Council of Trent安理會的遄

General Information 一般信息

The Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, was held at Trent in northern Italy between 1545 and 1563.安理會的遄, 19普世安理會的羅馬天主教會,是在意大利北部的遄達1545和1563年之間。 It marked a major turning point in the efforts of the Catholic church to respond to the challenge of the Protestant Reformation and formed a key part of the Counter-Reformation.它標誌著一個重大轉折點的努力,天主教應付挑戰的新教改革和形成的一個關鍵部分反宗教改革。 The need for such a council had long been perceived by certain church leaders, but initial attempts to organize it were opposed by Francis I of France, who feared it would strengthen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and by the popes themselves, who feared a revival of Conciliarism.是否需要這樣一個理事會長期以來一直認為某些教會領袖,但初步的嘗試,組織它是反對弗蘭西斯一世的法國,誰擔心這將加強神聖羅馬皇帝查理五世和教皇自己,誰擔心復甦的Conciliarism 。 The council eventually met during three separate periods (1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63) under the leadership of three different popes (Paul III, Julius III, Pius IV).安理會最終期間會見三個不同時期( 1545至1547年, 1551年至1552年, 1562年至1563年)的領導下,三種不同的教皇(保羅三,朱利三,皮尤斯四) 。 All of its decrees were formally confirmed by Pope Pius IV in 1564.所有的法令,正式確認教宗碧岳四在1564年。

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In the area of religious doctrine, the council refused any concessions to the Protestants and, in the process, crystallized and codified Catholic dogma far more than ever before. It directly opposed Protestantism by reaffirming the existence of seven sacraments, transubstantiation, purgatory, the necessity of the priesthood, and justification by works as well as by faith. Clerical celibacy and monasticism were maintained, and decrees were issued in favor of the efficacy of relics, indulgences, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary and the saints.在該地區的宗教教義,安理會拒絕任何讓步的新教徒,並在這個過程中,結晶和編纂天主教教條遠遠超過以往任何時候。 它直接重申反對基督教的存在七個聖禮, transubstantiation ,煉獄的必要性的神父和理由的作品,以及信仰。文書獨身和修道保持,和法令頒布有利於文物的功效, indulgences和崇拜的聖母和聖人。 Tradition was declared coequal to Scripture as a source of spiritual knowledge, and the sole right of the Church to interpret the Bible was asserted . 傳統宣布coequal以聖經作為知識來源的精神,和唯一正確的教會來解釋聖經斷言

At the same time, the council took steps to reform many of the major abuses within the church that had partly incited the Reformation: decrees were issued requiring episcopal residence and a limitation on the plurality of benefices, and movements were instigated to reform certain monastic orders and to provide for the education of the clergy through the creation of a seminary in every diocese.與此同時,安理會採取步驟,改革的許多重大侵犯教會了部分煽動改革:法令發出了要求主教府和限制多元化benefices ,和運動是煽動某些寺院改革訂單並提供教育的神職人員通過建立一個神在每一個教區。

Attendance at the council was often relatively meager, and it was dominated by Italian and Spanish prelates.出席安理會往往是相對貧乏,而且主要是意大利和西班牙主教。 Several European monarchs kept their distance from the council's decrees, only partially enforcing them or, in the case of the French kings, never officially accepting them at all. The Council of Trent helped, however, to catalyze a movement within the Catholic clergy and laity for widespread religious renewal and reform, a movement that yielded substantial results in the 17th century.幾個歐洲國家的君主保持距離安理會的法令,只是部分地執行這些標準,或在案件的法國國王,從未正式接受它們。安理會的遄幫助,但是,以促進運動的天主教神職人員和俗人為廣泛的宗教復興和改革,一個運動,取得了實質性的成果在17世紀。

T. Tackett噸Tackett

Bibliography 參考書目
Jedin, Hubert, A History of the Council of Trent, trans. Jedin ,休伯特,史理事會特倫特,跨。 by Ernest Graf, 2 vols.由歐內斯特格拉夫, 2卷。 (1957-61); McNally, Robert E., Council of Trent, The Spiritual Exercises and the Catholic Reform (1970); O'Donohoe, JA, Tridentine Seminary Legislation (1957); Schroeder, HJ, Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (1950). ( 1957至1961年) ;納利,羅伯特E ,理事會特倫特,精神運動和天主教改革( 1970年) ; O'Donohoe ,茉莉, Tridentine學院立法( 1957年) ;施羅德黃建忠,大砲和法令理事會的遄達( 1950年) 。


Council of Trent (1545-1563)安理會的遄達( 1545年至1563年)

Outline 大綱

The canons and decrees of the sacred在大砲和法令的神聖
and oecumenical Council of Trent,和oecumenical理事會特倫特,
Ed.埃德。 and trans.和轉運。 J. Waterworth (London: Dolman, 1848)學者Waterworth (倫敦:杜爾曼, 1848年)

Notes and J. Waterworth's Preface債券和J. Waterworth的前言

The Complete Text全文

By Session歷屆會議

Bull of Indiction牛市的Indiction

The First Session第一屆會議

The Second Session第二次會議

The Third Session第三次會議

The Fourth Session第四次會議

The Fifth Session第五次會議

The Sixth Session第六屆會議

The Seventh Session第七屆會議

The Eighth Session第八次會議

The Ninth Session第九屆會議

The Tenth Session第十屆會議

The Eleventh Session第十一屆會議

The Twelfth Session第十二屆會議

The Thirteenth Session第十三屆會議

The Fourteenth Session第十四屆會議

The Fifteenth Session第十五屆會議

The Sixteenth Session第十六屆會議

The Seventeenth Session第十七屆會議

The Eighteenth Session第十八屆會議

The Nineteenth Session第十九屆會議

The Twentieth Session第二十屆會議

The Twenty-First Session第21屆會議

The Twenty-Second Session第二十二屆會議

The Twenty-Third Session第二十三屆會議

The Twenty-Fourth Session第二十四屆會議

The Twenty-Fifth Session第二十五屆會議


Council of Trent (1545-1563)安理會的遄達( 1545年至1563年)

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Council of Trent was the official Roman Catholic response to the Lutheran Reformation.安理會的遄是羅馬天主教會的正式答复路德宗教改革。 The Council of Trent did not begin until twentyfive years after Martin Luther's symbolic rejection of papal authority when he publicly burned Exsurge Domine (1520), the papal bull condemning his teachings.安理會的遄達沒有開始,直到twentyfive年之後馬丁路德的象徵反對教皇權威當他公開焚燒Exsurge主( 1520年) ,教皇牛市譴責他的教誨。 This fateful delay in the history of Christianity permitted the consolidation of Protestantism and ensured that, when the council did eventually meet to define doctrines, it would do so in conscious reaction to Protestant doctrines.這致命的拖延基督教歷史上的允許鞏固新教和保證,在安理會沒有開會,確定最終的理論,它這樣做的意識反應新教理論。 Though some Protestants attended the council, the majority of those attending were motivated by a desire to counter, rather than conciliate, the Protestants.雖然一些新教徒出席安理會,大多數參加者的願望所驅使來對付,而不是調解,新教徒。 Hence, even Catholic historians who emphasize the continuity of Trent's doctrinal definitions with traditional Catholic theology concede that Trent did not restore the medieval equilibrium so much as evolve a new system synthesizing Catholic tradition and the altered historical situation. The new system was rigid and exclusive, but also rich and energetic, drawing on the spiritual and theological revival that characterized the Counter-Reformation.因此,即使強調天主教歷史學家誰的連續性特倫特的理論定義與傳統的天主教神學承認,特倫特沒有恢復中世紀的平衡,而是形成一個新的系統綜合天主教的傳統和歷史情況的改變。新的制度是僵化和排他性的,而且還豐富和充滿活力的,吸取了精神和神學復甦的特點是反宗教改革。

Reasons for the repeated delays in convening the council were chiefly, but not solely, political.原因一再延遲召開理事會主要但不完全,政治。 Even Pope Paul III (1534-49), who was elected on the understanding that he would call a council and who acknowledge that it was desperately needed, was forced into repeated postponments by a growing appreciation of the complexity of the issues at stake.即使是教皇保羅三世( 1534年至1549年) ,誰當選的理解,他將要求安理會,誰承認,這是迫切需要的,被迫一再postponments了越來越認識到問題的複雜性的利害關係。 So complex and voluminous was its agenda that the council took eighteen years, spanning the reigns of five popes, to complete. Its sittings alone took over four years, and it produced a greater volume of legislation than the combined output of all the previous eighteen general councils recognized by the Roman Catholic Church.如此複雜和冗長的議程,安理會採取了十八年,跨越5個時期的教宗,才能完成。及其開庭接管僅4年,它產生了更多的立法相結合的輸出比以前所有18一般理事會承認的天主教會。

The Council's history has three periods:安理會的歷史上有三個時期:

It was decided at the outset to deal with both disciplinary reforms (which Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, saw as the first priority) and the definition of dogma (the primary concern of Paul III).會議決定首先要對付的紀律改革(這神聖羅馬皇帝,查爾斯五世,看到的第一個優先事項)的定義和教條(主要關注的保羅三) 。 A repentant episcopate acknowledged that the Lutheran revolt was occasioned by the "ambition, avarice and cupidity" of bishops.阿懺悔維爾古斯承認,反抗是路德所引起的“野心,貪婪和貪婪”的主教。 The council accordingly condemned pluralism and absenteeism by bishops and priests.因此,安理會譴責多元化和曠工的主教和司鐸。 Clergy were to "avoid even the smallest faults, which in them would be considerable."神職人員,以“避免即使是最小的故障,這對他們將是相當可觀的。 ” Bishops were to establish seminaries for the training of clergy in every diocese.主教們設立修道院的訓練中每一個教區神職人員。 In nothing was the Roman Catholic Church more indelibly scarred by its fear of Protestantism than in the council's decision to make the curriclum in the new seminaries scholastic rather than biblical.在什麼是羅馬天主教會更加不可磨滅的創傷其恐懼新教比安理會的決定,使課程在新的神學院學習,而不是聖經。 On indulgences, the issue which ignited the Lutheran explosion, the council abolished indulgence sellers and decreed that the giving of alms was never to be the necessary condition for gaining an indulgence.論indulgences的問題,這引發了路德爆炸,安理會取消放縱出賣人和頒布法令,給予施捨從來沒有成為必要條件,獲得了寬容。

The article on justification was perceived as the most difficult of the doctrinal issues, partly because it had not been dealt with in previous councils.這一條款的理由被認為是最困難的理論問題,部分是因為它沒有得到處理以往理事會。 Thirty-three canons condemned Protestant errors concerning justification. 33個炮譴責新教錯誤有關的理由。 Most were errors held by Protestant extremists, but the bishops certainly understood that they had condemned Luther's doctrine that Christ's righteousness is extrinsic to the justified person and only imputed to him.大多數人是錯誤舉行的新教極端分子,但主教當然明白,他們譴責路德的主張,基督的義是外在的理由的人,只歸咎於他。 The Tridentine doctrine on justification was expressed in sixteen chapters.該學說的理由Tridentine有人在16章。 Chapters 1-9 stress man's incapacity to save himself but confirm the necessity for the cooperation of his free will, including his resolve to receive baptism and begin a new life.章節1月9日強調人的行為能力,以拯救自己,但確認有必要進行合作,他的自由意志,包括他決心接受洗禮,並開始新的生活。 Justification results not only in the remission of sin but also in "sanctification and renewal of the whole man." Chapters 10-13 affirm the increase of justifying grace through obedience to the commandments and deny that predestination to salvation can be known with certainty.理由成果不僅在緩解罪,而且在“成聖和振興整個人。 ”分會10月13日確認,增加的理由寬限期通過服從命令,並否認預定救贖可確知。 Chapters 14-16 declare that grace is forfeited by any grevious sin (not just faithlessness) and must be recovered through the sacrament of penance. 14-16章宣布,寬限期是沒收任何grevious罪(不只是faithlessness ) ,必須通過恢復聖禮的懺悔。 Salvation is given to the justified as a reward as well as a gift, since, on the basis of his union with Christ, he has meritoriously fulfilled God's law by good works performed in a state of grace.救恩是考慮到合理的報酬以及作為禮物,這是因為,根據他的聯盟與基督,他meritoriously完成上帝的法律,良好的工作表現在一個國家的寬限期。

In the belief that Lutheran heresy was based on a misunderstanding of the sacraments, the council devoted more time to them than any other doctrinal issue.相信路德異端是基於一種誤解的聖禮,安理會將有更多的時間給他們比任何其他的理論問題。 The council confirmed that there are seven sacraments instituted by Christ (baptism, confirmation, communion, penance, unction, orders, marriage) and condemned those who said that sacraments are not necessary for salvation or that through faith alone, and without any sacrament, man can be justified.安理會確認,有7所設立基督聖禮(洗禮,確認,共融,懺悔,油膏,命令,婚姻) ,並譴責說,這些事誰是沒有必要的救贖,或者通過信仰本身,也沒有任何聖禮,男子可以是有道理的。 Sacraments contain the grace they signify and confer it ex opere operato, irrespective of the qualities or merits of the persons administering or receiving them.聖禮包含他們的恩典,並賦予它意味著前opere operato ,不論是非曲直的素質或管理的人員或接收他們。 The council confirmed transubstantiation, that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ while the appearance of bread and wine remains.理事會確認transubstantiation ,該物質的麵包和酒轉變的身體和基督的血,而出現的麵包和葡萄酒依然存在。 Luther's real presence doctrine; the symbolist doctrine of Zwingli, Karlstardt, and Oecolampadius; and Calvin's medial position (presence is real but spiritual) were all condemned; as were those who denied that the whole of Christ is received when the bread alone is taken at communion.路德的實際存在原則;的象徵理論茨溫利, Karlstardt ,並Oecolampadius ;和Calvin的中間位置(存在是真實的,但精神)都譴責;為那些誰否認整個基督是收到的麵包是採取共融。 The council also affirmed that in the Mass, which must be said in Latin, the Son is offered anew to the Father, a sacrifice by which God is appeased and which is efficacious for the living and the dead.安理會還申明,在大眾,必須說,在拉丁美洲,子重新提供的父親,一個犧牲的上帝是安撫和這是有效的生活和死亡。

In its article on Scripture the council again rejected Lutheran teaching.在其文章聖經安理會再次拒絕路德教學。 Tradition was said to be equally authoritative with Scripture; the correct interpretation of the Bible was the preserve of the Catholic Church; the Vulgate was to be used exclusively in public readings and doctrinal commentaries.傳統被說成是與聖經同等效力;為正確解釋聖經是維護天主教的拉丁文聖經是專門用於在公共數據和理論評論。

The Tridentine decrees enjoyed great prestige and determined Catholic belief and practice for four centuries.法令的Tridentine享有崇高的威望和堅定的天主教信仰和實踐的四個世紀。

FS Piggin財政司司長Piggin
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
G. Alberigo, "The Council of Trent: New Views on the Ocassion of Its Fourth Centenary," Con 7.1:28-48; J. Delumeau, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire: A New View of the Counter Reformation; P. Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils; H. Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent; HJ Schroeder, Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent.灣Alberigo , “安理會的遄:新次數為紀念第四次百年, ”節能7.1:28-48 ;學者Delumeau ,天主教之間路德和Voltaire :新視角反改革;體育休斯教會在危機:歷史總理事會閣下; Jedin ,史理事會特倫特;黃建忠施羅德,大砲和法令理事會特倫特。


The General Council of Trent, 1545-63總理事會的遄達, 1545年至1563年

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Martin Luther's revolt was, almost from the beginning, an essential matter, ie, it was explicitly directed against the pope's essential claim that he is the ruler of the whole Church of Christ.馬丁路德的反抗是,幾乎從一開始,一個重要問題,即這是明確針對教宗的基本要求,他是統治者,整個基督教會。 He had already moved away from the Catholic belief, in certain matters regarding the divine forgiveness of sins, by the time he made the famous attack on Indulgences with which Protestantism began (1517).他已經離開了天主教信仰,在某些事宜的神聖原諒的罪孽,到時候他著名的攻擊Indulgences與新教開始( 1517年) 。 Within a further six months he was writing that the first thing needed in order to cure the manifold ills that afflicted religion was to overthrow the whole accepted system of theological teaching (1518).內再延長六個月,他寫的第一件事,需要多方面的治療弊端折磨宗教是推翻整個接受系統的神學教育( 1518年) 。 To the papal legate who now called on him, in the name of a fundamental papal law, to withdraw his teaching about Indulgences Luther replied by denying the validity of that law; and, within a few weeks, by appealing from the pope who had commissioned the legate, to the judgment of the next General Council whenever it should meet--an appeal made in due legal form, and in defiance of the papal law that forbade such appeals.教皇特使向誰現在要求他的名義,從根本上教皇法,把自己的教學Indulgences否認路德回答的有效性,該法,以及在幾個星期內,呼籲從教皇誰委託的特使,以判斷未來時,總理事會應滿足-提出的上訴在適當的法律形式,並在藐視法律,禁止教皇這種呼籲。 The controversies continued without intermission, and a year later than the appeal (ie, in 1519) Luther's mind had moved so far that he now denied that General Councils had any special divine protection that kept them from erroneous teaching when deciding questions about belief.爭議不斷,不,一年之後超過上訴(即1519年)路德心中搬到迄今為止,他現在否認一般安理會有任何特殊的神聖的保護讓他們從錯誤的教學問題時決定的信念。

