Agape愛德

General Information 一般資料

Agape is a Greek word translated in the New Testament of the Bible as "love" or "charity."愛德是一個希臘詞,在新約聖經翻譯為“愛”或“慈善”。 Agape is ranked by Christian moral theologians with faith and hope as a basic virtue, and Saint Paul called it the greatest of the virtues.愛德排名由基督教道德神學與信仰,並希望作為一個基本的美德,和聖保羅最大的美德。

The name agape was given, also, to an early Christian love feast, an evening communal meal held in connection with the Lord's Supper.愛德的名稱,同時,早期的基督教的愛宴,晚上公用餐舉行主的晚餐。 Its origin is found in the chaburah, a fellowship meal of late Judaism.它的起源是在chaburah,獎學金一頓晚猶太教。 If, as is probable, the chaburah was observed by Jesus and his disciples, its adoption by the young Christian church was entirely natural.如果是可能的,耶穌和他的門徒chaburah觀察,通過年輕的基督教教堂是完全自然的。 At the agape, food brought by the people was solemnly blessed in advance of the repast.在愛德,食品所帶來的隆重祝福的人的就餐提前。 The Eucharist (consecration of bread and wine) either preceded or followed the agape.聖體聖事(祝聖麵包和酒)之前或之後,愛德。 About the beginning of the 2nd century the Eucharist was detached from the communal meal and transferred to the early morning.關於二世紀的聖體開始脫離公用餐並轉移至清晨。 The agape lingered in some Christian communities until the 3rd century.該愛德徘徊在一些基督教社區,直到3世紀。

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Love / Agape愛/愛加倍

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Asked which is the greatest commandment, Jesus replied, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the law and prophets" (Matt. 22:37-40; cf. Mark 12:2-31; Luke 10:26-27).當被問及這是最大的誡命,耶穌回答說,“你會愛主你的神與所有你的心,你的靈魂,並與所有你的心,這是偉大的第一條誡命。第二個是喜歡它,你要愛你的鄰居如己。這兩條誡命,取決於所有法律和先知“(馬太福音22章37-40節;比照馬克12:2-31路加福音10:26-27)。 According to Mark 12:31 Jesus stated that there is no other command greater than these two commands.據馬克12:31耶穌說,有沒有其他命令大於這兩個命令。 Hence, love is of preeminent importance in the Bible.因此,愛是從“聖經”中的卓越的重要性。

Biblical Terms聖經條款

OT OT

There are many Hebrew words to express the concept of love.有很多希伯來文詞語來表達的愛情觀。 By far the most prominent one (used over two hundred times) is the verb aheb, denoting both divine and human love as well as love toward inanimate objects such as food (Gen. 27:4), wisdom (Prov. 4:6), sleep (Prov. 20:13), agriculture (II Chr. 26:10), and the good (Amos 5:15).到目前為止,最突出的一個(超過200次)是的動詞aheb,表示神和人的愛以及愛,對生命的物體,如食品(創27:4),智慧(箴言4:6) ,睡眠(箴20:13),農業(II代上26:10),以及好(阿摩司書5:15)。 The noun ahaba (used about thirty times) is used primarily of human love, as seen in its frequent use in Song of Solomon, although it is also used of divine love (Isa. 63:9; Jer. 31:3; Hos. 11:4; Zeph. 3:17).的的名詞ahaba(約30倍)主要用於人類的愛,在其經常使用在雅歌,雖然它也可以用來神聖的愛(以賽亞書63:9,耶利米書31:3;何氏。 11:4; Zeph。3:17)。 Another frequently used word (over forty times), the noun dod, has the sexual sense of a man being addressed as "lover" or "beloved"; it is frequently used in the Song of Solomon (eg, 1:13, 14, 16; 2:3).另一種常用的字(40次),名詞國防部,有正在處理的“情人”或“親愛的”一個人的性意識,它經常被用在雅歌(例如,1:13,14, 16; 2:3)。 Finally, there is the often used noun, hesed, which is translated most of the time as "mercy" in the AV, "steadfast love" in the RSV, "lovingkindness" in the NASB, and "love" in the NIV, all of which have the idea of loyal covenantal love.最後,還有一個常用的名詞,hesed,這是翻譯的大部分時間在AV的“慈悲”,“堅定的愛”中的RSV,在NASB的“慈愛”,和“愛”為證,所有其中,有想法的忠實立約的愛。

NT NT

There are several words for love in the Greek language, but only two are used with any frequency in the NT.有幾個單詞在希臘語中為愛,但只有兩個是使用NT中的任何頻率。 Although not prominent in prebiblical Greek, the verb agapao/noun agape is the most common NT word for love.雖然並不突出prebiblical希臘語,在的動詞agapao /名詞愛德NT是最常見的字,為愛。 This verb/noun combination is the most frequently used in the LXX in translating aheb/ahabah.這個動詞/名詞的組合是,在LXX在,翻譯aheb / ahabah最常用的。 Basically it is a self-giving love that is not merited.基本上它是一個自我奉獻的愛,是不值得。 The second most frequently used word for love in the NT is the verb phileo.愛在NT的第二個最常用的詞是的動詞phileo。 It is the most common word for love in prebiblical Greek, but it is not often used in the LXX.愛在prebiblical希臘語,這是最常見的字,但它是不經常使用的LXX。 Although this word overlaps with agapao/agape, it is a love with affection in connection with friendship.雖然這個詞的重疊agapao /愛德,這是一個愛情與親情與友誼。 Its derivatives such as philos, friend (used twenty-nine times), and philia, friendship (used only in James 4:4), support this connotation.其衍生物,如PHILOS,朋友(29次),血友病,友誼(只用在雅各書4:4),支持這一內涵。 It is a love that is warm and merited.這是一個愛的是溫暖的,值得。 Two common Greek words for love are never used in the NT: storge, having the idea of family love or affection, as borne out by the negative adjective astorgos used only in Rom.從來沒有使用過兩種常見的希臘字為愛的NT:代辦運輸,並可協助解決技術疑難,有想法的家庭愛情或感情,證明了僅用於羅的負面形容詞astorgos的。 1:31 and II Tim. 1:31 II蒂姆。 3:3; and eros, expressing a possessive love and used mainly of physical love. 3:3和愛,表達愛的所有格,主要用於身體的愛。 In contrast to agape, "eros has two principal characteristics: it is a love of the worthy and it is a love that desires to possess. Agape is in contrast at both points: it is not a love of the worthy, and it is not a love that desires to possess. On the contrary, it is a love given quite irrespective of merit, and it is a love that seeks to give" (Leon Morris, Testaments of Love, p. 128).相反,愛德,“愛神有兩個主要特點:這是一個愛情的當之無愧的,這是一種愛,渴望擁有。愛德是相反的兩個點:這是不是一個愛情的當之無愧的,它是不的愛,渴望擁有。相反,它是一個愛情給予相當不論優點,它是一個愛情的目的,“(萊昂·莫里斯,”戀愛聖經“,第128頁)。 Although eros does not always have a bad connotation, certainly agapao/agape is far more lofty in that it seeks the highest good in the one loved, even though that one may be undeserving, and hence its prominence in the Bible can be understood.雖然愛神並不總是有壞的內涵,當然agapao /愛德是更崇高的,它試圖在一個愛的最高的善,即使是可以理解的,一個可能是不值得的,因此它的重要性在“聖經”。

Love of God上帝的愛

The Attribute of Love愛的屬性

God in his very essence is described as being not only holy (Lev. 11:44-45; 19:2; I Pet. 1:16), spirit (John 4:24), light (I John 1:5), and a consuming fire (Deut. 4:24; Heb. 12:29); God is also love (I John 4:8, 16).神在他的本質不僅聖潔的(利11:44-45; 19:2;我的寵物。1:16),精神(約翰福音4:24),重量輕(約翰一書1:5),和烈火(申4:24;希伯來書12:29),神是愛“(約翰一書4:8,16)。 God does not need to attain nor attempt to maintain love; it is the very substance and nature of God.上帝並不需要達到或試圖維持愛情,它是很物質與自然的神。 Bultmann rightly states: "The sentence cannot be reversed to read, 'Love is God.'布特曼正確地指出:“這句話無法逆轉的閱讀,”愛是神。“ In that case, 'love' would be presupposed as a universal human possibility, from which a knowledge of the nature of God could be derived" (The Johannine Epistles, p. 66).在這種情況下,'愛'會被假定為一種普遍的人類的可能性,從神的性質的知識,可以衍生出“(約翰書信,第66頁)。 It is from this very essence of God's being that the activity of love springs.它是從這個很本質的上帝的愛彈簧的活動。

The Activity of Love愛的活動,

This comes from God's nature of love.這是來自上帝的愛的本質。 "To say, 'God is love' implies that all His activity is loving activity. If He creates, He creates in love; if He rules, He rules in love; if He judges, He judges in love" (CH Dodd, The Johannine Epistles, p. 110). “的說法,”上帝是愛“意味著所有他的活動是愛活動,如果他創造的,他創造了在愛情,如果他的規則,他愛的規則,如果他的法官,他的法官在愛”(CH多德,約翰的書信,第110頁)。

