument for delivering the Hebrew people from Egyptian bondage, and for teaching them a system of religious legislation that in lofty monotheism and ethical worth is far superior to the beliefs and customs of the surrounding nations, thus affording a strong presumption in favour of its claim to be revealed.但是,有足夠的證據所允許的,但建立的事實,摩西是天賜的工具提供的希伯來人從埃及的奴役,並教他們的宗教立法體系,在崇高的神和道德價值是最激進的批評者遠遠優於周邊國家的信仰和習俗,從而提供強有力的推定贊同其要求被揭示。 This presumption gains strength and clearness in the light of Messianic prophecy, which shines with ever increasing volume and brightness through the history of the Jewish religion till it illumines the personality of our Divine Lord.這種推定收益在彌賽亞的預言之光,閃耀著不斷增加的音量和亮度,通過歷史的猶太宗教,直到它照亮了我們神聖的主的個性化的強度和清晰度。 In the study of Mosaic revelation, biblical archæology is of no small service to the apologist.在這項研究中的馬賽克啟示,聖經考古學是不小的服務代言人。

When the apologist comes to the subject of Christian revelation, he finds himself on much firmer ground.當代言人的主題,基督教的啟示,他發現自己上了更堅實的基礎。 Starting with the generally recognized results of New Testament criticism, he is enabled to show that the synoptic Gospels, on the one hand, and the undisputed Epistles of St. Paul, on the other, offer two independent, yet mutually corroborative, masses of evidence concerning the person and work of Jesus.開始的普遍認可結果的新約聖經的批評,他就可以顯示天氣福音,一方面,無可爭議的書信聖保羅,另一方面,提供了兩個獨立的,但相互佐證的,群眾的證據關於耶穌的人工作。 As this evidence embodies the unimpeachable testimony of thoroughly reliable eye-witnesses and their associates, it presents a portraiture of Jesus that is truly historical.這方面的證據體現了無懈可擊的證詞徹底可靠的目擊者和他們的聯繫,它提出了一個耶穌的寫照,是真正的歷史。 After showing from the records that Jesus taught, now implicitly, now explicitly, that he was the long expected Messiah, the Son of God sent by His Heavenly Father to enlighten and save mankind, and to found the new kingdom of justice, Apologetics proceeds to set forth the grounds for believing in these claims:從耶穌教導的記錄顯示,隱式,現在明確,他是期待已久的彌賽亞,神的兒子送到他的天父,啟發和拯救人類,並找到了新的司法王國後,護所得款項所列的理由相信這些說法:

the surpassing beauty of His moral character, stamping Him as the unique, perfect man;美麗至極的他的品德,他的獨特,完美的人沖壓;

the lofty excellence of His moral and religious teaching, which has no parallel elsewhere, and which answers the highest aspirations of the human soul;他的道德和宗教的教學,其他地方有沒有平行,並回答了卓越的崇高的人類靈魂的最高理想;

His miracles wrought during His public mission;他所行的神蹟緊張得要命,在他的公共使命;

the transcendent miracle of His resurrection, which He foretold as well;超越的奇蹟,他的復活,以及他預言;

the wonderful regeneration of society through His undying personal influence.通過了不朽的,他的個人影響力的精彩再生的社會。

Then, by way of supplementary proof, the apologist institutes an impartial comparison of Christianity with the various rival religious systems of the world -- Brahminism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, Taoism, Mohammedanism -- and shows how in the person of its founder, in its moral and religious ideal and influence, the Christian religion is immeasurably superior to all others, and alone has a claim to our assent as the absolute, divinely-revealed religion.然後,通過補充證據的方式,代言人機構的基督教世界的各種對手的宗教體系 - 婆羅門教,祆教,佛教,儒教,道教,伊斯蘭教 - 展示了如何在其創始人的人,一個公正的比較在其道德和宗教的理想和影響力,基督教的宗教是卓爾不群,所有的人,就有一個自稱我們的贊同,因為絕對的,神聖的啟示宗教。 Here, too, in the survey of Buddhism, the specious objection, not uncommon today, that Buddhist ideas and legends have contributed to the formation of the Gospels, calls for a summary refutation.在這裡,太,佛教,似是而非的反對意見,在調查中並不少見今天,佛教思想和傳說中作出貢獻的福音書,要求的概要反駁的形成。

Beyond the fact of Christian revelation the Protestant apologist does not proceed.超越的事實,基督教的啟示新教的政策辯護,無法繼續進行。 But the Catholic rightly insists that the scope of apologetics should not end here.但天主教正確地堅持認為護的範圍不應該在這裡結束。 Both the New Testament records and those of the sub-Apostolic age bear witness that Christianity was meant to be something more than a religious philosophy of life, more than a mere system of individual belief and practice, and that it cannot be separated historically from a concrete form of social organization.無論是新約聖經的記錄和那些的分使徒時代熊見證,基督教是意味著不僅僅是一個宗教哲學的生活,更不是一個單純的系統的個人信念​​和實踐,並認為它不能被分離的歷史上從具體的社會組織形式。 Hence Catholic apologetics adds, as a necessary sequel to the established fact of Christian revelation, the demonstration of the true Church of Christ and its identity with the Roman Catholic Church.因此,天主教護教補充說,作為一個必要的續集既定的事實,基督教的啟示,真正的基督教會,其身份與羅馬天主教會的示範。 From the records of the Apostles and their immediate successors is set forth the institution of the Church as a true, unequal society, endowed with the supreme authority of its Founder, and commissioned in His name to teach and sanctify mankind; possessing the essential features of visibility, indefectibility, and infallibility; characterized by the distinctive marks of unity, holiness, catholicity, and apostolicity.從使徒和他們的直接後繼的記錄作為一個真正的,不平等的社會,賦予的最高權力機構,其創辦的教會機構,並委託他的名字教和聖化人類具備的基本特徵的知名度,indefectibility,和犯錯誤,團結,聖潔,大公和使徒性的特殊標誌的特點。 These notes of the true Church of Christ are then applied as criteria to the various rival Christian denominations of the present day, with the result that they are found fully exemplified in the Roman Catholic Church alone.這些註釋的真正的基督教會,然後應用為準則,以不同的對手基督教教派至今,與結果,他們被發現在羅馬天主教會單獨充分體現。 With the supplementary exposition of the primacy and infallibility of the Pope, and of the rule of faith, the work of apologetics is brought to its fitting close.的補充博覽會的首要和犯錯誤的教皇,和法治的信仰,工作的護其裝修接近。 It is true that some apologists see fit to treat also of inspiration and the analysis of the act of faith.它是真實的,一些辯護者認為合適的治療的靈感和分析該法的信仰。 But, strictly speaking, these are not apologetic subjects.但是,嚴格來說,這些都是不道歉的主題。 While they may logically be included in the prolegomena of dogmatic theology, they rather belong, the one to the province of Scripture-study, the other to the tract of moral theology dealing with the theological virtues.雖然他們可能在邏輯上被包含在前言的教條式的神學,而不是屬於一個省聖經研究,神學美德的道德神學,處理道。