These rebellious principles were listed among the errors for which Luther was condemned by the papal bull Exsurge Domine (June 15, 1520).這些叛逆的原則列為錯誤而路德譴責了教皇的牛市Exsurge主( 1520年6月15日) 。 He was given sixty days to appear and publicly recant his sayings.他又獲得了六十零天出現,並公開收回他的說法。 Instead, he wrote two most violent--and exceedingly popular--pamphlets, the one to show how the popes had systematically corrupted the whole teaching of Christ for a thousand years and so led all the world astray, the other denouncing the papal institution as a vast financial racket which, for centuries, had been draining the life out of Germany.相反,他寫道:兩個最嚴重的暴力-和極受歡迎-小冊子,一個表明如何教皇已損壞整個系統教學中的基督一千年,因此導致世界所有誤入歧途,其他譴責羅馬教皇的機構,作為一個龐大的金融球拍其中,數百年來,已耗盡生命的德國。 In impassioned phrases he called on the princes of Germany to destroy the papacy, and to wash their hands in the blood of the sacrilegious impostors at Rome.在慷慨激昂的詞組他呼籲王子德國摧毀教皇,並洗手在血液中的褻瀆冒名頂替在羅馬。 As to the bull Exsurge, Luther waited until the fatal sixtieth day, and then with a vast amount of public mockery, he threw it into the bonfire kindled on the town dunghill--and into the flames he threw, after the bull, the whole collection of the popes' laws binding the whole Church of Christ.至於牛市Exsurge ,路德等到致命的第六十天,然後用大量的公共嘲弄,他把它納入篝火點燃鎮糞堆-和他的火焰投擲,牛市後,整個收集教皇的法律約束力整個基督教會。

This was spectacular, and symbolical.這是壯觀,象徵。 Not for centuries had there been any defiance so far-reaching--and with the encouragement and protection of the state.不是幾個世紀以來沒有任何無視如此深遠的影響-以及鼓勵和保護的國家。 To what means were the popes, drawing on a vast experience of crisis, now to turn and so avert the general destruction that threatened German Catholicism? There could only be one answer, since this was the opening of the sixteenth century.以何種方式被教皇,利用的豐富經驗的危機,現在又和避免一般性破壞威脅德國天主教?只能有一個答案,因為這是開放的16世紀。 From all quarters came a demand for the classic panacea.從四面八方來的需求經典靈丹妙藥。 The pope must call a General Council.教宗必須調用總理事會。 And finally the General Council met, the Council of Trent--but not until twenty-five years after the great defiance of the appeal to the princes and the Wittenberg bonfire.和最後的總理事會舉行會議,安理會的遄達-但直到二十五年後的蔑視呼籲王子和維滕貝格篝火。

Since in all that long time the needed council never ceased to be talked of by Catholics and by rebels, by princes and by popes, and since it was amid the angry dissensions on the subject between Catholic princes and the popes that the men were largely formed who actually were the Council of Trent, to recall something of those twenty-five unhappy years is a first condition of understanding the history of the council, of its failures as of its splendid successes.由於在很長一段時間都需要安理會從未停止談到天主教徒和叛亂分子,由王子和教皇,因為這是由於憤怒的糾紛之間關於這一問題的天主教君主和教皇的男子基本上形成誰實際是安理會的遄達,回顧了這些25歲是一個不幸的首要條件是了解歷史的理事會,其失敗的輝煌成就。

The sentences of bishops, and popes also, against heretics were mere noise until they were taken up by the State and put into execution.判決的主教,和教皇還對異教徒只是噪音,直到他們被帶到了由國家和付諸執行。 Luther was assured that his own sovereign, the elector Frederick the Wise, would not execute the bull Exsurge.路德得到保證,他自己的主權,選民弗雷德里克智者不會執行牛市Exsurge 。 It was however quite another thing to be assured that the sentence would remain a dead letter once the pope had appealed to the emperor and the princes of Germany, assembled at the first diet of the new emperor's reign.這是另一回事,但是相當得到保證該句將仍然是一紙空文,一旦教宗呼籲國王與王子的德國,聚集在第一飲食新的皇帝的統治。 It met at Worms in January 1521, and in the way it both thwarted and supported the pope it was curiously prophetic of the history of the coming years.它滿足蠕蟲1521年1月,在雙方的方式阻撓和支持教宗有人好奇地預言的歷史未來幾年。 The princes accepted the papal sentence, and they made it their own by outlawing Luther. Whoever could, might kill him without fear of punishment, as though he were a dangerous bandit.王子接受了教皇一句,他們使自己的取締路德。誰可能會殺死他,而不必擔心懲罰,儘管他是一個危險的強盜。 But they ignored the papal sentence to this extent that they re-tried Luther; that is to say, they gave him a hearing, under a safe conduct, refusing to listen to the protestations of the ambassador whom the pope had sent to direct the action of the diet.但他們忽視了教皇一句這個程度,他們重新審判路德;這就是說,他們給了他一個聽證會,在一個安全的行為,拒絕聽取大使抗議教宗的人發出指示行動的飲食。 The action of this solemn assembly was thus a great public flouting of the papal law, a serious repudiation, in a most serious matter, of the will of the man whom all these princes acknowledged to be the head of their church.的行動,這個莊嚴的大會,因此,公眾的極大蔑視教皇法律,嚴重休妻,在最嚴重的問題,其意願的人誰所有這些王子承認,負責他們的教堂。

This is not the place in which to tell again the familiar story of the events of the next ten years.這不是發生在這告訴人們熟悉的故事再次發生的事件在今後10年內。 But something must be said, however briefly, about the papal delay in applying the only remedy that could meet the German situation--the General Council.但必須指出的東西,但是簡單地說,有關教皇拖延實施唯一的補救辦法,可滿足德國的情況-總理事會。

The general attitude towards the plan of a General Council may thus be summed up: the man who was pope through the greater part of the period, Clement VII (1523-34), was at heart consistently hostile; the cardinals and other officers of his Curia were, for quite other reasons, still more hostile; the German Catholics were eager for a council, but a council in which they would really matter, a council fashioned rather after the pattern of a parliament than General Councils have usually been; the Catholic kings who enter the story are Charles I of Spain (just lately become the emperor Charles V), the life-long champion of the council idea, and Francis I of France, its bitterest opponent. And the history of Europe during the crucial twenty-five years, 1520-45, is little more than the history of the duel between these two princes.一般的態度對待這項計劃的總理事會因此,可概括為:誰該名男子是教宗通過大部份期間,克萊門特七世( 1523年至1534年) ,是在心臟一貫敵視;紅雀和主席團其他成員,他教廷是,相當其他方面的原因,更多的敵意;德國天主教徒渴望為安理會,但安理會,他們將真正的問題,而安理會的傳統模式之後,超過了議會大會理事會通常;天主教誰進入國王的故事是查爾斯一世的西班牙(只是最近成為皇帝查理五世) ,終身冠軍安理會的想法,弗蘭西斯一世的法國,其激烈的對手。和歷史的歐洲在關鍵的21五年來, 1520至1545年,是多一點的歷史決鬥這兩個王子。 In their wars Clement VII, as often as he dared, sided with the King of France, for purely political reasons--it was, invariably, the side that lost.在他們的戰爭克萊門特七世,因為他常常不敢,站在國王的法國,出於純粹的政治原因-這是必然的一方丟失。

The council problem comes to this, that a General Council was absolutely necessary, and that, for political reasons, it was just not possible to summon one.安理會問題到這一點,一個總理事會是絕對必要的,而且,出於政治原因,這是不可能拿出1 。 Whence, inevitably, on the part of Charles V, and of the German princes, a succession of schemes to bring back the Lutherans (for this, in the early years, is what it was hoped the council would achieve) by negotiations, conferences, local councils, informal councils, and the like.何處,不可避免地對部分查理五世和德國王子,繼承計劃,帶回了路德教(為此,在最初幾年,這就是人們希望安理會將實現)的談判,會議,地方議會,非正式議會等。 All of these failed and, in the long run, these ventures complicated the problem of reconciliation or submission; while the refusal of the Holy See really to take action gradually destroyed all confidence in its integrity among the Catholic princes of Germany. To such a depth, indeed, had the prestige of Rome sunk that when the successor of this timorous, vacillating, and all too worldly-wise pope announced, in the first hours of his reign, that he proposed to summon a General Council, the news stirred not a ripple among the Catholic reformers of Germany.所有這些失敗,從長遠來看,這些企業複雜的問題,和解或提交;而拒絕教廷真的採取行動,逐漸摧毀了所有的信心,其完整性在德國天主教君主。這種深度事實上,有威望的羅馬沉沒時,繼任者本膽怯,優柔寡斷,又都太世故教宗宣布,在第一個小時內他的統治,他建議召集總理事會,新聞攪拌不是一個紋波天主教改革派之間的德國。

This second pope was Paul III (1534-49) and ultimately he lived to see the council he had dreamed of meet at Trent, but after bitter vicissitudes--for some of which history must hold his own personal failings responsible.這是第二教皇保羅三世( 1534年至1549年) ,並最終他活著看到他在安理會開會夢想遄,但經過痛苦的變遷-對其中一些歷史必須持有他個人的失敗負責。 The catalogue of these events needs to be set down.目錄對這些事件的需要確定。

By the time of the election of Paul III (October 13, 1534) the situation in Germany had radically altered since Leo X had first faced the problem in the Diet of Worms (1521).的時候選舉保羅三世( 1534年10月13日)在德國的狀況已徹底改變,因為里奧十世首先面臨的問題在國會的蠕蟲( 1521 ) 。 The Lutheran movement had long since passed from the stage where it was a matter of preachers and writers and the masses they influenced. The state was now in control of it, half a dozen princes in central Germany and a number of leading cities north and south.路德運動早已經過的階段,這個問題的傳教士,作家和群眾,他們的影響。國家現在控制它,半打王子在德國中部和一些主要城市北部和南部。 In all these places the adherents of the new religion and the preachers were organised into churches, installed in the buildings that had once been Catholic; monasticism had been abolished and the monks' properties taken over by the state; the clergy who wished had married, with the state's approval; the mass was everywhere forbidden and the new rites made obligatory; and these Lutheran states were banded together in a formidable military alliance, so powerful that it had been able (at a moment when a Turkish invasion threatened) to ignore the diet's summons to disband and submit, and furthermore it had won for their sect's new status in these regions a provisional acquiescence from the emperor.在所有這些地方的信徒新宗教和傳教士舉辦到教堂,安裝在建築物曾經天主教;修道已經廢除和僧侶的財產接管國家;誰希望神職人員結婚,與國家的批准;群眾到處是禁止和新儀式強制性;和這些信義國聯合起來的一個強大的軍事同盟,如此強大,以至於它已經能夠(在的時候,土耳其的入侵威脅)忽視飲食的傳票解散,並提交,而且它已獲得其節的新地位在這些地區的臨時默許由皇帝。

One root of Clement VII's troubles had been his ambition to strengthen the hold of his family--the Medici--as rulers in what had been the republic of Florence.一個根本的克萊門特七世的麻煩是他的雄心壯志,以加強他的家人舉行-的梅狄奇-作為統治者了哪些佛羅倫薩共和國。 With Paul III there was the like family concern, to see his son, Pierluigi, established among the reigning families of Europe.保羅三有類似家庭的關注,看到他的兒子,皮耶路易吉,衛冕之間建立的歐洲家庭。 In the end the pope succeeded, giving him in fief the duchies of Parma and Piacenza, carved out of the States of the Church, and marrying Pierluigi's son-- Ottavio--to a natural daughter of Charles V. The intricate business of forcing his offspring into the charmed circle of royalty-by-birth, the negotiations with Charles for example over recognition of the new duchies, runs like a subtle poison through what was, despite the very evident Renaissance worldliness of this great pope, the leading policy of his reign, the calling of this council that would reform the life of the Church and heal the divisions in Germany.最後,教宗成功,這使他的封地的duchies帕爾馬和皮亞琴察,切割出來的國家的教會,並娶皮耶路易吉的兒子-奧塔維奧-自然女兒查理五世的複雜業務,迫使他後代的魅力循環版稅的出生,談判與查理例如在承認新duchies ,運行像一個微妙的是什麼毒藥通過,但非常明顯的文藝復興俗氣這個偉大的教宗,他的主要政策在位期間,呼叫本局,將改革的生命教會和治愈的分裂在德國。

Paul III's first obstacle was his cardinals, who voted unanimously against the plan to call a council, when he proposed it.保羅三世的第一個障礙是他的紅雀,一致投票決定誰反對該計劃呼籲安理會,當他提議它。 After an exhaustive study of the situation in Germany--a matter where he had everything to learn--he despatched nuncios to all the courts of Europe, to the Lutherans as well, with invitations to attend.經過詳盡的研究的情況在德國-一個無論身在何處,他的一切學習-他寄發nuncios所有法院,歐洲的路德會以及與邀請參加。 The French king was unfavourable, the German Protestants refused with insults.法國國王是不利的,德國新教徒拒絕與侮辱。 In these negotiations a whole year went by, and then, on June 2, 1536, the official announcement was made: the council would meet at Mantua, May 23, 1537.在這些談判中整整一年過去了,然後在1536年6月2日,正式宣布了:安理會將舉行會議,曼圖亞, 1537年5月23日。 What followed next, however, was a whole series of postponements that finally brought the Catholics of Germany to feel that the new pope was as shifty as the old; postponements first to November 1537, then to May 1538, then to April 1539, and then a postponement indefinitely.接下來未來,然而,一系列的推遲,終於使德國天主教徒認為,新教宗的腥作為老;延期至1537年11月第一次,然後到1538年5月,然後到1539年4月,然後無限期推遲。

The reasons given were real enough, the steady refusal of the French king to co-operate (ie, in practice, the impossibility of any French bishop or cardinal taking part in the council), the renewal of the war between France and the emperor, and so forth.給出的理由是實際不夠,穩步拒絕法國國王進行合作, (即,在實踐中,是不可能的任何法國樞機主教或參加理事會) ,延長之間的戰爭,法國皇帝,等等。 But it came to be believed that the true cause was that the pope really preferred that the council should not ever take place.但後來被認為真正的原因是,教皇真的希望安理會不應以往發生。

Actually, as the years went by, Paul III came to understand that the task before the council was much more complex than he had conceived, or his official advisors.事實上,隨著歲月的流逝,保羅三來的理解是,安理會面前的任務是要複雜得多,他的設想,或他的官方顧問。 As was to be the case with the Vatican Council, three hundred years later, the official world began by oversimplifying the problem.如這種情況同梵蒂岡理事會,三百年後,世界開始了正式的問題簡單化。 The heresies, it was thought, could be simply dealt with by re- enacting the various decrees in which, at their first appearance, centuries before, they had been condemned. There would, of course, be no need to discuss such burning topics as the reform of the Curia Romana--that was not the business of any council, but a matter for the pope's personal action.的歪理邪說,有人認為,可能是簡單地處理重新頒布的各種法令中,在其第一次亮相,數百年前,他們已經譴責。因此,當然就沒有必要討論這些議題燃燒改革教廷大同-這是沒有任何的商業理事會,但此事為教宗的個人行動。 The reform of Catholic life, again, called for no great research; the old laws were adequate, if only they were enforced.天主教改革的生命,再次要求沒有太大的研究;舊的法律是適當的,只要他們被強迫。 The council, once it met, would accomplish its task in a matter of weeks.安理會再次開會,將完成其任務在幾個星期內。 Actually, the working time of the Council of Trent--to anticipate the story--was to amount to four and a half years; the constant hard work of the bishops and theologians who attended would produce a mass of decrees and canons exceeding in volume the whole of the legislation of all the previous eighteen General Councils.其實,工作時間理事會特倫特-預見的故事-是達到4年半;不斷辛勤工作的主教和神學家誰出席會產生大量的法令和大砲數量超過整個立法的所有以前的18總務委員會。

What was also gradually borne in on Paul III was that the kind of council he had in mind--the traditional meeting of bishops--was not at all what Charles V was thinking of, nor the Catholics of Germany.什麼也逐步承擔對保羅三是種安理會,他考慮到-傳統的會議主教-根本不是查理五世是思想的,也不是天主教徒的德國。 Was the coming council to begin with a new religious crisis, with all these champions of the council demanding a say in how it should conduct its business, in what should appear upon its agenda?安理會是在未來開始一個新的宗教危機,所有這些冠軍安理會要求說,在應該如何開展業務,在哪些應該會出現在其議程? The Catholic critics of the intolerable abuses--for which the Roman Curia was generally held responsible--now expected to be heard, at the council. Luther's insistent cry, that there would never be any reform so long as Rome controlled the council, found echoes in the secret thoughts of many of Luther's Catholic adversaries.天主教批評不能容忍的行為-而羅馬教廷普遍追究責任-現在預計將聽取,在安理會。路德堅持哭,是永遠不會有任何改革只要羅馬控制了理事會,發現迴聲在秘密思想的許多路德天主教對手。