(1) Love within the Godhead. (1)在神性的愛。 For man to understand love, he must perceive its activity within the Godhead.對於男人不懂愛情,他一定要看到它的活動範圍內的神性。 Many verses speak of the Father's love for the Son; however, only John 14:31 explicitly states that Jesus loved the Father.許多詩句講父親的愛子,但只有約翰14時31明確指出耶穌愛父親。 Certainly other passages imply Jesus' love for the Father.當然,其他段落暗示耶穌的愛的父親。 Love is demonstrated by the keeping of commandments (John 14:31; cf. vss. 15, 21, 23).愛是證明了飼養的誡命(約翰福音14:31;比照VSS 15,21,23)。 Christ alone has seen the Father (John 3:11, 32; 6:46) and known him (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 7:29; 8:55; 10:15).唯獨基督就是看見了父​​(約翰福音3:11,32; 6:46),認識他(馬太福音11:27,路加福音10:22,約翰福音7:29; 8:55; 10:15)。 They are united to one another (John 10:30, 38; 14:10-11, 20; 17:21-23).他們是美國(約翰福音10:30,38; 14:10-11,20; 17:21-23)。 Although there are no verses that speak explicitly of the Holy Spirit's love for the other two persons of the Trinity, it is implied in John 16:13-15, where Jesus says that the Spirit will not speak from himself, as Jesus did not speak from himself (John 12:49; 14:10), but will speak and disclose what he hears from Christ and the Father.雖然沒有小詩講明確的聖靈的愛的另外兩個人的三位一體,這是隱含在約翰福音16:13-15,耶穌說,聖靈不會從自己說話,因為耶穌沒有說話從自己的(約翰福音12:49; 14:10),但會說話,並透露他聽到從基督與父。 There is, therefore, a demonstration of love within the Godhead.因此,有一個示範的愛在神的源頭。

(2) Love toward man. (2)對人的愛。 In the OT the expression of God's love for man is indicated in four ways.在舊約中的表達神的愛的人表示在四個方面。 First, the simple statement of God's love for man is given in a few places (eg, Deut. 10:18; 33:3; I Kings 10:9; Isa. 43:4; 63:9; Jer. 31:3; Hos. 14:4; Zeph. 3:17).首先,簡單的陳述上帝的愛的人,在少數地方(例如,申命記10:18; 33:3,列王紀上10:9,賽43:4,63:9,31:3耶。何西阿14:4; Zeph。3:17)。 Second, there is God's electing love for the nation of Israel (eg, Deut. 4:37; 7:6-8; 10:15; Hos. 3:1; 11:1, 4; Mal. 1:2).二是有上帝的愛選,為以色列的國家(如申4:37; 7:6-8; 10:15;何西阿3:1,11:1,4;瑪1:2)。 Third, there is the covenant love, which is a loyal or steadfast love (hesed; eg, Exod. 20:6; Deut. 5:10; 7:9, 12; I Kings 8:23; II Chr. 6:14; Neh. 1:5; 9:32; Ps. 89:28; Dan. 9:4).第三,有愛的盟約,這是一個忠誠的堅定的愛(hesed,如出埃及記20:6;申5:10; 7:9,12;列王紀上8:23; 6:14 II染色體。尼1:5; 9:32;詩89:28;丹。9:4)。 This love is readily seen in Ps.這種愛是很容易看到,在PS。 106:45: "And he remembered his covenant for their sake, and relented according to the greatness of his loving kindness." 106:45:“他為他們的緣故記念他的約,心軟的偉大,他的慈愛。” God's covenant with Israel gives assurance of his love toward them (Isa. 54:10).神與以色列所立的約,保證他的愛對他們(以賽亞書54:10)。 Finally, there are a few references that speak specifically of God's love toward individuals (eg, Solomon in II Sam. 12:24 and Neh. 13:26; Ezra in Ezra 7:28; Cyrus [?] in Isa. 48:14).最後,有幾個參考講具體的神的愛,對個人(例如,所羅門在二,三。12:24尼希米記13:26;龐德在以斯拉記7:28;賽勒斯[?]在伊薩。48:14 )。 Although the OT references to God's love toward man are not many, there are a sufficient number from various portions of the OT to adequately confirm it.雖然OT引用上帝的愛,對人不是很多,有足夠數量的OT的各個部分充分證實。

The NT is replete with references of God's love for man. NT是充滿神的愛的人參考。 A central passage demonstrating this is I John 4:10: "In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins."一個中央通道,說明這是我約翰一書4:10:“這就是愛情,不是因為我們熱愛上帝,但他愛我們,差他的兒子為我們的罪作了挽回祭”。 The demonstration of God's love for man is seen in each of the persons of the Trinity.被認為是在每個人的三位一體神的愛的人的示範。 Those who keep Christ's commandments evidence their love for him and they are loved by the Father (John 14:21, 23; 16:27).那些誰保持基督的誡命證據,他們對他的愛和愛他們的父親(約翰福音14:21,23歲; 16:27)。 As the Father loves Christ, so also he loves the believer (John 17:23).由於父親熱愛基督,所以他也愛的信徒(約翰福音17:23)。 The love of the Father for the believer is assured (Eph. 6:23; II Thess. 2:16; I John 3:1).愛父的信徒是有保證的(以弗所書6:23;帖撒羅​​尼迦前書2:16;我約翰一書3:1)。 When God is mentioned, it almost invariably refers to the Father.當神被提及,它幾乎總是指父親。 This is emphasized when some gift or blessing given to the believer is also mentioned, because the gift is usually his Son (eg, John 3:16; Rom. 5:8; I John 4:9-10, 16) or the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:5).這是強調一些禮物或祝福時,信徒也提到,因為禮物通常是他的兒子(例如,約翰福音3:16,羅5:8;約翰一書4:9-10,16)或聖地精神(羅5:5)。 There are many references to Christ's love for man.有許多參考資料,以基督的愛的人。 While on earth Christ loved Lazarus, Mary, and Martha (John 11:3, 5, 36).雖然地球上的基督愛的拉撒路,瑪麗和Martha(約翰福音11:3,5,36)。 There is his love for John the apostle (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20) and for the disciples as a group (John 13:34; 14:21; 15:9, 12).這是他愛的使徒約翰(約翰福音13:23; 19:26; 20:2,21:7,20)為一組的門徒(約翰福音13:34,14:21,15:9,12 )。 Christ's death is the evidence of his love for the believer (II Cor. 5:14; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:2; I Tim. 1:14-15; I John 3:16).基督的死亡的證據是,他的愛的信徒(哥林多後書5:14;加2:20;弗5:2;我添。1:14-15;約翰一書3:16)。 In his ascension there is an assurance of his love for believers individually (Rom. 8:35, 37; Eph. 6:23) as well as the church as a body (Eph. 5:25).在他的提升是保證他的信徒個人的愛(羅馬書8:35,37;弗6:23),以及教會作為一個身體(弗5:25)。 Finally, the Holy Spirit's love for the believer is mentioned in Rom.最後,聖靈的愛,為信徒中提到的ROM。 15:30. 15:30。

In conclusion, the love of God toward man is seen throughout the Bible.總之,上帝的愛,對人被認為是整個“聖經”。 It is a love that is unselfish and unmerited.這是一個愛是無私的,不配得的。 The epitome of this is seen in God's love for sinners who were his enemies and deserved nothing except his wrath, but instead he sent Christ to die for them in order that they might become the sons of God (Rom. 5:6-11; II Cor. 5:14-21).的縮影,這被認為是在神愛罪人,誰是他的敵人,並當之無愧的只是他的憤怒,而是他發出基督死他們,使他們有可能成為神的兒子(羅5:6-11;哥林多後書5:14-21)。 It is God's love that serves as a basis for man's love.這是上帝的愛,作為男人的愛的基礎。

Love of Men愛的男人

With the entrance of sin man has become a hater and enemy of God (Rom. 1:30; 5:10; John 15:18, 24-25).隨著高考的仙俠已成為一個會憎恨妒忌和敵人的神(羅1:30; 5:10;約翰福音15:18,24日至25日)。 But because God initiated his love by sending his Son, believers are exhorted, on the basis of God's own love, to love one another (I John 4:10-11, 19).但是,因為上帝派他的兒子,開始他的愛,信徒們告誡,上帝自己的愛的基礎上的,愛彼此(約翰一書4:10-11,19)。 The source of this love is God (I John 4:7-9) and not man.這種愛的來源是神(約翰一書4:7-9),而不是男人。 This is substantiated in Gal.這是屬實的半乳糖。 5:22, where it is seen as the fruit of the Holy Spirit. 5:22,在那裡它被看作是聖靈的果實。 The words immediately following love, "joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control", further describe the character of love rather than other fruit of the Spirit, for the "fruit" and the verb are singular and the context is about love (cf. VSS. 5, 13, 14).緊隨愛的話,“喜樂,和平,忍耐,恩慈,良善,信實,溫柔,自我控制”,進一步形容性格的愛情,而不是其他水果的精神,為“果”和動詞是單數的背景是​​關於愛情(參見VSS。5,13,14)。 This is further confirmed when one analyzes the love chapter (I Cor. 13) and notices that the words used to describe love are the same or similar words as used in Gal.這進一步證實,當一個人的愛“一章(林前13)和所用的字眼來形容愛是相同或相似的詞中所用的半乳糖的通知進行分析。 5:22-23 (many times the noun form in Gal. 5 is the verb form in I Cor. 13). 5:22-23(多次的半乳糖。5的名詞形式是動詞形式,在林前13)。 In these passages love is described as being unselfish and sacrificial with no condition of expecting the same in return.在這些段落中,愛是無私和犧牲,沒有條件的期待同樣的回報。 It is love that is given and not deserved.這是愛,是給定的,而不是實至名歸。 God's love is so, and man having experienced God's love is to exhibit this in two directions, namely, toward God and toward man.神的愛是如此,人經歷神的愛是表現在兩個方向,即,對神和對人。 This is what is commanded in the Bible (Matt. 22: 37-40; Mark 12:29-31; Luke 10:26-27).這就是聖經中的命令(馬太福音22:37-40;馬可福音12:29-31;路加福音10:26-27)。

