Book of Wisdom, Wisdom of Solomon此書的智慧,智慧的所羅門

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha 一本書,舊約偽經

General Information 一般信息

Wisdom, a defense of the Jewish way of life, is one of the books of the Apocrypha; in the Septuagint and Vulgate it is included in the Old Testament.智慧,國防猶太人的生活方式,是一個圖書的偽經;中譯本和武加大它包括在舊約。 The book is ascribed to King Solomon and stands in the same intellectual tradition as such earlier collections of proverbial wisdom as Proverbs and the Book of Sirach - hence its full title, the Wisdom of Solomon.這本書是屬於所羅門王,並隨時在同一智力等傳統早期收藏的諺語智慧的諺語和圖書的Sirach -因此它的完整書名,智慧的所羅門。 The work was actually written in Greek about 75 BC or perhaps as late as AD 40.這項工作實際上是在希臘書面約75公元前或者延遲廣告40 。 Its author was an Alexandrian Jew who was attempting to strengthen the religious commitment of the Hellenistic Jewish community and, if possible, to convert the Gentiles.其作者是亞歷山大猶太人誰試圖加強宗教承諾希臘猶太人社區,如果可能的話,轉換外邦人。 His work falls into three parts: chapters 1 - 5 stress the superiority of the pious and wise over the godless; chapters 6 - 9 praise personified Wisdom; and chapters 10 - 19 illustrate the marvels of Wisdom, with examples drawn from Israel's history.他的工作可分為三個部分:章節1 - 5應力的優越性虔誠和明智的godless ;章節6 - 9讚揚人格化智慧和章節10 - 19說明了奇蹟的智慧,這樣的例子來自以色列的歷史。

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Bibliography 參考書目
JM Reese, Hellenistic Influence on the Book of Wisdom and Its Consequences (1970). JM里斯,希臘影響的圖書的智慧及其後果( 1970年) 。


Book of Wisdom智慧書

General Information 一般信息

Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon, is a book of the Old Testament in those versions of the Bible following the Greek Septuagint (generally Roman Catholic and Orthodox versions).智慧或智慧的所羅門,是一本書舊約在這些版本的聖經,希臘七十以下(通常是羅馬天主教和東正教的版本) 。 It does not appear in the Hebrew Bible and is placed with the Apocrypha in Protestant versions of the Bible.它不會出現在希伯來文聖經,並存放於偽經在新教版本的聖經。

Authorship作者

The book purports to be a work of the Hebrew king Solomon, but scholars have long doubted Solomon's authorship.這本書看來是工作希伯來語所羅門王,但學者早就懷疑所羅門的著作權。 On the basis of internal evidence, many today regard the book as the work of an unknown Jew, probably in the Greco-Egyptian city of Alexandria, during the latter half of the 1st century BC.根據內部的證據,許多今天的圖書方面的工作,一個未知的猶太人,可能在希臘,埃及的亞歷山大市,在下半年的公元前一世紀。 The language of the original is almost universally believed to have been Greek.語言的原始幾乎普遍認為是希臘。 The author may have used Palestinian and Greco-Egyptian sources, including material originally in Hebrew.作者可能使用巴勒斯坦和希臘埃及的來源,包括物質原本以希伯來語。 He seems to have written for Greek-educated Jews.他似乎已書面希臘教育的猶太人。

Content內容

The first five chapters of the book urge the reader to love righteousness and to seek God, that thereby they may acquire wisdom and immortality.首五個章節的書敦促讀者熱愛正義和尋求上帝,這從而可能獲得他們的智慧和不朽。 The miserable fate of the ungodly, that is, the unwise, is contrasted with the expected blessedness of the righteous.的悲慘命運ungodly ,就是不明智的,是對照的是預期幸福的正義。 Chapters 6-9 are a further commendation of wisdom as the guide of humanity. 6月9日是一個章節進一步讚揚智慧為指導的人類。 The nature of wisdom, its importance, and how one may find it are described, and in the first person, ostensibly that of Solomon, the writer describes his own search for wisdom. Throughout the first ten chapters, wisdom usually is personified as a woman.智慧的本質,它的重要性,以及如何可以找到它的描述,並在第一人,表面上說,所羅門群島,作者描述了自己尋找智慧。整個第一十章,智慧通常是作為一個女人人格化。 In the rest of the book, however, the word wisdom scarcely appears, and the concept of it is quite abstract. Chapters 10-19, the remainder of the book, chiefly describe the way in which Israel and Israel's ancestors were saved through wisdom. Thus, chapters 10-12 illustrate the saving power of wisdom from the time of the legendary father of humanity, Adam, to the time of Moses; chapters 16-19 illustrate the importance of behaving wisely, or piously, through God's contrasting treatment of the Egyptians and the Israelites.在其餘的書,但是,這個詞的智慧很少出現,它的概念是很抽象的。分會10月19日,剩餘的圖書,主要描述的方式,以色列和以色列的祖先是拯救智慧。因此, 10月12日章節說明節電的智慧的時候,人類的傳奇父親,亞當的時間摩西;章節16-19說明行為的重要性明智,或虔誠,通過上帝的對比治療埃及人和以色列人。 Chapters 13-15, a digression, reflect on the origin and folly of various forms of idolatry.章13-15 ,相悖,反映的起源和愚蠢的各種形式的偶像崇拜。 The book seems to end abruptly; it is possible that the author's inspiration failed, or that the original conclusion of the book was lost.這本書似乎突然結束,它可能是作者的靈感失敗,或者說原來的結論,這本書是丟失。


Book of Wisdom智慧書

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the Canticle of Canticles and Ecclesiasticus.一個deutero -典型著作舊約,放置在武加大之間的頌歌的Canticles和Ecclesiasticus 。

I. TITLE一,標題

The oldest headings ascribe the book to Solomon, the representative of Hebrew wisdom.標題賦予的最古老的書,所羅門群島的代表,希伯來智慧。 In the Syriac translation, the title is: "the Book of the Great Wisdom of Solomon"; and in the Old Latin Version, the heading reads: "Sapientia Salomonis".在敘利亞文翻譯,標題是: “這本書的大智慧的所羅門” ;和拉丁美洲的舊版本,標題寫著: “ Sapientia Salomonis ” 。 The earliest Greek manuscripts -- the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus, the Alexandrinus -- have a similar inscription, and the Eastern and the Western Fathers of the first three centuries generally speak of "the Wisdom of Solomon" when quoting that inspired writing, although some of them use in this connection such honorific designations as he theia Sophia (the Divine Wisdom), Panaretos Sophia (All Virtuous Wisdom).最早的希臘手稿-的Vaticanus ,在西奈抄本的頸-有類似的銘文,以及東部和西部父親最初的三個世紀一般講“所羅門的智慧”時,引用激勵寫作,但也有一些他們利用在這方面,這種榮譽稱號,他忒伊亞索菲亞(神聖智慧) , Panaretos索菲亞(所有良性智慧) 。 In the Vulgate, the title is: "Liber Sapientiae", "the Book of Wisdom".在武加大,標題是: “書Sapientiae ” , “智慧之書” 。 In non-Catholic Versions, the ordinary heading is: "the Wisdom of Solomon", in contradistinction to Ecclesiasticus, which is usually entitled: "the Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach".在非天主教版本,普通標題是: “所羅門的智慧” ,在對比的Ecclesiasticus ,這通常是題為: “智慧的耶穌的兒子Sirach ” 。