And the achievement of the councils of Constance and of Basel, in those sessions ever since officially disregarded, came into the mind of more than one Catholic reformer as the obvious instrument to bring off the desired improvement.並實現了安理會的康斯和巴塞爾,在這些會議上正式無視以來,進入到一個以上的天主教改革者的明顯的文書,以使關閉所需的改善。 The acts of these councils, the wholeheartedly Catholic bishop of Vienna (for example) wrote to Rome, were indispensable as a guide to the council now under consideration.這些行為的政局,全心全意天主教主教維也納(例如)寫信給羅馬,是不可缺少的指導安理會目前正在審議。 German bishops, supporting the pope's desire for a council, were taking for granted that just as they desired it should meet in Germany, so it would follow the pattern of these two classic German councils. How was the pope to accept this position, and not risk at the outset a new damaging controversy about the nature of his own authority?德國主教,支持教宗的希望有一個理事會,正在為理所當然,正如他們希望它應該在德國舉行會議,因此,將按照這兩種模式的經典德國議會。如何教皇接受了這一立場,而不是風險首先,一個新的破壞性的爭議的性質,他自己的權威? a controversy that might send thousands of Catholics in Germany, not, indeed, into the Lutheran body but into schism no less disastrous.爭議可能派遣數千名天主教徒在德國,不,事實上,到信義機構,但不進入分裂是災難性的。 Then there were the Catholics who, for years, had been thinking that unless the power of the Curia to grant dispensations were checked, reform legislation would be a dead letter from the day it was enacted.那麼誰是天主教徒,多年來,一直在考慮,除非的權力授予特許教廷檢查,改革立法將成為一紙空文之日頒布。

"The pope was not merely having bad dreams when he saw these dangers."[1] And so he hesitated, time and again, and even when he did not hesitate he failed to be insistent. “教皇不僅是有壞的夢想當他看到這些危險。 ” [ 1 ]因此,他毫不猶豫地一次又一次,甚至當他沒有猶豫,他沒有得到應有的堅持。 With all his gifts--and with the merit of the great reform he had achieved in his own personal life--Paul III was far from that perfect state where the supernatural controls every act and every thought.他的所有禮物-和優點,他的偉大的改革已經取得了他自己的個人生活-保羅三是遠離完美所在國超自然的控制每一個行為和每一個想法。 He was not a saint. And as his great servant Cardinal Girolamo Morone once expressed it, "He who conducts God's business must not be exclusively actuated by human considerations."[2]他不是聖人。隨著他的僕人吉羅拉莫條紋樞機曾表示, “他誰進行上帝的企業絕不能完全驅動人類的考慮。 ” [ 2 ]

The emperor now won over the pope to try what another, much lauded method might do to bring peace to Germany, the method of peaceful negotiation between the theologians of both parties, with reunion (perhaps) as the fruit of "a better understanding of what it is that divides us."皇帝現在贏得了教皇嘗試另一個什麼,更稱讚方法可能會實現和平的德國,和平談判的方法之間的神學雙方的團聚(或許) ,作為水果的“更好地了解什麼那就是我們的分歧。 “ For many years some leading Catholics had been urging that this way promised better results, some of them influenced in part--let it be bluntly stated--by the fatal delusion that the differences between the Church and the Lutheran bodies did not amount to a real separation.多年來,一些領導天主教徒一直敦促這一承諾的方式更好的結果,其中一些影響部分-讓它直言-由致命妄想之間的分歧教會和路德機構不等於真正的分離。 This seemingly incredible blindness had one source in the dangerous superficialities of Erasmus, who, for example, saw no reason why any differences mattered provided men agreed in accepting Christ, and who could not understand why either party would not accept as a sufficient statement of the Eucharistic mystery the unexamined ambiguity that Christ is here present somehow.這似乎是不可思議的失明了一個來源的危險superficialities的伊拉斯謨,誰例如,看不出有任何理由的任何分歧提供了重要的男子同意接受基督,誰不明白為什麼任何一方也不會接受了足夠的發言聖體奧跡的未經審查的模棱兩可之處,基督是在座不知。 The "appalling" intellectual confusion of which Jedin[3] speaks is indeed, by this time, a leading characteristic of the age among the Catholics.在“令人震驚”的混亂,其中Jedin [ 3 ]講確實是,這個時候,領先的特點,年齡之間的天主教徒。

Let it be remembered, also, that in the twenty years since the somewhat elementary directions of the bull Exsurge, Rome had not said a word about the divergencies.讓我們記住,另外,在二十年以來,有些基本方向的牛市Exsurge ,羅馬沒有說一個字的分歧。 Lutheranism had, since then, developed all its doctrines, and a varied host of Catholic writers, each according to his lights and temperament, had, in criticising the heresiarch, offered his own solution for the new theological problems he had posed.路德教了,自那時以來,發達國家的所有理論,以及各種主機天主教作家,根據他的每一個燈和氣質,已在批評heresiarch ,提出自己的解決方案,新的神學問題,他提出的。 For the Catholic princes and their political advisors the "conference" method offered this advantage that an official business like the General Council must result in clear-cut definitions of doctrine; in sentences, that is to say, and a summons to accept these or take the appropriate punishment; in strong resistance, and- -who knows?--in civil war.為天主教王子和他們的政治顧問“會議”的方法提供了這種優勢的一種正式的商業,如總理事會的結果必須在明確的定義,原則,在判決,也就是說,並接受這些傳票或採取適當的處罰;在強大的阻力,和,誰知道? -在內戰。 And this with Francis I longing to renew the war against Charles; and the French ally, the Turk, already at the gates!這與弗蘭西斯一世渴望重新開戰查爾斯;和法國的盟友,土耳其人,已經在蓋茨! Of the emperor's critical position, in the world of armies, of the grave risk of a Catholic defeat, the belligerents in the Sacred College and the Curia knew all too little.皇帝的關鍵位置,在世界上的軍隊,在嚴重的危險,天主教失敗,交戰各方在神聖的大學和教廷都知道得太少。 Paul III never lost sight of all this.保羅三世從來沒有忘記這一切。 His knowledge was one reason for his reluctance to act with decision.他所知的一個原因是他不情願地採取行動的決定。

The high-water mark of the reunion-through-negotiation movement was the conference held at Ratisbon in the summer of 1541 about which historians are still arguing.在高水位的團聚,通過談判運動舉行的會議上Ratisbon在1541年夏季哪些歷史學家仍在爭論。 This history is of interest because it does much to explain what, at first sight, is utterly incomprehensible, viz., that nearly thirty years went by before the vitally necessary council met, and also because it reveals the nature of one serious weakness that hampered the Catholic champions in these critical years.這是歷史的興趣,因為它不需要很大的解釋,乍看之下,是完全不可理解的,即。 ,近三十年過去了之前必不可少安理會舉行會議,而且還因為它揭示的性質,一個嚴重的缺陷,妨礙天主教冠軍在這些關鍵年。

To Ratisbon, where most of the princes of Germany attended and the emperor himself, there came two of the principal reformers, Philip Melanchthon and Martin Bucer, the last-named bringing with him a reformer of the second generation who was soon to eclipse in influence all the rest, the young John Calvin.為了Ratisbon ,其中大部分的德國王子出席和皇帝,有了兩個主要改革者,菲利普梅蘭希頓和馬丁布塞珥,最後命名帶著改革者的第二代誰很快月食的影響所有的休息,年輕的約翰卡爾文。 The pope sent, as legate, the Venetian Gaspar Contarini, theologian and statesman, the greatest figure the Curia had known for generations, and a man of saintly life.教皇派遣,作為特使,威尼斯加斯帕爾黎尼,神學家和政治家,最大的數字就知道了教廷的後代,和一個男人的聖潔的生活。 If Contarini, a steady opponent of extreme solutions, went to Ratisbon still really believing that disagreement about the essentials was not so serious as many believed, he was soon enlightened.如果黎尼,穩步對手極端的解決辦法,去Ratisbon仍然認為,真正的分歧要點並非如此嚴重,許多人認為,他很快開明。 Though he contrived an apparent, momentary harmony on the question of Justification, there was no resolving the flat contradictions he encountered on the doctrines of the Eucharist and of the sacrament of Penance.雖然他人為明顯,瞬間的和諧問題上的理由,也沒有解決的矛盾,他在單位上遇到理論的聖體和聖懺悔。 The conference failed utterly, and when Paul III announced that the preparation for the General Council would be resumed the emperor did not dissent.會議完全失敗的,當保羅三宣布,籌備工作的總理事會將恢復天皇沒有異議。 The conference had had this useful result: it demonstrated to the "practical" minds the truth which the controversial theology of twenty years had ever insisted on, that Catholicism and the new theologies were contradictory, and impossible to reconcile.會議不得不這一有益的結果是:它表明了“實用”思想的真理爭議神學二十年曾經堅持認為,這天主教和新theologies了自相矛盾,無法調和。

The bull convoking the council is dated May 22, 1542.牛市召開安理會的日期是1542年5月22日。 It was to meet on November 1 following, at the episcopal city of Trent, the first town outside Italy on the great road along which for a thousand years and more the traffic had travelled between Rome and Germany.這是滿足於11月1日之後,在主教特倫特市,鎮外的第一個偉大的意大利的一條為1000年和更多的交通前往羅馬和德國之間。 Trent was a city of the empire, a German city where the bishop was also the reigning prince.特倫特是一個城市的帝國,德國城市的主教也公爵。 Eighty miles to the north, along the same road, is Innsbruck, the capital of Charles V as Count of Tyrol. 80英里的北部,沿同樣的道路,是因斯布魯克的首府查爾斯五世作為計數蒂羅爾州。

The three legates appointed to preside arrived at Trent on November 2.這三個legates任命擔任抵達特倫特11月2日。 They found scarcely a single bishop awaiting them.他們發現幾乎沒有一個單一的主教等待他們。 In January 1543 the representatives of the emperor arrived, and very slowly bishops came in-- very slowly, for by May there were no more than a dozen.在1543年1月的代表皇帝抵達,並十分緩慢主教來-非常緩慢,為5月,沒有超過12個。 The fact was that four months before the summons of Paul III's bull, the long-expected war had broken out between France and the empire.事實是,前四個月的傳票保羅三世的牛市,長期預期的戰爭爆發了法國與帝國。 Francis I had explicitly refused to countenance the council, and had forbidden the hundred bishops of France to leave the country.弗朗西斯我已經明確拒絕將面容理事會,並已禁止100主教法國離開該國。 The emperor, driven to fury by the pope's determined neutrality in the war, had taken a similar course, barring out thereby any participation of the bishops, not only from Spain, but from his kingdom of the Two Sicilies (110 bishops), from the Netherlands, from Austria and Hungary; and affording an excuse for all the bishops of the empire.皇帝,推動以憤怒的教皇的決心中立戰爭中,已經採取了類似的過程,從而阻止了任何形式的參與的主教,不僅來自西班牙,但是從他的王國兩個西西里( 110主教) ,從荷蘭,奧地利和匈牙利;和提供藉口,所有主教的帝國。 A General Council, at a time when three fourths of the bishops of the world were violently prevented from attending?阿總理事會,當時四分之三的主教世界上暴力無法參加? By July 1543 there was only one thing to be done, suspend the council yet once again.由1543年7月,只有一件事要做,暫停,但再次。

How, upon the peace between the rival sovereigns (September 1544), Francis I withdrew his prohibition, while Charles was reconciled to the pope, and how next there supervened the new trouble over the investment of the pope's son with the duchies of Parma and Piacenza--all these highly relevant matters must be studied elsewhere.[4] But in November 1544 Paul III revoked the suspension of the council, and on March 13, 1545, the legates once more made their entry into Trent.如何後,競爭對手之間的和平主權( 1544年9月) ,弗朗西斯本人撤回了他的禁令,而查爾斯核對教宗,以及如何在未來有新的麻煩supervened的投資教宗的兒子與duchies帕爾馬和皮亞琴察-所有這些高度相關的事項必須研究其他地方。 [ 4 ]但是,在1544年11月保羅三世撤銷中止理事會,並於1545年3月13日,該legates再次使他們進入特倫特。

The council was solemnly opened there on December 13, with thirty-one bishops in attendance and forty-eight theologians and canonists, technical experts, summoned to assist them.理事會隆重開幕還有12月13日與31主教出席了會議和48神學和canonists ,技術專家,傳喚,協助他們。

It will perhaps help the reader if, before the attempt is made to convey what is contained in the legislation of Trent--itself equal in volume to this present work--it is stated, once and for all, that the various political difficulties that had delayed the council's meeting for so many years never ceased to harass it during its entire progress.這也許會幫助讀者如果之前,試圖傳達什麼是載於立法特倫特-本身同等數量,以目前的工作-這是說,一勞永逸的,各種政治困難,已拖延了安理會的會議,這麼多年來從未停止騷擾它在整個進展。 Here, of course, lay the cause of the two long suspensions which the council suffered--one of four years and one of ten.在這裡,當然,奠定了事業的兩個長期懸浮其中安理會遭受之一-四年和一個10 。 The council's history has, in fact, three chapters: sessions 1-10, December 13, 1545, to June 2, 1547; sessions 11-16, May 1, 1551, to April 28, 1552; sessions 17-25, January 17, 1562, to December 4, 1563安理會的歷史,事實上,三個章節:會議1月10日, 1545年12月13日,到1547年6月2日;會議11月16日, 1551年5月1日,以1552年4月28日;會議17-25日, 1月17日, 1562年,到1563年12月4日

What I now propose to do is to explain how the council organised itself, how the bishops and the technicians did their work, and then to show, by some examples, the tone of the council's treatment of the twofold task before it, viz., the restatement of belief in opposition to the new theologies, and the reformation of Catholic life.我現在提出這樣做是為了解釋如何理事會舉辦本身,如何主教和技術人員沒有他們的工作,然後顯示,通過一些例子,基調安理會治療的雙重任務面前,即。 ,重述的信念,反對新theologies ,以及改革的天主教生活。

The direction of the council was in the hands of the three cardinal- legates. Of these the senior, Gian Maria del Monte, a man of fifty-eight, had been in the service of the papal curia for well over thirty years.的方向是在安理會手中的三個紅衣主教legates 。其中高級,姜瑪利亞蒙特,一名男子的58 ,已經在服務的教皇教廷為超過三十年。 He was esteemed one of its leading canonists and had a vast experience of administration, civil and ecclesiastical.他是一個受人尊敬的領導canonists和有豐富經驗的政府,民間和教會。 He was the practical man of the trio, level-headed, firm, and a good manager of men.他的實際男子三人,冷靜,堅定和一個良好的經理人。 The second in rank, Marcello Cervini, was another type altogether, a theologian primarily and a man of rigidly austere life, dedicated passionately to the extirpation of the abuses that had almost become an ecclesiastical institution.第二次是在排名,里皮Cervini ,完全是另一種類型,一個神學主要是和一個人的嚴格簡樸的生活,致力於熱情的摘除的侵權行為,幾乎成為一個教會機構。 He was not really a curialist at all, and had come to the notice of Paul III as a tutor to the pope's two grandsons whom the old man had made cardinals, at the age of fifteen, in the opening weeks of his reign.他是不是一個真正的curialist所有,並已經到了通知的保羅三作為導師教宗的兩個孫子其中老人了紅雀,在15歲,在開放週的在位。 The third legate was the solitary English cardinal, Reginald Pole, the near kinsman of King Henry VIII, and an exile for his faith this many a year. His mother, and other relations, had some years before been executed by the king, and the cardinal was continuously in danger from the Italian bravos whom Henry hired to assassinate him.第三特使是孤立英語紅衣主教,雷極,近親人的國王亨利八世和他的信仰流亡這許多年。他的母親,以及其他關係,有一些年前被處死的國王,和紅衣主教是不斷的危險從意大利聘請bravos人亨利暗殺他。 Pole, at forty-five, was roughly Cervini's contemporary, a scholar primarily, the Christian humanist indeed, and learned in the Fathers, in the new Renaissance manner.北極,在45 ,大約是Cervini當代的學者,主要是基督教人文主義事實上,和教訓的父親,在新的文藝復興的方式進行。 With his great friend Contarini, whom a premature death had carried off in 1542, he was regarded by all as the very embodiment of the Catholic Reformation.他的偉大的朋友黎尼,過早死亡的人進行了在1542年,他被所有的非常體現了天主教改革。 It fell to him to write the opening address of the legates to the council--a frank admission that it was clerical sin mainly that had brought religion to this pass, and a passionate plea for sincerity in the deliberations.下降到他寫的開幕詞的legates向理事會-坦率地承認,這是文書罪主要是帶來了宗教這個傳球,以及一個充滿激情的請求誠意審議。 One who was present has recorded that as the secretary of the council read the speech, the bishops instinctively turned to look at Pole, recognising from its tone and content who was its actual author. Paul III could have given no clearer sign of his own sincerity than in this association of Cervini and Pole in the direction of the longed-for council.[5]誰是一本記錄,作為理事會秘書宣讀的講話中,主教們本能地轉向看北極,承認其語氣和內容誰是它的實際作者。保羅三可能沒有清楚地表明自己的誠意比在此協會Cervini和北極的方向久的安理會。 [ 5 ]