Love Toward God對神的愛

In the OT God commands man to love God with his whole being (Deut. 6:5; 10:12; 11:1, 13, 22; 13:3; 30:6, 16; Josh. 22:5; 23:11; Ps. 31:23), and there are a few explicit references indicating man's love for God (I Kings 3:3; Pss. 5:11; 18:1; 91:14; 116:1; Isa. 56:6).在舊約中神命令人愛上帝用他的整個生命(申6:5; 10:12; 11:1,13,22; 13:3; 30:6,16;喬希。22:5; 23: 11;詩31:23),並有一個明確提及,顯示人的對上帝的愛(列王紀上3:3; PSS的。5:11; 18:1; 91:14; 116:1賽56: 6)。 In the NT outside of Jesus' quoting the OT command to love God (Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33; Luke 10:27) there are no explicit commands for man to love God (possibly I Cor. 16:22; II Thess. 3:5).在NT以外的耶穌引用舊約的指揮,以愛上帝(馬太福音22:37,馬可福音12:30,33;路加福音10:27)有沒有明確的命令,愛上帝的人(可能是我心病。16: 22 II帖撒羅尼迦後書3:5)。 Only a few passages are concerned with man's response of love toward God (John 21:15-17; I Pet. 1:8; I John 5:2; cf. I John 4:20-21).只有少數幾個通道,關注人的反應對神的愛(約翰福音21:15-17,我的寵物。1:8;約翰一書5:2;比照。約翰一書4:20-21)。 The references to man's love toward God are comparatively few possibly because it would seem normal for man to love God, who has done so much for him, and because man has experienced God's love.人對神的愛是比較少的,可能是因為它似乎是正常的男人來愛上帝,誰對他做了這麼多,因為人類經歷了神的愛。 However, the command to love God is important because it shows that God is approachable and desires the dynamic relationship involved in love.然而,愛上帝的命令是很重要的,因為它表明,上帝是平易近人和願望,參與愛的動態關係。

Love Toward Man對人的愛

The two greatest commandments indicate that man is to love his fellow man as well as God.兩個最大的誡命,表明人是愛他的同胞,以及上帝。 Although there are not many verses that speak of man's love for God, the Scriptures abound with statements of man's love toward his fellows.雖然有許多小詩講人的對上帝的愛,聖經充滿了人的愛,對他的同伴的陳述。 This is seen in four ways.這被認為是在四種方式。

(1) Love for neighbor. (1)對鄰居的愛。 The command to love one's neighbor is stated often, first in Lev.指揮,以愛自己的鄰居的時候,首先在列弗。 19:18, which is then quoted several times in the NT (Matt. 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Mark 12:31, 33; Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; James 2:8). 19:18,然後將其引述多次在新台幣(馬太福音5:43; 19:19; 22:39;馬可福音12:31,33;羅馬書13:9;加拉太書5:14;詹姆斯2: 8)。 Paul states that love for the neighbor is the fulfillment of the law (Rom. 13:8, 10).保羅說,愛鄰居,是履行法律(羅馬書13:8,10)。 In giving the command to love one's neighbor, Jesus made it clear in the parable of the good Samaritan that one's neighbors are more than those who are acquaintances or of the same nationality (Luke 10:27-37).在給予的指揮,以愛自己的鄰居,耶穌在它清理好撒瑪利亞人的比喻,一個人的鄰居以上是熟人或同一國籍(路加福音10:27-37)。 This is in keeping with the OT for Moses enjoined the Israelites to love the stranger or alien (Deut. 10:19).這是與摩西的OT責成以色列人愛陌生人或外國人(申命記10:19)。 Man is to be concerned with other men as God is concerned with man.是關注人與其他人作為神的人關注。 The command is to love the neighbor to the degree that one loves himself.該命令去愛你的鄰居,一個愛自己的程度。 Since man is basically selfish and is concerned about himself, he should have that same degree of concern for his neighbor.由於人基本上是自私和關心自己,他應該為他的鄰居有相同程度的關注。

(2) Love for one's fellow believer. (2)愛的信徒。 In Gal.在GAL。 6:10 Paul exhorts the believers to do good to all men and especially to those who are of the household of faith. 6:10保羅勸勉信徒要做好所有的人,特別是那些誰是家庭的信仰。 The believer should love his neighbor, whoever that might be, but he must have a real and deep concern and love for those who are fellow believers.有信仰的人都應該熱愛他的鄰居,誰可能,但他必須有一個為那些誰是信徒的真實和深切的關注和愛。 In the OT this is seen in Lev.在舊約中,這被看作是在列弗。 19:17-18, where the neighbor is the fellow countryman of the covenanted nation Israel or one who was of the same faith. 19:17-18,那裡的鄰居是同胞的簽約以色列國或一個同樣的信念是誰。 In the NT, there is to be a definite love between believers.在NT中,有一個明確的信徒之間的愛。 Jesus gave a new commandment: that the believers were to love one another as he had loved them (John 13:34-35; 15:12, 17; cf. I John 3:23; 5:2; II John 5).耶穌給了一個新的誡命的信徒要彼此相愛,因為他愛他們(約翰福音13:34-35; 15:12,17人;比照。約翰一書3:23; 5:2;約翰二書5)。 The command to love one another was not new, but to love one another as Christ had loved them was a new command.彼此相愛的命令不是新的,而是彼此相愛,正如基督愛他們是一個新的命令。 This is further elaborated in I John.這進一步闡述了約翰。 One who loves his brother abides in light (2:10) and God abides in him (4:12).一個誰愛弟兄的就是住在光明(2:10),神也住在他(4:12)。 In fact, one who does not love his brother cannot love God (4:20).事實上,一個不愛他的哥哥不能愛的神(4:20)。 The source of love is God (4:7), and because of God's love one should love his brother (3:11; 4:11).源來是愛是神(4:7),因為神的愛,應該愛他的兄弟(3:11; 4:11)。

Outside the Johannine literature there is the same command to love the brother in the faith (Eph. 5:2; I Thess. 4:9; 5:13; I Tim. 4:12; Heb. 10:24; 13:1; I Pet. 2:17).以外的約翰文學有相同的命令是愛的兄弟在信仰(弗5:2;帖前4:9; 5:13;提摩太前書4:12;來。10:24; 13:1我的寵物。2:17)。 This was to be done fervently (Rom. 12:10; I Pet. 1:22; 4:8) and with forbearance (Eph. 4:2), serving one another (Gal. 5:13).這是必須做的熱切(羅馬書12:10;我的寵物。1:22; 4:8)和寬容(弗4:2),服務(加拉太書5:13)。 Paul loved the believers (I Cor. 16:24; II Cor. 2:4; 11:11; 12:15) and was happy when he heard of the saints' love for one another (Eph. 1:15; Col. 1:4; II Thess. 1:3; Philem. 5; cf. Heb. 6:10).保羅愛的信徒(林前16:24;哥林多後書2:4; 11:11; 12:15),很高興,當他聽到彼此的聖人'愛(以弗所書1:15,歌羅西1:4;帖撒羅尼迦前書1:3; Philem。5;比照希伯來書6:10)。 Hence one sees that love for the brother was a dominant theme in the early church.因此,人們看到,在早期教會的兄弟,愛是一個主要的主題。 It was evidence to the world that they were truly the disciples of Christ (John 13:35).這是證據向世界表明,他們是真正的基督的門徒(約翰福音13:35)。

(3) Love for family. (3)對家庭的愛。 The Scriptures have a few commands and ample illustrations of love within the family. “聖經”有愛家庭內的一些命令和充裕的插圖。 Husbands are commanded to love their wives (Col. 3:19) as Christ loves the church (Eph. 5:25-33; cf. Eccles. 9:9; Hos. 3:1).作丈夫的,要愛他們的妻子(歌羅西書3:19),正如基督愛教會(以弗所書5:25-33;比照埃克爾斯9:9,何西阿3:1)。 The love of the husband for the wife is seen in several accounts (Gen. 24:67; 29:18, 20, 30; II Chr. 11:21; Song of S. 4:10; 7:6).被認為是在幾個帳戶的丈夫對妻子的愛(創24:67,29:18,20,30,II染色體。11:21;歌S. 4:10; 7:6)。 Only one time are wives commanded to love their husbands (Titus 2:4) and in only Song of S. is it mentioned (1:7; 3:1-4; 7:12).只有一次是妻子的,要愛自己的丈夫(提多書2:4)和S.只歌是它提到(1:7; 3:1-4; 7:12)。 Certainly the wife's submission to the husband is evidence of her love for him (Eph. 5:22-24; I Pet. 3:1-6).當然,妻子的證據提交的丈夫是她對他的愛(以弗所書5:22-24,我的寵物。3:1-6)。 Also, only once is there a command for parents to love their children, specifically for young wives to love their children (Titus 2:4), but there are several illustrations of such love in the OT (Gen. 22:2; 25:28; 37:3; 44:20; Exod. 21:5).此外,只有一次是有一個命令,父母愛自己的孩子,特別是年輕的妻子愛自己的孩子(提多書2:4),但也有一些說明,這樣的愛在催產素(創22點02分,25: 28; 37:3,44:20,出埃及記21:5)。 Interestingly, there is no command or example of children loving their parents.有趣的是,有沒有孩子愛他們的父母的命令或實例。 However, there is the oft-repeated command for children to honor and obey their parents, which would be evidence of their love for their parents (eg, Exod. 20:12; Deut. 5:16; Prov. 1:8; Matt. 19:19; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Eph. 6:1; Col. 3:20).然而,經常重複的命令,對孩子的榮譽和服從他們的父母,這將是證明他們的愛他們的父母(如出埃及記20:12;申5:16;箴1:8;馬特。19:19,馬可福音10:19,路加福音18:20;弗6:1;歌羅西書3:20)。 In conclusion, although not much is spoken about love within the natural family, it can be assumed that this love would be expected; anyone who does not take care of his family is considered a denier of the faith and worse than an unbeliever (I Tim. 5:8).總之,雖然沒有太多的愛在談到在自然的家庭,可以假設預期將這份愛,誰不照顧他的家人旦被認為是比不信的信念,更糟糕的(我添5:8)。