The history of apologetic literature involves the survey of the varied attacks that have been made against the grounds of Christian, Catholic belief.歷史的歉意,文學涉及的各種攻擊,被做了反對的理由,基督教,天主教的信仰的調查。 It may be marked off into four great divisions.它可能會被標記成四大部門。

The first division is the period from the beginning of Christianity to the downfall of the Roman Empire (AD 476).第一部是從一開始的基督教的羅馬帝國的滅亡(公元476年)。 It is chiefly characterized by the twofold struggle of Christianity with Judaism and with paganism.它的主要特點是基督教與猶太教和異教的雙重鬥爭。

The second division is coextensive with the Middle Ages, from AD 476 to the Reformation.第二次分裂是共存的中世紀,從公元476年到改革。 In this period we find Christianity in conflict with the Mohammedan religion and philosophy.在此期間,我們發現基督教在衝突與穆罕默德的宗教和哲學。

The third division takes in the period from the beginning of the Reformation to the rise of rationalism in England in the middle of the seventeenth century.第三部門需要在此期間的改革從一開始就在中間的17世紀的理性主義在英國的興起。 It is the period of struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism.這是天主教和新教之間的鬥爭時期。

The fourth division embraces the period of rationalism, from the middle of the seventeenth century down to the present day.第四師擁抱時期的理性主義,從中間的17世紀,到今天。 Here we find Christianity in conflict with Deism, Pantheism, Materialism, Agnosticism, and Naturalism.在這裡,我們發現基督教在衝突與自然神論,泛神論,唯物論,不可知論,與自然。

FIRST PERIOD第一期

(A) Apologies in Answer to the Opposition of Judaism (A)道歉,在回答猶太教的反對,

It lay in the nature of things that Christianity should meet with strong Jewish opposition.它躺在事物的本質,基督教應該具有很強的滿足猶太人的反對。 In dispensing with circumcision and other works of the law, Christianity had incurred the imputation of running counter to God's immutable will.在分配割禮和其他作品的法律,基督教所產生的歸集背道而馳神的不變。 Again, Christ's humble and obscure life, ending in the ignominious death on the cross, was the very opposite of what the Jews expected of their Messiah.同樣,基督的謙卑和模糊的生活,結束了可恥的死在十字架上,是很相反的猶太人期望他們的彌賽亞。 Their judgment seemed to be confirmed by the fact that Christianity attracted but an insignificant portion of the Jewish people, and spread with greatest vigour among the despised Gentiles.他們的判斷似乎被證實的事實,基督教吸引,但一個很小的部分猶太人民,和最有活力的鄙視外邦人中傳播。 To justify the claims of Christianity before the Jews, the early apologists had to give an answer to these difficulties.為了證明索賠的基督教之前,猶太人,早期的辯護士不得不放棄解決這些困難。 Of these apologies the most important is the "Dialogue with Trypho the Jew" composed by Justin Martyr about 155-160.最重要的是,這些道歉組成的“對話與的猶太人Trypho”由Justin烈士約155-160。 He vindicates the new religion against the objections of the learned Jew, arguing with great cogency that it is the perfection of the Old Law, and showing by an imposing array of Old Testament passages that the Hebrew prophets point to Jesus as the Messiah and the incarnate Son of God.他維護了新的宗教,對學習猶太人的反對,爭論十分中肯,它是完美的舊法律,並呈現氣勢宏偉的陣列舊約經文的希伯來先知耶穌是彌賽亞和肉身點神的兒子。 He insists also that it is in Christianity that the destiny of the Hebrew religion to become the religion of the world is to find its realization, and hence it is the followers of Christ, and not the unbelieving Jews, that are the true children of Israel.他還堅持認為,它是在基督教成為世界的宗教的希伯來宗教的命運是要找到它的實現,因此它是基督的追隨者,而不是不信的猶太人,是真正的以色列人。 By his elaborate argument from Messianic prophecy, Justin won the grateful recognition of later apologists.他精心製作的說法,從彌賽亞的預言,賈斯汀贏得了感激確認後的辯護士。 Similar apologies were composed by Tertullian, "Against the Jews" (Adversus Jud os, about 200), and by St. Cyprian, "Three Books of Evidences against the Jews" (about 250).類似的道歉是由戴爾都​​良,“反對猶太人”(Adversus士OS,約200),聖塞浦路斯,“三書的證據反對猶太人”(約250)。