II.二。 CONTENTS目錄

The book contains two general parts, the first nine chapters treating of Wisdom under its more speculative aspect, and the last ten chapters dealing with Wisdom from an historical standpoint.這本書包含兩個一般部分,第一部分共9章治療的智慧在其更多投機方面,而且在過去10章,用智慧從歷史的角度看。 The following is the author's train of thought in the speculative part (chaps. i-ix).以下是作者的思路在投機部分(第一至第九) 。 Addressing himself to kings, the writer teaches that ungodliness is alien to Wisdom and courts punishment and death (i), and he sets forth and refutes the arguments which the wicked advance to the contrary: according to him, the frame of mind of the ungodly is contrary to man's immortal destiny; their present life is only in appearance happier than that of the righteous; and their ultimate fate is an unquestionable proof of the folly of their course (ii-v).處理自己的國王,作家教導我們,是格格不入的ungodliness智慧和法院懲罰和死亡(一) ,他提出的論點和反駁的邪惡推進與此相反:據他說,心境的ungodly是違背人的不朽的命運;他們目前的生活是幸福的外觀相比,正義;及其最終命運是一個不容置疑的證據證明他們的愚蠢課程(二至五) 。 He thereupon exhorts kings to seek Wisdom, which is more needful to them than to ordinary mortals (vi, 1-21), and describes his own happy experience in the quest and possession of that Wisdom which is the Splendour of God and is bestowed by Him on earnest suppliants (vi, 22-viii).他隨即敦促國王尋求智慧,這是給他們更多的必要的,而不是凡人(六, 1月21日) ,並介紹了他自己的快樂經驗,尋求和擁有智慧的光輝這是上帝的恩賜,是由他認真suppliants (六, 22八) 。 He subjoins the prayer (ix) by which he has himself begged that Wisdom and God's Holy Spirit might be sent down to him from heaven, and which concludes with the reflection that men of old were guided by Wisdom -- a reflection which forms a natural transition to the review of Israel's ancient history, which constitutes the second part of his work.他subjoins祈禱(九)由他本人乞求智慧和上帝的聖靈可能會發送到他的天堂,其中的結論與思考,男人老了指導智慧-反映這種形式的自然過渡到審查以色列的古代歷史上,它構成了第二部分的工作。 The author's line of thought in this historical part (ix-xix) may also easily be pointed out.作者的思路在這個歷史的一部分(第IX - 19 )也可以很容易地指出。 He commends God's wisdom (1) for its dealings with the patriarchs from Adam to Moses (x-xi, 4); (2) for its just, and also merciful, conduct towards the idolatrous inhabitants of Egypt and Chanaan (xi, 5-xii); (3) in its contrast with the utter foolishness and consequent immorality of idolatry under its various forms (xiii, xiv); finally (4), for its discriminating protection over Israel during the plagues of Egypt, and at the crossing of the Red Sea, a protection which has been extended to all times and places.他讚揚上帝的智慧( 1 )打交道的始祖從亞當到摩西(十,十一, 4 ) ; ( 2 )為公正,也仁慈,開展對居民的盲目崇拜埃及和Chanaan (十一, 5 -第十二章) ; ( 3 )在其與極端愚蠢的和不道德的偶像崇拜由此根據其各種形式(十三,十四) ;最後( 4 ) ,供其判別保護以色列在瘟疫埃及,並在穿越紅海,保護已經擴大到所有的時間和地點。

III.三。 UNITY AND INTEGRITY統一和完整

Most contemporary scholars admit the unity of the Book of Wisdom.多數當代學者承認的團結圖書智慧。 The whole work is pervaded by one and the same general purpose, viz., that of giving a solemn warning against the folly of ungodliness.整個工作是普遍存在的同一個一般用途的,即。 ,這是給人一種莊嚴警告的愚蠢ungodliness 。 Its two principal parts are intimately bound by a natural transition (ix, 18), which has in no way the appearance of an editorial insertion.它的兩個主要部分是密切相關的一個自然過渡(九, 18歲) ,這絕不是外觀的一篇社論中插入。 Its subdivisions, which might, at first sight, be regarded as foreign to the primitive plan of the author, are, when closely examined, seen to be part and parcel of that plan: this is the case, for instance, with the section relative to the origin and the consequences of idolatry (xiii, xiv), inasmuch as this section is consciously prepared by the writer's treatment of God's wisdom in its dealings with the idolatrous inhabitants of Egypt and Chanaan, in the immediately preceding subdivision (xi, 5-xii).其分支機構,這可能,乍一看,被視為外國的原始計劃的作者,是時,仔細檢查,被看成是不可分割的一部分這一計劃:是這種情況,例如,與相對節起源和後果,偶像崇拜(十三,十四) ,因為這一節是自覺作家編寫的對待上帝的智慧在其打交道的盲目崇拜的居民埃及和Chanaan ,在緊接細分(十一, 5 -十二) 。 Not only is there no break observable in the carrying-out of the plan, but favourite expressions, turns of speech, and single words are found in all the sections of the work, and furnish a further proof that the Book of Wisdom is no mere compilation, but a literary unit.不但沒有打破看得見的運載了該計劃,但最喜歡的表現形式,輪流的言論,和單一的話是在所有部門的工作,並提供了進一步證明這本書的智慧並非僅僅是彙編,而是一個文學股。

The integrity of the book is no less certain than its unity.的完整性,這本書是沒有那麼肯定比團結。 Every impartial examiner of the work can readily see that nothing in it suggests that the book has come down to us otherwise than in its primitive form.每一個公正的檢驗工作可以很容易看到,沒有任何這表明這本書已經下降以外,我們在它的原始形式。 Like Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom has indeed no inscription similar to those which open the Books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes; but plainly, in the case of Wisdom, as in the case of Ecclesiasticus, this absence is no necessary sign that the work is fragmentary at the beginning.像Ecclesiasticus ,智慧確實沒有碑文類似於打開圖書的諺語和傳道書;但很明顯,如智慧,如Ecclesiasticus ,這是沒有必要的情況下簽署這項工作是零碎開始。 Nor can the Book of Wisdom be rightly considered as mutilated at the end, for its last present verse forms a proper close to the work as planned by the author.也不能預訂的智慧是正確視為肢解年底,對本詩的最後一個適當的形式密切的工作計劃作者。 As regards the few passages of Wisdom which certain critics have treated as later Christian interpolations (ii, 24; iii, 13; iv, 1; xiv, 7), it is plain that were these passages such as they are claimed, their presence would not vitiate the substantial integrity of the work, and further, that closely examined, they yield a sense perfectly consistent with the author's Jewish frame of mind.至於幾段的智慧某些批評人士視為後來基督教插值(二24 ;三, 13人;四, 1 ;十四, 7 ) ,這是清楚地表明,這些通道如他們宣稱,他們的存在會沒有失效,大量完整的工作,而且,仔細檢查,他們產量的意識完全符合作者的猶太人的心境。