As to procedure, the bishops decided that only bishops and generals of religious orders should have the right to a vote.至於程序,主教們決定,只有主教和將軍的宗教訂單應有權表決。 The question whether to treat doctrinal matters first (as the pope required, to the anger of Charles V) or the reforms, they settled by treating both simultaneously-- along with each decree about a doctrine called in question by the reformers there would be enacted a definite law about reforms.是否治療理論事項第一(如教皇必要時,憤怒的查爾斯V )或改革,解決了治療,他們都同時-隨著每個命令有關的理論質疑的改革者將頒布一個明確的法律有關的改革。 After some experiments the following system of work was adopted.經過一些實驗以下的工作系統獲得通過。 The technicians would debate the proposed decree with the bishops assisting as an audience.該技術將討論擬議法令的主教協助作為一個觀眾。 This was the meeting called the "particular congregation" of the council.這是這次會議被稱為“特別眾”的理事會。 Next the bishops, meeting alone, discussed the matter under the presidency of the legates--the "general congregation"--and came to a final conclusion about the text.下一步的主教,會議僅討論了這一問題的主持下的legates - “一般眾” -來到最後結論的案文。 Then, in a public meeting called a "session," an open vote was taken and the decree read out as the council's definition.然後,在一次公開會議上所謂的“會議上, ”一個開放的表決,並宣讀了該法令作為安理會的定義。 In the first chapter of the council's history the public sessions took place in the cathedral of Trent, later in the church of S. Maria Maggiore. The particular congregations were held in various mansions of the little city. Of the twenty-five public sessions between 1545 and 1563, seventeen were devoted to definition of doctrine and the promulgation of reform laws.在第一章在安理會公開會議歷史上發生在大教堂特倫特,後來在教堂的南瑪利亞教堂。特別教區舉行了各種大廈的小城市。在05年間公開會議1545年和1563年, 17用於定義理論和頒布法律的改革。 The rest were ceremonial occasions for the transacting of the inevitable legal formalities--the opening of the council, the various suspensions, and reopenings, and so forth.其餘的禮儀場合的交易不可避免的法律手續-開放的國家,各種懸浮液,和reopenings ,等等。

The technical work done by the bishops, the theologians, and the canonists was of a very high order, and the work was done thoroughly.技術方面所做的工作主教的神學家,和canonists是一個非常高的秩序,工作是徹底的。 It took, for example, seven months to hammer out the decree on the key doctrine of Justification, forty-four particular congregations and sixty-one general congregations.它,例如, 7個月,以敲定該法令的主要原則的理由, 44尤其是教會和61一般性聚會。 The decrees about belief especially are evidence of the theological revival that had begun with the emergence of the great figure of Cajetan, and is marked by the teaching of Francis de Vittoria and Soto-- the last named of whom actually took part in the council.該法令的有關證據,尤其是信仰的神學復甦已經開始的出現,偉大人物的Cajetan ,和特點是教學中的弗朗西斯日維托里亞和爾索托-過去的命名,其中實際參加理事會。 The language of the decrees, again, is that of men influenced by the new classical learning of the Renaissance--as is that other literary monument of the council, the so-called Catechism of the Council of Trent.語言的法令,再次,是男子的影響,新古典的文藝復興學習-這是其他文學紀念碑安理會,即所謂的問答理事會特倫特。 And all in all, the theological achievement of Trent is a memorial to the small band of competent writers who, from Luther's first adventure, had never ceased to examine critically and to expose the weaknesses and the mischievousness of his theology.和所有的一切,神學實現特倫特是一個紀念的小樂隊的作家誰主管,從路德的第一次冒險,從未停止嚴格審查和揭露的弱點和他的惡作劇神學。

It was a small band also who, at Trent, whether of the theologians or of bishops, brought about this great result.這是一個小樂隊還誰,在特倫特,無論是神學或主教,使這個偉大的結果。 The modern French historian who, to a statement similar to this, appends the word heureusement was not merely cynical. The comparatively small number of bishops made for manageable discussions.現代法國歷史學家誰,一項聲明與此類似,附加詞heureusement不僅是玩世不恭的。比較少一些主教為便於管理討論。 When, three hundred years later, there appeared at the Vatican Council some seven hundred or so bishops and, in the early days, the drafts of decrees prepared proved inadequate, and debates dragged on endlessly, a prelate who knew his history said, feelingly, "If the Fathers of Trent could rise from their graves, they would disown us."當,三百年後,出現在梵蒂岡理事會一些700或做主教,並在初期,該法令草案編制證明不足,拖了無休止的辯論,一個主教誰知道他的歷史說,感動, “如果父親特倫特可能上升到他們的墳墓,他們將斷絕與我們聯繫。 ” The number of bishops present at the Tridentine sessions varied greatly.主教的人數出席了Tridentine會大不相同。 At the opening of the council there were, besides the legates, 32.開幕式上,安理會有,除了legates , 32 。 During the remainder of this first (1545-47) period the numbers gradually increased to 68.在餘下的這第一次( 1545年至1547年)期間的數量逐漸增長到68個。 In the two sessions of the second (1551-52) period there were 44 and 51, respectively.在兩屆會議的第二次( 1551年至1552年)期間,有44和51分別。 The third (1562-63) period began with 105, and rose to 228 at the session of November 11, 1563.第三次( 1562年至1563年)時期開始的105 ,上升到228會議上1563年11月11日。 At the closing session there were 176. As well as the bishops, there were also present the generals of five religious orders, who were full members of the council, with the right to speak and to vote.在閉幕會議上有176 。除了主教,也有本將軍的五個宗教命令,誰是正式成員,理事會的發言權和表決權。 Two of these played a principal role in the council, the Augustinian Girolamo Seripando[6] in the Paul III period of the council, and the Jesuit, Diego Lainez in the two closing years.其中兩個發揮了主要作用,安理會,奧古斯丁吉羅拉莫Seripando [ 6 ]在保羅第三期安理會和耶穌,圣迭戈萊內斯在兩個最後幾年。

Throughout the council, the great majority of the bishops were from Italian sees--which does not imply that they were all equally at the disposal of the Curia Romana.整個理事會,絕大多數是來自意大利主教認為-這並不意味著他們都同樣在處置教廷大同。 The Italy of the sixteenth century was not, of course, a single unified national state.在意大利的16世紀是,當然不會有一個統一的民族國家。 In central Italy--one sixth of the whole Italian territory--the pope was the sovereign.在意大利中部-六分之一整個意大利領土-教皇是主權。 To the south and in Sicily and Sardinia, it was Charles V (as King of Naples) who ruled, and he also ruled the Duchy of Milan in the north.至該國南部和西西里和撒丁島,這是查爾斯五世(作為國王的那不勒斯)誰統治,他還排除了大公國米蘭在北方。 Whether the 110 bishops of the kingdom of Naples were likely to favour papal policies against those of their king needs no telling.是否110主教王國那不勒斯有可能贊成教皇政策對那些需要他們的國王沒有告訴。 To the east of Milan lay the Venetian Republic, one of the most powerful states in Europe which, notoriously and for generations, had taken its own line in ecclesiastical affairs.以東的米蘭奠定了威尼斯共和國,其中一個最強大的國家在歐洲,眾所周知,並為後代,採取了自己的路線在宗教事務部。 In a list of 270 bishops present, at one time or another, during the third period of the council, 187 are set down as "Italians," 31 are Spaniards, 26 French, with no more than 2 from Germany.清單中的270名主教目前,在同一時間或其他,在第三期的理事會,一八七頃的規定,作為“意大利” , 31個是西班牙人, 26法文,不超過2名來自德國。

The various orders of friars played a great part in the council, furnishing the bulk of the theological experts, and--many others of them--sitting as bishops.各訂單的修士發揮了很大一部分在安理會中,提供了大量的神學專家, -許多其他人-坐在作為主教。 There were no fewer than 23 Dominican bishops at the council, for instance, and a total of 28 Dominican theologians besides.有不少於23多米尼加主教在安理會,舉例來說,共有28個多米尼加神學除了。 It was at Trent that St.正是在特倫特,聖 Thomas Aquinas first really came into his own as the doctor communis among the theologians.托馬斯阿奎那第一次真正走進他自己的醫生蹠的神學。

The prestige of the Council of Trent was to approach the fabulous in the ensuing centuries.的威望理事會特倫特是接近神話般在隨後的幾個世紀。 And not surprisingly.毫不奇怪。 In answer to the challenge of the reformers it had surveyed anew the greater part of the Christian belief and had reaffirmed it, always with an especial explicitness about the points where Luther and the rest had gone astray.在回答這一挑戰的改革者它重新調查,大部份的基督教信仰,並重申它,總是一個特別清晰的點路德和其餘的人走入歧途。 It had looked directly in the face the dreadful disorders that had for centuries disfigured the practice of religion, and had laid the axe to the root of the tree.它看上去直接面對可怕的疾病毀容了數百年的實踐宗教,奠定了斧頭的根的樹。 It had no less boldly innovated in the remedies it provided.它不大膽創新,在它提供的補救措施。 The decrees of Trent "remain to this very day, the most noble part of all the Church's legislation," a modern authority can say.[7] All this is what every man knows about the Council of Trent.特倫特法令“保持到今天,最崇高的一部分,所有的教會的立法, ”一個現代化的權力可以說。 [ 7 ]這是每個人都知道安理會的遄。 It remains for us to examine, a little more in detail, what those scores of pages of reform decrees contain.它仍是我們研究,多一點的細節,什麼樣的分數頁的改革法令包含。 Perhaps the summary will be less deadly if it follows the simple historical fact that the council abolished altogether many practices hitherto lawful, and introduced much that was new, and that it hoped to secure the future observance of what it now decreed by the related legal devices of a new kind of power for the diocesan bishop and of penalties for wrongdoing that would work automatically.也許總結將會減少致命如果按照簡單的歷史事實,即安理會完全取消許多做法迄今合法,並介紹了很多這是新的,而且它希望,以確保今後遵守它現在頒布相關的法律手段一種新的力量的教區主教和處罰不當行為,將自動工作。 The summary list of the achievements that follows is not, of course, complete, and it does not follow the chronological order of the sessions.摘要名單如下的成就當然不是,完整,沒有按照時間順序排列的會議。

Of all the chronic scandals of the fourteen to the sixteenth centuries none had given rise to more continuous resentment than the papal licences to ecclesiastics to hold more than one see, or abbey, or parish simultaneously--scandals connected with what is called compendiously, the benefice system.所有的長期醜聞的14到16世紀還沒有引起更多的持續的怨恨比教皇許可證教區舉行多個見,或修道院,或教區同時-醜聞與所謂compendiously ,該采邑制度。 Trent utterly forbade this practice--even where the beneficiaries were cardinals--and the council ordered all existing pluralists to surrender all but one of the benefices they held.特倫特完全禁止這種做法-即使受益者是紅雀-和安理會所有現有pluralists命令交出所有,但一個benefices舉行。 It abolished, also, all expectatives, that is to say, all grants of posts when they next fell vacant; and, with these, "coadjutorships with the right of succession," the practice whereby the benefice-holder secured, in his own lifetime, the nomination of his successor (a relative usually) to whom, when something better for himself turned up, he could surrender the parish, or canonry, or see.它取消,此外,所有expectatives ,也就是說,所有補助金時的職位空缺明年下跌,以及與這些“ coadjutorships與繼承權”的做法,即采邑持有人擔保,用他自己的一生,提名他的繼任者(通常是一個相對的)的人,當有更好的為自己打開了,他可以放棄本堂,或牧師,或見。 The choice of coadjutors to sees was strictly reserved henceforth to the pope.選擇coadjutors至認為是嚴格保留今後教皇。 Meanwhile the third chronic benefice scandal was checked--the absentee priest or abbot or bishop, who never even saw his flock but merely drew the profits while a hireling tended them at a salary.與此同時,第三慢性采邑醜聞檢查-缺席或住持神父或主教,誰甚至從來沒有看到他的羊群,而只是提請利潤而僱工往往他們的薪金。 Dealing with which the council roundly says, "The law about residence has become in practice a dead letter."處理安理會圓圓說, “相關法律居住在實踐中已成為一紙空文。 ” The new method of dealing with this old trouble was to forbid all licences allowing clerics with a cure of souls to reside away from their posts, to set out in detail the limits of the temporary leave annually allowed them, and to provide an automatic penalty of loss of right to the income--so that the delinquent who managed to get the income was, in effect, stealing it and bound to restitution.新的方法處理這一老問題被禁止所有許可證允許神職人員與治愈的靈魂居住離崗位,制定了詳細的限制,每年的暫時離開讓他們,並提供自動刑罰權利損失的收入-使拖欠誰設法獲得收入,實際上,盜竊和約束,以恢復原狀。 No more were there to be sees where, like Milan, no archbishop had resided for a hundred years.沒有更多的人有被認為在那裡,像AC米蘭,沒有大主教居住的百年。

Other dispensations, to the profit of the benefice-hunting cleric, which were now abolished were the permissions which enabled newly appointed bishops to delay their consecration all but indefinitely, so that boys could be appointed to sees, draw their revenues (or their parents draw them in their stead), and, when arrived at an age to be ordained and consecrated, could remain in their semi-lay state until, succeeding to some lay dignity, they chose to resign an abbey or see, marry and found a family.其他特許,利潤的采邑,狩獵教士,現在取消的權限,使新任命的主教推遲奉獻一切,但無限期,使男孩可能被任命為認為,吸取他們的收入(或其父母提請他們代替) ,並在抵達年齡是祝和神聖,可以留在自己的半躺在狀態,直到接替奠定一些尊嚴,他們選擇了辭職的修道院或見,結婚和建立家庭。 No one, henceforward, is to be appointed to a see who has not been in Holy Orders for at least six months, and he must be consecrated within six months, or the appointment lapses.任何人,從今以後,是被任命為看看誰沒有在羅馬訂單至少6個月,他必須是神聖6個月內,或其委任失效。 For lesser clerics, the dispensation, so often given, to delay receiving the orders which were the very condition of holding the post was likewise abolished; and also licences to be ordained by whatever bishop the cleric chose.較輕的神職人員,免除,因此往往給予,拖延接受訂單這是非常情況舉行後也同樣取消;並牌照的任何主教祝聖的神職人員選擇。 Bishops were now told that it was their duty to ordain personally all the clerics destined to work in their own particular sees.主教們說,現在是他們的責任,注定個人所有神職人員注定要在自己的工作,特別是看到。 The benefice-holder not yet ordained must go for ordination to the bishop of the diocese where his benefice lay.在采邑持有者尚未祝必須為協調的教區的主教,他的采邑奠定基礎。

Money--the cleric's need and desire for more and more of it--was certainly one main cause of the religious malaise whence Luther's chance came.錢-薩德爾的需要和願望,越來越多的是-肯定是主要原因宗教弊病何處路德的機會來了。 Trent cut away two perennial sources of trouble by abolishing, under most stringent automatic penalties, the custom by which bishops, making the visitation of their dioceses, either levied a tax on the parishes visited, or were given tributes of affection, free gifts, etc., in the shape of money, and otherwise.特倫特截兩個常年來源麻煩,廢除,根據最嚴格的自動處罰,自定義,其中主教,使探視他們的教區,無論是徵收稅款的教區訪問,或給予敬意的感情,免費贈品等。 ,形狀的錢,和其他。 And it abolished similar age-long customs for the benefit of the bishop at ordinations. Finally the council remembered Luther, and how his revolution had started, in 1517, with a declaration against Indulgences which stressed the scandals deriving from the connection between these and the Christian duty to give alms to pious causes.它廢除了類似的年齡海關長期的利益,在祝聖主教。最後安理會記住路德,以及如何他的革命已經開始,在1517年,一個宣言,強調對Indulgences醜聞源於上述之間的聯繫和基督教責任施捨,以虔誠的原因。 The council speaks of these abuses as the occasion of heretical blasphemies, and of the wickedness of the alms collectors' practices being the source of great mischief to the ordinary Catholic.安理會談到這些侵權行為作為之際,邪教褻瀆,和邪惡的施捨收藏家的做法是令人極為惡作劇普通天主教。 The very office-- name and thing--of clerical "alms-collector" (questor in Latin) is therefore abolished, the council bluntly stating that after two centuries of lawmaking there seemed to be no hope of their amendment.非常辦事處-名稱和東西-辦事員“施捨集” ( questor在拉丁美洲) ,因此取消,安理會直言指出,兩個世紀後的立法,似乎沒有希望的修正案。 The duty of announcing Indulgences was reserved henceforward to the bishop of the diocese, and, for the future, the giving of an alms was never to be the necessary condition for the gaining of an Indulgence.的責任,宣布從今以後Indulgences保留的教區主教,並為今後的施捨給從未得到必要的條件獲得的嗜好。