(B) Apologies in Answer to Pagan Opposition (B)道歉,在回答異教徒反對

Of far more serious moment to the early Christian Church was the bitter opposition it met from paganism.更為嚴重的時刻,早期的基督教教堂是從異教會見了激烈的反對。 The polytheistic religion of the Roman Empire, venerated for its antiquity, was intertwined with every fibre of the body politic.它的古老的多神教的羅馬帝國的宗教,崇敬,是交織在一起的每一根纖維的政治體。 Its providential influence was a matter of firm belief.其天賜的影響是一個問題的堅定信念。 It was associated with the highest culture, and had the sanction of the greatest poets and sages of Greece and Rome.這是與最高的​​文化,和最偉大的詩人和聖賢的希臘和羅馬的制裁。 Its splendid temples and stately ritual gave it a grace and dignity that captivated the popular imagination.其輝煌的寺廟和莊嚴的儀式,給它一個優雅和尊嚴征服了大眾的想像。 On the other hand, Christian monotheism was an innovation.另一方面,基督教一神論是一種創新。 It made no imposing display of liturgy.它沒有強加顯示的禮儀。 Its disciples were, for the most part, persons of humble birth and station.其弟子,在大多數情況下,人的卑微的出生和車站。 Its sacred literature had little attraction for the fastidious reader accustomed to the elegant diction of the classic authors.它的神聖的文學挑剔的讀者習慣的文辭優雅的經典作家沒有什麼吸引力。 And so the popular mind viewed it with misgivings, or despised it as an ignorant superstition.大眾心目中認為它的疑慮,,或鄙視它作為一個愚昧迷信。 But opposition did not end here.但是反對派並沒有到此結束。 The uncompromising attitude of the new religion towards pagan rites was decried as the greatest impiety.妥協的態度,對異教儀式的新的宗教譴責為最大的不敬。 The Christians were branded as atheists, and as they held aloof from the public functions also, which were invariably associated with these false rites, they were accused of being enemies of the State.基督徒被罵為無神論者,並為他們舉行的公共職能,也總是與這些虛假的儀式,這是超然的,他們被指控是國家的敵人。 The Christian custom of worshipping in secret assembly seemed to add force to this charge, for secret societies were forbidden by Roman law.基督教崇拜的秘密集會的習俗似乎增添力量,秘密社團被禁止羅馬法這項收費。 Nor were calumnies wanting.也不是誹謗想要。 The popular imagination easily distorted the vaguely-known Agape and Eucharistic Sacrifice into abominable rites marked by feasting on infant flesh and by indiscriminate lust.大眾的想像中輕鬆地歪曲,隱約著名的神父和聖體聖事的犧牲到惡劣的儀式,標誌著由胡吃海喝嬰兒肉和不分青紅皂白的慾望。 The outcome was that the people and authorities took alarm at the rapidly spreading Church and sought to repress it by force.其結果是,人民和當局迅速蔓延教會了報警,並試圖壓制它的力量。 To vindicate the Christian cause against these attacks of paganism, many apologies were written.為了表白對這些攻擊的異教的基督教事業,許多道歉人寫的。 Some, notably the "Apology" of Justin Martyr (150), the "Plea for the Christians", by Athenagoras (177), and the "Apologetic" of Tertullian (197), were addressed to emperors for the express purpose of securing for the Christians immunity from persecution.有些人,特別是“道歉”的賈斯汀烈士(150),為基​​督徒的“認罪”,那哥拉(177),和“護教”,特土良(197),給皇帝的明確的目的,保證為從迫害的基督徒免疫。 Others were composed to convince the pagans of the folly of polytheism and of the saving truth of Christianity.另一些人組成的愚蠢的多神教和基督教的拯救真理的說服異教徒。 Such were: Tatian, "Discourse to the Greeks" (160), Theophilus, "Three Books to Autolychus" (180), the "Epistle to Diognetus" (about 190), the "Octavius" of Minucius Felix (192), Origen, "True Discourse against Celsus" (248), Lactantius, Institutes (312), and St. Augustine, "City of God" (414-426).這是提安,“話語希臘人”(160),西奧菲勒斯,“三書到Autolychus”(180),“書信Diognetus”的(約190),“屋大維”費利克斯的Minucius(192),奧利“真正的話語對塞爾蘇斯(248),潭修斯學院(312),和聖奧古斯丁的”上帝之城“(414-426)。 In these apologies the argument from Old Testament prophecy has a more prominent place than that from miracles.在這些道歉的說法,從舊約聖經的預言具有更加突出的位置,從奇蹟。 But the one on which most stress is laid is that of the transcendent excellence of Christianity.但最強調的是在其上的超然卓越的基督教。 Though not clearly marked out, a twofold line of thought runs through this argument: Christianity is light, whereas paganism is darkness; Christianity is power, whereas paganism is weakness.雖然沒有明確標註出來,一個雙重的思路貫穿這種說法:基督教是輕,而paganism是黑暗,基督教就是力量,而paganism是軟弱的。 Enlarging on these ideas, the apologists contrast the logical coherence of the religious tenets of Christianity, and its lofty ethical teaching, with the follies and inconsistencies of polytheism, the low ethical principles of its philosophers, and the indecencies of its mythology and of some of its rites.擴大這些想法的辯護基督教的宗教信條相反的邏輯連貫性,和其崇高的道德教學的愚蠢和不一致的多神教,它的哲學家的的低道德原則的,其神話的劣行,與及一些它的儀式。 They likewise show that the Christian religion alone has the power to transform man from a slave of sin into a spiritual freeman.他們同樣表明,基督教就有一個精神自由人的權力,把人從罪惡的奴隸。 They compare what they once were as pagans with what they now are as Christians.他們比較什麼,他們曾經是什麼,他們現在是作為基督徒的異教徒。 They draw a telling contrast between the loose morality of pagan society and the exemplary lives of Christians, whose devotion to their religious principles is stronger than death itself.他們畫一個寬鬆的異教社會道德的示範性生活的基督徒,他們熱愛自己的宗教原則是比死亡本身強告訴對比。

SECOND PERIOD.第二個時期。 CHRISTIANITY IN CONFLICT WITH MOHAMMEDAN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY基督教的衝突與伊斯蘭教的宗教哲學