IV.四。 LANGUAGE AND AUTHORSHIP語言AUTHORSHIP

In view of the ancient heading: "the Wisdom of Solomon";, some scholars have surmised that the Book of Wisdom was composed in Hebrew, like the other works ascribed to Solomon by their title (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticle of Canticles).鑑於古代標題: “所羅門的智慧” ,有學者推測這本書的智慧是由希伯來文,如其他工程可歸因於所羅門群島其所有權(箴言,傳道書,頌歌的Canticles ) 。 To substantiate this position they have appealed to the Hebraisms of the work; to its parallelisms, a distinct feature of Hebrew poetry; to its constant use of simple connecting particles (kai, de, gar, oti, etc.), the usual articulations of Hebrew sentences; to Greek expressions traceable, as they thought, to wrong renderings from a Hebrew original, etc. Ingenious as these arguments may appear, they prove no more than that the author of the Book of Wisdom was a Hebrew, writing Greek with a distinctly Jewish cast of mind.證實了這一立場,他們已呼籲Hebraisms的工作;其並行,一個獨特的特點,希伯來詩歌;其經常使用的簡單的連接粒子(啟,日,噶爾,爾奧蒂等) ,通常的接合的希伯來語判決;希臘語表達溯源,因為他們認為,錯誤的渲染從原來希伯來語等巧,因為這些論點有可能會出現,證明不超過這一本書的作者的智慧是希伯來文,希臘文寫的明顯的猶太演員的心態。 As far back as St. Jerome (Praef. in libros Salomonis), it has been felt that not Hebrew but Greek was the original language of the Book of Wisdom, and this verdict is so powerfully confirmed by the literary features of the entire Greek text, that one may well wonder that the theory of an ancient Hebrew original, or of any original other than Greek, should have ever been seriously maintained. Of course the fact that the entire Book of Wisdom was composed in Greek rules out its Solomonic authorship.早在聖杰羅姆( Praef.在libros Salomonis ) ,它一直認為,沒有希伯來語,但希臘是原文書的智慧,這一裁決是如此有力地證實了文學的特點,整個希臘文,一個很可能不知道,該理論的一個古老的希伯來文原,或任何原始希臘以外,應過認真堅持。當然,這樣一個事實,即整本書的智慧是由希臘的規則其Solomonic作者。 It is indeed true that ecclesiastical writers of the first centuries commonly assumed this authorship on the basis of the title of the book, apparently confirmed by those passages (ix, 7, 8, 12; cf. vii, 1, 5; viii, 13, 14, etc.) where the one speaking is clearly King Solomon.這的確是真的教會作家第一世紀共同承擔此作者的基礎上,圖書的書名,顯然證實了這些段落(九, 7 , 8 , 12 ;比照。七, 1 , 5 ;八, 13 , 14 ,等)在一人顯然是所羅門王。 But this view of the matter never was unanimous in the Early Christian Church, and in the course of time a middle position between its total affirmation and its total rejection was suggested.但這種觀點的問題從來就沒有一致的早期基督教會,並在課程的時間之間的中間立場的總肯定和它完全拒絕建議。 The Book of Wisdom, it was said, is Solomon's inasmuch as it is based on Solomonic works which are now lost, but which were known to and utilized by a hellenistic Jew centuries after Solomon's death.智慧之書,有人說,是所羅門群島的,因為它是基於Solomonic工程目前已遺失,但據了解,和使用的世紀之後希臘猶太人所羅門的死亡。 This middle view is but a weak attempt at saving something of the full Solomonic authorship affirmed in earlier ages.這中間的觀點是一個薄弱的企圖,但在一些省的充分肯定Solomonic作者在較早年齡。 "It is a supposition which has no positive arguments in its favour, and which, in itself, is improbable, since it assumes the existence of Solomonic writings of which there is no trace, and which would have been known only to the writer of the Book of Wisdom" (Cornely-Hagen, "Introd. in Libros Sacros, Compendium," Paris, 1909, p. 361). “這是一個假設,沒有積極的有利於自己的論據,而且,其本身是不可能的,因為它假定存在Solomonic著作有任何痕跡,這本來只知道的作家智慧之書“ ( Cornely -哈根, ” Introd 。在Libros Sacros ,簡編“ ,巴黎, 1909年,第361 ) 。 At the present day, it is freely admitted that Solomon is not the writer of the Book of Wisdom, "which has been ascribed to him because its author, through a literary fiction, speaks as if he were the Son of David" (Vigouroux, "Manuel Biblique", II, n. 868. See also the notice prefixed to the Book of Wisdom in the current editions of the Douai Version).在今天,它是免費承認所羅門群島不是作家的智慧之書“ ,這已屬於他的,因為它的作者,通過文學小說,說話,彷彿他的兒子大衛” ( Vigouroux , “曼努埃爾Biblique ” ,二,北868 。另見通知前綴的圖書的智慧在當前版本的杜埃版) 。 Besides Solomon, the writer to whom the authorship of the work has been oftenest ascribed is Philo, chiefly on the ground of a general agreement in respect to doctrines, between the author of Wisdom and Philo, the celebrated Jewish philosopher of Alexandria (d. about AD 40).除了所羅門,作者的著作權人的工作一直是斐羅oftenest歸因,主要是在地面上的一般性協議的有關理論,作者之間的智慧和哲學,著名的猶太哲學家亞歷山大(草約公元40 ) 。 The truth of the matter is that the doctrinal differences between the Book of Wisdom and Philo's writings are such as to preclude a common authorship.事情的真相是,理論之間的差異圖書的智慧和哲學的著作是,如排除了共同作者。 Philo's allegorical treatment of Scriptural narratives is utterly foreign to the frame of mind of the writer of the Book of Wisdom.斐羅的寓意治療聖經敘述是完全陌生的框架內考慮到的作家的書智慧。 His view of the origin of idolatry conflicts on several points with that of the author of the Book of Wisdom.他認為起源的崇拜衝突的幾點與本書的作者的智慧。 Above all, his description of Divine wisdom bespeaks as to conception, style, and manner of presentation, a later stage of Alexandrian thought than that found in Wisdom.最重要的是,他的描述神聖智慧bespeaks的概念,風格,以及以何種方式表述,後一階段的亞歷山大認為比中發現的智慧。 The authorship of the work has been at times ascribed to Zorobabel, as though this Jewish leader could have written in Greek; to the Alexandrian Aristobulus (second cent. BC), as though this courtier could have inveighed against kings after the manner of the Book of Wisdom (vi, 1; etc.); and finally, to Apollo (cf. Acts 18:24), as though this was not a mere supposition contrary to the presence of the book in the Alexandrian Canon.作者的工作一直處於時代賦予Zorobabel ,好像這個猶太領導人可以書面希臘;向亞歷山大阿里斯托布魯斯(第二次左右。公元前) ,因為雖然這朝臣可以inveighed後,對國王的方式圖書智慧(六, 1 ;等) ;最後,阿波羅(參見行為18:24 ) ,彷彿這不是一個單純的假設相反的存在,這本書在亞歷山大佳能。 All these variations as to authorship prove that the author's name is really unknown (cf. the notice prefixed to Wisdom in the Douay Version).所有這些變化,以著作權證明,作者的名字確實是未知(參見通知前綴智慧的Douay版) 。

V. PLACE AND DATE OF COMPOSITION五,地點和日期的組成

Whoever examines attentively the Book of Wisdom can readily see that its unknown author was not a Palestinian Jew, but an Alexandrian Jew.誰檢查認真圖書智慧很容易看到,其未知的作者不是一個巴勒斯坦猶太人,但亞歷山大猶太人。 Monotheistic as the writer is throughout his work, he evinces an acquaintance with Greek thought and philosophical terms (he calls God "the Author of beauty": 13:3; styles Providence pronoia: 14:3; 17:2; speaks of oule amorphos, "the formless material" of the universe, after Plato's manner: 11:17; numbers four cardinal virtues in accordance with Aristotle's school: 8:7; etc.), which is superior to anything found in Palestine.一神教的作者是他的工作,他表現出一個熟人同希臘的思想和哲學術語(他所謂的上帝“作者美” :十三時03分;風格普羅維登斯pronoia : 14時03 ; 17點02 ;談到oule amorphos “的無形物質”的宇宙,在柏拉圖的方式: 11點17分;號碼四項基本原則美德按照亞里士多德的學校:八時07等) ,這是優於任何發現在巴勒斯坦。 His remarkably good Greek, his political allusions, the local colouring of details, his rebuke of distinctly Egyptian idolatry, etc., point to Alexandria, as to the great centre of mixed Jewish and heathen population, where the author felt called upon to address his eloquent warning against the splendid and debasing Polytheism and Epicurean indifference by which too many of his fellow Jews had been gradually and deeply influenced.他的顯著良好的希臘文,他的政治典故,當地染色的細節,他的指責明顯埃及崇拜,等等,指向亞歷山大,以偉大的中心混合猶太人和不信教的人民,那裡的作者認為呼籲,以解決他的雄辯地警告的光輝和貶低多神和伊壁鳩魯的冷漠其中太多,他的同胞猶太人已逐漸和深刻的影響。 And this inference from internal data is confirmed by the fact that the Book of Wisdom is found not in the Palestinian, but in the Alexandrian, Canon of the Old Testament.這推理是來自內部的數據證實了這一事實,即智慧之書,發現沒有在巴勒斯坦,但在亞歷山大,佳能舊約。 Had the work originated in Palestine, its powerful arraignment of idolatry and its exalted teaching concerning the future life would have naturally secured for it a placed within the Canon of the Jews of Palestine.有工作起源於巴勒斯坦,其強大的傳訊其崇高的偶像崇拜與教學有關未來的生活會很自然的有擔保置於佳能猶太人巴勒斯坦。 But, as it was composed in Alexandria, its worth was fully appreciated and its sacred character recognized only by the fellow-countrymen of the author.但是,由於它是由在亞歷山德里亞,其價值有充分的理解和其神聖性只承認由同胞作者。