Finally, in the matter of marriage, the council restricted the force of the law which forbade marriage between in-laws (so to call them) related through sinful sex relations,[8] between those related through a brother or sister's solemn espousals (sponsalia), or by the spiritual relationship set up through the sacrament of baptism--the council frankly admitted that the number of these prohibitions had become an occasion of sin to very many, of invalid marriages, for example, contracted in ignorance, which the partners refused to abandon, and which could not be broken off without danger of further sin.最後,在這個問題上的婚姻,安理會限制了部隊的支持下,法律禁止結婚的法律(即要求他們)有關通過罪孽深重性別關係, [ 8 ]有關之間通過一個兄弟或姐妹的嚴正espousals ( sponsalia ) ,或精神關係的成立,通過聖洗聖事中-安理會坦率地承認,一些這些禁令已成為罪惡之際非常多,無效婚姻的,例如,合同中的無知,這是合作夥伴拒絕放棄,並不能中斷的危險進一步罪孽。 The council also abolished secret marriages--marriages where none need be present but the man and woman who contracted the marriage.安理會還廢除秘密婚姻-婚姻在沒有必要存在,但男人和女人誰的婚姻合同。 Such marriages--provided the parties were really free to marry--were true marriages.這種婚姻-為各方提供了真正自由地結婚-是真正的婚姻。 But since the fact of the marrying could not be proved by independent testimony, and since the mutual contradiction of the two partners (should one of them choose to abandon the other) was not capable of resolution, these secret marriages were a chronic source of trouble. The Church, says the council's decree (Tametsi, November 11, 1563), "has ever held the practice in detestation, and strictly forbidden it."但是,由於事實上的婚姻不能由獨立的證詞證明,由於相互矛盾的兩個合作夥伴(其中一人應選擇放棄其他)是不能夠解決,這些秘密結婚慢性禍根。教會說,安理會的法令( Tametsi , 1563年11月11日) , “有一次的做法,厭惡,並嚴格禁止它。 ” To contract a marriage in this way was, generally speaking, a grave sin.合同婚姻以這種方式是,一般而言,一個嚴重的罪過。 Those married in this clandestine fashion were, once the fact was discovered or admitted, condemned to a public penance in reparation of the scandal, and compelled to renew their matrimonial pledges in due form in the parish church.結婚者在這個秘密的方式是,一旦事實被發現或承認,譴責公共懺悔的賠償的醜聞,並迫使再次承諾在適當的婚姻形式的教區教堂。 The council's proposal, to decree that clandestine marriages were, by the fact, not marriages at all, met with strong opposition.安理會的建議,以法令,秘密結婚,這一事實,而不是在所有的婚姻,會見了強烈反對。 All, of course, acknowledged the terrible evil they had caused from time immemorial, but many bishops doubted whether the Church had the power to make the declaration which, for the future, nullified all marriages but those contracted before three witnesses, one of whom must be the parish priest (parochus, ie, "pastor" in the modern American parlance) or a priest licensed by him or by the bishop.[9] The reader will perceive, behind the objection, the shade of a doctrinal controversy about the power of the Church of Christ with reference to the matter and form of the sacraments.一切,當然,承認他們的可怕的邪惡造成了從遠古時代,但許多人懷疑是否主教教會有權作出聲明,對未來,所有的婚姻無效,但這些合同之前,三名證人,其中一人必須是教區牧師( parochus ,即“牧師”在美國現代用語)或一名牧師許可由他或由主教。 [ 9 ]讀者認為,背後的反對,樹蔭的理論爭論的權力在基督教會提及此事,並形式的聖禮。 To avoid the chance of a debate about this, the council dealt with the practical problem only, and it is among the disciplinary reforms, and not among the decrees on doctrine, that the great change was placed.為了避免發生爭論,這一點,安理會處理的實際問題只,是各學科的改革,而不是法令之間的理論,即巨大的變化放在。 At the same time the council refused to declare null for the future marriages of young people made without the consent of their parents.與此同時,安理會拒絕宣布無效婚姻的未來作出的年輕人同意的情況下,他們的父母。 "Had there been no other reason for calling this council," said a bishop who took part in it,[10] "this task alone, the condemnation of furtive marriages, would have justified its being summoned, for there was not a corner of the world that this plague had not infected, the occasion, for generations, of an infinity of wicked deeds."[11] “如果沒有其他原因,要求本局說: ”主教誰參加了它, [ 10 ] “這一任務,僅譴責偷偷結婚,將其被傳喚的理由,因為沒有一個角落世界上,這並沒有感染鼠疫的時刻,為幾代人,一個無限大的邪惡行為。 “ [ 11 ]

The bishop's arm as a reformer is strengthened, time and again, in the Tridentine reforms, by the clause that he acts "as delegated for this by the Holy See."主教的手臂作為改革者得到加強,一次又一次,在Tridentine改革,該條款,他的行為“的授權,這是羅馬教廷。 ” This in such matters as these: the visitation of all chapters within his diocese, of all monasteries which are held "in commendam,"[12] and of all "pious places," ie, places of pilgrimage, shrines, and so forth; for the examination of all dispensations sent through him, from Rome, to his subjects (and henceforth it is always to the petitioner's bishop that dispensations will be sent), of all Roman permissions to change the terms of wills; the examination and correction of all notaries, a race whose costly incompetence is frequently complained of; the correction of all secular clerics who live in his diocese, and of all regulars there who are not living within a monastery; for the summary, out- of-hand correction of notorious and defiant concubinary clerics, and for the suppression of all abuses and superstitions centering round the mass.這在這類問題上,因為這些:探望的所有各章在他的教區,這對所有的寺廟舉行“在commendam , ” [ 12 ]和所有“虔誠地” ,即地方的朝聖地,聖地,等等;審查所有特許透過他,來自羅馬,他的科目(和今後它總是給請求者的主教說,特許將發送) ,所有羅馬的權限,改變條款的意願;檢查和糾正一切公證員,一個種族,其昂貴的無能常常抱怨;糾正所有世俗教士誰住在他的教區,和所有的常客還有誰不是生活在一個修道院;為總之,外出的手糾正和臭名昭著挑釁concubinary神職人員,並制止一切濫用和迷信圍繞質量。

In all these cases the bishop's sentence takes effect immediately.在所有這些情況的主教句立即生效。 He is given the like power to unite neighbouring parishes, and to divide parishes that are, geographically, too large, and this whether the priests are willing or not, and he may finance the new from the revenues of the old as he judges best.他是因為喜歡力量團結鄰近教區和堂區劃分的,地理上,過大,這是否祭司願意與否,他可能會資助新的收入,他的老法官最佳。 Where the priest is too ignorant to preach, the bishop may provide him with a better instructed curate, fix his salary and compel the parish priest to pay it. Dilapidated churches are a frequent subject of comment in all medieval church records.凡牧師太無知鼓吹,主教可能向他提供一個更好的指示牧師,修正自己的薪水,並迫使教區牧師來承擔。破舊的教堂是一個頻繁的問題發表評論的所有中世紀教堂記錄。 The bishop's powers "as delegated," etc., make it possible to compel the repair of churches, ie, to compel those to whom the parish revenues are paid to finance the repairs, even the repairs of monastic churches where the superior of the local abbot is negligent in this duty.主教的權力“的授權, ”等,使人們有可能迫使修復教堂,即迫使那些人教區收入支付資金的修理,甚至修理修道院教堂的優越的地方住持是疏忽了這項義務。 Finally, he may use the same power to finance, out of the revenues of the cathedral chapter, the new public lectureship of Sacred Scripture which he is ordered to institute in his see-city, the Scripture teaching in the diocesan "high school," and the diocesan seminary which he is now ordered to found.最後,他可能會使用相同的權力,資金,走出收入大教堂本章的情況下,新的公共講座的聖經,他被命令在他的研究所見市聖經教學拔萃“高中”和教區神學院,他現在已經下令發現。 One sometimes hears the nonsense that never have bishops really been bishops since the Council of Trent.一個有時聽到的謬論從未真正主教主教理事會以來特倫特。 Actually, with Trent there came to an end, once and for all, that reign of the exemptions from episcopal authority which had plunged the Church into an anarchy that had well nigh destroyed her religious life, so that Pole, as legate at the council, could speak of "the almost ruined Church."其實,與特倫特有結束,一勞永逸,這時期的豁免聖公會管理局已陷入無政府狀態教會變成了幾乎摧毀了她的宗教生活,因此,波蘭人,作為特使在安理會,可以說“幾乎摧毀教會。 ”

There are three phrases that continually recur in this new legislation, tamquam delegatus, deinceps (ie, henceforward), and ipso iure, a phrase of the same force as our own common expression, English now as well as Latin, ipso facto--the fact here, being the law in which the phrase appears.有三句話,不斷出現在這一新的立法, tamquam delegatus , deinceps (即,從今以後) ,並依iure ,一個短語同一武力作為我們自己的共同表達,英語現在以及拉丁美洲,事實上-的其實在這裡,是法律在該詞組。 This is the magical automatic penalty.這是神奇的自動死刑。 The law issues an order, and states a penalty, and the delinquent incurs the penalty immediately he breaks the law, sometimes a spiritual penalty such as excommunication, sometimes the loss of a title to income.法律問題的命令,以及國家的懲罰,以及拖欠立即招致處罰他違反法律,有時是一種精神,如絕罰點球,有時喪失所有權收入。 Some of these penalties we have met already, incidentally, on our voyage through the forest.其中的一些懲罰,我們已經達到了,順便說一句,我們的航程通過森林。 Here are more specimens.這裡有更多的標本。 It is the bishop who is the subject chiefly affected.這是主教誰是主要受影響的問題。 The bishops at Trent are legislating about their own order; they are reforming bishops, securing to the best of their powers that "Never again," etc., etc. It is with laws providing against the catastrophe of bad bishops that the council's reforms, indeed, begin; to which the blunt honest words of Pole's keynote speech, at the opening of the council, all but compelled them.主教在立法特倫特是自己的秩序;他們是改革的主教,確保最佳的權力, “再也不要” ,等等等,這是對法律規定的災難壞主教,安理會的改革,事實上,開始;而生硬的誠實的話北極的主題演講,開幕式上,安理會所有,但強迫他們。 "Let us come to what are called abuses.... It will be found that it is our ambition, our avarice, our cupidity that have wrought all these evils on the people of God." “讓我們來所謂侵犯....這將是發現,這是我們的野心,我們的貪婪,我們的貪婪已經造成所有這些罪惡的人的上帝。 ” Trent may indeed have been the glorious triumph of orthodoxy over the new heresies, but we shall fail wholly to understand the real changes it brought about, unless we see also in the council the repentant episcopate, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.特倫特可能確實已經光榮勝利正統的新邪說,但我們將無法完全理解它的真正的變化帶來的,除非我們看到在安理會的懺悔維爾古斯,坐在喪服和灰燼。 "Before the tribunal of God's mercy we, the shepherds, should make ourselves responsible for all the evils now burdening the flock of Christ ... not in generosity but in justice...." “在法庭上對上帝的憐憫,我們牧羊人,應該使自己負責所有的邪惡現在承擔著基督的羊群...不慷慨,但在司法...." So Pole, once more.因此,北極,再一次。

These reforming bishops, then, use the device of the "automatic" penalty so that the absentee bishop loses the right to his income, and the pluralist is deprived of sees he will not resign; that the concubinary prelate who defies the warnings of the provincial council loses his see; that the bishop becomes (in law) a thief who accepts gifts from those he ordains or from the parishes and other churches where he is making the visitation; and that the metropolitan is deprived of his right to officiate who fails to report to Rome the fact of a defiantly absentee suffragan.這些改革主教,然後,使用該設備的“自動”處罰,使失去的缺席主教的權利,他的收入,以及多元被剝奪認為他不會辭職; concubinary主教說,誰無視警告省級安理會失去見;這成為主教(法律)一個小偷誰接受這些禮物,他ordains或教區和其他教會,他是使探視;和首都是剝奪了權利,誰沒有主持報告羅馬事實的公然缺席副主教。 It is in the same way, too, that the pluralist of lesser degree is reached, and the non- preaching parish priest is fined.它以同樣的方式,也認為,多元化的程度較輕達成,非說教教區牧師的罰款。

The simplest remedy for whatever has been amiss in these matters is to appoint to the office none but good men, competently endowed with the needed natural gifts and technical training.最簡單的辦法是一直不對勁在這些問題上是任命的辦公室,但沒有良好的男人,勝任賦予必要的自然禮物和技術培訓。 And on this subject the council has much to say, about preliminary enquiries before the appointments are made.和關於這個問題的安理會有很多話要說,關於初步調查前作出任命。 Ultimately the responsibility lies with that supreme authority whose bulls are the essential element in all these appointments.最終責任在於這一最高權力機構的公牛隊是必不可少的要素,在所有這些任命。 The council ventures to hint at negligence here as the chief source of the evils.安理會企業來暗示疏忽這裡的主要來源的罪惡。 "In the last place, this holy synod, troubled by the number of these most serious evils, cannot refrain from putting on record, that nothing is more necessary for the Church of God than that the most blessed pope of Rome, who by his office is bound to the care of the whole Church, should give this particular matter his closest attention, [namely] to associate with himself, as cardinals, only men of exceptional character and gifts, and to appoint as diocesan bishops the very best and most suitable; and this all the more because our Lord, Jesus Christ, will require at his hands the blood of those sheep of Christ who have perished through the wicked misgovernment of neglectful bishops unmindful of their duty."[13] “在過去的地方,這主教,不安的是一些最嚴重的罪惡,不能不備案,更沒有什麼必要的天主的教會比最神聖羅馬教皇的,誰是他的辦公室必然要照顧整個教會,應給予這一具體問題上他的密切關注, [即]聯同本人,因為紅雀,只有男人的特殊性質和禮物,並任命為教區主教的最佳和最合適的;這更因為我們的主耶穌基督,將需要在他的手鮮血的那些綿羊基督誰滅亡了通過惡人弊政的疏忽主教不顧他們的義務。 “ [ 13 ]

Both cardinals and bishops are explicitly warned that the natural affection of a man for his kinsfolk breeds nepotism, that this affection can be "a seeding-plot of many evils in the Church."紅衣主教和主教都被明確警告說,自然影響一個人的親屬滋生裙帶關係,這種感情可以是一個“播種區的許多邪惡的教會。 ” So the council forbids these personages to provide for their relations out of church revenues.因此,安理會禁止這些人士為兩國關係的教會收入。 If they are poor folk, they may, of course, be succoured like other poor folk.如果他們是貧窮的民歌,他們可能,當然,像其他貧困succoured民歌。 And one of the most obnoxious troubles of the past centuries is faced when the council begs bishops to be moderate in the use of excommunication, "for experience teaches that if this penalty is inflicted rashly, and for slight offences, it provokes contempt, not fear, and works harm to the offender rather than good"--excommunication being, in the mind of the Church, not a vindictive act but medicinal, something done to bring a man to his senses.其中最令人憎惡的麻煩,過去幾個世紀正面臨著在安理會迴避主教溫和使用絕罰“的經驗教訓,如果這種處罰是對草率,並有輕微犯罪行為,它激發的蔑視,而不是恐懼,和工程損害罪犯,而不是好“ -被逐出教會,在教會的頭腦,而不是報復行為,但醫藥,有所作為,把一個男人對他的感官。 Bishops are warned especially not to allow themselves, in this matter, to be made the tools of the state, excommunicating according to the wish of the prince.主教是警告尤其是不要讓自己在這個問題上,作出的工具的國家,開除根據的願望王子。

Two more items in this lengthy selection and we have done; one of them about the layman--a rare subject for direct notice in these Canon Law sections.另外兩個項目在這漫長的選擇和我們這樣做;其中一人的門外漢-一種罕見的問題直接通知這些佳能法部分。 The subject is duels, the use of which, as an acknowledged social convention among the nobles--and what a curse it was to be down to the mid- nineteenth century!--is now first establishing itself.主題是決鬥,它的使用,作為一個公認的社會公約的貴族-什麼詛咒它是下降到19世紀中葉! -現在是第一次確立了自己。 The council's principle is that the man who kills another in a duel is a murderer.安理會的原則是,誰殺死另一名男子在決鬥是一個殺人犯。 The man killed dies with the stigma that his last intention, too, was murder.該名男子死亡死亡與恥辱,他最後的意圖,也被謀殺。 The seconds are accessories to murder, and the friends of the parties who assemble to see the duel are approvers.秒的配件謀殺,以及有關各方的朋友,看看誰組裝的決鬥是審批。 All, then, are henceforward punished by ipso facto penalties: the principals and the seconds are excommunicated, and incur the legal penalty of "perpetual infamy"--never again will a court of law consider their testimony in any case before it; they rank as professional criminals, and are all to be held as murderers.所有,那麼,從今以後處以事實上處罰:校長和秒逐出教會,並承擔法律懲罰的“永久的恥辱” -絕不會再法院認為其證詞在任何情況下,收到他們排名作為專業的罪犯,都將要舉行的殺人犯。 If one of the party is killed in the duel he is not to be given Christian burial.如果其中一方死亡的決鬥中,他沒有得到基督教墓地。 All who encourage the duel, and the spectators, are also, by the fact, excommunicated.誰鼓勵所有的決鬥,而觀眾,也由事實上,逐出教會。 Rulers, whatever their rank (and the emperor is explicitly mentioned), who make provision for the fighting of duels-- providing a kind of official duelling ground (for example) are ipso facto excommunicated, and lose all their jurisdiction over the place where this is situated, if it is a fief of the Church; if it is held by a lay prince, the place reverts to the suzerain.統治者,不論其級別(皇帝明確提到) ,誰作出規定,在戰鬥的決鬥-提供了一種官方鬥地面(例如)是事實上逐出教會,並失去了其管轄範圍內所有的地方本位於,如果這是一個封地教會;如果是由一個奠定王子,地點歸還宗主國。