The one dangerous rival with which Christianity had to contend in the Middle Ages was the Mohammedan religion.一個危險的對手與它基督教在中世紀抗衡的是伊斯蘭教的宗教。 Within a century of its birth, it had torn from Christendom some of its fairest lands, and extended like a huge crescent from Spain over Northern Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Persia, and Syria, to the eastern part of Asia Minor.其誕生一個世紀內,撕裂基督教的一些最公平的土地,像一個巨大的新月形來自西班牙,北非,埃及,巴勒斯坦,阿拉伯,波斯和敘利亞,小亞細亞東部的擴展。 The danger which this fanatic religion offered to Christian faith, in countries where the two religions came in contact, was not to be treated lightly.的危險,這提供了對基督教信仰的宗教狂熱分子,在兩個宗教的國家開始接觸,不能等閒視之。 And so we find a series of apologies written to uphold the truth of Christianity in the face of Moslem errors.因此,我們發現了一系列的書面道歉,堅持真理,基督教在面對穆斯林錯誤。 Perhaps the earliest was the "Discussion between a Saracen and a Christian" composed by St. John Damascene (about 750).也許是最早的是“討論之間的撒拉遜和基督教聖約翰大馬士革(約750人)組成的”。 In this apology he vindicates the dogma of the Incarnation against the rigid and fatalistic conception of God taught by Mohammed.在此道歉,他辯護道成肉身對剛性和宿命的概念,上帝,穆罕默德教的教條。 He also demonstrates the superiority of the religion of Christ, pointing out the grave defects in Mohammed's life and teaching, and showing the Koran to be in its best parts but a feeble imitation of the Sacred Scriptures.他還演示了基督宗教的優越性,並指出在穆罕默德的生活和教學中的嚴重缺陷,並顯示“古蘭經”是在其最好的部分,但一個微弱的模仿的神聖經文。 Other apologies of a similar kind were composed by Peter the Venerable in the twelfth, and by Raymond of Martini in the thirteenth century.其他的類似的道歉是由彼得尊者在第十二,並在13世紀由Raymond的馬天尼。 Hardly less dangerous to the Christian faith was the rationalistic philosophy of Islamism.幾乎同樣危險的基督教信仰的是伊斯蘭教的理性主義哲學。 The Arabian conquerors had learned from the Syrians the arts and sciences of the Greek world.阿拉伯征服者學會了從敘利亞的希臘世界的藝術和科學。 They became especially proficient in medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, for the study of which they erected in every part of their domain schools and libraries.他們尤其精通醫學,數學和哲學的研究,其中豎立在他們的域名學校和圖書館的每一個部分。 In the twelfth century Moorish Spain had nineteen colleges, and their renown attracted hundreds of Christian scholars from every part of Europe.在12世紀摩爾人的西班牙19的大學,以及歐洲的每一個部分,他們的名聲吸引了數以百計的基督教學者。 Herein lay a grave menace to Christian orthodoxy, for the philosophy of Aristotle as taught in these schools had become thoroughly tinctured with Arabian pantheism and rationalism.在此打下了嚴重的威脅正統基督教,亞里士多德的哲學,在這些學校任教已成為徹底tinctured的阿拉伯泛神論和理性。 The peculiar tenet of the celebrated Moorish philosopher Averroes was much in vogue, namely: that philosophy and religion are two independent spheres of thought, so that what is true in the one may be false in the other.著名的摩爾人的哲學家阿威羅伊特有的宗旨,是非常流行的,即​​:哲學和宗教是兩個獨立的思想領域,所以,什麼是真正的在一個在其他可能是假的。 Again, it was commonly taught that faith is for the masses who cannot think for themselves, but philosophy is a higher form of knowledge which noble minds should seek to acquire.再次,這是常見的教導,信仰是為廣大人民群眾誰也想不到自己,但哲學是一種更高形式的知識,高尚的精神尋求收購。 Among the fundamental dogmas denied by the Arabian philosophers were creation, providence, and immortality.其中的基本教條否認阿拉伯哲學家創造,普羅維登斯,和不朽。 To vindicate Christianity against Mohammedan rationalism, St. Thomas composed (1261-64) his philosophical "Summa contra Gentiles", in four books.以維護基督教對伊斯蘭教的理性主義,聖托馬斯組成(1 261年至1 264年),他的哲學的“神學禁忌外邦人”,在四本書。 In this great apology the respective claims of reason and faith are carefully distinguished and harmonized, and a systematic demonstration of the grounds of faith is built up with arguments of reason and authority such as appealed directly to the minds of that day.在這個偉大的道歉索賠的理由和信心的仔細辨別和統一,建立一個系統論證的理由,信仰與論點的理由和權力,如呼籲心目中的那一天。 In treating of God, providence, creation and the future life, St. Thomas refutes the chief errors of the Arabian, Jewish, and Greek philosophers, and shows that the genuine teaching of Aristotle confirms the great truths of religion.在治療的神,上帝,創造和未來的生活,聖托馬斯駁斥阿拉伯,猶太,希臘哲學家的行政錯誤,並表明,真正的教學亞里士多德證實了偉大的真理的宗教。 Three apologies composed in much the same spirit, but belonging to a later age, may be mentioned here.在大致相同的精神組成的三道歉,但屬於較晚的年齡,可這裡所說的。 The one is the fine work of Louis Vivés, "De Veritate Fidei Christianæ Libri V" (about 1530).一個是做工精細的路易·比韋斯,“Veritate信Christianæ利布里V”(約1530年)。 After treating the principles of natural theology, the Incarnation, and Redemption, he gives two dialogues, one between a Christian and a Jew, the other between a Christian and a Mohammaden, in which he shows the superiority of the Christian religion.治療的原則,自然神學的化身,以及贖回後,他給出了兩個對話,一個基督徒和猶太人之間,之間一個基督教和Mohammaden的,他在其中顯示了基督教的優越性。 Similar to this is the apology of the celebrated Dutch theologian Grotius, "De Veritate Religionis Christianæ" (1627).與此相類似的是荷蘭著名的神學家格勞秀斯的道歉,“德Veritate ReligionisChristianæ”(1627年)。 It is in six books.這是六本書。 An able treatise on natural theology is followed by a demonstration of the truth of Christianity based on the life and miracles of Jesus, the holiness of His teaching, and the wonderful propagation of His religion.能夠傷寒論自然神學其次是基督教的真理,示範的基礎上耶穌的聖潔,他的教學,生活和奇蹟和精彩的傳播他的宗教。 In proving the authenticity and trustworthiness of the Sacred Scriptures, Grotius appeals largely to internal evidence.在證明的真實性和可信賴的神聖經文,格勞秀斯上訴主要是內部的證據。 The latter part of the work is devoted to a refutation of paganism, Judaism, and Mohammedanism.後者的工作是致力於駁斥異教,猶太教,伊斯蘭教。 An apology on somewhat similar lines is that of the Huguenot, Philip deMornay, "De la vérité de la religion chrétienne" (1579).道歉,就有點類似線路的胡格諾派,菲利普deMornay,“DE LA VERITE德拉宗教chrétienne”(1579)。 It is the first apology of note that was written in a modern tongue.這是第一個書面道歉的注意,在一個現代的舌頭。

THIRD PERIOD.第三個時期。 CATHOLICISM IN CONFLICT WITH PROTESTANTISM衝突天主教與基督教

The outbreak of Protestantism in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and its rejection of many of the fundamental features of Catholicism, called forth a mass of controversial apologetic literature.爆發新教在十六世紀開始的,並拒絕許多天主教會的基本特徵,提出了質量爭議的歉意文學的。 It was not, of course, the first time that the principles of Catholic belief had been questioned with reference to Christian orthodoxy. ,當然,這不是第一次受到質疑與基督教的正統的天主教信仰的原則。 In the early ages of the Church heretical sects, assuming the right to profess allegiance and fidelity to the spirit of Christ, had given occasion to St. Irenæus "On Heresies", Tertullian "On Prescription against Heretics," St. Vincent of Lér ins, in his "Commonitory", to insist on unity with the Catholic Church, and, for the purpose of confuting the heretical errors of private interpretation, to appeal to an authoritative rule of faith.在早期的年齡教會的異端教派,假設的權利,自稱效忠和忠誠於基督的精神,給了一次聖irenæus“異端邪說”,德爾圖良“處方對異端,”聖文森特的LER插件在他的“Commonitory”,堅持團結與天主教會,並為的目的confuting異端的私人解釋的錯誤,,呼籲權威的法治信仰。 In like manner, the rise of heretical sects in the three centuries preceding the Reformation led to an accentuation of the fundamental principles of Catholicism, notably in Moneta's "Summa contra Catharos et Waldenses" (about 1225), and Torquemada's "Summa de Ecclesiâ" (1450).以類似的方式,在崛起的異端教派中的3幾個世紀前的改革導致一個加重的根本原則,天主教,特別是在莫尼塔的“總結禁忌Catharos等瓦勒”(約1225年),和托爾克馬達的“總結的教會”( 1450)。 So to a far greater extent, in the outpouring from many sources of Protestant ideas, it became the duty of the hour to defend the true nature of the Church of Christ, to vindicate its authority, its divinely authorized hierarchy under the primacy of the Pope, its visibility, unity, perpetuity, and infallibility, along with other doctrines and practices branded as superstitious.所以到一個更大的程度上,從許多來源的新教思想的流露,它成為捍衛基督的教會的真實性質,以維護它的權威,羅馬教皇的首要地位,其神聖的授權層次的責任小時,其知名度,團結,永遠,絕對正確,以及品牌的迷信與其他理論和實踐。