It is more difficult to ascertain the date than the place of composition of the Book of Wisdom.這是更難以確定的日期舉行的比組成的圖書的智慧。 It is universally admitted that when the writer describes a period of moral degradation and persecution under unrighteous rulers who are threatened with heavy judgment, he has in view the time of either Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204 BC), or Ptolemy VII Physicon (145-117 BC), for it is only under these depraved princes that the Egyptian Jews had to endure persecution.人們普遍承認,當作家描述了一個時期的道德退化和迫害誰下不義的統治者的威脅嚴重的判斷,他在查看時,要么托勒密四Philopator ( 221-204年) ,或托勒密七Physicon ( 145 -117年) ,因為只有在這些墮落王子,埃及猶太人不得不忍受迫害。 But it is confessedly difficult to decide which of these two monarchs the author of Wisdom had actually in view.但它明白地很難決定這兩個君主的作者的智慧實際上是鑑於。 It is even possible that the work "was published after the demise of those princes, for otherwise it would have but increased their tyrannical rage" (Lesêtre, "Manuel d'Introduction", II, 445).甚至有可能,這項工作“出版後的消亡那些王子,否則它會增加他們的殘暴,但憤怒” ( Lesêtre , “曼努埃爾德言” ,二, 445 ) 。

VI.六。 TEXT AND VERSIONS文字和版本

The original text of the Book of Wisdom is preserved in five uncial manuscripts (the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus, the Alexandrinus, the Ephremiticus, and the Venetus) and in ten cursives (two of which are incomplete).原始文字的圖書的智慧是保存在五uncial手稿(該Vaticanus ,在西奈抄本,在頸的Ephremiticus和Venetus )和10 cursives (其中兩個是不完整的) 。 Its most accurate form is found in the Vaticanus (fourth century), the Venetus (eighth or ninth century), and the cursive 68.其最準確的形式被發現在該Vaticanus (第四世紀) , Venetus (第八或九世紀) ,及草書68 。 The principal critical works on the Greek text are those of Reusch (Frieburg, 1861), Fritsche (Leipzig, 1871), Deane (Oxford, 1881), Sweete (Cambridge, 1897), and Cornely-Zorell (Paris, 1910).主要的關鍵工程,是希臘文的Reusch ( Frieburg , 1861年) ,弗里切(萊比錫, 1871年) ,迪恩(牛津, 1881年) , Sweete (劍橋, 1897年) ,和Cornely - Zorell (巴黎, 1910年) 。 Foremost among the ancient versions stands the Vulgate, which presents the Old Latin Version somewhat revised by St. Jerome.其中最主要的古老的拉丁文聖經版本主張,其中介紹了拉丁美洲版本有點老修訂聖杰羅姆。 It is in general a close and accurate rendering of the original Greek, with occasional additions, a few of which probably point to primitive readings no longer extant in the Greek.這是一般的密切和準確繪製原始希臘,偶而增加,其中一些可能指向原始讀數不再現存在希臘。 The Syriac Version is less faithful, and the Armenian more literal, than the Vulgate.敘利亞版本不太忠實和亞美尼亞更多字面,比拉丁文聖經。 Among the modern versions, the German translation of Siegfried in Kautzsch's "Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des AT" (Tübingen, 1900), and the French version of the Abbé Crampon (Paris, 1905), deserve a special mention.在現代版本,德語翻譯的西格弗里德在Kautzsch的“ Apocryphen與Pseudepigraphen之在” (圖賓根, 1900年)和法文版的布沙尼克朗蓬(巴黎, 1905年) ,值得特別一提。