(4) Love for enemies. (4)愛敵人。 Jesus commanded his followers to love their enemies (Matt. 5:43-48; Luke 6:27-35).耶穌吩咐他的追隨者們愛自己的敵人“(馬太福音5:43-48,路加福音6:27-35)。 This love is demonstrated by blessing those who curse them, praying for those who mistreat them, and giving generously to them.這愛是證明了祝福那些詛咒他們的人,那些虐待他們的人祈禱,並給予慷慨。 This shows that love is more than friendship based on mutual admiration; it is an act of charity toward one who is hostile and has shown no lovableness.這表明,愛是多於友誼建立在相互欽佩,這是一個向一個誰是敵對的慈善行為,並沒有表現出lovableness。 Jesus reminded the disciples that it is natural to love those who love them, but to love their enemies is a real act of charity; it is to be a mark of his disciples as opposed to those who are sinners or Gentiles.耶穌提醒門徒,愛那些愛他們的人,但愛自己的敵人,是一個真正的慈善行為,這是很自然的,它是一個標誌,他的弟子,而不是那些誰是罪人或外邦人。 An example of this love is seen in God's love and kindness toward evil men by sending them sun and rain as he does for those who love him.向邪惡的人,在神的愛和善良,給他們陽光和雨水像他那樣,對那些愛他的人,這種愛是一個例子。 The NT epistles reiterate that rather than seeking revenge, believers are to love those who hate and persecute them (Rom. 12:14, 17-21; I Thess. 5:15; I Pet. 3:9). NT書信重申,而不是尋求報復,信徒們都愛那些仇恨和迫害他們(羅馬書12:14,17日至21日,我帖前5:15;我的寵物。3:9)。

Conclusion結論

God in his very essence is love, hence love is expressed toward the underserving.神在他的本質是愛,所以愛是向underserving表示。 John 3:16 states this unforgettably: though man has repudiated him God loves the world, and the extent of his love was the sacrifice of his own Son, Jesus Christ, who was willing to lay down his life.約翰福音3章16節指出這令人難忘:雖然人已經否認他神愛世人,他的愛的程度是犧牲自己的兒子,耶穌基督,誰願意放下自己的生命。 On the basis of God's love the believer is enjoined to love God, who is deserving, and to love his fellow man and even his enemy, who are underserving.神的愛的基礎上,的信徒是受命於愛上帝,誰是值得,愛他的人,甚至他的敵人,誰是underserving的。 God's love is not only basic but it continually extends to the underserving and unloving, as seen in his continuing love for the wayward believer in both the OT and NT.神的愛不僅是基本的,但它不斷地延伸到的underserving和沒有愛心,看到他繼續愛任性的信徒中的催產素和NT。 Thus there is a deep loyalty in God's love toward the undeserving, and this is the basis of God's command for man's love.因此,在神的愛向不值得的,這是上帝的命令的基礎上對男人的愛有一個深刻的忠誠。 Therefore, God's love is seeking the highest good in the one loved, and man is enjoined to seek the highest good or the will of God in the one loved.因此,神的愛是尋求一個愛的最高的善,而且是受命於尋求最高的好還是上帝的旨意,在一個愛的人。

HW Hoehner HW Hoehner
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
C. Brown, W. Gunther, and H.-G. C.布朗,W.岡瑟和H.-G.的 Link, NIDNTT, II, 538-51; MC D'Arcy, The Mind and Heart of Love; VP Furnish, The Love Command in the NT; VR Good, IDB, III, 164-68; W. Harrelson, "The Idea of Agape in the NT," JR 31:169-82; G. Johnston, IDB, III, 168-78; W. Klassen, IDB Supplement, 557-58; H. Montefiore, "Thou Shalt Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself," NovT 5:157-70; L. Morris, Testaments of Love; A. Nygren, Agape and Eros; G. Outka, Agape: An Ethical Analysis; FH Palmer, NBC, 752-54; J. Piper, Love Your Enemies; G. Quell and E. Stauffer, TDNT, I, 21-55; OJF Seitz, "Love Your Enemies," NTS 16: 39-54; MH Shepherd, Jr., IDB, I, 53-54; NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; C. Spicq, Agape in the NT, 3 vols.; G. Stahlin, TDNT, IX, 113-71; BB Warfield, "The Terminology of Love in the NT," PTR 16:1-45, 153-203; DD Williams, The Spirit and the Forms of Love.鏈接,NIDNTT,II,538-51; MC D'達西,精神和愛心;的副總裁裝飾,喜歡命令在NT VR好,美洲開發銀行,III,1 64-68·哈里森,“我們的想法愛德在新台幣,“JR 31:169-82;·約翰斯頓,美洲開發銀行,III,168-78;·克拉森,IDB補充,557-58,H.蒙蒂菲奧里,”你要愛你的鄰居如己, “NOVT 5:157-70;·莫里斯,愛的聖經; A.尼格倫,神父和愛神,愛加倍; G. Outka的倫理分析; FH帕爾默,NBC,752​​-54,J.派,愛你的敵人G.平息和E.斯托弗,TDNT,I,21-55; OJF塞茨,“愛你的敵人”,國稅廳16:39-54; MH牧羊犬,小,美洲開發銀行,I,53-54,NH斯奈思,與眾不同的想法OT,第3卷,愛德在新台幣C. Spicq。G. Stahlin,TDNT,IX,113-71,BB沃菲爾德,“術語的愛情新台幣,”PTR 16:1 - 45,153-203; DD威廉姆斯,精神和愛的形式。


Love Feast愛的盛宴

Advanced Information 先進的信息

In the NT在NT

The brotherly love between Christians which was enjoined by Jesus (John 13:34; Gr. agape) found its expression in three practical ways.兄弟之間的愛基督徒被責成由耶穌(約翰福音13:34;愛德年級)中的表達三種可行的方法。 It was commonly exercised in almsgiving; hence on twenty-six occasions agape is translated in the AV "charity."人們普遍行使救濟,因此26次,愛德是翻譯中的AV“慈善”。 In church gatherings and in Christian greetings it was displayed played by the kiss (I Pet. 5:14; see also Rom. 16:16; I Cor. 16:20; II Cor. 13:12; I Thess. 5:26).在教會聚會,並在基督教的問候,它顯示所扮演的吻(我的寵物。5:14;也連不上。16:16;哥林多前書16:20;哥林多後書13:12;帖前5:26 )。 And gradually the term came to be applied to a common meal shared by believers.並逐步一詞來被應用到一個共同進餐,共用的信徒。 Although these meals are called agapai only in Jude 12 and possibly II Pet.雖然這些食物被稱為agapai只在猶大書12,並可能II帶寵物。 2:13, where there is a variant reading of agapais for apatais ("deceivings"), there is a considerable amount of other evidence for their existence in the early church. 2:13,那裡有一個變種閱讀agapais的apatais(“詭詐”),有相當數量的其他證據,他們的存在,在早期教會。

In Acts 2:42-47 there is an account of the early form of "communism" practiced by the believers, which includes breaking bread from house to house and eating their meat (Gr. trophe) with gladness and singleness of heart.在使徒行傳2:42-47有一個帳戶的早期形式,實行“共產主義”的信徒,其中包括挨家挨戶擘餅,吃他們的肉(希臘文trophe)與歡喜和單一的心。 The first phrase may refer to the administration of the Lord's Supper, but the second obviously indicates a full meal.第一句可能是指主的晚餐的管理,但第二個顯然一頓飽一頓。 Similar "communistic" behavior is mentioned in Acts 4:32.使徒行傳4:32中提到的類似的“共產主義”的行為。 By the time of Acts 6:1ff.使徒行傳6:1 FF的時候。 the increase of disciples in the Jerusalem church led to the appointment of the seven to serve tables, which presumably refers to the responsibility for arranging the common meals.在耶路撒冷教會的門徒的增加導致的七位服務表,這大概是指安排共同進餐的責任。 RL Cole (Love-Feasts, A History of the Christian Agape) suggests that this number was selected in order that each one might be responsible for a different day of the week. RL科爾(愛宴,一個歷史的基督教愛德)表明,這個數字是選擇在每一個可能負責不同的星期幾。 This arrangement arose from the complaint of the hellenists that their windows were being neglected, and so would indicate that already these common meals were being held for charitable purposes, as was indeed the custom later.從他們的窗戶被忽視的hellenists的投訴,出現這樣的安排,並表示,已經這些共同吃飯被關押作慈善用途,因為確實是自定義。