In the first heat of this gigantic controversy the writings on both sides were sharply polemic, abounding in personal recriminations.這個巨大的爭議,在第一熱的著作對雙方均大幅論戰,豐富的個人指責。 But towards the close of the century there developed a tendency to treat the controverted questions more in the manner of a calm, systematic apology.但在接近結束的世紀發展的趨勢,更平靜的,系統的道歉的方式對待controverted問題。 Two works belonging to this time are especially noteworthy.兩幅作品屬於這個時候,特別值得一提。 One is the "Disputations de controversiis Christianæ Fidei" (1581-92), by Robert Bellarmin, a monumental work of vast erudition, rich in apologetic material.一個是“Disputations controversiisChristianæ信”(1581年至1592年),由羅伯特·Bellarmin,一個巨大的工作,廣大博學,豐富的歉意材料。 The other is the "Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio" (1579), by Robert Stapleton, whom Döllinger pronounced to be the prince of controversialists.另一種是“Principiorum信Doctrinalium Demonstratio”(1579年),由羅伯特·斯台普頓,其中多林格明顯是王子的論辯。 Though not so erudite, it is more profound than the work of Bellarmin.雖然沒有這麼博學多才,它更深刻的比Bellarmin的工作。 Another excellent work of this period is that of Martin Becan, "De Ecclesiâ Christi" (1633).這一時期的另一項出色的工作是馬丁·Becan,:“教會基督”(1633年)。

FOURTH PERIOD.第四個時期。 CHRISTIANITY IN CONFLICT WITH RATIONALISM基督教與理性主義的衝突

(A) From the Middle of the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century (A)從中東的十七到十九世紀

Rationalism -- the setting up of the human reason as the source and measure of all knowable truth -- is, of course, not confined to any one period of human history.理性主義 - 成立源和人類理性作為衡量一切可知的真理 - 是的,當然,不局限於人類歷史上任何一個時期。 It has existed from the earliest days of philosophy.它已經存在的理念,從最早的天。 But in Christian society it did not become a notable factor till the middle of the seventeenth century, when it asserted itself chiefly in the form of Deism.但在基督教社會,它並沒有成為一個顯著的因素,直到中間的17世紀,當它斷言本身主要的形式對自然神論。 It was associated, and even to a large extent identified with the rapidly growing movement towards greater intellectual freedom which, stimulated by fruitful scientific inquiry, found itself seriously hampered by the narrow views of inspiration and of historic Bible-interpretation which then prevailed.它是相關聯的,甚至在很大程度上確定了快速發展的走向更多的知識自由的刺激下,卓有成效的科學探究,發現自己嚴重阻礙了狹隘的觀點的啟發和歷史悠久的聖經的解釋,然後盛行。 The Bible had been set up as an infallible source of knowledge not only in matters of religion, but of history, chronology, and physical science.成立了“聖經”的知識,不僅在宗教方面,作為一個可靠的來源,但歷史,年代學和物理科學。 The result was a reaction against the very essentials of Christianity.其結果是對基督教非常要領反應。 Deism became the intellectual fashion of the day, leading in many cases to downright atheism.自然神論成為知性時尚的一天,在許多情況下徹頭徹尾的無神論。 Starting with the principle that no religious doctrine is of value that cannot be proved by experience or by philosophical reflection, the Deists admitted the existence of a God external to the world, but denied every form of divine intervention, and accordingly rejected revelation, inspiration, miracles, and prophecy.的原則,沒有宗教的教義是,可以不被證明的經驗或哲學反思價值的自然神論者承認存在一個上帝外部世界,但否認每一個表格神聖的干預,並因此拒絕了啟示,靈感,奇蹟,並預言。 Together with unbelievers of a still more pronounced type, they assailed the historic value of the Bible, decrying its miraculous narratives as fraud and superstition.一個更突出的類型與不信的,他們抨擊“聖經”的歷史價值,譴責其奇蹟般的敘述,欺詐和迷信。 The movement started in England, and in the eighteenth century spread to France and Germany.運動起源於英國,並在18世紀傳播到法國和德國。 Its baneful influence was deep and far-reaching, for it found zealous exponents in some of the leading philosophers and men of letters -- Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, d'Alembert, Diderot, Lessing, Herder, and others.它的有害影響是深刻和深遠的,因為它找到熱心指數在一些主要的哲學家和文人 - 霍布斯,洛克,休謨,伏爾泰,盧梭,達朗貝爾,狄德羅,萊辛,赫爾德,和其他人。 But able apologists were not lacking to champion the Christian cause.但能夠辯護士並不缺乏冠軍的基督教事業。 England produced several that won lasting honour for their scholarly defence of fundamental Christian truths -- Lardner, author of the "Credibility of the Gospel History", in twelve volumes (1741-55); Butler, likewise famous for his "Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed to the Constitution of Nature" (1736); Campbell, who in his "Dissertation on Miracles" (1766) gave a masterly answer to Hume's arguments against miracles; and Paley, whose "Evidences of Christianity" (1794) and "Natural Theology" (1802) are among the classics of English theological literature.英國生產了,贏得持久的榮譽,他們的學術國防的根本基督教的真理 - 拉德納,作者的福音史“信譽”,12卷(1 741年至1 755年),巴特勒,他的“比喻宗教,同樣著名的和揭示的憲法的性質“(1736年);坎貝爾,誰在他的”論文上的奇蹟“(1766年)給了一個巧妙的回答休謨的論據反對奇蹟;和佩利,他的”證據基督教“(1794)和”自然神學“(1802)是英語神學文學的經典之作。 On the continent, the work of defence was carried on by such men as Bishop Huet, who published his "Démonstration Evangélique" in 1679; Leibnitz, whose "Théodicée" (1684), with its valuable introduction on the conformity of faith with reason, had a great influence for good; the Benedictine Abbot Gerbert, who gave a comprehensive Christian apology in his "Demonstratio Veræ Religionis Ver que Ecclesiæ Contra Quasvis Falsas" (1760); and the Abbé Bergier, whose "Traité historique et dogmatique de la vraie religion", in twelve volumes (1780), showed ability and erudition.在歐洲大陸,對防禦工作進行這樣的男人主教休特,發表了他的“示範福音教會”在1679年,萊布尼茨,其“théodicée”(1684年),其寶貴的介紹信仰的一致性,原因,有很大的影響為好;本篤方丈吉爾伯特,全面介紹了基督教道歉,在他的“DemonstratioVeræReligionis版闕Ecclesiæ魂斗羅Quasvis Falsas”(1760年);和神甫Bergier的,他的“論歷史等dogmatique德拉vraie宗教“,12卷(1780年),表現出的能力和學識。