VII.七。 DOCTRINE OF THE BOOK理論預訂

As might well be expected, the doctrinal teachings of this deutero-canonical writing are, in substance, those of the other inspired books of the Old Testament.由於很可能是預期的,這一理論教導deutero ,規範書寫的,在物質,這些靈感的其他書籍舊約。 The Book of Wisdom knows of only one God, the God of the universe, and the Yahweh of the Hebrews.智慧之書知道只有一個上帝,上帝的宇宙,並耶和華的猶太人。 This one God is "He who is" (xiii, 1), and His holiness is utterly opposed to moral evil (i, 1-3).這是一個上帝“他是誰” ( 13 , 1 ) ,他的成聖是完全反對道德邪惡(一, 1月3日) 。 He is the absolute master of the world [xi, 22 (23)], which He has created out of "formless matter" [xi, 18 (17)], a Platonic expression which in no way affirms the eternity of matter, but points back to the chaotic condition described in Genesis 1:2.他是絕對的主人,世界[十一, 22 ( 23 ) ] ,他創造了“無形的問題” [十一, 18 ( 17 ) ] ,一個柏拉圖式的表達這絕不申明永恆的問題,但點回到混沌狀態中所描述成因1:2 。 A living God, He made man after His image, creating him for immortality (ii, 23), so that death entered the world only through the envy of the Devil (ii, 24).活生生的上帝,他在男子後,他的形象,創造他永生(二23 ) ,因此,死亡進入世界只有通過羨慕的魔鬼(二24 ) 。 His Providence (pronoia) extends to all things, great and small [vi, 8 (7); xi, 26 (25); etc.], taking a fatherly care of all things (xiv, 3), and in particular, of His chosen people (xix, 20, sqq.).他的普羅維登斯( pronoia )延伸到所有的事情,偉大的和小[六, 8 ( 7 ) ;喜, 26 ( 25 ) ;等] ,以慈父般照顧所有的東西( 14 , 3 ) ,尤其是對他選擇的人( 19 , 20 , sqq 。 ) 。 He makes Himself known to men through His wonderful works (xiii, 1-5), and exercises His mercy towards them all [xi, 24 (23), xii, 16; xv, 1], His very enemies included (xii, 8 sqq.). The central idea of the book is "Wisdom", which appears in the work under two principal aspects.他讓自己知道的人通過他的精彩作品(十三, 1月5日) ,他的憐憫和演習對他們所有[十一, 24 ( 23 ) ,第十二章,第16 ;十五, 1 ] ,他的敵人包括(十二, 8 sqq 。 ) 。中心思想這本書是“智慧” ,它會出現在工作的兩個主要方面。 In its relation to man, Wisdom is here, as in the other Sapiential Books, the perfection of knowledge showing itself in action.在其有關的人,智慧在這裡,如同在其他Sapiential書籍,完善知識顯示自己的行動。 It is particularly described as resident only in righteous men (i, 4, 5), as a principle soliciting man's will (vi, 14, sqq.), as within God's gift (vii, 15; viii, 3, 4), and as bestowed by Him on earnest suppliants (viii, 21-ix).尤其稱為駐地只有在正直的男人( 1 , 4 , 5 ) ,作為一項原則徵求人的意志(六, 14日, sqq 。 )內部上帝的禮物(第七章,第15條;八, 3 , 4 ) ,和賦予他的真誠suppliants (八, 21九) 。 Through its power, man triumphs over evil (vii, 30), and through its possession, one may secure for himself the promises of both the present and the future life (viii, 16, 13).通過其權力,男子戰勝邪惡(七30 ) ,並通過其擁有,人們可以為自己的安全承諾,對當前和未來的生活( 8 , 16 , 13 ) 。 Wisdom is to be prized above all things (vii, 8-11; viii, 6-9), and whoever despises it is doomed to unhappiness (iii, 11).智慧是最重要的是珍貴的東西(七, 8月11日;八, 6月9日) ,不管是誰鄙視它是注定要不滿(三11 ) 。 In direct relation to God, Wisdom is personified, and her nature, attributes, and operation are no less than Divine.在直接關係的上帝,智慧的化身,她的性質,特點,操作不低於神聖。 She is with God from eternity, the partner of His throne, and the sharer of His thoughts (viii, 3; ix, 4, 9).她是上帝的永恆的,合作夥伴的王位,並共享了他的想法(八, 3 ;九, 4 , 9 ) 。 She is an emanation from His glory (vii, 25), the brightness of His everlasting light and the mirror of His power and goodness (vii, 26).她是氣從他的榮光(七, 25歲)的亮度,他的永恆的光明和鏡子的權力和善良(第七章, 26條) 。 Wisdom is one, and yet can do everything; although immutable, she makes all things new (vii, 27), with an activity greater than any motion (vii, 23).智慧是一個,但可以盡一切;雖然不可改變的,她使所有事物新(七, 27歲) ,其中的一項活動大於任何動議(第七章, 23條) 。 When God formed the world, Wisdom was present (ix, 9), and she gives to men all the virtues which they need in every station and condition of life (vii, 27; viii, 21; x, 1, 21; xi).當上帝形成了世界上,智慧是本(九, 9 ) ,她讓所有男人的美德,他們需要在每一個站的生活條件(第七章,第27條;八, 21 ;十, 1 , 21 ;十一) 。 Wisdom is also identified with the "Word" of God (ix, 1; etc.), and is represented as immanent with the "Holy Spirit", to whom a Divine nature and Divine operations are likewise ascribed (i, 5-7; vii, 22, 23; ix, 17).智慧也被確定與“詞”的上帝(九, 1等) ,並派代表作為內在與“聖靈” ,人,神性和神聖的行動也同樣原因(一, 5月7日;七, 22 , 23 ;第九, 17條) 。 Exalted doctrines such as these stand in a vital connection with the New Testament revelation of the mystery of the Blessed Trinity; while other passages of the Book of Wisdom (ii, 13, 16-18; xviii, 14-16) find their fulfilment in Christ, the Incarnate "Word", and "the Wisdom of God".崇高的理論,如這些立場的一個重要方面與新約全書啟示神秘的祝福三一;而其他段落的圖書智慧(二, 13日, 16日至18日;十八, 14日至16日)找到自己的履行基督的降生“詞”和“智慧的神” 。 In other aspects too, notably with regard to its eschatological teaching (iii-v), the Book of Wisdom presents a wonderful preparation to the New Testament Revelation.太多的其他方面,尤其是關於其末世教學( III - V族) ,這本書的智慧提出了美好的籌備新約全書啟示。 The New Testament writers appear perfectly familiar with this deutero-canonical writing (cf. Matt., xxvii, 42, 43, with Wis., ii, 13, 18; Rom., xi, 34, with Wis., ix, 13; Eph., vi, 13, 17, with Wis., v, 18, 19; Heb., i, 3, with Wis., vii, 26; etc. It is true that to justify their rejection of the Book of Wisdom from the Canon, many Protestants have claimed that in viii, 19-20, its author admits the error of the pre-existence of the human soul. But this incriminated passage, when viewed in the light of its context, yields a perfectly orthodox sense.新約作者似乎完全熟悉這個deutero ,規範書寫(參見馬特。 ,二十七, 42 , 43 ,與美國威斯康星州,二, 13日, 18日;光盤。 ,十一, 34歲,與美國威斯康星州,九, 13人;弗。 ,六, 13日, 17日,與美國威斯康星州,第五,第18 ,第19 ;希伯來。 ,我, 3 ,與美國威斯康星州,七, 26 ;等確實證明其反對書的智慧佳能,許多新教徒都聲稱,在八, 19日至20日,其作者也承認錯誤的預先存在的人的靈魂。但是,這相應的通道時,認為根據其背景下,產生一個完美的東正教意義。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息作者弗朗西斯大腸桿菌吉戈特。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯M巴雷特。 Dedicated to the Christian judges through the ages The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.致力於基督教法官通過年齡的天主教百科全書,卷十五。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 12年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

(Catholic commentators are marked with an asterisk *.) GRIMM (Leipzig, 1860); SCHMID (Vienna, 1865); * GUTBERLET (Munster, 1874); BISSELL (New York, 1880); DEAN (Oxford, 1881); *LESETRE (Paris, 1884); FARRAR (London, 1888); SIEGFRIED (Tubingen, 1890); ZUCKLER (Munich, 1891); *CRAMPON (Paris, 1902); ANDRE (Florence, 1904); *CORNELY-ZORRELL (Paris, 1910). (天主教評論家標有星號*. )羅賓漢(萊比錫, 1860年) ; SCHMID (維也納, 1865年) ; * GUTBERLET (明斯特, 1874年) ;比斯爾(紐約, 1880年) ;院長(牛津, 1881年) ; * LESETRE (巴黎, 1884年) ; FARRAR (倫敦, 1888年) ; SIEGFRIED (蒂賓根, 1890年) ; ZUCKLER (慕尼黑, 1891年) ; * CRAMPON (巴黎, 1902年) ;安德烈(佛羅倫薩, 1904年) ; * CORNELY - ZORRELL (巴黎, 1910年) 。


Book of the Wisdom of Solomon圖書的智慧所羅門

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Contents of the Book.內容的圖書。

Hellenistic Passover Haggadah.希臘逾越節哈加達。

Wonders of the Exodus.奇蹟出逃。

The Folly of Idolatry.愚蠢的偶像崇拜。

Plagues upon Egypt.根據埃及瘟疫。

Authorship and Date.作者和日期。

Apocryphal book written in Alexandria about the middle of the first century BC That it was composed in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew has been conclusively shown by Freudenthal ("JQR" iii. 722-753). The book has neither an introductory verse nor a regular conclusion. In fact, it consists of three independent parts which have no real connection, and which treat of subjects altogether different, a fact clearly recognized by Bretschneider, Eichhorn, and others, but disputed by Grimm ("Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apocryphen des Alten Testaments," vi. 9-24, Leipsic, 1860) and his followers.未經著作在亞歷山大對中東的公元前一世紀,這是由希臘的亞歷山大猶太人已經得出結論表明弗賴登塔爾( “ JQR ”三。 722-753 ) 。這本書既介紹詩,也不是一個常結論。事實上,它由三個獨立的部分,沒有真正的聯繫,並處理的主題完全不同的,這一事實清楚地認識到Bretschneider ,艾希霍恩,和其他人,但爭議的格林( “ Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊之祖旦Apocryphen老聖經, “六。 9月24日, Leipsic , 1860年)和他的追隨者。