When Paul was at Troas (Acts 20:6-12) there took place on the first day of the week both a "breaking of bread" and a full meal (which idea is contained in the verb geusamenos, used here for eating, cf. Acts 10:10).當保羅在特羅亞(徒20:6-12)發生在一周的第一天的“擘餅”,全餐(包含其中的想法在動詞geusamenos,用在這裡吃的,比照使徒行傳10:10)。 Both here and in 2:42 it is difficult to determine whether the phrase "breaking of bread" denotes a common meal or is a more restricted reference to the Lord's Supper: whenever these words occur together in the Gospels they describe the action of Jesus (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; 24:30, 35).在這裡和2:42,這是難以確定的“擘餅”這句話是否代表共同用餐或到主的晚餐是一種限制性更強的參考:這些字眼出現時,他們形容行動的耶穌的福音(馬太福音26:26,馬可福音14:22,路加福音22:19,24:30,35)。 Certainly by the time of Paul's writing to the Corinthians (ca. AD 55) it is evident that that church observed the practice of meeting together for a common meal before partaking of the Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:17-34).當然,保羅寫信給哥林多前書(約公元55)的時候,它是明顯的觀察到,教堂的做法相聚一起共同用餐前領受主的晚餐(林前11:17-34)。 This custom, however, does not appear to have been observed always in the spirit of agape, for the apostle complains that some make it an excuse for gluttony, while others go without: in vs. 21 to idion deipnon may refer to the fact that they refused to pool their food, or that from such a pool each took as much as possible for himself.然而,這一習俗,並沒有出現已觀察到總是在愛德的精神,為使徒抱怨說,一些使它的藉口暴食,當其他人都沒有在主場迎戰21日至idion deipnon的的可參考的事實,他們拒絕凝聚他們的食物,或者說,從這樣的池,每個花盡可能多地為自己。 At all events the situation described here is possible only in the context of a meal more substantial than, and preceding, the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper.在所有比賽中所描述的情況是可能只在一頓飯比較大幅度的背景下,前,主的聖餐麵包和酒的。

Various theories have been put forward suggesting that the agape was a development from pagan guilds or Jewish common meals, or that it was necessitated by the common desire to avoid meats offered to idols.各種理論已提出建議說,愛德是一個發展從異教同業公會或猶太人共同吃飯,或者說,它是必要的共同心願,以避免肉類提供的偶像。 From the fact that most early Christian paintings found in the catacombs depicting the agape show seven persons partaking, Cole argues that the custom developed from the incident on the shore of Tiberias, where Jesus shared the breakfast meal with seven of his disciples (John 21), and that the conversation with Peter on that occasion supplied the title of agape for this meal.從這個事實,描繪了愛德的墓穴中發現的最早期的基督教繪畫七人單打獨鬥,科爾認為定制開發,從事件發生的太巴列上了岸,耶穌共享一頓早飯,他的七個弟子(約翰福音21) ,並與彼得在那次談話,提供了愛德這頓飯的標題。 It is equally possible that the meal may have arisen from a desire to perpetuate the table fellowship which the apostles had enjoyed during their Lord's earthly life, and that later, as the church grew and communal living became impossible, the common meal was continued before the Lord's Supper in an effort to place the receiving of that sacrament in its historical context.這是同樣是可能的,這頓飯可能已出現從一個願望,以延續的表獎學金的使徒享有在其主的俗世的生活,那以後,作為教會的成長和公共生活成為不可能,在普通餐是繼續前主的晚餐,努力將接收該聖餐,在其歷史背景。 The fact that the Johannine account points to the giving of the new commandment of mutual agape at that meal (John 13:34) would be sufficient reason for the application of that name to the rite.事實上,約翰帳戶提供新的誡命的相互愛德那頓飯(約翰福音13:34),將有足夠的理由對這個名字的儀式。

In Church History在教會歷史

Ignatius (Smyr. 8:2) refers to the agape, as does the Didache (x.1 and xi.9), the latter suggesting that it still preceded the Eucharist.伊格內修斯(Smyr. 8:2)是指,愛德,一樣的的遺訓(X.1和xi.9),後者表明它仍然聖體前。 By the time of Tertullian (Apology xxxix; De Jejuniis xvii; De Corona Militis iii) the Eucharist was celebrated early and the agape later at a separate service, and this may be the practice referred to by Pliny in his letter to Trajan (Epistles x.96), though his information is not altogether clear.的時候,特土良(道歉三十九; Jejuniis十七;電暈Militis三)為慶祝聖體聖事早,愛德在一個單獨的服務,這可能是實踐由普林尼在他的信給圖拉真(書信所述0.96),但他的信息是不完全清楚。 Clement of Alexandria (Paedagogos ii. 1 and Stromata iii.2) gives evidence also of the separation of the two observances.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(Paedagogos二,一,子座下同)提供的證據也分離的紀念活動。 Chrysostom (Homily xxvii on I Cor. 11:17) agrees with the order mentioned by Tertullian, but while he calls the agape "a custom most beautiful and beneficial; for it was a supporter of love, a solace of poverty, and a discipline of humility," he does add that by his day it had become corrupt.金口(講道二十七,我肺心病。11:17)同意的順序提到的戴爾都良,但同時,他呼籲愛德“一個自定義的最美麗,最有益的,因為它是愛情的支持者,一個慰藉貧困,和一門學科謙遜,“他補充說,他的日子,它已成為腐敗。 In times of persecution the custom grew up of celebrating agapai in prison with condemned martyrs on the eve of their execution (see the Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas xvii.1, and Lucian De Morte Peregrini xii), whence developed the practice of holding commemorative agapai on the anniversaries of their deaths, and these gave rise to the feasts and vigils which are observed today.在時代的迫害自定義長大的在獄中慶祝agapai的譴責烈士的前夕,他們的執行(看到了激情Perpetua和費利西塔斯xvii.1的的,和Lucian德死peregrini十二),從那裡舉行紀念agapai開發的實踐紀念日,他們的死亡,而這些引起了今天,這是觀察的節日和守夜。 Agapai also took place on the occasion of weddings (Gregory of Nazianzus Epistles i.14) and funerals (Apostolic Constitutions viii.42). Agapai也發生之際的婚禮(格雷戈里的nazianzus書信一.14)和葬禮(使徒憲法第八.42)。

During the fourth century the agape became increasingly the object of disfavor, apparently because of disorders at the celebration and also because problems were raised by the expanding membership of the church, and an increasing emphasis was being placed on the Eucharist.在第四世紀的愛德成為越來越多的冷落的對象,顯然是因為疾病在慶祝,因為問題提出了通過擴大會員的教會,和聖體被放置在一個越來越重視。 Augustine mentions its disuse (Ep. ad Aurelium xxii.4; see also Confessions vi.2), and Canons 27 and 28 of the Council of Laodicea (363) restricted the abuses.奧古斯丁提到的廢棄(插曲廣告Aurelium xxii.4的;也見自白107),和大砲27日和28日的理事會老底嘉(363)受限制的弊端。 The Third Council of Carthage (393) and the Second Council of Orleans (541) reiterated this legislation, which prohibited feasting in churches, and the Trullan Council of 692 decreed that honey and milk were not to be offered on the altar (Canon 57), and that those who held love feasts in churches should be excommunicated (Canon 74).的迦太基(393)和新奧爾良(541)第二屆理事會第三次會議上重申了這一立法,禁止吃喝在教堂,和692 Trullan委員會頒布法令,蜂蜜和牛奶不可在壇上獻(佳能57) ,而那些在教堂舉行的愛席上應該被驅逐(佳能74)。

There is evidence that bread and wine (Didache), vegetables and salt (Acts of Paul and Thecla xxv), fish (catacomb paintings), meat, poultry, cheese, milk, and honey (Augustine, contra Faustum xx.20), and pultes, "a pottage" (Augustine), were consumed on different occasions at the agape.有證據表明,麵包和酒(遺訓),蔬菜和鹽(使徒行的保羅和thecla二十五),的魚(地下墓穴繪畫),肉類,家禽,奶酪,牛奶,蜂蜜(奧古斯丁,禁忌Faustum xx.20),和pultes,“濃湯”(奧古斯丁),在不同的場合被消耗在愛德。

In Modern Times在近代

In the Eastern Church the rite has persisted, and is still observed in sections of the Orthodox Church, where it precedes the Eucharist, and in the Church of St. Thomas in India.在東部教會的儀式一直堅持,並仍在觀察到部分的東正教教堂,在它前面的聖體,並在教會的聖·托馬斯在印度。 From the Eastern Church it was continued through the Church of Bohemia to John Hus and the Unitas Fratrum, whence it was adopted by the Moravians.從東部教會,它是繼續通過教會的波西米亞約翰胡斯和烏尼塔斯fratrum的,從那裡通過的摩拉維亞。 From them John Wesley introduced the practice within Methodism (see references in his Journal), and it is occasionally observed today in Methodist churches.從他們身上,約翰·衛斯理介紹的做法,內衛理公會(請參閱參考資料在他的雜誌),它偶爾觀察到今天在衛理公會。 In the Anglican Prayer Book of 1662 the only survival is probably the collection of alms for the poor during the Communion service, but the practice of the sovereign's distribution of Maundy money is a relic of the agape, and in this connection it is interesting that the epistle appointed for Maundy Thursday is I Cor.的英國國教祈禱書,1662唯一的生存是可能的施捨窮人在共融服務的集合,但君主的分佈濯足節錢的做法是,愛德的遺物,並在這方面它是有趣的,在書信委任為濯足節,哥林多前書。 11:17-34. 11:17-34。 A modern attempt to revive the custom can be seen in the increasing practice of holding a "parish breakfast" following the early Communion service, and experiments at using the agape as an opportunity for interdenominational fellowship are described by Frank Baker in Methodism and the Love-Feast.一個現代化的企圖復活的自定義可以看出,在實踐的教區舉行了“早餐”早期的聖餐禮,實驗使用的愛德機會為宗派的獎學金是由弗蘭克·貝克衛理公會和愛盛宴。

DH Wheaton DH惠頓
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

See also LORD'S SUPPER.主的晚餐。

Bibliography 參考書目
D. Leclerq in Dictionnaire d'archelogie Chretienne; JF Keating, The Agape and the Eucharist in the Early Church; P. Battifol, Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive; JC Lambert, Sacraments in the NT. D. Leclerq的Dictionnaire D'archelogie Chretienne; JF基廷,神父和聖體聖事,在早期教會體育Battifol,練習曲的歷史與神學積極,JC蘭伯特,聖禮在NT。