(B) The Nineteenth Century (B)在十九世紀

In the last century the conflict of Christianity with rationalism was in part lightened and in part complicated by the marvelous development of scientific and historic inquiry.在上個世紀​​的基督教與理性的衝突,部分減輕,部分複雜的奇妙發展的科學和歷史的調查。 Lost languages, like the Egyptian and the Babylonian, were recovered, and thereby rich and valuable records of the past -- many of them unearthed by laborious and costly excavation -- were made to tell their story.失落的語言,如埃及和巴比倫,回收,從而豐富和寶貴的記錄的過去 - 他們中的許多人力和財力挖掘出土的 - 講述自己的故事。 Much of this bore on the relations of the ancient Hebrew people with the surrounding nations and, while in some instances creating new difficulties, for the most part helped to corroborate the truth of the Bible history.這在很大程度上孔古代希伯來人與周邊國家的關係上,而在某些情況下創建新的困難,在大多數情況下幫助證實了“聖經”的歷史真相。 Out of these researches have grown a number of valuable and interesting apologetic studies on Old Testament history: Schrader, "Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament" (London, 1872); Hengstenberg's "Egypt and the Books of Moses" (London, 1845); Harper, "The Bible and Modern Discoveries" (London, 1891); McCurdy, "History, Prophecy, and the Monuments" (London-New York, 1894-1900); Pinches, "The Old Testament in the Light of the Historic Records of Assyria and Babylonia" (London-New York, 1902); Abbé Gainet, "La bible sans la bible, ou l'histoire de l'ancien testament par les seuls témoignages profanes" (Bar-le-Duc, 1871); Vigouroux, "La bible et les découvertes modernes" (Paris, 1889).出於這些研究已經成長一個數的寶貴和有趣的歉意研究舊約歷史:施拉德,“楔形文字銘文和舊約”(倫敦,1872年);亨斯滕貝格的“埃及和書籍的摩西”(倫敦,1845);哈珀,“聖經”與現代的發現“(倫敦,1891年);麥柯迪,”歷史,預言,和古蹟“(倫敦,紐約,1894年至1900年);捏,”舊約歷史記錄的光亞述和巴比倫“(倫敦,紐約,1902年);阿貝Gainet,”香格里拉聖經沒有拉聖經,歐L'HISTOIRE DE L'ANCIEN遺囑PAR LES seulstémoignages褻瀆“(酒吧-le-Duc的,1871年); VIGOUROUX “聖經與découvertes現代”(巴黎,1889年)。 On the other hand, Biblical chronology, as then understood, and the literal historic interpretation of the Book of Genesis were thrown into confusion by the advancing sciences -- astronomy, with its grand nebular hypothesis; biology, with its even more fruitful theory of evolution; geology, and prehistoric arch ology.另一方面,聖經年表,才明白,這本書的成因和文字的歷史解釋陷入混亂,推進科學 - 天文學,其宏偉的星雲假說,生物,其更加豐碩的成果進化論地質學和史前拱易學。 Rationalists eagerly laid hold of these scientific data, and sought to turn them to the discredit of the Bible and likewise of the Christian religion.理性主義者急切地扯住這些科學數據,並試圖將他們的“聖經”的聲譽,同樣的基督教。 But able apologies were forthcoming to essay a conciliation of science and religion.但能夠道歉是即將到來的科學和宗教的文章調解。 Among them were: Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman, "Twelve Lectures on the Connection between Science and Revealed Religion" (London, 1847), which, though antiquated in parts, is still valuable reading; Reusch, "Nature and the Bible" (London, 1876).其中包括:博士(事後紅衣主教)懷斯曼,“十二講座科學之間的連接,並揭示了宗教”(倫敦,1847年),雖然陳舊的部分,仍然是有價值的閱讀; REUSCH,“自然與聖經” (倫敦,1876年)。 Others more modern and up to date are: Duilhé de Saint-Projet, "Apologie scientifique de la foi chrétienne" (Paris, 1885); Abbé Guibert, "In the beginning" (New York, 1904), one of the best Catholic treatises on the subject; and more recent still, A. de Lapparent, "Science et apologétique" (Paris, 1905).其他更現代的和最新的是:Duilhé·德·聖謨,“Apologie科學DE LA FOIchrétienne”(巴黎,1885年),阿貝·吉伯特,“一開始”(紐約,1904年),一個最好的天主教論文的主體;更近的,A. Lapparent的,“科學與apologétique”(巴黎,1905年)。 A more delicate form of scientific inquiry for Christian belief was the application of the principles of historic criticism to the books of Holy Scripture.一個更微妙的形式對科學探究的基督教信仰的書籍的聖經歷史批評的原則的應用。 Not a few Christian scholars looked with grave misgivings on the progress made in this legitimate department of human research, the results of which called for a reconstruction of many traditional views of Scripture.沒有幾個基督教學者打量著很大的質疑,在這種合法的人類研究部門所取得的進展,其結果被稱為“聖經”的許多傳統看法的重建。 Rationalists found here a congenital field of study, which seemed to promise the undermining of Scripture-authority.理性在這裡找到一種先天性的研究領域,這似乎承諾的破壞聖經的權威。 Hence it was but natural that the encroachments of Biblical criticism on conservative theology should be disputed inch by inch.因此,這是自然的,但應該是有爭議的侵害聖經批評保守的神學一寸一寸。 On the whole, the outcome of the long and spirited contest has been to the advantage of Christianity.整體而言,結果和昂揚的競賽一直到基督教的優勢。 It is true that the Pentateuch, so long attributed to Moses, is now held by the vast majority of non-Catholic, and by an increasing number of Catholic, scholars to be a compilation of four independent sources put together in final shape soon after the Captivity.這是真的,只要歸因於摩西,摩西五經是現在絕大多數的非天主教舉行,越來越多的天主教學者是一個彙編四個獨立的來源在最後的形狀放在一起後不久,圈養。 But the antiquity of much of the contents of these sources has been firmly established, as well as the strong presumption that the kernel of the Pentateuchal legislation is of Mosaic institution.但是,古代的許多的內容,這些來源已經牢固確立,以及內核的pentateuchal立法是馬賽克機構的強的假設,即。 This has been shown by Kirkpatrick in his "Divine Library of the Old Testament" (London-New York, 1901), by Driver in his "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament" (New York, 1897), and by Abbé Lagrange, in his "Méthode historique de l'Ancien Testament" (Paris, 1903; tr. London, 1905).這已被證明由柯克帕特里克在他的“神聖圖書館舊約”(倫敦,紐約,1901年),在他的“介紹文學舊約”(紐約,1897年),由驅動程序和神甫拉格朗日在他的“梅索德歷史DE L'ANCIEN約”(巴黎,1903年;文。倫敦,1905年)。 In the New Testament the results of Biblical criticism are still more assuring.在新約聖經批評的結果,更保證。 The attempt of the Tübingen school to throw the Gospels far into the second century, and to see in most of the Epistles of St. Paul the work of a much later hand, has been absolutely discredited.蒂賓根學校的嘗試扔遠的福音進入第二個世紀,並在大多數的書信聖保羅的工作更晚的手,絕對不可信的。 The synoptic Gospels are now generally recognized, even by advanced critics, to belong to the years 65-85, resting on still earlier written and oral sources, and the Gospel of St. John is brought with certainty down to at least AD 110, that is, within a very few years of the death of St. John.天氣福音,現在普遍承認,即使是通過先進的批評,屬於這些年來65-85,擱在更早的書面和口頭的來源,和聖約翰的福音帶來的確定性至少AD 110,即是,在幾年死亡的聖約翰。 The three Epistles of St. John are recognized as genuine, the pastoral letters being now the chief object of dispute.三個書信的聖約翰被確認為真正的牧函現在爭議的主要對象。 Closely connected with the theory of the Tübingen School, was the attempt of the rationalist Strauss to explain away the miraculous element in the Gospels as the mythical fancies of an age much later than that of Jesus.蒂賓根大學學院的理論緊密聯繫在一起的理性施特勞斯,是企圖解釋了神奇的元素,在“福音書”的神話幻想的年齡遠遠晚於耶穌的。 Strauss's views, embodied in his "Life of Jesus" (1835), were ably refuted, together with the false assertions and inductionsof the Tübingen School by such Catholic scholars as Kuhn, Hug, Sepp, Döllinger, and by the Protestant critics, Ewald, Meyer, Wieseler, Tholuck, Luthardt, and others.施特勞斯的觀點,體現在他的“生命的耶穌”(1835年),被巧妙地反駁,一起用的假的斷言和inductionsof的蒂賓根大學學院由例如天主教學者庫恩,擁抱,布拉特,多林格,並通過了新教的批評,埃瓦爾德,邁耶維澤勒,Tholuck,Luthardt,和其他。 The outcome of Strauss's "Life of Jesus," and of Renan's vain attempt to improve on it by giving it a legendary form (Vie de Jésus, 1863), has been a number of scholarly biographies of our blessed Lord: by Fouard, "Christ the Son of God" (New York, 1891); Didon, "Jesus Christ" (New York, 1891); Edersheim, "Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah" (New York, 1896), and others.的結果,施特勞斯的“生命的耶穌,”和赫南的徒勞嘗試,以改善它,給它一個傳奇的形式(人生的耶穌,1863年),已被一些學術傳記,我們有福了主:富阿爾,“基督神的兒子“(紐約,1891年);迪東,”耶穌基督“(紐約,1891年);愛德生,”生活和時代的耶穌彌賽亞“(紐約,1896年),和其他人。