"With regard to the ordination of priests, Holy Father, no care whatever is taken," the cardinalitial committee on reform had reported to Paul III, eight years before the council met. “關於祝神父,聖父,沒有採取任何照顧”的cardinalitial改革委員會匯報保羅三,八年前,安理會舉行。 "The most ignorant of men," they said, "and sprung from the dregs of society, and even themselves depraved, mere youths, are everywhere admitted to holy orders." “最無知的男人, ”他們說, “源於社會的沉渣泛起,甚至自己的墮落,只是年輕人,到處都是承認羅馬教廷的命令。 ” We touch on one of the great mysteries of medieval Catholicism, not that there were bad priests, but that the Church never faced the problem of training and educating the rank and file of the parochial clergy--and this in the centuries which saw the rise of such remarkable formative institutions as the monastic orders and the orders of friars.我們談的一個偉大神秘的中世紀天主教,而不是有壞神父,但教會從未面臨的問題,培訓和教育的級別和文件的狹隘的神職人員-這在百年其中看到了崛起這種顯著的形成機構作為寺院命令和命令的修士。 Here, more than in any other point, with Trent a new age begins.在這裡,超過任何其他問題,與特倫特一個新的時代開始了。 "Youth, unless rightly trained, sinks to the pursuit of the lustful pleasures of the world," say the venerable Fathers of the council. “青年,除非正確訓練,匯追求的淫蕩樂趣的世界, ”可敬的父親說,在安理會。 "Unless a boy has been formed in habits of prayer and religion from his tenderest years, before the habits of adult vice can take root, he will never perfectly persevere in ecclesiastical discipline, unless by some very great and more than ordinary grace from God." “除非一個男孩已經形成的習慣和宗教的祈禱,他tenderest年前,習慣成人副主席能夠生根,他將永遠不會完全堅持教會紀律,除非一些非常大的,更比普通恩典上帝。 “ So the council now decrees that every bishop shall set up a special college where picked boys shall live and be given a religious training, be taught to live the clerical life.因此,安理會目前的法令,每一個主教應成立一個特別學院在挑選男孩應給予生活和宗教培訓,學習生活的辦事員生活。 These are to be boys who give promise of perseverance in the Church's service, poor boys preferably.這些都是將男孩誰給的承諾堅持教會的服務,窮人的孩子最好。 They must be twelve years old at least, and able to read and write well, and of legitimate birth.他們必須是12歲,至少,並能夠閱讀和書寫,並且合法的出生。 This college "will become a permanently fruitful seed-bed (seminarium) of ministers of God."這個學院“將成為永久富有成效種子床( seminarium )部長會議的上帝。 ”

The council, in this aside, has given the new institution the name it will henceforward always bear--the seminary.安理會在這一邊,給了新機構的名稱,將從此以後牢記-修道院。 The programme of studies is next set out, and the way of life: daily mass, monthly confession, Holy Communion as often as the boy's confessor judges.研究方案明年闡明和生活方式:每天的質量,每月招供,聖餐經常男孩的懺悔法官。 On Sundays, and at the great feasts, the seminarians will assist at the services in the cathedral, hard by which the college is to be placed, or in other churches in the town.上週日,在偉大的節日,將協助該修的服務大教堂,很難其中學院是放在,或在其他教堂鎮。 Unsuitable boys, the incorrigible above all and the troublemakers, are to be sent away.不合適的男孩,以上所有的不可救藥的麻煩製造者,是要被送走。 As the years pass, they receive minor orders and go on to their professional studies, Holy Scripture, ecclesiastical treatises, the administration of the sacraments (especially the hearing of confessions), the Church's ritual.隨著時間的過去,他們收到的訂單和未成年人進入到他們的專業研究,聖經,教會論文,行政管理的聖禮(特別是聽證會的供詞) ,教會的儀式。 They will receive Holy Communion more frequently once they are in minor orders, and will begin to be associated with the practical work of the parish clergy.他們將接受聖餐更頻繁一旦在次要的訂單,並將開始與實際工作的教區神職人員。 Once they receive the subdiaconate they are to communicate every week.一旦他們收到subdiaconate他們每星期進行溝通。 For this first of the major orders they must be twenty-one years of age completed, for the diaconate twenty-two, for the priesthood twenty-four.對於這第一次的大訂單,他們必須二十一年歲完成,為diaconate 2002年,為司祭24 。 The foundation of these new colleges the bishops are to take in hand quam primum--at the earliest opportunity.的基礎,這些新的學院,主教是採取在手華富primum -儘早。

The remainder of this very long decree is taken up with rules about the choice of teachers, and their needed academic qualifications.其餘的這一命令是很長的規則採取行動的選擇的老師,他們需要的學歷。 As to finance, the bishop is given exceptionally wide powers to call upon all the ecclesiastical revenues of his diocese, of the regulars (even the exempt) as well as the diocesan clergy, the mendicant orders alone excepted.至於金融,主教是極其廣泛的權力,呼籲所有的教會教區的收入,對常客(甚至豁免)以及教區神職人員,訂單的乞丐就有例外。 Special provision is made for the diocese that is too poor or too small to provide its own seminary.特別編列的經費用於教區是太窮或太小,無法提供自己的神學院。

These clergy, thus carefully trained, and now duly ordered, how are they to live?這些神職人員,從而認真訓練,現在正式下令,他們如何生活? The sixteenth-century parish rarely needed more than one priest to attend to it--so numerous were the parish churches, even in the cities.[14] In most churches there were chapels built by pious men of means, where mass was daily offered for the repose of the souls of themselves and their family--the chantries.十六世紀的教區很少需要不止一個牧師照顧-因此許多人的教區教堂,即使是在城市。 [ 14 ]在大多數教會有教堂建造的虔誠的人的手段,在大眾的日常生活提供為安息的靈魂的自己和家人-的chantries 。 The funds left were sufficient to keep the priest appointed to the duty--this was his benefice.左邊的資金足以讓牧師任命的責任-這是他的采邑。 Very often also he served as schoolmaster.往往還擔任校長。 Now one of the trials of the pious man down to the end of the Middle Ages had been the sight of the horde of beggar-priests--priests without any benefice at all, driven to live by their wits out of the general benevolence of the laity.現在是審判的虔誠的人,以結束中世紀曾看到部落的乞丐神父-神父沒有任何采邑在所有的推動,其生活的智慧一般善的俗人。 As well as founding the seminary system, Trent forbade bishops to ordain candidates who could never be of service, and also all who were not able, at their ordination, to bring legal proof that they were in peaceful possession of a benefice the income of which was enough to support them.以及成立神學院系統,特倫特禁止主教祝聖候選人誰決不可能的服務,誰也都無法在其協調,將採取法律的證據,他們在和平擁有采邑的收入,其中足以支持他們。 Even good, suitable candidates are not to be ordained, says the new law, if they are lacking here. This benefice, if it is the only one the priest possesses, he is never allowed to resign without expressly stating that it is the benefice by title of which he was ordained.即使是良好的,合適的候選人不被祝說,新的法律,如果他們缺乏這裡。這采邑,如果它是唯一擁有的牧師,他是決不允許辭職沒有明確指出這是采邑的標題,他被任命。

The sixteen dogmatic decrees of the council, for all their terse style, would run to some sixty pages of this size even in a terse translation.法令的16教條的理事會,他們所有的簡潔風格,可以運行一些60頁這種規模即使是在一個簡短的翻譯。 Little more can be done than to list them, and for the student of history especially, to point out the excellent starting point they are for the study of the Catholic religion as it was in the early sixteenth century, and of the theological case between the Church and the reformers.幾乎可以做更多的事情,而不是把它們都列出來,並為學生的歷史特別是,指出了極好的出發點是研究天主教因為它是在16世紀初,和神學之間的案件教會和改革者。 It is a statement of that case as simple and as clear as it is authoritative.這是一個聲明中說,案件簡單,清楚,因為它是權威性的。 These decrees are, in form, miniature theological treatises, and they are carefully not written in the technical language theologians use.這些法令是,在形式上,微型神學論文,他們是不是認真的書面語言的技術神學使用。 To each decree there is a list of canons annexed, statements, that is to say, of some point of the reformed teaching which is contrary to the teaching set forth in the decree and therefore condemned.每個法令有一個名單附大砲,報表,也就是說,一些點的教學改革,這是違反教學中規定的法令,因此譴責。

Here, in chronological order, is the list of the dogmatic decrees, with the dates of the sessions when they were passed, and a note of the number of the canons attached to them and of the length (in printed pages) of the decrees:在這裡,按時間順序排列,是名單的教條法令的日期時,會議獲得通過,並記下一些大砲和重視他們的長度(印刷頁)的法令:

Doctrine理論 Session會議 Date日期 Canons Decrees法令
The Holy Scriptures聖經 4 8th Apr 1546 1546年4月8日 None毫無 1
Original Sin原罪 5 7th Jun 1546 1546年6月7日 5 4
Justification理由 6 13th Jan 1547 1547年1月13日 33 16
The Sacraments in General在一般的聖禮 7 3rd Mar 1547 1547年3月3日 13 1
Baptism洗禮 7 3rd Mar 1547 1547年3月3日 14 None毫無
Confirmation確認 7 3rd Mar 1547 1547年3月3日 3 None毫無
The Holy Eucharist II [15]聖體聖事二[ 15 ] 13 11th Oct 1551 1551年10月11日 11 8
Penance懺悔 14 15th Nov 1551 1551年11月15日 15 15
Extreme Unction臨終 14 4th Nov 1551 1551年11月4日 4 3
The Holy Eucharist II [16]聖體聖事二[ 16 ] 21 16th Jun 1562 1562年6月16日 4 3
The Holy Eucharist II[17]聖體聖事二[ 17 ] 22 9th Sep 1562 1562年09月9日 9 4
Holy Orders聖訂單 23 15th Jul 1563 1563年7月15日 8 3
Marriage婚姻 24 11th Nov 1563 1563年11月11日 12 1
Purgatory煉獄 25 4th Dec 1563 1563年12月4日 None毫無 1
Cults: Saints Relics Images邪教:聖徒文物圖片 25 4th Dec 1563 1563年12月4日 None毫無 3
Indulgences 25 4th Dec 1563 1563年12月4日 None毫無 1

It will be observed that more than half of the text of the decrees is given to the doctrine of the sacraments.這將是指出,一半以上的文本法令考慮的是理論的聖禮。 This, indeed, ever since Luther's famous tract, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520) had been the main point of the Protestant assault, in this sense, that what was challenged here was what every man could appreciate immediately, namely, the actual practice of the religion instituted by Christ our Lord.這確實,自從路德著名的道,巴比倫圈養的教會( 1520 )一直是主要的新教的攻擊,在這個意義上說,這是什麼挑戰,在這裡就是每個人可以欣賞立即,即實際實踐基督宗教所建立我們的上帝。 All could see here the difference between the old and the new, where only a select few were in a position to judge the implications of the new key-doctrine that Justification is through faith alone.所有可以在這裡看到的區別舊的和新的,只有少數幾個有能力來判斷的影響的新的關鍵理論,理由是信仰本身。 With this heresy the Council dealt very faithfully, in a single decree of sixteen chapters that takes up one- quarter of the whole text.有了這個異端安理會處理非常認真,在一個單一的法令16章佔據四分之一的全文。

Trent, it is sometimes said, put an end once and for all to the indefiniteness and confusion of thought among Catholics--to their comparative freedom to believe pretty much what they liked, in one version of the criticism. But this matter of terminating differences, when true at all, is true only with a great reservation.特倫特,有時說,制止一勞永逸的不確定性和混亂的天主教徒之間的思想-其相對自由,認為他們非常喜歡,在一個版本的批評。但是,這件事終止分歧當真正的所有,是唯一一個真正偉大的保留。 The confusion, or division of opinion, was not about traditional doctrine but about the problems raised by the new theories, differences in part related to the practical problem how best to deal with the points raised by Luther, and how to reconcile the Lutherans by so stating the tradition that it would satisfy them also.一片混亂之中,或意見分歧,是不是傳統的理論,但有關的問題所提出的新理論,不同的部分有關的實際問題如何最好地處理所提出的論點路德,以及如何調和路德會如此說明傳統,它也能滿足他們。 The idea that the Catholic unity in the fundamentals of belief about grace, original sin, justification, and the sacraments is the fruit of the Tridentine restatement of Catholic doctrine, is too grotesque for patience to bear.這樣的想法,即天主教團結的基本信念有關寬限期,原罪,理由,以及聖禮是水果的Tridentine重申了天主教教義,是太荒唐的耐心承擔。 Nowhere does the council say--in effect--so far some Catholics have believed it is X, others that it is Y. but from henceforth, all shall believe it is Y. It is, on the contrary, forever using such phrases as, "following the teaching of the Fathers we define...."最不安理會說-實際上-迄今一些天主教徒們認為這是十,其他人,這是元,但是從今以後,所有應認為它是元,這是相反的,永遠使用這類詞組“教學後的父親,我們確定...." Where is the doctrinal definition of this council, for comment on which the theological lecturer will not turn for guidance to St. Thomas, to say nothing of one or other of the Fathers?哪裡是理論上的定義,本會,發表評論的神學講師不會反過來為指導,聖托馬斯,更不用說一個或其他的父親?

Trent is a witness to the age-long tradition, to the Apostolic tradition, as truly as Nicaea twelve hundred years before or the Vatican Council three hundred years later.特倫特是一個見證了悠久的傳統,以使徒傳統,因為真正的尼西亞一千二百年前或梵蒂岡理事會三百年後。 It never does more than state, with the peculiar authority and explicitness of a General Council, what the body of the teaching theologians had been agreed on for centuries and the Church as a whole had implicitly accepted and practiced.這沒有超過國家的特殊的權威和清晰的總理事會,是教學機構的神學家已經商定了數百年來和教會作為一個整體已含蓄地接受和實行。 As to questions which do not touch the substance of a particular doctrine, but regard methods of explaining and defending it, questions of its history, its relation to other doctrines, questions arising from the various ways in which different ages have set it out, the council decides nothing.至於問題,不涉及實質內容的一個特定的理論,但關於方法的解釋和捍衛它的問題,它的歷史,它與其他理論,問題產生的各種方式的不同年齡制定出來的安理會決定什麼。 From the learned warfare of the Catholic theologians about such matters, it carefully distinguishes its own role, which is not theological scholarship but the preservation of the traditional belief, and the exposure, and condemnation therefore, of whatever contradicts this.從戰爭中吸取的天主教神學家這類事項,但仔細區分其本身的作用,這不是神學獎學金,但保存的傳統觀念,和接觸,並譴責因此,無論違背這一點。 As to the theological views put forward in the council, and rejected, in, eg, the long discussions that preceded the decree on Justification, when what was called the theory of the double Justification was proposed as an orthodox solution that might reconcile Lutheranism and Catholicism--how new such ideas were among Catholic theologians is illustrated, it may be suggested, from the fact that when the leading theologian of the age, Cajetan, was dealing, in 1507,[18] with St. Thomas' refutation (two centuries in advance) of Luther's basic theory, he has no comment to make about this that would suggest that anywhere among theologians was there any division of opinion on the essence of the question.至於神學意見中提出的安理會,並拒絕在,如長時間的討論之前法令的理由,當所謂的理論的雙重理由提出一個東正教的解決方案,可能調和路德教和天主教-如何新的這種想法是天主教神學的說明,可以建議,從一個事實,即當領導神學的年齡, Cajetan ,正在處理,在1507年, [ 18 ]與聖托馬斯反駁(兩個世紀提前)的路德的基本理論,他沒有發表評論,使這個這意味著神學之間的任何地方有任何的意見分歧的實質問題。

The decrees restate the whole doctrine; they are not merely a contradiction of the reformers' innovations.該法令重申整個學說;它們不僅是一個矛盾的改革者的創新。 The canons attached to the decrees are short summary condemnations of heresies that contradict the doctrine set out in the decree, and not of the new, contemporary heresies only.該炮的法令所附的簡要譴責異端違背教義中規定的法令,而不是新的,只有現代異端。 Thus, along with the Lutheran theories about Original Sin, there are also condemned (yet once again) the heresies of Pelagius.因此,隨著信義理論原罪,也有譴責(尚未再次)的歪理邪說的伯拉糾。 To show something of the council's teaching, the canons on the key doctrines of Justification, the Sacraments in General, and the Holy Eucharist will now be summarised.要顯示的東西安理會的教學,該炮的主要理論的理由,在一般的聖禮和聖體聖事現在將總結。