Lovingkindness慈愛

General Information 一般資料

The translation of the Hebrew word hesed in the AV and ASV.翻譯希伯來文hesed在AV和ASV。 The AV also followed the equivalent given in the Latin translation (misericordia), which is preceded by the usage of the LXX ("mercy").殺毒也跟著等效在拉丁語翻譯(任憑),這是之前使用的lxx(“慈悲”)。 Modern versions render hesed by "steadfast love," "unfailing love," "lovingkindness," and "love" (cf. RSV, NIV).現代版本,使hesed“堅定的愛”,“至死不渝的愛”,“慈愛”和“愛”(見RSV,NIV)。 The word hesed is found approximately 250 times in the Hebrew OT, and of these there are 125 instances in the Psalms.詞hesed在希伯來語OT發現了大約250次,有125個實例中的詩篇。

The nature of the God of Israel is love.以色列的神是愛的本質。 Even when Israel has sinned, they are assured that Yahweh is full of lovingkindness (Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Joel 2:13; Ps. 86:5, 15), on which basis he can and does forgive the sin of his repentant people.甚至當以色列犯了罪,他們是保證雅威是充滿慈愛(出埃及記34:6;民數記14:18;約珥書2:13;詩86:5,15歲),其中的基礎上,他可以不原諒的罪,他的懺悔的人。 The assurance of lovingkindness is given in the legal framework of the covenant.慈愛的保證在法律框架下所立的約。 God's love is a distinctive love.神的愛是一種獨特的愛。 Yahweh has promised to be loyal to Abraham and his descendants (Deut. 7:12).雅威已承諾忠於亞伯拉罕和他的後裔(申命記7:12)。 The relation between lovingkindness as an expression of commitment (loyalty) and truth ('emet) expressing faithfullness is so close that the words occur next to each other some sixteen times: hesed we'emet (Pss. 25:10; 89:14; cf. vs. 25 with 'emuna, "faithfulness").慈愛表達的承諾(忠誠)和真理(EMET)表示faithfullness之間的關係是如此密切的字眼出現在明年向對方一些十六時報:hesed we'emet(詩25:10; 89:14;比照與25'emuna,“信”)。 The God of the covenant shows his convenantal faithfulness by his loving commitment to his people, regardless of their responsiveness or righteousness (Deut. 7: 7-8).上帝的盟約,顯示其convenantal的忠誠,他的愛的承諾,他的人,不管他們的反應能力或義(申命記7:7-8)。 As such, lovingkindness can be a synonym for covenant (Deut. 7:9, 12).因此,慈愛,可以是一個別名為盟約(申命記7:9,12)。 The blessings are generally described as the divine benefits (Deut. 7:13-16).祝福,通常被描述為神聖的利益(申命記7:13-16)。 Hence, lovingkindness is not a mere relational term; it is active.因此,lovingkindness不是一個單純的關係來說,這是積極的。 The God who loves showers his benefits on his covenant people.神愛驟雨,他的好處,他的盟約的人。 He is active ('asa) in his love (Ps. 18:50; Deut. 5:10).他是活躍(ASA)在他的愛裡(詩18:50;申5:10)。 His lovingkindness also finds expression in righteousness.他的慈愛還表現在義。 Righteousness as a correlative to lovingkindness guarantees the ultimate triumph and reward of God's people, and also contains a warning that Yahweh does not tolerate sin, even though he may forbear for a long time.正義作為一個相互關聯的lovingkindness保證了最終的勝利,並懸賞上帝的子民,也包含一個警告說,雅威不容許罪,即使他可能會忍無可忍相當長的時間。 The quality of lovingkindness is also assured by its durability.質量lovingkindness,也是保證其耐用性。 It is from generation to generation (Exod. 34:7).這是一代又一代(出埃及記34:7)。 Twenty-six times we are told that "his lovingkindness is forever" (cf. Pss. 106:1; 107:1; 118: 1-4; 136).第二十六條時候,我們被告知,“他的慈愛永遠長存”(見PSS。106:1,107:1,118:1-4; 136)。 He remembers his love, even when he for a period has withdrawn it in order to discipline (Ps. 98:3).他記得他的愛,甚至當他一個時期以來已撤回它以紀律(詩篇98:3)。

On the other hand, the God who is love also expects his people to be sanctified by demonstrating lovingkindness to their covenant God and to their fellow men.另一方面,神就是愛,也期待他的人被神聖化示範lovingkindness他們盟約上帝和他們的男同胞。 The call for a commitment of love to God finds expression in Deut.對神的愛的承諾的要求體現在申。 6:5, and was repeated by our Lord (Matt. 22:37). 6:5,並多次通過我們的主(馬太福音22:37)。 Man's response to God's lovingkindness is love.人的響應神的慈愛是愛。 On a horizontal plane the believer is called upon to show both lovingkindness (as David did, II Sam. 9:1, 3, 7) and love (Lev. 19:18, cf. Matt. 22:39).在水平面的信徒,是呼籲顯示的慈愛(大衛那樣,二,三。9:1,3,7日)和愛情(利未記19:18,比照馬特。22:39)。 In man's response to lovingkindness and all that it entails, he shows that he belongs to the Heavenly Father (Matt. 5:44-48).在人的慈愛和所有它需要的反應,他表示,他屬於天父(馬太福音5:44-48)。

WA Van Gemeren華客貨車gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; LJ Kuyper, "Grace and Truth," RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck, Hesed in the Bible; KD Sakenfeld, The Meaning of Hesed in the Hebrew Bible.信息snaith,與眾不同的想法職能治療; LJ凱伯,“恩典與真理”,為16:1-16; N.巫文玲,“聖經”hesed在川崎病sakenfeld,在希伯來文聖經的意思hesed。


Lovingkindness慈愛

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Lovingkindness is the translation of the Hebrew word hesed in the AV and ASV.慈愛是希伯來文詞hesed在AV和ASV的翻譯。 The AV also followed the equivalent given in the Latin translation (misericordia), which is preceded by the usage of the LXX ("mercy").殺毒也跟著等效在拉丁語翻譯(任憑),這是之前使用的lxx(“慈悲”)。 Modern versions render hesed by "steadfast love," "unfailing love," "lovingkindness," and "love" (cf. RSV, NIV).現代版本,使hesed“堅定的愛”,“至死不渝的愛”,“慈愛”和“愛”(見RSV,NIV)。 The word hesed is found approximately 250 times in the Hebrew OT, and of these there are 125 instances in the Psalms.詞hesed在希伯來語OT發現了大約250次,有125個實例中的詩篇。

The nature of the God of Israel is love.以色列的神是愛的本質。 Even when Israel has sinned, they are assured that Yahweh is full of lovingkindness (Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Joel 2:13; Ps. 86:5, 15), on which basis he can and does forgive the sin of his repentant people.甚至當以色列犯了罪,他們是保證雅威是充滿慈愛(出埃及記34:6;民數記14:18;約珥書2:13;詩86:5,15歲),其中的基礎上,他可以不原諒的罪,他的懺悔的人。 The assurance of lovingkindness is given in the legal framework of the covenant.慈愛的保證在法律框架下所立的約。 God's love is a distinctive love.神的愛是一種獨特的愛。 Yahweh has promised to be loyal to Abraham and his descendants (Deut. 7:12).雅威已承諾忠於亞伯拉罕和他的後裔(申命記7:12)。 The relation between lovingkindness as an expression of commitment (loyalty) and truth ('emet) expressing faithfullness is so close that the words occur next to each other some sixteen times: hesed we'emet (Pss. 25:10; 89:14; cf. vs. 25 with 'emuna, "faithfulness").慈愛表達的承諾(忠誠)和真理(EMET)表示faithfullness之間的關係是如此密切的字眼出現在明年向對方一些十六時報:hesed we'emet(詩25:10; 89:14;比照與25'emuna,“信”)。 The God of the covenant shows his convenantal faithfulness by his loving commitment to his people, regardless of their responsiveness or righteousness (Deut. 7: 7-8).上帝的盟約,顯示其convenantal的忠誠,他的愛的承諾,他的人,不管他們的反應能力或義(申命記7:7-8)。 As such, lovingkindness can be a synonym for covenant (Deut. 7:9, 12).因此,慈愛,可以是一個別名為盟約(申命記7:9,12)。 The blessings are generally described as the divine benefits (Deut. 7:13-16).祝福,通常被描述為神聖的利益(申命記7:13-16)。 Hence, lovingkindness is not a mere relational term; it is active.因此,lovingkindness不是一個單純的關係來說,這是積極的。 The God who loves showers his benefits on his covenant people.神愛驟雨,他的好處,他的盟約的人。 He is active ('asa) in his love (Ps. 18:50; Deut. 5:10).他是活躍(ASA)在他的愛裡(詩18:50;申5:10)。 His lovingkindness also finds expression in righteousness.他的慈愛還表現在義。 Righteousness as a correlative to lovingkindness guarantees the ultimate triumph and reward of God's people, and also contains a warning that Yahweh does not tolerate sin, even though he may forbear for a long time.正義作為一個相互關聯的lovingkindness保證了最終的勝利,並懸賞上帝的子民,也包含一個警告說,雅威不容許罪,即使他可能會忍無可忍相當長的時間。 The quality of lovingkindness is also assured by its durability.質量lovingkindness,也是保證其耐用性。 It is from generation to generation (Exod. 34:7).這是一代又一代(出埃及記34:7)。 Twenty-six times we are told that "his lovingkindness is forever" (cf. Pss. 106:1; 107:1; 118: 1-4; 136).第二十六條時候,我們被告知,“他的慈愛永遠長存”(見PSS。106:1,107:1,118:1-4; 136)。 He remembers his love, even when he for a period has withdrawn it in order to discipline (Ps. 98:3).他記得他的愛,甚至當他一個時期以來已撤回它以紀律(詩篇98:3)。