Another field of study which grew up chiefly in the last century, and has had an influence in shaping the science of apologetics, is the study of religions.另一個研究領域的增長主要是在上個世紀​​,有一定影響力,塑造科學的護,是研究宗教。 The study of the great religious systems of the pagan world, and their comparison with Christianity, furnished material for a number of specious arguments against the independent and supernatural origin of the Christian religion.偉大的宗教系統的異教徒的世界,和他們相比,家具材料,為一些似是而非的論據,反對獨立和超自然的起源,基督教與基督教的研究。 So, too, the study of the origin of religion in the light of the religious philosophy of uncultured peoples has been exploited against Christian (theistic belief) on the unwarranted ground that Christianity is but a refinement, through a long process of evolution, of a crude primitive religion originating in ghost-worship.太多,所以,在光的未培養人民的宗教哲學的宗教的起源的研究被剝削者對基督教(有神論的信仰)的基督教是莫須有的理由,但一個完善,經歷了漫長的進化過程中,一原油的原始宗教起源於鬼的崇拜。 Among those who have distinguished themselves in this branch of apologetics are Döllinger, whose "Heidenthum und Judenthum" (1857), tr.在這些區別了自己在這個分支的護多林格,其“Heidenthum與Judenthum”(1857),TR。 "Gentile and Jew in the Court of the Temple" (London, 1865-67), is a mine of information on the comparative merits of revealed religion and the paganism of the Roman world; Abbé de Broglie, author of the suggestive volume, "Problèmes et conclusions de l'histoire des religions" (Paris, 1886); Hardwick, Christ and other Masters" (London, 1875). Another factor in the growth of apologetics during the last century was the rise of numerous systems of philosophy that, in the teaching of such men as Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, Comte, and Spencer, were openly or covertly in opposition to Christian belief. To counteract these systems, Pope Leo XIII revived throughout the Catholic world the teaching of Thomistic philosophy. The many works written to vindicate Christian Theism against Pantheism, Materialism, Positivism, and Evolutionary Monism have been of great service to apologetics. Not all these philosophic apologies, indeed, are scholastic. They represent several modern schools of thought. France has furnished a number of able apologetic thinkers who lay chief stress on the subjective element in man, who point to the needs and aspirations of the soul, and to the corresponding fitness of Christianity, and of Christianity alone, to satisfy them. This line of thought has been worked out in various ways by the lately deceased Ollé-Laprune, author of "La certitude morale" (Paris, 1880), and "Le prix de la vie" (Paris, 1892); by Fonsegrive, "Le catholicisme et la vie de l'esprit" (Paris, 1899); and, in "L'action" (Paris, 1893), by Blondel, the founder of the so-called "Immanence School" the principles of which are embodied in the spiritual writings of Father Tyrrell, "Lex Orandi" (London, 1903), "Lex Credendi" (London, 1906). The continued opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism in the last century resulted in the production of a number of noteworthy apologetic writings: Möhler, "Symbolism", published in Germany in 1832, which has gone through many editions in English; Balmes, "Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe", a Spanish work published in English in 1840 (Baltimore); the works of the three illustrious English cardinals, Wiseman, Newman, and Manning, most of whose writings have a bearing on apologetics. “外邦人和猶太人在法院寺”(倫敦,1865年至1867年),是一個神甫作者的暗示卷,德布羅意,我發現宗教和異教的羅馬世界上的相對優點的信息; PROBLEMES等結論DE L'HISTOIRE DES宗教“(巴黎,1886年);哈德威克,基督和其他大師”(倫敦,1875年)。護在上個世紀​​的增長的另一個因素是哲學的興起,大量的系統,在教學康德,費希特,黑格爾,謝林,孔德和斯賓塞這樣的男人,或明或暗的反對基督教的信仰。要抵消這些系統,教皇利奧十三世恢復整個天主教世界的教學thomistic哲學。對泛神論,以維護基督教的有神論的許多作品,唯物主義,實證主義和進化一元論的,一流的服務,護教學。不所有這些哲學道歉,的確,學術,他們代表的現代學校的思想。法國提供了一些能道歉的思想家奠定首席壓力的主觀因素在人的需要和願望的靈魂,以及相應的健身,基督教,和基督教,僅滿足他們。已制定了這樣的思路,在最近死者的歐萊Laprune,作者的“La確定性士氣”(巴黎,1880年),和“的Prix de LA VIE”(巴黎,1892年); Fonsegrive,“樂catholicisme ET LA VIE DE升的各種方式ESPRIT“(巴黎,1899年);,在的”L'行動“(巴黎,1893年),布隆德爾,所謂的”內在性學校“的創始人,其中的原則是體現在精神的著作的父親泰瑞爾, “萊克斯Orandi”(倫敦,1903年),:“萊克斯Credendi”(倫敦,1906年)。繼續反對天主教和新教之間在上世紀導致生產中的一些值得注意的歉意著作:莫勒,“象徵”,在1832年,在德國已經經歷了許多版本的英語;巴爾梅斯,“基督新教和天主教相比,他們對文明的歐洲,西班牙在1840年以英文出版(巴爾的摩);三​​個傑出的英語作品樞機主教,懷斯曼,紐曼,而曼寧,大部分的著作有關係的辯護。