In the matter of Justification, a doctrine which now makes its first appearance--in its own right--at a General Council, these new errors are condemned:[19] the theory that man is passive, like a stone, under the influence of grace; that since Adam's fall there is no real freedom in the human will, this last idea being an invention brought into the Church by the devil; that the good works done by man before he is justified are sins meriting damnation; that nothing but faith is requisite to achieve Justification; that man can be justified otherwise than through the justice of Christ;[20] that man is justified by the imputation only, of the justice of Christ--Justification being no more than God showing favour to a man; that the faith without which man cannot be justified is the trustful confidence that the divine mercy has forgiven his sins for Christ's sake; that it is a condition for a man's sins being forgiven that he believes, without any hesitation, that his sins have been forgiven; that no one is justified unless he believes he is justified, this belief being what brings about absolution and justification; the justified man is bound to believe, as of faith, that he is numbered among those predestined [to eternal life]; that all men except these are, by the Divine Power, predestined to evil; to believe is the only thing commanded in the Gospel, all the rest being neither commanded nor forbidden, the Ten Commandments having nothing to do with being a Christian; Christ our Lord was sent as a Redeemer to save, not as lawgiver to be obeyed; man, once justified, cannot sin or fall from grace; there is only one sin that is mortal, the sin of not believing, and through no other sin can grace once attained be lost.在這個問題上的理由,現在的理論作出了首次亮相-在其本身的權利-在總理事會,這些新的錯誤,譴責: [ 19 ]的理論,人是被動的,像石頭的影響下,寬限期; ,自亞當的秋天沒有真正的自由人的意志,這最後的想法是一項發明帶進教會了魔鬼;良好的人所做的工作之前,他是有道理的罪孽值得詛咒,這只不過是信仰是必要的,以實現理由;這個人可以是有道理的,否則不是通過司法基督; [ 20 ]人是有道理的估算只,是正義的基督-理由不超過上帝顯示贊成,一個男人;認為,沒有這種信仰的人是沒有道理的是值得信賴的信心,神恩已經原諒了他的罪過在上帝的份上;這是一個條件,一個人的罪孽被原諒,他相信,沒有任何猶豫,他的罪過已原諒; ,沒有人是有道理的,除非他認為自己是正當的,這種信念是什麼帶來了赦罪和理由;的正當男子必將相信,信仰,他的編號是那些注定[永生] ;這所有的人除了這些,在神聖的權力,注定要邪惡;認為是唯一的福音指揮,所有其餘既不指揮,也不禁止,十誡,這樣一個基督教;基督我們的上帝被作為一個救世主拯救,而不是立法者服從;男子,一旦合理的,不能單或失寵;只有一個罪惡是致命的罪惡不相信,並通過其他罪沒有一次可以寬限期實現丟失。

This is not a complete account of what the thirty-three canons about Justification contain.這不是一個完整的話33炮理由包含有關。 It omits some more subtle statements that would call for a lengthy explanation, and it omits canons which state, not a theory the reformers put out, but Catholic doctrine which they deny.它省略了一些比較微妙的聲明說,將要求冗長的解釋,它省略了炮哪個國家,而不是一個理論的改革者熄,但天主教教義,他們對此進行了否認。

As to the new theories about the kind of thing sacraments are, the canons[21] condemn those who say: that there are more or less than seven sacraments instituted by Christ our Lord--baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, marriage--or that any one of these is not truly a sacrament in the full sense of the word; that these sacraments only differ from the sacraments of the Jewish dispensation as one ritual from another; that the sacraments are not a necessity of salvation, but that through faith alone, and without the sacraments at all, man can obtain from God the grace of Justification; that the sacraments were instituted for the purpose of nourishing only faith; that the sacraments do not contain and confer the grace which they signify--as though they were but outward signs of the grace or justice received through faith, badges of Christian profession that mark off the believer from the infidel; that the sacraments do not themselves confer grace by the very activity of the sacrament (ex opere operato), but that only faith in the divine promises is sufficient to obtain grace; that all Christians have the power to administer all the sacraments; that any pastor of the Church can change the received and approved rites used by the Church in the solemn administration of the sacraments.至於新的理論對這種事聖禮是,該炮[ 21 ]譴責那些誰說:有多於或少於7聖禮所建立基督我們的上帝-洗禮,確認,聖體,懺悔,臨終,秩序,婚姻-或任何其中之一是沒有一個真正的聖禮在充分意義上的;這些聖禮只有不同於聖禮猶太分配作為一個儀式從另一個;的聖禮沒有必要救贖,但僅通過信仰,並沒有在所有的事,男人可以得到上帝的恩典的理由;的聖禮被提起,目的是滋養只有信仰;的聖禮不包含並賦予它的恩典他們象徵-就像他們的跡象,但外向的恩典或司法收到通過信仰,徽章的基督教界人士說,馬克從信徒從異教徒;的聖禮本身並不賦予寬限期的非常活動聖禮(當然opere operato ) ,但只有信仰的神聖承諾足以獲得寬限期;所有基督教徒有權力來管理所有的聖禮; ,任何教會牧師可以改變收到並批准使用的儀式在莊嚴的教堂行政管理聖禮。

As to the doctrine called the Real Presence,[22] the council condemns: those who, denying that Jesus Christ, God and Man, is truly, really, substantially present in the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, hold instead that He is only present as in a sign or image or manifestation of power (in virtute); those who say that the substance of the bread and the wine remains along with the body and blood of Christ, denying that marvellous and unique changing of the whole substance of the bread into the Body [of Christ] and the whole substance of the wine into [His] Blood, while the appearance of bread and wine still remain--the change which the Catholic Church most suitably calls Transubstantiation; those who say that the Body and Blood of Christ is not there following upon the consecration (peracta consecratione), but only while the sacrament is in use, while it is being received, that is to say, but not before this or after this, and that in what is left over of the consecrated hosts or particles after communion has been administered, the true Body of the Lord does not remain; who say that the main fruit, or the sole fruit, of this sacrament is the forgiveness of sins; or that Christ the only begotten son of God is not to be adored in this sacrament with the externals of the reverence called latria,[23] and that those who do so adore Him in this sacrament are idolaters; that Christ is shown forth in this sacrament to be received [by the communicant] in a spiritual manner, and not also sacramentally and really; that only faith is sufficient preparation for receiving this most holy sacrament.至於所謂的理論的真實臨在, [ 22 ]安理會譴責:這些誰,否認耶穌基督,上帝和人類,這是真正的,真的,大大目前在聖聖體聖事,持有相反,他只是本作為一個標誌或形象或表現的權力(在virtute ) ;誰說,這些實質的麵包和酒仍然隨著身體和基督的血,不可否認,神奇和獨特改變整個實質麵包進入人體[基督]和整個物質的酒[他]血,而出現的麵包和葡萄酒仍然-改變了天主教會最適當的要求Transubstantiation ;誰說,那些身體和血液基督是不存在的神聖以下( peracta consecratione ) ,但只有同時聖禮正在使用中,雖然它正在收到,這就是說,但在此之前或之後這本,在什麼是遺留下來的在神聖的主機或顆粒後共融已管理,真正的機構上帝不會留,誰說,主要水果,或唯一的水果,這種聖禮是寬恕的罪過;或基督唯一的獨生子上帝是不喜歡在這聖禮與外部的崇敬所謂latria , [ 23 ] ,這些誰做崇拜他的這一聖禮是拜偶像;基督顯示本條聖禮收到[由communicant ]在一個精神的方式,而不是還sacramentally真正; ,只有信仰是足夠的準備接受這個最神聖的聖體。

The Council denies[24] that there is a divine command that all shall receive Holy Communion under both the forms, ie, of wine as well as of bread, and that it is a necessary sacrament for little children It condemns those who deny that the whole Christ is received when Holy Communion is received under the form of bread alone.安理會否認[ 24 ] ,有一個神聖的命令,所有應領取聖餐的形式下,即葡萄酒以及麵包,這是一個必要的聖禮的小孩子安理會譴責那些誰否認整個基督收到聖餐是所收到的形式,單靠麵包。

There remain the canons attached to the decree about the sacrifice called the Mass,[25] clear statements in everyday language.仍然存在的大砲重視法令的犧牲所謂的質量, [ 25 ]明確的聲明中的日常用語。 The Council condemns those who say: there is not offered in the Mass a true and proper sacrifice to God; nothing more is meant by this word "offered" than that Christ is given to us to be eaten; Christ by the words Do this in commemoration of Me,[26] did not constitute the apostles priests, or ordain them, so that they and other priests should offer His body and blood; the sacrifice of the Mass is a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving only, or a mere commemoration of the sacrifice offered on the Cross, but not a sacrifice whereby God is appeased; [the sacrifice] profits only those who receive [Holy Communion]; Mass should not be offered for the living and the dead, or for sins, penalties, satisfactions, and other necessities; a blasphemy is inflicted, through the sacrifice of the Mass, on the most holy sacrifice wrought by Christ on the Cross; the Mass takes away from the sacrifice on the Cross; the Canon[27] of the Mass is full of errors and should be done away with; the masses where none but the celebrating priest receive Holy Communion are unlawful and should be abrogated.安理會譴責那些誰說:沒有在大眾提供一個真正的和適當的犧牲上帝;只不過指的是這個詞“提供了”比基督是考慮到我們吃;基督的話這樣做紀念我, [ 26 ]並不構成使徒神父,或任命他們,使他們和其他神職人員應該提供他的身體和血的犧牲質量為犧牲的讚美和感恩只,或僅僅是紀念犧牲在十字架上的提供,而不是一種犧牲,即上帝是姑息; [犧牲]利潤只有那些誰收到[聖餐] ;大眾不應該提供的生活和死亡,或捷聯慣導系統,處罰,滿意,和其他必需品;造成的褻瀆是通過犧牲的質量,最神聖的犧牲所造成基督在十字架上;群眾需要遠離犧牲在十字架上;佳能[ 27 ]地下充滿錯誤,應予以取消;群眾,但在沒有收到慶祝神父聖餐是非法的,應予以廢除。

It has been a simpler task to tell the story of what the council accomplished, without any reference to the contemporary events of those eighteen years, 1545-63.這是一個簡單的任務,講述了安理會的成就,沒有任何提及這些當代事件十八年, 1545年至1563年。 But, without requiring anything like the history of those years, the reader is entitled to ask, Why was the council twice interrupted, and for so long a period?但是,而不需要任何類似的歷史,這些年來,讀者有權問,為什麼安理會兩次中斷,和這樣長的時間? In 1547 the cause was the outbreak of the plague at Trent.在1547年的原因是爆發鼠疫在特倫特。 The council hastily voted an adjournment to Bologna (March 10) to the fury of Charles V (who took for granted that the plague was mere excuse) and to the embarrassment of Paul III, who realised he would be held responsible for what was, in fact, in no way his doing.安理會匆忙投休會到博洛尼亞( 3月10日)向憤怒的查爾斯五世(誰在想當然地認為是單純的鼠疫藉口)和尷尬的保羅三,誰知道他將被追究責任是什麼,在事實上,他在沒有辦法做。 Several sessions were held at Bologna in 1547, a mere marking of time.幾次會議分別在博洛尼亞在1547年,僅僅標明的時間。 Meanwhile the emperor carried his attack on the pope to the uttermost limits--ordering his own bishops not to leave Trent, proclaiming that this handful was the real council and the majority at Bologna a mere conventicle.與此同時,皇帝進行他的攻擊就教皇的uttermost限制-訂購自己的主教不要離開特倫特,宣布這是真正的少數,大多數安理會在博洛尼亞僅僅conventicle 。

This crisis had come, in fact, at a moment when the political relations of emperor and pope were at their worst.這場危機已經到來,事實上,在目前的政治關係時,皇帝和教皇是在最壞的情況。 The opening of the council in 1545 had found them allies in Charles' often-delayed, but now about to be executed, war against the German Protestant league.開放安理會1545年發現了他們的盟友在查爾斯經常推遲,但現在被處決,戰爭對德國新教聯盟。 But by the time of Alva's crushing defeat of the princes at Muhlberg (April 24, 1547) relations between the chiefs were strained.但是,當時的阿爾瓦慘敗的王子在米爾貝格( 1547年4月24日)之間的關係緊張負責。 The pope's unsatisfactory son, Pierluigi, whom he had invested with the duchies of Parma and Piacenza, against the emperor's will (and possibly against his rights) in 1545, was a thorn in the emperor's side.教宗的不能令人滿意的兒子,皮耶路易吉,他已投資與duchies帕爾馬和皮亞琴察,對天皇的意願(可能對他的權利)在1545年,是一個眼中釘皇帝的一邊。 The imperial viceroy in Milan arranged the duke's assassination (September 10).帝國威瑟羅安排在米蘭公爵被暗殺( 9月10日) 。 Was Charles V privy to this?是查理五世樞密院這一切嗎? It is hardly likely, but he had assented to the plan to expel Pierluigi by force (May 31).這是不大可能,但他已經同意該計劃,以武力驅逐皮耶路易吉( 5月31日) 。 This crime was committed in the early weeks of the Bologna period of the council.這一罪行是在最初幾個星期的博洛尼亞期間安理會。 Charles, by virtue of Muhlberg, was master of Germany as no emperor had been for hundreds of years.查爾斯憑藉米爾貝格,是碩士德國因為沒有皇帝了,數百年來。 A brittle glory it was to prove, but the threat of this prince, already ruler of half of Italy, to the independence of the pope was real indeed.脆性榮耀有人來證明,但這種威脅的王子,已經統治者一半意大利,獨立的教宗確實是真實的。 And the emperor used his mastery to impose on Catholic and Protestant, in Germany, a religious settlement of his own, the so-called Interim.皇帝用自己掌握強加在天主教和新教,在德國,一個宗教的解決自己的,所謂的臨時。 Was Charles now going to prove himself a Spanish Henry VIII?是查爾斯現在要證明自己是西班牙亨利八世? The old pope found somewhere a reserve of patience, and the explosion never happened.老教皇發現某處儲備的耐心,從來沒有發生過爆炸。 The bishops went home from Bologna, and from Trent, and then in November 1549 the pope died.主教們回家從博洛尼亞,從特倫特,然後在1549年11月,教皇死亡。

There followed the long dramatic ten weeks' conclave of 1549-50, in which Pole almost became pope, and from which the senior president at Trent, Del Monte, emerged as Pope Julius III.隨後長期戲劇性10週'秘密會議的1549年至1550年,在南極幾乎成為教皇,並從其中高級總裁特倫特,德爾蒙特,成為教皇尤利烏斯三。 And now began the old weary business of persuading Charles to cooperate in the reassembly of the council, and the French king too.現在開始厭倦舊商業說服查爾斯進行合作,重組安理會,法國國王太多。 Charles had a new point to urge--the reassembled council should be a new council altogether; the Protestants would be pleased if all the matters defined at Trent were treated anew as open questions.查爾斯有一個新的起點,敦促-安理會的重新組合應當是一個完全新的理事會;新教徒將很高興,如果所有事項確定特倫特治療重新開放的問題。 The French king, Henry II, whose reign[28] had barely begun utterly refused to have anything to do with the council.法國國王亨利二世,其在位[ 28 ]剛開始完全拒絕有什麼關係理事會。 He was, in fact, on the verge of war with the pope, the casus belli being the revolt of Paul II 's grandsons against the new pope.他,事實上,在戰爭的邊緣與教宗,宣戰正在反感保羅二世的孫子對新教皇。 The French king had taken up their cause.法國國王已經採取了他們的事業。 Julius III, as more than one incident at Trent, especially with Charles V's bullying commissioners, had shown, had one of the great tempers of the day.朱利葉斯三,作為一個以上的事件特倫特,特別是查理五世的欺凌專員,所表明的那樣,有一個偉大的脾氣的一天。 But somehow he managed to stifle it, and despite some bad blunders and vacillation he managed to get the council on its feet again in 1551.但不知他設法阻止它,儘管出現了一些失誤和動搖不好,他設法使安理會就其在1551年站起來。 It was in this period that the Protestants accepted the invitation to come to the council--an incident which merely showed beyond all doubt that the new doctrines were not reconcilable with the old.正是在這一時期,新教徒接受邀請來到安理會-的事件只是表現出毫無疑問,新的理論並沒有調和與舊。

And now in Germany the war with the Protestant League took up once more.現在在德國的戰爭與新教聯盟了一次。 This time it was the emperor who was defeated and his army destroyed, in southern Germany.這一次是皇帝誰被擊敗和他的軍隊摧毀,在德國南部。 he pursuit was so hot that Charles himself narrowly escaped capture, and as he made his way over the mountains to a precarious safety at Innsbruck, the bishops of the council decided it was high time they, too, moved south.他的追求是如此炎熱,查爾斯本人險遭逮捕,當他來到翻山越嶺到岌岌可危的安全因斯布魯克的主教理事會決定它的時候,他們也向南移動。 So ended the Julian period of the Council of Trent.所以結束了朱利安期間理事會特倫特。

Julius III died in 1555, to be succeeded by his one-time colleague at Trent, Cervini, whose reign lasted but a short three weeks.朱利葉斯三世死於1555年,將接替他的一次性同事特倫特, Cervini ,其在位持續很短三個星期。 Then came Gian Pietro Caraffa--Paul IV--a hale old man of seventy-nine, the grimmest reformer who ever sat in St. Peter's chair.後來彼得Caraffa吉安保羅-四-一個海爾歲男子的79 ,在殘酷的改革者;誰坐在聖彼得的椅子。 As a young bishop, forty years earlier, he had sat in the all but futile Fifth Council of the Lateran.作為一個年輕的主教,四十年前,他坐在所有,但徒勞的第五理事會拉特蘭。 Perhaps it was here that he developed his strong belief that little good came of councils.也許正是在這裡,他開發他堅定地認為,沒有良好的組織的理事會。 He had other methods, and for heretics they were simple enough--the stake.他其他的方法,並為異教徒他們很簡單-股權。 Paul IV's four years of government in Rome was a reign of terror for evildoers and lawbreakers of every sort, clerical as well as lay.保羅四世的4年在羅馬舉行的政府是一個恐怖統治的惡人和違法者的每一個排序,文書以及奠定。