On the other hand, the God who is love also expects his people to be sanctified by demonstrating lovingkindness to their covenant God and to their fellow men.另一方面,神就是愛,也期待他的人被神聖化示範lovingkindness他們盟約上帝和他們的男同胞。 The call for a commitment of love to God finds expression in Deut.對神的愛的承諾的要求體現在申。 6:5, and was repeated by our Lord (Matt. 22:37). 6:5,並多次通過我們的主(馬太福音22:37)。 Man's response to God's lovingkindness is love.人的響應神的慈愛是愛。 On a horizontal plane the believer is called upon to show both lovingkindness (as David did, II Sam. 9:1, 3, 7) and love (Lev. 19:18, cf. Matt. 22:39).在水平面的信徒,是呼籲顯示的慈愛(大衛那樣,二,三。9:1,3,7日)和愛情(利未記19:18,比照馬特。22:39)。 In man's response to lovingkindness and all that it entails, he shows that he belongs to the Heavenly Father (Matt. 5:44-48).在人的慈愛和所有它需要的反應,他表示,他屬於天父(馬太福音5:44-48)。

WA Van Gemeren華客貨車gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; LJ Kuyper, "Grace and Truth," RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck, Hesed in the Bible; KD Sakenfeld, The Meaning of Hesed in the Hebrew Bible.信息snaith,與眾不同的想法職能治療; LJ凱伯,“恩典與真理”,為16:1-16; N.巫文玲,“聖經”hesed在川崎病sakenfeld,在希伯來文聖經的意思hesed。


Agape愛德

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The celebration of funeral feasts in honour of the dead dates back almost to the beginnings of the worship of the departed - that is, to the very earliest times.在紀念死者的葬禮節日的慶祝活動可以追溯到幾乎到了崇拜的離去開始 - 這是最早的時候。 The dead, in the region beyond the tomb, were thought to derive both pleasure and advantage from these offerings.死了,在該地區以外的陵墓,被認為是快樂和優勢,從這些產品中獲得。 The same conviction explains the existence of funeral furniture for the use of the dead.同樣的信念解釋存在的葬禮家具使用的死者。 Arms, vessels, and clothes, as things not subject to decay, did not need to be renewed, but food did; hence feasts at stated seasons.武器,船隻和衣服,不受到衰減的事情,沒有需要更新,但食品,因此節日在規定的季節。 But the body of the departed gained no relief from offerings made to his shade unless these were accompanied fly the obligatory rites.但身體的離去沒有獲得救濟,從產品到他的影子,除非這些都是伴隨著飛的強制性儀式。 Yet the funeral feast was not merely a commemoration; it was a true communion, and the food brought by the guests was really meant for the use of the departed.然而,葬禮盛宴不僅僅是紀念,這是一個真正的共融,使用的離去和食品的客人帶來真正的意思。 The milk and wine were poured out on the earth around the tomb, while the solid food has passed in to the corpse through a hole in the tomb.奶和酒倒在地上,周圍的墳墓,而固體食物傳遞給屍體通過一個洞墓。 The use of the funeral feast was almost universal in the Græco-Roman world.在古希臘 - 羅馬世界的幾乎普遍使用的葬禮盛宴。 Many ancient authors may be cited as witnesses to the practice in classical lands.許多古老的作者可能引用作為證人的做法,在古典土地。 Among the Jews, averse by taste and reason to all foreign customs, we find what amounts to a funeral banquet, if not the rite itself; the Jewish colonies of the Dispersion, less impervious to surrounding influences, adopted the practice of fraternal banquets.在猶太人中間,反感的味道和原因的所有外國海關,我們找到一個葬禮宴會,如果不是禮儀本身分散的猶太殖民地的,不會對周圍的影響,採取的做法兄弟宴會。 If we study the texts relative to the Supper, the last solemn meal taken by Our Lord with His disciples, we shall find that it was the Passover Supper, with the changes wrought by time on the primitive ritual, since it took place in the evening, and the guests reclined at the table.如果我們研究的文本相對晚飯,最後莊嚴餐採取我們的主與他的弟子,我們會發現它是逾越節的晚餐,隨著時間的流逝,對原始儀式,因為它發生在晚上,客人坐席。 As the liturgical mea1 draws to a close, the Host introduces a new rite, and bids those present repeat it when He shall have ceased to be with them. ,作為禮儀MEA1接近尾聲,主機引入了一個新的成年禮,和出價,在場的人的時候,他已不再是與他們重複。 This done, they sing the customary hymn and withdraw.工作完成後,他們的習慣唱讚美詩和退出。 Such is the meal that Our Lord would have renewed, but it is plain that He did not command the repetition of the Passover Supper during the year, since it could have no meaning except on the Feast itself.這就是會更新我們的主餐,但它清楚地表明,他沒有指揮在今年的逾越節晚餐的重複,因為它可能沒有任何意義,除非宴席上的。 Now the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles state that the repast of the Breaking of Bread took place very often, perhaps daily.現在的行為使徒狀態,擘餅的就餐發生,很多時候,也許每天的第一章。 That which was repeated was, therefore, not the liturgical feast of the Jewish ritual, but the event introduced by Our Lord into this feast when, after the drinking of the fourth cup, He instituted the Breaking of Bread, the Eucharist.這是重複的,因此,禮儀盛宴的猶太教儀式,但這次事件介紹到這場盛宴的時候,我們的主喝第四杯後,他提起擘餅,聖體聖事。 To what degree this new rite, repeated by the faithful, departed from the rite and formulæ of the Passover Supper, we have no means, at the present time, of determining.什麼樣的程度上,這新的成年禮,重複的信徒,離開的逾越節晚餐的禮儀和公式,我們也沒辦法,在目前的時間,確定。 It is probable, however, that, in repeating the Eucharist, it was deemed fit to preserve certain portions of the Passover Supper, as much out of respect for what had taken place in the Cœnaculum as from the impossibility of breaking roughly with the Jewish Passover rite, so intimately linked by the circumstances with the Eucharistic one.這是可能的,但是,在重複聖體聖事時,它被認為是適合保存的某些部分的逾越節晚餐,盡可能多的方面發生了什麼事在Cœnaculum從不可能打破大致與猶太逾越節儀式,緊密相連的情況下,與聖體聖事的一個。

This, at its origin, is clearly marked as funerary in its intention, a fact attested by the most ancient testimonies that have come down to us.事實證明,在其原產地,清楚地標明其意圖作為陪葬,已回落到我們的最古老的證詞。 Our Lord, in instituting the Eucharist, used these words: "As often as you shall eat this Bread and drink this chalice, you shall show forth the Lord's Death".我們的主,在實行聖體聖事,用這句話:“由於經常你會吃這餅,喝這杯,你要彰顯主的死亡”。 Nothing could be clearer.沒有什麼比這更清晰。 Our Lord chose the means generally used in His time, namely: the funeral banquet, to bind together those who remained faithful to the memory of Him who had gone.我們的主選擇的方法一般用在他的時間,即:葬禮宴會,捆綁在一起的那些人仍然忠實於他的記憶了。 We must, however, be on our guard against associating the thought of sadness with the Eucharistic Supper, regarded in this light. ,但是,我們必須對我們的防範關聯思想的悲傷與聖體聖事的晚餐,算是從這個角度。 If the memory of the Master's Passion made the commemoration of these last hours in any measure sad, the glorious thought of the Resurrection gave this meeting of the brethren its joyous aspect.如果內存的法師的激情,紀念這最後幾個小時中的任何措施傷心,光輝思想的復活了本次會議的弟兄們歡樂的方面。 The Christian assembly was held in the evening, and was continued far into the night.基督教大會在晚上舉行,並持續到深夜。 The supper, preaching, common prayer, the breaking of the bread, took up several hours; the meeting began on Saturday and ended on Sunday, thus passing from the commemoration of the sad hours to that of the triumphant moment of the Resurrection and the Eucharistic feast in very truth "showed forth the Lord's Death", as it will until He come". Our Lord's command was understood and obeyed.吃晚飯,傳道,共同祈禱,打破了麵包,花了幾個小時,會議開始在週六和週日結束的,因此通過的悲哀小時的紀念勝利的時刻復活的聖體聖事非常真相“的盛宴,在顯示主的死亡”,因為它會直到他來了。“我們的主的命令,理解和遵守。