It is out of all these varied and extensive studies that apologetics has taken form.正是出於所有這些不同和廣泛的研究,護教學採取的形式。 The vastness of the field makes it extremely difficult for any one writer to do it full justice.浩瀚的領域,使任何一位作家做充分的正義,是非常困難的。 In fact a complete, comprehensive apology of uniform excellence still remains to be written.其實是一個完整的,全面的道歉制服卓越,仍然被寫入。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息的書面由查爾斯·F·艾肯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯·J.·波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.獻給耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書第一卷出版,1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

In addition to the works already mentioned, the more general treatises on apologetics are as follows:另外的工作已經提到,更普遍的論文上的辯護如下:

CATHOLIC WORKS.天主教的作品。 SCHANZ, A Christian Apology (New York, 1891) 3 vols. schanz,是一個基督教道歉(紐約,1891年)第3卷。 An improved edition of the original, Apologie des Christentums, was published in Freiburg (1895) and an augmented edition was in preparation in 1906.一種改進版原,辯護萬christentums,出版在弗萊堡(1895年)和準備的增強版是在1906年。 PICARD, Christianity or Agnosticism?, tr.皮卡爾,基督教或不可知論,TR。 from the French by MACLEOD (London, 1899); DEVIVIER, Christian Apologetics, edited and augmented by SASIA (San Jos, 1903) 2 vols.; ed.從法國樂(倫敦,1899年); DEVIVIER,基督教護教學,編輯和增強SASIA(聖何塞,1903年)第2卷。版。 in one vol.在一個卷。 by the Most Rev. SG Messmer, DD (New York, 1903); FRAYSSINOUS, A Defence of Christianity, tr.最SG梅斯默牧師,DD(紐約,1903年); FRAYSSINOUS,基督教,TR防務。 from the French by JONES (London, 1836); HETTINGER, Natural Religion (New York, 1890); Revealed Religion (New York, 1895), both being adaptations by HS BOWDEN of HETTINGER'S German Apologie des Christentums (Freiburg, 1895-98) 5 vols.; HETTINGER, Fundamental-Theologie (Freiburg, 1888); GUTBERLET, Lehrbuch der Apologetik (M nster, 1895) 3 vols.; SCHELL, Apologie des Christentums (Paderborn, 1902-5) 2 vols.; WEISS, Apologie des Christentums vom Standpunkte der Sitte und Kultur (Freiburg, 1888-9), 5 vols., French tr.從法國JONES(倫敦,1836年);黑廷格,自然宗教(紐約,1890年);啟示宗教(紐約,1895年),都被改編由HS BOWDEN的黑廷格在德國的辯護萬christentums(弗賴堡,1895年至1898年) 5卷;黑廷格,基本神學(弗賴堡,1888年)的; GUTBERLET,Lehrbuch,德Apologetik(M nster,1895年)第3卷; SCHELL,辯護萬christentums(帕德博恩,1902-5)第2卷。WEISS,辯護萬Christentums VOM Standpunkte德Sitte和KULTUR(弗賴堡1888-9),5卷,法國TR。 Apologie du christianisme au point de vue des m urs et de la civilisation (Paris, 1894); BOUGAUD, Le christianisme et les temps pr sents (Paris, 1891) 5 vols.; LABEYRIE, La science de la foi (La Chapelle-Montligeon, 1903); EGGER, Encheiridion Theologi Dogmatic Generalis (Brixen, 1893); OTTIGER, Theologia Fundamentalis (Freiburg, 1897); TANQUERY, Synopsis Theologi Fundamentalis (New York, 1896).辯護christianisme AU點的照片DES米“市區重建策略”與文明“(巴黎,1894年); BOUGAUD,樂christianisme和臨時工公關sents(巴黎,1891年)5卷。LABEYRIE,科學的FOI(的La Chapelle-Montligeon ,1903); EGGER,Encheiridion Theologi教條Generalis(布利克森,1893年); OTTIGER,Fundamentalis神學(弗賴堡,1897年); TANQUERY,的簡介Theologi Fundamentalis(紐約,1896年)。 Periodicals valuable for apologetic study are: The American Catholic Quarterly; American Ecclesiastical Review; New York Review; Catholic World; Dublin Review; Irish Ecclesiastical Record; Irish Theological Quarterly; Month; Tablet; Revue Apolog tique (Brussels); Revue pratique apolog tique (Paris); Revue des questions scientifiques; Mus on; La science catholique; Annales de philosophie chrétienne; Etudes religieuses; Revue Thomiste, Revue du clerg fran ais; Revue d'histoire et de litt rature religieuse; Revue biblique; Theologische Quartalschrift (Tübingen); Stimmen aus Maria-Laach.期刊有價值的歉意研究:美國天主教季度,美國教會審查;紐約書評,天主教世界;都柏林審查,愛爾蘭教會記錄;愛爾蘭神學季刊月;片;諷刺時事的滑稽劇Apolog tique(布魯塞爾);無疫通行證apolog tique雜誌(巴黎)雜誌DES問題的科學實驗,動車組的; La科學CATHOLIQUE的;年鑑哲學chrétienne;練習曲修女;諷刺時事的滑稽劇Thomiste,歌劇團都clerg弗蘭認可機構;雜誌的故事利特rature religieuse雜誌biblique;:Theologische Quartalschrift(圖賓根) Stimmen澳大利亞瑪麗亞Laach。

PROTESTANT WORKS.新教的作品。 BRUCE, Apologetics (New York, 1892); FISHER, The Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief (New York, 1902); FAIRBAIRN, The Philosophy of the Christian Religion (New York, 1902); MAIR, Studies in theChristian Evidences (Edinburgh, 1894); LUTHARDT, The Fundamental Truths of Christianity (Edinburgh, 1882); SCHULTZ, Outlines of Christian Apologetics (New York, 1905); ROW, Christian Evidences Viewed in Relation to Modern Thought (London, 1888); IDEM, A Manual of Christian Evidences (New York, 1896); ILLINGWORTH, Reason and Revelation (New York, 1903). BRUCE,護(紐約,1892年);穩的理由,有神論和基督教信仰(紐約,1902年); FAIRBAIRN,哲學,基督教(紐約,1902年); MAIR,研究theChristian證據(愛丁堡, 1894年); LUTHARDT,基督教的基本真理(愛丁堡,1882年); SCHULTZ,概述了基督教護教學(紐約,1905年),ROW,基督教的證據看現代思想的關係(倫敦,1888年);同上,A手冊基督教的證據(紐約,1896年);伊林沃思,原因及啟示(紐約,1903年)。 Many excellent apologetic treatises are to be found in the long series of Bampton Lectures, also in the Gifford, Hulsean, Baird, and Croal Lectures.許多優秀的歉意論文被發現在的長班普頓講座系列,也吉福德,Hulsean,貝爾德,和Croal講座。



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