Contents of the Book.內容的圖書。

The first six chapters of Wisdom form an address to the rulers of the earth (i. 1; comp. iii. 8; vi. 1-2, 9, 21).前6章的智慧形成一個地址的統治者地球(一1 ;補償。三。 8 ;六。 1月2日, 9日, 21 ) 。 They accentuate the necessity of wisdom as indispensable to rulers (i. 6, vi. 9-25), although they are chiefly directed against the Epicureans, the ungodly who deny immortality, indulge in lust and incest, and mock the righteous and the learned, who in their turn upbraid them for their lawlessness and licentiousness (ii. 1-16).他們突出的必要性智慧不可或缺的統治者(一6 ,六。 9月25日) ,儘管它們主要是針對Epicureans ,誰剝奪了ungodly不死,沉迷於慾望,亂倫,和模擬的正義和教訓,誰在其反過來斥罵他們的無法無天和淫(白介素1月16日) 。 In contrast with them the "saints" (Ḥasidim) whom they expose to torture (ii. 19, iii. 1) and to a martyr's death (iii. 2) are called "sons of God," initiated into His mystery, promised an inheritance in eternal life (i. 14; ii. 13, 21, 23; iii. 4, 15; iv. 1; v. 15) like Enoch (iv. 10-16), and assured of a crown of glory in the world to come (v. 16).在與他們的“聖人” ( Ḥasidim )他們揭露酷刑(白介素19 ,三。 1 ) ,並殉道( iii. 2 )被稱為“上帝的兒子” ,開始他的神秘,承諾繼承中永恆的生命(一14 ;二。 13 , 21 , 23 ;三。 4日, 15日;四。 1 ;訴15 )喜歡伊諾克( iv. 10月16日) ,並保證了皇冠的光榮世界來(五16 ) 。 Finally, wisdom is introduced in vi.最後,智慧介紹六。 9-25 as the speaker, and as the one who bestows the divine kingdom and confers immortality (vi. 20-21); whereas sin brings death, since "through envy of the devil came death into the world" (ii. 24). 9月25日的發言,並作為一個誰賦予的神聖王國和賦予永生( vi. 20-21 ) ;而帶來死亡罪,因為“通過羨慕的魔鬼來到死亡融入世界” (白介素24 ) 。 The second part (ch. vii.-ix. 17) contains an address of King Solomon, relating how his life was guided solely by wisdom, and closing with a prayer offered by him to God that he might obtain her.第二部分(章vii.-ix. 17 )載有地址,所羅門王,他的有關如何生活是唯一的指導原則的智慧,並關閉了他提供的祈禱上帝,他可能得到她。 Here wisdom is represented as a mystic power which imparts not only knowledge of all mysteries and the spirit of prophecy (vii. 17-21, 27), but even immortality (viii. 13), while it is also a cosmic force invested with twenty-one divine attributes, this number being either a triple multiple of seven, or, if originally twenty-two instead of twenty-one, corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Greek alphabet (vii.22-23).這裡是智慧的代表作為一個神秘的力量柔軟劑不僅所有奧秘的知識和精神的預言( vii. 17日至21日, 27 ) ,但即使不死( viii. 13 ) ,同時它也是一個宇宙的力量,而後者的投資20一個神聖的屬性,這個數字正在要么三倍數7 ,或者,如果最初02年而不是01年,相當於2002年希臘字母( vii.22 - 23 ) 。 At the same time, wisdom, as in the Platonic system, is believed to teach the four cardinal virtues of temperance, prudence, justice, and fortitude (viii. 7).同時,集思廣益,在柏拉圖式的系統,相信是教四項基本原則美德,節制,謹慎,公正,剛毅( viii. 7 ) 。 The prayer of Solomon refers to the heavenly tabernacle prepared from the beginning, and to his own predestination (ix. 7-8; see Preexistence).所羅門的禱告是指天上的幕準備從一開始就和他自己的命( ix. 7月8日;見前身) 。 Wisdom is described as a cosmic principle dwelling on the throne of glory next to God, and as knowing and designing all things (ix. 1, 4, 10), being identical with the creative Word (ix. 1) and the Holy Spirit (ix. 17).智慧是一種宇宙原則上居住的寶座旁邊上帝的榮耀,作為了解和設計所有的東西( ix. 1 , 4 , 10 ) ,而相同的創造性字( ix. 1 )和聖靈(九。 17 ) 。

Hellenistic Passover Haggadah.希臘逾越節哈加達。

While these two portions of the book form a unity to some extent, and probably gave the entire work its title of "Wisdom of Solomon," the last section (ix. 18-xix. 22) is devoid of all connection with what precedes.雖然這兩個部分的書籍形式團結在一定程度上,而且可能使整個工作的標題“所羅門的智慧” ,最後一節( ix. 18 - 19 。 22 )是沒有什麼的所有方面的先導。 The speaker is no longer Solomon, but the author or the saints (xvi. 28, xviii. 6 et passim), who recite the history of Israel's redemption from Egypt and other enemies.該發言者已不再是所羅門群島,但作者或聖人( xvi. 28十八。 6等各處) ,誰背誦以色列歷史上的贖回來自埃及和其他敵人。 In like manner, the words are not addressed to the kings of the earth (ix. 18; x. 20; xi. 4, 9, 17, 21; et passim), but to God, the deliverer from the Red Sea.同樣,沒有的話給國王地球( ix. 18 ;十20 ;十一。 4 , 9 , 17 , 21 ;等各處) ,而是上帝,遞送從紅海。 The whole appears on close observation to be part of a Passover Haggadah recited in Egypt with reference to Gentile surroundings, and it accordingly abounds in genuine haggadic passages of an ancient character.整個出現在密切觀察的一個組成部分逾越節哈加達背誦在埃及參考詹蒂萊的環境,並因此有許多真正的haggadic通道的一個古老的性質。 The tenth chapter serves as a connecting-link between the Solomonic Wisdom-book and this Passover-Haggadah fragment, and must, therefore, be taken with the last verse of the ninth chapter and the first of the eleventh, in both of which wisdom forms the theme.第十章充當連接,之間的聯繫Solomonic智慧書和本逾越節-哈加達片段,並因此,必須採取與過去的詩章和第九屆第一次的第十一屆,在這兩種形式的智慧的主題。 Here, however, it has nothing in common with the Solomonic wisdom, which, enabling the king to penetrate into all the mysteries of heaven and earth, to study the world of the spirits, and to learn the virtues of stones and roots, thus came very close to the Platonic wisdom (vii. 17-26).在這裡,不過,它沒有任何共同之處與Solomonic智慧,這使國王滲透到所有的奧秘天地,研究世界的精神,學習的美德石塊和根源,從而來非常接近柏拉圖智慧( vii. 17日至26日) 。 The wisdom of the haggadist is exclusive and hostile to the Gentile world, rather than cosmopolitan and broad, saving only the righteous and bringing ruin upon the wicked (ix. 18, x. 1-21).智慧的haggadist是獨家經營權和敵視詹蒂萊世界,而不是國際性和廣泛的,不僅節約帶來的正義和邪惡的毀滅時( ix. 18十1月21日) 。 From this point of view the lives of the Patriarchs are recounted to lead up to the story of the Exodus.從這個角度來看生活的始祖是敘述導致最多的故事外流。 Wisdom taught Adam to rise from his fall by repentance (comp. "Vita Adæ et Evæ," viii.; Pirḳe R. El. xx.); but it caused Cain and his generation to perish (x. 1-3).智慧教亞當將從他的下降懺悔( comp. “簡歷Adæ等Evæ , ”八。 ; Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。二十。 ) ;但它造成的該隱和他的一代人亡(十1-3 ) 。 It saved Noah, Abraham, and Lot, but brought lasting doom upon the offenders (x. 4-9).它保存的諾亞,亞伯拉罕,和很多,但帶來了持久的末日的罪犯(十4-9 ) 。 It showed Jacob the kingdom of God in the vision of the ladder (comp. Gen. R. lxviii. 16; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxviii. 12) and gave him victory over all his pursuers (x. 10-12).這表明雅各神的國的願景中的階梯( comp.將軍河lxviii 。 16 ; Targ 。也門里亞爾。向將軍二十八。 12 ) ,並給了他戰勝了所有的追求(十, 10月12日) 。 It preserved Joseph the righteous from sin, went with him into the pit and the prison, and raised him to the throne and to glory, but covered his detractors with shame (x. 13-15).它保存約瑟夫從罪惡的正義,他與他的坑和監獄,並提出了他的王位和榮耀,但他的反對者包括與恥辱(十13-15 ) 。 It delivered Israel from its heathen oppressors, entered into the soul of Moses, enabling him to work all his miracles before Pharaoh, and, in the shape of a protecting pillar of cloud by day and of an illuminating fire by night, guided the people through the wilderness and through the Red Sea, while it drowned the Egyptians and cast them up again from the deep to enrich the Israelites with the spoils that floated upon the water (x. 15-20; comp. Mek., Beshallaḥ, 6; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xiii. 21; xv. 12, 20; Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 6).它把以色列從異教徒壓迫者,進入靈魂摩西,使他能夠創造奇蹟的工作之前,他所有的法老,並在形狀的保護支柱雲白天和一個夜間照明火災,引導人們通過曠野,並通過紅海,而淹死的埃及人和演員他們再次從深海豐富的戰利品猶太人的浮動後,水(十15-20 ;補償。 Mek 。 , Beshallaḥ , 6 ; Targ 。層。移。十三。 21 ;十五。 12日, 20日;約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”二。 16日,第6條) 。 It also opened the mouths of the dumb so that they joined in the song of the people in praise of God at the Red Sea (x. 21; comp. Mek. to Shirah [Song of Moses], 1), and it prospered the work of Moses in the wilderness (xi. 1-4).它還開設了口啞,使他們加入了這首歌的人,讚美上帝在紅海(十21 ;補償。 Mek 。以Shirah [宋摩西] , 1 ) ,它的繁榮工作摩西在曠野( xi. 1-4 ) 。