His death was followed by a conclave that lasted four months.他去世之後,秘密會議,持續4個月。 From it came forth a pope as great a contrast to this passionate, unbalanced Neapolitan as could be imagined, Gian Angelo de' Medici, a Milanese, who took the name Pius IV.從它來到了一個巨大的教皇作為此相反熱情,不平衡那不勒斯為可以想像,吉安安杰羅日麥迪奇,一個米蘭,誰的名字了皮尤斯四。 He was by training a lawyer, and by his career a professional administrator, who had governed one city after another for Clement VII and Paul III; and for his moderation he had found it prudent to leave Rome, in the days of Paul IV. His election had produced the ideal character for the delicate business of reconciling to Rome the various Catholic princes recently alienated--particularly the Hapsburgs for whom Paul IV had had an unconcealed personal hatred.他是一名律師的培訓,並通過自己的職業生涯的專業管理員,誰管了一個城市後,另一個則是克萊門特七世和保羅三;和他的溫和,他認為謹慎的做法是離開羅馬,在以後的日子裡的保羅四。他選舉產生了理想的性質的微妙業務協調的各種羅馬天主教王子最近疏遠-特別是Hapsburgs人保四有一個unconcealed個人仇恨。

Charles V had died a few months only before Paul IV.查爾斯五世去世幾個月之前,保羅四只。 In the empire his brother, Ferdinand I, had replaced him; in the rest of his dominions his son, Philip II.在帝國他的弟弟,費迪南德一,取代了他在剩下的自治領他的兒子菲利普二世。 In France too there was a new ruler since June 1559, when Henry II was killed in a tournament--his fifteen-year-old son, Francis II.在法國也有一個新的統治者,因為1559年6月,當亨利二世中喪生賽事-他15歲的兒子,弗朗西斯二。 This boy, whose wife was Mary, Queen of Scots, lasted barely a year and a half, and the sovereign with whom Pius IV had to treat was this boy's mother, Catherine de' Medici, the queen-regent for his still younger successor.這個男孩,他的妻子是蘇格蘭瑪麗女王,歷時僅一年半,和國家主權與誰皮尤斯第四治療是這個男孩的母親,凱瑟琳德美第奇,女王,麗晶,他仍然年輕的繼任者。 Add that in England the short-lived Catholic restoration of Mary Tudor had just ended, and that Pius IV faced the fait accompli of a restoration of the entire Protestant regime, with Catholicism proscribed utterly in legislation that culminated in the death penalty, and with all the bishops the new queen's prisoners.補充說,在英國的短暫恢復天主教瑪麗都鐸剛剛結束,而且皮尤斯四面臨既成事實恢復整個新教政權,與天主教的立法完全禁止,最終導致了死刑,並與所有主教新皇后囚犯。 The queen was, of course, Elizabeth女王當然,伊麗莎白

I. Given this unusual array of talent among the leading princes, and the fact that all the old preposessions of those who were Catholics still survived-- the instinct to take control of the religious crisis into their own hands, to settle the problems of their own realms, for example, by a national council not under papal influence--given all this, the fact that Pius IV succeeded in reassembling the council, at Trent, within little more than two years would suggest that he is a more important figure than has usually been recognised.一,鑑於這種不尋常的一系列人才居於領先地位的王子,和一個事實,所有的舊preposessions這些誰是天主教徒仍然存活-本能控制的宗教危機掌握在自己手中,以解決他們的問題自己的領域,例如,一個國家沒有受到教皇影響-鑑於所有這一切,一個事實,即皮尤斯四成功地組裝理事會在特倫特,在兩年多建議,他是一個比數字更重要通常也被人認可。

With patience and prudence and a constantly firm purpose, he guided the council through what proved to be the major part of its work, and through a continuity of passionate discussions where Spanish and French bishops, as well as Italian, had to be considered and managed.有耐心和謹慎的態度和不斷堅定目的,他指導安理會通過什麼證明的重要組成部分,其工作,並通過持續的熱情討論,在西班牙和法國的主教,以及意大利,都必須加以考慮和管理。 The most dangerous moments were when the Spaniards strove for a decision that the personal obligation of the bishop to live in his diocese was an obligation of divine law, and not merely of synodal legislation.最危險的時刻是當西班牙人爭取這一決定的個人義務主教住在他的教區是一個神聖的法律義務,而不是僅僅的主教會議的立法。 The danger was that this excellent idea masked a point of theology, and was meant to lead to a discussion of the loaded question, Is the pope the superior of the General Council or its servant?他說,危險在於這個很好的想法掩蓋了點神,是指將導致討論中的問題,是教宗上級總理事會或其受僱人? the question that had racked the Church of the previous century, and for a renewal of which the Church of the sixteenth century was by no means yet sufficiently healthy.這個問題已經折磨的教會上個世紀,並為延長該教會的16世紀,絕非還不夠健全。 That the premature discussion of this particular application of the defined doctrine of the papal supremacy was averted was due, in especial manner, to the great cardinal whom Pius IV sent to preside at the last months of the council, Girolamo Morone.這過早討論這個特定的應用定義的原則,避免了教皇至高無上是因為,在特殊的方式,向偉大的紅衣主教人皮尤斯四送交主持的最後幾個月中,安理會吉羅拉莫條紋。

The great council[29] ended with what jubilation about the work done may be imagined.偉大的理事會[ 29 ]結束什麼誇大其詞的工作可能是可想而知的。 The pope by a special bull confirmed all it had decreed, and by a second bull forthwith abolished all privileges and exemptions previously accorded by his predecessors which went contrary to the decrees; and to settle authoritatively all questions arising out of the interpretation of the decrees he created a permanent commission of cardinals, the Congregation of the Council of Trent, a body which developed into a kind of permanent Ministry of the Interior of the Catholic Church, and which functions to this day as one of the most important instruments of the government of the Church.教皇由一個特別的牛市確認所有已頒布,並通過第二個牛市立即廢除一切特權和豁免先前所給予他的前任這違反了法令;權威性和解決所有問題所產生的解釋,他的法令建立了一個常設委員會紅雀,該會理事會特倫特,一個機構,它已發展成為一種永久性內政部天主教會,並以這一天職能的一個最重要的文書政府教會。 The matter of providing the revised edition of the official Latin translation of the Bible, a revised Breviary and Missal, a Catechism and an Index of books dangerous to Faith and Morals, the council had left to the pope.這個問題提供修訂版的官方拉丁美洲的聖經翻譯,修訂和彌撒祈禱,一個理和索引的書籍危險信仰和道德,安理會已經離開教皇。

It was the immediate successor of Pius IV who saw to all these, except the new Bible.這是直接繼承皮尤斯四誰看到所有這些,除了新的聖經。 This successor was the Dominican, Michele Ghislieri, known to history as Pius V (1566 72), in whom the aspirations of good men for centuries were realised, a living saint ruling the Church.這是多米尼加的繼任者,米歇爾Ghislieri ,眾所周知,歷史上皮尤斯五( 1566 72 ) ,在人的願望,百年好男人都意識到,一個活生生的教會聖裁決。 Of all the services rendered by St. Pius V (he was canonised by Clement XI in 1712) none was greater than this, that in his ruling of the Church he was as scrupulously obedient to the laws of Trent as he had been obedient to the Dominican constitutions during his long life as a friar.所有提供的服務聖皮烏斯五(他被封的克萊門特十一大在1712年)無大於這一點,在他執政的教會他作為嚴格服從的法律特倫特他已經聽話的多米尼加憲法在他漫長的生命作為修士。 He set an example which none of his successors could ever ignore; and perhaps nowhere more powerfully than in what he did with the task from which the council, in its last moments, shrank--the reformation of the Catholic Princes, ie, the defence of the rights of religion against the encroachment of the Catholic state.他樹立了一個榜樣,沒有他的繼任者都不能忽視;也許沒有更有力地比他做過什麼的任務由該理事會在其最後時刻,萎縮-改革的天主教王子,即辯護的權利,對侵犯宗教自由的天主教國家。 But to say more about this would be to write the tragic history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, of a fight where there were defeats, but no surrenders.但是,要說更多有關這將是寫的悲慘歷史的17和18世紀,一個打擊那裡有失敗,但沒有自首。 The ideal of the example set by St. Pius V was at times obscured.理想的榜樣聖皮烏斯五,有時模糊。 It was never forgotten.這是永遠不會忘記。 And never, since his time, has there been any such moral falling away--nor anything remotely recalling it- -as what, in almost all his life before his election, he himself had been witness of in the highest place of all.和從未,因為他的時間,沒有任何道義上的下降等以外-也沒有任何遠程回顧它,作為什麼,幾乎在所有的生命在他當選,他本人曾見證的最高處,在所有。

NOTES附註

1. 1 。 Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, I, 351. Jedin ,史理事會特倫特,我, 351 。 These last two pages of my account are especially indebted to this great book.最後兩個網頁我的帳戶特別感激這個偉大的書。 Cf.比照。 346-54. 346-54 。

2. 2 。 Ibid., 354.同上。 , 354 。

3. 3 。 Op.同前。 cit., 369.前。 , 369 。

4. 4 。 Pastor, History of the Popes, XII, chaps.牧師,歷史教皇,十二章。 4, 5; a masterly summary in Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, 1, 490-544. 4日, 5日;嫻熟摘要Jedin ,史理事會特倫特, 1 , 490-544 。

5. 5 。 Del Monte is the future pope Julius III (1549-55), Cervini the all too short lived Marcellus II (1555) commemorated in the title of Palestrina's fine mass, and Pole only failed to become pope in 1549 through his refusal to take the least step--he would not even say he was willing--on his own behalf in the conclave. Del Monte的是未來的教皇尤利烏斯三( 1549年至1555年) , Cervini太短的所有生活瑪爾凱二( 1555年)紀念的標題帕萊斯特里的優良質量,並極不僅沒有成為教皇在1549年通過他拒絕採取最第一步-他不會甚至說他願意-代表自己的秘密會議。

6. 6 。 Seripando, created cardinal by Pius IV (1559-65), later served as one of the presidents of the council, 1 562-63. 7. Seripando ,建立基本的皮尤斯四( 1559年至1565年) ,後來擔任一個安理會主席, 1 562-63 。 7 。 Maroto, Institutiones Iuris Canonici (1919),1, 87. Maroto , Institutiones Iuris Canonici ( 1919年) , 1 , 87 。

8. 8 。 As King Henry VIII was "kin" to Anne Boleyn through his sinful association with her older sister, Mary.國王亨利八世是“近親” ,以他的妻子安妮•博林罪孽深重協會通過與她的姐姐瑪麗。

9. 9 。 The new law was passed by 155 votes to 55, GH Joyce, SJ, Christian Marriage (1933), 127.這項新法律已經通過了155票贊成, 55歲,生長激素喬伊斯,律政司司長,基督教婚姻( 1933 ) , 127 。

10. 10 。 Jerome Ragazzoni, coadjutor to the see of Famagusta, preaching the sermon with which the council closed, December 4.杰羅姆Ragazzoni ,助理的見的法馬古斯塔,鼓吹講道與安理會關閉, 12月4日。

11. 11 。 These summaries, as has been said, are only of the principal matters. But among these surely is, also, the change by which the council abolished the age-long right of metropolitans (archbishops) to make the visitation of all the sees of the bishops of their province, the local bishop's jurisdiction suspended the meanwhile, and the archbishop correcting what he found amiss and ordering the penalties this called for.這些總結,正如人們所說的,只有主要的事項。但這些肯定是,而且,改變安理會在該決議中取消了年齡的長期權利大城市(大主教) ,使探視所有看到的主教的省份,當地主教的管轄範圍內暫停與此同時,和大主教糾正,他發現不對勁,並下令懲罰這一要求。

12. 12 。 A monastery was said to be "in commendam" which was granted as his benefice to a cleric who was not a member of the community or of the order or even of any religious order.修道院被說成是“在commendam ” ,這是給予他的采邑到教士誰不是一個成員或社會秩序,甚至對任何宗教秩序。 These commendatory abbots, who were not bound to reside at the monastery, were sometimes not even in major orders.這些讚美的方丈,誰沒有約束住在寺院,有時甚至不是主要的訂單。

13. 13 。 Postremo eadem sancta synodus, tot gravissimis ecclesiae incommodis com mota, non potest non commemorare, nihil magis ecclesiae Dei esse necessarium quam ut beatissimus Romanus Pontifex, quam sollicitudinem universae ecclesiae ex munens sui officio debet, eam hic potissimum impendat, ut lectissimos tantum sibi cardinales adsciscat, et bonos maxime atque idoneos pastores singulis ecclesiis praeficiat, idque eo magis, quod ovium Christi sanguinem, quae ex malo negligentium et sui officii immemorum pastorum regimine peribunt Dominus noster Iesus Christus de manibus eius sit requisiturus. Postremo eadem聖地synodus ,托特gravissimis教會incommodis通信莫塔薩,非potest非commemorare , nihil馬吉斯教會的上帝存在necessarium華富UT斯達康beatissimus羅馬努斯Pontifex ,華富sollicitudinem universae教會的前munens特殊成員debet ,團隊抗HIC potissimum impendat , UT斯達康lectissimos tantum sibi cardinales adsciscat等bonos馬克西姆atque idoneos pastores singulis ecclesiis praeficiat , idque 13224馬吉斯,狴ovium基督sanguinem , quae前馬洛negligentium等特殊officii immemorum pastorum regimine peribunt主noster Iesus基督日manibus eius坐在requisiturus 。 Session 24 (Nov. 11, 1563) De Reformatione, chap.會議24日( 11月11日, 1563年)者Reformatione ,第三章。 1, the final paragraph. 1 ,最後一段。

14. 14 。 In London, for example, a city of about 100,000 people at the beginning of the 16th century, there were 93 parish churches alone.在倫敦,例如,一個城市的約100000人開始時的16世紀,有93個教區教堂的。

15. 15 。 The doctrine of the Real Presence; the worship of God present in the sacrament, the use of the sacrament.理論的真實存在;崇拜上帝存在於聖餐,使用聖禮。

16. 16 。 On Communion under both kinds, and the Communion of little children.論聖餐下兩種,和孩子交流很少。

17. 17 。 On the Sacrifice of the Mass.對犧牲的馬薩諸塞州

18. 18 。 Just ten years before Luther's 95 Theses appeared.僅用了10年前路德的95論文出現。

19. 19 。 Session 6, January 13, 1547.會議6 , 1547年1月13日。 The Latin text of the canons here summarised is in Denzinger, pp.拉丁文字的大砲在這裡總結Denzinger ,頁。 277-81. 277-81 。 With respect to the phrase "all are condemned," which continually recurs in these canons, it is to be observed that the council has in mind Catholics and the ex-Catholics who, abandoning the traditional doctrines, founded the various reformed bodies.關於“一語都譴責” ,並不斷復發,在這些準則,應該指出,安理會已經考慮到天主教徒和前天主教徒誰,放棄了傳統的理論,創立了各種改革的機構。 The bishops at Trent were not addressing that multitude of later, non-Catholic Christians who, born and bred in these forms of belief, worship God and keep His law after a non-Catholic fashion in all good faith.主教在特倫特沒有解決這一多種後,非天主教基督教徒誰,生於斯,長於斯的這些形式的信仰,崇拜上帝,保持他的法律後,非天主教的方式在所有的誠意。 To these, the personal condemnation was not addressed, although the condemnation of the theories inevitably stands.這些,個人譴責是沒有得到解決,雖然譴責理論不可避免地停留。

20. 20 。 A heretical caricature of traditional doctrine, found useful in the Reformation propaganda.邪教漫畫的傳統學說,發現有用的改革宣傳。

21. 21 。 Session 7, March 3, 1547.會議7日, 1547年3月3日。 Latin text ibid., 281-82.拉丁文字同上。 , 281-82 。

22. 22 。 Session 13, October 11, 1551.會議13日, 1551年10月11日。 Latin text ibid., 290-91.拉丁文字同上。 , 290-91 。

23. 23 。 That homage due to God alone, as the Creator of all.這敬意由於只有上帝,因為造物主所有。

24. 24 。 Session 21, June 16, 1562.會議21日, 1562年6月16日。 Latin text ibid., 310.拉丁文字同上。 , 310 。

25. 25 。 Session 22, September 9, 1562.會議22日, 1562年9月9日。 Latin text ibid., 314-15.拉丁文字同上。 , 314-15 。

26. 26 。 Luke 22:19.路加福音22:19 。

27. 27 。 The long prayer which is the core of the rite, during which the consecration takes place.長期祈禱其中的核心是禮,在這期間發生的奉獻。

28. 28 。 Francis I died March 31, 1547.弗蘭西斯一世死於1547年3月31日。

29. 29 。 December 4, 1563. 1563年12月4日。

From: THE CHURCH IN CRISIS: A History of the General Councils: 325-1870來自:中華危機:歷史總理事會: 325-1870
CHAPTER 19第19章
Mgr.經理。 Philip Hughes菲利普休斯


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