Certain texts refer to the meetings of the faithful in early times.某些文本是指忠實於早期的會議。 Two, from the Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 11:18, 20-22, 33, 34), allow us to draw the following conclusions: The brethren were at liberty to eat before going to the meeting; all present must be in a fit condition to celebrate the Supper of the Lord, though they must not eat of the funeral supper until all were present.二,從聖保羅的書信給哥林多教會(哥林多前書11:18,20-22,33,34),使我們能夠得出以下結論:弟兄們可以自由地吃前會議;現在必須在一個合適的條件,以慶祝晚飯的主,雖然他們的葬禮晚飯不能吃,直到所有的存在。 We know, from two texts of the first century, that these meetings did not long remain within becoming bounds.我們知道,從兩種文本的第一個世紀,這些會議沒有成為界內長期保持。 The agape, as we shall see, was destined, during the few centuries that it lasted, to fall, from time to time, into abuses.愛德,正如我們將看到的,是注定,在幾個世紀持續下跌,從時間到時間,到濫用。 The faithful, united in bodies, guilds, corporations or "collegia", admitted coarse, intemperate men among them, who degraded the character of the assemblies.機構,行業協會,企業或“的collegia”忠誠,團結,承認粗,無節制的人當中,誰降級的程序集的字符。 These Christian "collegia" seem to have differed but little from those of the pagans, in respect, at all events, of the obligations imposed by the rules of incorporation.這些基督教“collegia”似乎有分歧,但很少從那些異教徒,在尊重,在所有的事件,公司的規則所規定的義務。 There is no evidence available to show that the collegia from the first undertook the burial of deceased members; but it seems probable that they did so at an early period.沒有任何證據表明,從第一的collegia進行埋葬死者成員,但它似乎有可能在早期階段,他們這樣做。 The establishment of such colleges gave the Christians an opportunity of meeting in much the same way as the pagans did - subject always to the many obstacles which the law imposed.等院校建立了基督徒在大致相同的方式像異教徒一樣 - 總是受法律所規定的諸多障礙​​,會議的機會。 Little feasts were held, to which each of the guests contributed his share, and the supper with which the meeting ended might very well be allowed by the authorities as a funerary one.小節日舉行,每位客人貢獻自己的份額,並在會議結束的晚餐很可能被允許作為陪葬當局。 In reality, however, for all faithful worthy of the name, it was a liturgical assembly.然而,在現實中,為所有忠實的名副其實,它是一個禮儀的裝配。 The texts, which it would take too long to quote, do not allow us to assert that all these meetings ended with a celebration of the Eucharist.的文本,它會花很長時間報價,不允許我們斷言,所有這些會議結束時,聖體聖事的慶祝活動。 In such matters sweeping generalizations should be avoided.在這類問題中,應避免一概而論。 At the outset it must be stated that no text affirms that the funeral supper of the Christian colleges must always and everywhere be identified with the agape, nor does any text tell us that the agape was always and everywhere connected with the celebration of the Eucharist.在一開始就必須指出,沒有文字申明葬禮晚飯的基督教學院必須時時處處被發現與愛德,也沒有任何文字告訴我們說,愛德總是處處與慶祝聖體聖事。 But subject to these reservations, we may gather that under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function.但這些保留,我們可能會收集在某些情況下,愛德和聖體聖事的出現,形成一個單一的禮儀功能的部分。 The meal, as understood by the Christians, was a real supper, which followed the Communion; and an important monument, a fresco of the second century preserved in the cemetery of St. Priscilla, at Rome, shows us a company of the faithful supping and communicating.這頓飯,所理解的基督徒,是一個真正的晚飯,之後共融,以及重要的紀念碑,壁畫保存在墓地的聖梁美芬,在羅馬的第二個世紀,我們公司的忠實supping和交流。 The guests recline on a couch which serves as a seat, but, if they are in the attitude of those who are at supper, the meal appears as finished.的客人放倒在沙發上作為一個座位,但是,如果他們是在那些誰是在吃晚飯的態度,出現了一頓完成。 They have reached the moment of the Eucharistic communion, symbolized in the fresco by the mystical fish and the chalice.他們已經達到了聖體聖事共融的時刻,象徵著壁畫的神秘魚和聖杯。 (See FISH; EUCHARIST; SYMBOLISM.) (見魚,聖體聖事;象徵意義。)

Tertullian has described at length (Apolog., vii-ix) these Christian suppers, the mystery of which puzzled the Pagans, and has given a detailed account of the agape, which had been the subject of so much calumny; an account which affords us an insight into the ritual of the agape in Africa in the second century.德爾圖良描述了在的長度(Apolog.,VII-IX),這些基督教的晚餐,其中的奧秘不解的異教徒,並詳細解釋的愛德,這一直是受了這麼多的誹謗,這使我們的帳戶洞察儀式的愛德在非洲的第二個世紀。

The introductory prayer.介紹祈禱。

The guests take their places on the couches.的沙發,客人需要他們的地方。

A meal, during which they talk on pious subjects.一頓飯,在此期間,他們談虔誠的主題。

The washing of hands.洗手。

The hall is lit up.大廳裡亮了起來。

Singing of psalms and improvised hymns.歌唱的詩篇和簡易的讚美詩。

Final prayer and departure.最後的祈禱和離開。

The hour of meeting is not specified, but the use made of torches shows clearly enough that it must have been in the evening or at night.小時的會議沒有指定,但它必須是在傍晚或夜間使用的火把,顯示不夠清楚。 The document known as the "Canons of Hippolytus" appears to have been written in the time of Tertullian, but its Roman or Egyptian origin remains in doubt.該文件被稱為“大砲希波呂托斯”似乎已經寫在德爾圖良的時間,但它的羅馬或埃及的原產地仍令人懷疑。 It contains very precise regulations in regard to the agape, similar to those which may be inferred from other texts.它包含了非常明確的規定方面,愛德,類似那些可以推斷,從其他文本。 We gather that the guests are at liberty to eat and drink according to the need of each.我們收集的客人隨意吃,喝根據各自的需要。 The agape, as prescribed to the Smyrnæans by St. Ignatius of Antioch, was presided over by the bishop; according to the "Cannons of Hippolytus", catechumens were excluded, a regulation which seems to indicate that the meeting bore a liturgical aspect.該愛德,規定的Smyrnæans的聖依納爵的安提阿,由主教主持,根據大砲的“希波呂托斯”,慕道者被排除在外,這似乎表明,本次會議承擔了禮儀方面的規定。

An example of the halls in which the faithful met to celebrate the agape may be seen in the vestibule of the Catacomb of Domitilla.一個例子可以看到的大廳的忠實舉行會議,慶祝愛德在前庭,方便的墓穴。 A bench runs round this great hall, on which the guests took their places.這一輪人民大會堂的板凳上運行的客人站在自己的地方。 With this may be compared an inscription found at Cherchel, in Algeria, recording the gift made to the local church of a plot of land and a building intended as a meeting-place for the corporation or guild of the Christians.有了這個可能是比較題詞發現謝謝爾,在阿爾及利亞,記錄當地的教堂的一塊土地和建築物擬作為會議的公司或行業協會的基督徒的禮物。 From the fourth century onward, the agape rapidly lost its original character.從第四世紀開始,愛德迅速失去了其原有的特色。 The political liberty granted to the Church made it possible for the meetings to grow larger, and involved a departure from primitive simplicity.政治自由給予教會的會議越來越大,和參與背離古樸。 The funeral banquet continued to be practised, but gave rise to flagrant and intolerable abuses.葬禮宴會繼續實行,但引起了明目張膽的和不能容忍的濫用。 St. Paulinus of Nola, usually mild and kindly, is forced to admit that the crowd, gathered to honour the feast of a certain martyr, took possession of the basilica and atrium, and there ate the food which had been given out in large quantities.聖paulinus的諾拉,通常是溫和的和親切的,是被迫承認,聚集的人群有一定的烈士榮譽的盛宴,佔有的大教堂和中庭,有吃的食物,已獲得了大量。 The Council of Laodicea (363) forbade the clergy and laity who should be present at an agape to make it a means of supply, or to take food away from it, at the same time that it forbade the setting up of tables in the churches.理事會老底嘉(363)禁止誰應該出席愛德供應的一種手段,或採取食物遠離它,在同一時間,禁止設置表中的教會的神職人員和信徒。 In the fifth century the agape becomes of infrequent occurrence, and between the sixth and the eighth it disappears altogether from the churches.在第五世紀,愛德變得不經常發生,從教堂之間的第六和第八它完全消失。

One fact in connection with a subject at present so much studied and discussed seems to be established beyond question, namely, that the agape was never a universal institution.事實上,在目前的主題之一,這麼多的研究和討論似乎毫無疑問,建立愛德從來沒有一個世界性的機構。 If found in one place, there is not so much as a trace of it in another, nor any reason to suppose that it ever existed there.如果發現在一個地方,沒有這麼多作為它的踪影,也沒有任何理由假設它曾經存在。 A feeling of veneration for the dead inspired the funeral banquet, a feeling closely akin to a Christian inspiration.對死者的尊敬一個感覺,激發了葬禮宴會,到基督教的啟示相近的感覺。 Death was not looked upon as the end of the whole man, but as the beginning of a new and mysterious span of life.死亡後,作為年底整個人沒有看過,但作為一個新的開始和神秘的生命跨度。 The last meal of Christ with His Apostles pointed to this belief of a life after death, but added to it something new and unparalleled, the Eucharistic communion.耶穌與他的門徒的最後一餐,指出這一信念死亡後的生活,但他補充說,新的東西和無以倫比,聖體聖事的共融。 It would be useless to look for analogies between the funeral banquet and the Eucharistic supper, yet it should not be forgotten that the Eucharistic supper was fundamentally a funerary memorial.這將是沒用的,尋找的的葬禮宴會廳和聖體聖事的晚餐之間的相似性,但它不應該忘記的是,聖體聖事的晚餐基本上是一種陪葬紀念。

Publication information Written by H. Leclercq.出版信息的書面H.勒克萊爾。 Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.轉錄的弗農Bremberg。 Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns at the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.致力於與世隔絕多米尼加修女修道院的嬰兒耶穌,Lufkin,德克薩斯州的天主教百科全書第一卷出版,1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

BATIFFOL, Etudes d'histoire et de théologie positive (Paris, 1902), 277-311; FUNK in the Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique (15 January, 1903); KEATIING, The Agape and the Eucharist in the Early Church (London, 1901); LECLERCQ in Dict. BATIFFOL,練習曲的歷史與神學陽性(巴黎,1902年),277-311; FUNK在諷刺時事的滑稽劇,科特迪瓦HISTOIREecclésiastique(15月1日,1903年); KEATIING,神父和聖體聖事,在早期教會(倫敦,1901年; ); LECLERCQ字典。 d'archéol. D'archéol。 chrét. chrét。 et de lit., I, col.等上火。,I,COL。 775-848. 775-848。



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