Wonders of the Exodus.奇蹟出逃。

This section is followed (xi. 5-xix. 21) by a haggadic discourse in the form of a prayer of thanks-giving on the Egyptian plagues and other miracles connected with the Exodus, obviously to be recited on the eve of the Passover (xviii. 6-9; comp. Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 4; Book of Jubilees, xlix. 2-6).本節之後( xi. 5 - 19 。 21 )由haggadic話語的形式,祈禱感謝給予在埃及瘟疫和其他奇蹟與外流,顯然是背誦的前夕逾越節(十八。 6-9 ;補償。約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”二。 16 , § 4 ;書Jubilees , xlix 。 2-6 ) 。 The fundamental principle of the ancient Haggadah is that God metes out the perfect justice expressed by the Rabbis in the phrase "middah keneged middah" (= "measure for measure"), so that the book declares: "Wherewithal a man sinneth, by the same also shall he be punished" (xi. 16).的根本原則,古代哈加達是上帝平方米的完善司法所表示拉比在“一語middah keneged middah ” ( = “措施,措施” ) ,所以這本書宣稱: “一名男子sinneth必要的,由他同時也應受到懲罰“ ( xi. 16 ) 。 This was applied to the Egyptians with reference to Ex.這是適用於埃及人參照前。 xviii.十八。 11 (see Targum ad loc.; Soṭah 11d). 11 (見根廣告祿。 ; Soṭah 11d ) 。 Here, however, the haggadist goes so far as to maintain that the very thing which proved an instrument of vengeance to the Egyptians became a means of safety for Israel (xi. 5).在這裡,但是, haggadist甚至堅持認為,非常的事情證明的手段報復的埃及人成為一種手段,安全的以色列( xi. 5 ) 。 The water in which the Israelitish children were to be drowned was turned to blood for the parched Egyptians, while it flowed forth from the rock to quench the thirst of the children of Israel in the desert (xi. 4-7).水在其中Israelitish兒童被淹死是轉向血液炎熱埃及人,雖然流入提出從岩石中解渴的渴求的兒童以色列在沙漠( xi. 4-7 ) 。 In like manner, the animals worshiped by the Egyptians became the source of terror and harm to them (xi. 15-19, xii. 24-27); "for these [the Israelites] thou didst admonish and try, as a father: but the other [the Egyptian people], as a severe king, thou didst condemn and punish" (xi. 10), even though God loves all His creatures, and waits for the repentance of the sinner because He is the lover of souls (xi. 24-xii. 2).同樣,動物崇拜的埃及人成為恐怖活動的根源和危害他們( xi. 15日至19日,十二。 24-27日) , “這些[以色列人]你didst訓誡和嘗試,作為一名父親:但其他[埃及人民] ,作為一個嚴重的國王,你didst譴責和懲罰“ ( xi. 10 ) ,儘管他的天主愛所有的動物,並等待悔改的罪人,因為他是情人的靈魂(十一。 24十二。 2 ) 。 The real cause of the doom of such Gentile nations as the Canaanites was their commission of the capital sins of idolatry and murder (xii. 4-7; comp. Sibyllines, i. 150, 178; iii. 36-40, 585-605, 761-764; et passim).的真正原因,末日這種詹蒂萊聯合國的迦南是他們委員會崇拜資本罪和謀殺( xii. 4-7 ;補償。 Sibyllines島150 , 178 ;三。 36-40 , 585-605 , 761-764 ;等各處) 。 Yet even they were given time for repentance; wherefore God sent the wasps before Israel to destroy the Canaanites gradually, instead of killing them all at once (xii. 8-11; comp. Ex. xxiii. 28; Soṭah 36a); for God blends mercy with justice, to teach "that the just man should be merciful" (xii. 19; comp. i. 6), and unrepentant Egypt was thus severely punished until she acknowledged the God she had denied (xii. 27).然而,即使他們得到的時間悔改;何故神蜂之前發出摧毀以色列的迦南逐步,而不是殺害他們一下子( xii. 8月11日;補償。惠。二十三。 28 ; Soṭah 36A條) ;為上帝共混憐憫與司法,教育“ ,剛剛男子應仁慈” ( xii. 19 ;補償。島6人) ,埃及和頑固不化,因此嚴厲的懲罰,直到她承認,她曾否認上帝( xii. 27 ) 。

The Folly of Idolatry.愚蠢的偶像崇拜。

Egyptian (and Greek) idolatry is declared (xiii. 1-10) to be far less excusable than Babylonian star-worship, and it is therefore derided (xiii. 11-19) in terms borrowed from Isa.埃及(與希臘)崇拜宣布( xiii. 1月10日)將遠遠低於情有可原比巴比倫明星崇拜,因此嘲笑( xiii. 11月19日)在借用伊薩。 xliv.四十四。 13-20. Idolatry was first introduced by the giants who were descended from the fallen angels. 13-20 。崇拜首次引入了誰是巨人的後代的墮落的天使。 Its purposes were corruption and fornication (xiv. 1-13); it owed its hold on mankind to the honor paid the images of dead sons (xiv. 14-21; comp. Book of Jubilees, xi. 4; Bezold, "Die Schatzhöhle," p. 31), and it led to murder, adultery, theft, and perjury (xiv. 22-31).其目的是腐敗和私通( xiv. 1月13日) ;它拖欠其對人類的榮譽付出了圖像的死兒子( xiv. 14-21 ;補償。書Jubilees ,十一。 4 ; Bezold , “模Schatzhöhle “ ,第31頁) ,它導致謀殺,通姦,盜竊和偽證( xiv. 22-31 ) 。 Knowledge of God alone guides to righteousness and immortality, while the enemies (the Romans and the Greeks of Alexandria, as well as the Egyptians)who hold Israel in subjection are termed foolish image-worshipers (xv. 1-15; comp. Ps. cxv., recited on the eve of the Passover).只有上帝的知識指南,正義和永生,而敵人(羅馬和希臘的亞歷山德里亞,以及埃及人)誰認為以色列在受到被稱為愚蠢的形象,信徒( xv. 1月15日;補償。聚苯乙烯。 cxv 。 ,背誦的前夕逾越節) 。 The Egyptian animal-worship again suggests to the haggadist the idea that while the beasts became a torment to Egypt, the quail became nourishing food for the people of God (xvi. 1-4); and though the serpents bit the Israelites in the wilderness, they were in the end a sign of salvation for them, admonishing them to look to God as the savior whose word heals all (xvi. 5-12; comp. RH iii. 8c).埃及動物崇拜再次表明的haggadist的想法,雖然野獸成為折磨到埃及,鵪鶉成為食物人民的上帝( xvi. 1-4 ) ;和儘管蛇位以色列人在曠野,他們是在結束的標誌拯救他們,告誡他們期待的救星神醫治所有的字( xvi. 5月12日;補償。濕度三。 8c ) 。 The fire which fell with both the hail and the rain (Ex. ix. 24; Tan., Wayera, ed. Buber, p. 22), as well as in the sea (Ex. xiv. 24; Targ. Yer. ad loc.; Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 3), like the fire which would not destroy the frogs in the oven (xix. 21; Pes. 53b), manifested the wondrous power of God (xvi. 16-19).消防屬於同冰雹和暴雨(例如九。 24 ;談。 , Wayera ,教育署。布伯,第22頁) ,以及在海上(例如十四。 24 ; Targ 。也門里亞爾。廣告同上。 ;約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”二。 16 , § 3 ) ,如火災不會破壞青蛙在烤箱( xix. 21 ;瘟。 53b ) ,體現了上帝的奇妙的力量( xvi. 16 - 19 ) 。 On the other hand, the manna, which fell like hoar frost and was flavored to suit every wish and taste, did not melt in the heat of the wilderness, but disappeared under the first rays of the sun that the people might offer their praise early in the morning (comp. Yoma 75a; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xvi. 21; Mek., Wayassa', 4 [ed. Weiss, p. 58a]; for the Essene prayer at sunrise see Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 5; Ber. 9b; and comp. Essenes).另一方面,在哪,而後者屬於像霜霜凍和風格,以適應每一個願望和口味,沒有融化在激烈的曠野,而是消失在第一陽光的人可能會提供他們的讚美早期在今天上午( comp.山脈75A條; Targ 。也門里亞爾。移。十六。 21 ; Mek 。 , Wayassa ' , 4 [男女。魏斯,第58a ] ;的厄色尼祈禱日出見約瑟夫, “北京”二。 8日,第5條;小蘗鹼。 9B條;和補償。愛色尼) 。

Plagues upon Egypt.根據埃及瘟疫。

The Egyptian plague of darkness, in striking contrast to the light in the houses of the children of Israel (Ex. x. 21-23), is declared to have been a punishment for their imprisonment of the Israelites, the future bearers of the light of the Law, and for their pride in their intellectuality, besides being a token of their future doom (xvii. 1-xviii. 4).埃及鼠疫的黑暗,在鮮明的對比參照的住宅的孩子以色列(例如十, 21日至23日) ,現宣布了他們的監禁懲罰的以色列人,今後承擔的輕法,並為他們感到自豪,他們的智力,除了象徵其未來末日( xvii. 1 - 18 。 4 ) 。 The last plague, the death of the first-born, was the punishment for the intended murder of the Israelitish children (xviii. 5).最後鼠疫,死亡的第一個出生的,是懲罰意圖謀殺Israelitish兒童( xviii. 5 ) 。 This same night of watching proved to be the doom of the Egyptians and the election of Israel, so that on the one side resounded cries of lamentation, and on the other were heard songs of thanksgiving (xviii. 7-17).這同一天晚上看被證明是悲觀的埃及人和以色列的選舉,以便為一方迴響呼聲訴苦,另一方面,聽到的歌曲的感恩節( xviii. 7月17日) 。 The almighty "Word" carried the sword of death throughout Egypt, and by this same power Aaron, with his robe, his breastplate, and his diadem decked with divine mysteries, subdued the angel of death (xviii. 20-25).萬能的“詞”中的死亡之劍埃及各地,並通過相同的權力亞倫,他的長袍,他的腹甲,他的王冠裝飾與神聖奧秘,制服死亡天使( xviii. 20-25段) 。 Finally, the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea is described as a renewal of the miracle of Creation (xix. 1-6), since out of the sea rose a green field (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xv. 19).最後,破壞埃及人在紅海被描述為振興創造奇蹟( xix. 1-6 ) ,因為從海上上升綠地( comp. Targ 。也門里亞爾。移。十五。 19 ) 。 The Egyptians had been more brutal in their treatment of the strangers than had the inhospitable Sodomites, thus accounting for the severity of their punishment (xix. 13-22).埃及人已更殘酷的對待陌生人超過了荒涼Sodomites ,從而核算的嚴重性,他們的處罰( xix. 13日至22日) 。 Here the Haggadah breaks off abruptly.在這裡,哈加達突然中斷了。

Authorship and Date.作者和日期。

It is evident that these three parts, or at least the first two (i.-ix., x.-xix.), can not have emanated from the same author, for neither the style nor the views can be ascribed to one and the same person.很顯然,這三個部分,或者至少是前兩個( i.-ix. ,十,十九。 ) ,不能有來自同一作者的風格,也沒有意見可以歸因於一個和同一個人。 This leads to the supposition that the original Wisdom of Solomon and the Passover-Haggadah fragment were probably joined together and then treated as one book.這導致假定原始智慧所羅門群島和逾越節-哈加達片段可能聯合起來,然後被視為一本書。 Grätz ("Gesch." 4th ed., iii. 382-385, 611-613) finds in the work allusions to the apotheosis of Caligula (38-40 CE), but the deification of the Ptolemies goes back to Egyptian custom.格拉茨( “ Gesch 。 ”第4版。 ,三。 382-385 , 611-613 )的工作中發現的典故神化古拉( 38-40 CE認證) ,但神化的托勒密追溯到埃及習俗。 Ch.總。 ii.二。 and iii.及iii 。 refer to Jewish converts, not to Greeks in Alexandria.提及猶太人皈依,而不是希臘的亞歷山德里亞。 The character of the book as regards the creative Wisdom, Word, and Spirit indicates a stage prior to the Philonic system, and the Biblical story shows a haggadic form still fresh and not yet compressed into a rigid system, as in Philo (see Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," pp. 22-24, Jena, 1875).性質的圖書至於創造性的智慧, Word和精神表明一個階段之前Philonic制度和聖經故事的形式顯示haggadic仍然記憶猶新,並沒有壓縮成一個硬性的制度,如在斐羅(見齊格弗里德, “亞歷山大馮斐羅”頁。 22-24 ,耶拿, 1875年) 。 The apostle Paul (see Grafe, "Das Verhältniss der Paulinischen Schriften zur Sapientia Salomonis," Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1892; comp. also Saul of Tarsus), the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb. i. 3, iv. 12; comp. Wisdom vii. 22, 26), and others have drawn from the Book of Wisdom.使徒保羅(見格拉夫, “達斯Verhältniss之Paulinischen著作集Sapientia Salomonis ”弗賴堡進出口,布賴斯, 1892年;補償。還掃羅的塔爾蘇斯) ,作者的書信向希伯來( Heb.一,三,四。 12 ;補償。智慧七。 22日, 26日) ,和其他人從圖書的智慧。 This places the date of the book, or at least that of the first part, with certainty in the first century BC A Hebrew translation of the Wisdom of Solomon is mentioned by Naḥmanides in the preface to his commentary on the Pentateuch.這使這本書之日起,或至少是第一部分,肯定在公元前一世紀希伯來翻譯的智慧所羅門提到了Naḥmanides在序言中對他的評注的摩西五。 A Hebrew version with a commentary was published by Hartwig Wessely (Berlin, 1780), and a German translation with notes, valuable for the references to rabbinical literature, was made by M. Gutmann (Altona, 1841).希伯來版本的評注出版了特維希Wessely (柏林, 1780年) ,和一個德語翻譯與註釋,有價值的參考猶太教文學,是由M.古特曼(阿爾托納, 1841年) 。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

For the extensive literature see Schürer, Gesch.為廣泛的文獻見Schürer , Gesch 。 3d ed., iii.三維版。 ,三。 377-383. The chief editions, besides that contained in Fritzsche's Apocryphi Grœci, are: Reusch, Liber Sapientiœ Grœce, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1858; Deane, Book of Wisdom, Oxford, 1881. On the question of the original language see Margoliouth, Was the Book of Wisdom Written in Hebrew? 377-383 。首席版本,除了包含在弗里切的Apocryphi Grœci是: Reusch ,書Sapientiœ Grœce ,弗賴堡進出口,布賴斯, 1858 ;迪恩,圖書的智慧,牛津, 1881年。關於原文見Margoliouth ,是智慧之書的書面希伯來文? in JRAS 1890, pp.在工作相關津貼1890年,頁。 263 et seq.; answered by Freudenthal, What Is the Original Language of the Wisdom of Solomon? 263起。 ;回答弗賴登塔爾,什麼是原始語言的智慧所羅門? in JQR iii.在JQR三。 722-753.K. 722 - 753.K 。


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