Torah, Pentateuch, Taurah律法,摩西五, Taurah

General Information 一般信息

Torah (a Hebrew word meaning "instruction"), in its broadest sense, refers to the entire body of Jewish teaching incorporated in the Old Testament and the Talmud and in later rabbinical commentaries.律法書(希伯來字,意思是“指示” ) ,在最廣泛的意義,指的是整個身體的猶太教學納入舊約和塔木德和在以後的猶太教評論。 In early biblical times, the term meant the oral instruction of the priests on ritual, legal, or moral questions.在早期聖經時代,這個詞意味著口頭指示祭司儀式上,法律或道義上的問題。 Gradually the name was applied to written collections of the priestly decisions, most specifically to the written Mosaic law contained in the first five books of the Bible - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy - also called the Pentateuch. The Torah, in the latter sense, is preserved on scrolls kept in the ark of every synagogue; reading of the Torah is central to the synagogue service.逐漸的名稱適用於收藏的書面決定的祭司,最具體的書面摩西律法中所載的第一個五年的書籍聖經-創世紀,出埃及記,利未記,數字和申命記-也被稱為五經。的律法,在後一種意義上說,是保存的春聯保持在每一個猶太教堂方舟;讀律法是中央的一座猶太教堂的服務。

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Bibliography 參考書目
D Lieberman, The Eternal Torah, parts 1 (1979) and 2 (1983); M Noth, A History of Pentateuchal Traditions (1972); JA Sanders, Torah and Canon (1972). D利伯曼,永恆的律法,部分1 ( 1979年)和2 ( 1983年) ; M北史Pentateuchal傳統( 1972年) ;茉莉桑德斯,律法和佳能( 1972年) 。


Torah律法

General Information 一般信息

The Torah (Hebrew, "law" or "doctrine"), in Judaism, is the Pentateuch, especially when in the form of a parchment scroll for reading in the synagogue.的律法(希伯來文, “法律”或“學說” ) ,在猶太教,是五經,尤其是當的形式,羊皮紙捲軸閱讀中的猶太教堂。 The Torah is the cornerstone of Jewish religion and law.在律法的基石,是猶太宗教和法律。 The scrolls are considered most holy and are beloved by the pious; every synagogue maintains several scrolls, each of which may be protected by a covering of rich fabric and decorated with silver ornaments.幅,被認為是最神聖和心愛的虔誠;每會堂設有幾個捲軸,每個可能受覆蓋豐富的結構和裝飾的銀飾品。 A special holiday in honor of the Torah, known as Simhath Torah (Hebrew, "rejoicing in the Law"), is celebrated in the synagogue by singing, and marching and dancing with the scrolls.一個特殊節日款待律法,被稱為Simhath律法(希伯來文, “歡騰的法” ) ,是著名的猶太教堂的唱歌,跳舞和遊行,並與春聯。

The term Torah also is used to refer to the entire corpus of the Scriptures of the Jews together with the commentaries on them. The commentaries, which arose through the centuries out of learned discussion, are called oral Torah to distinguish them from the Pentateuch itself, the written Torah.任期律法也用來指整個語料庫聖經猶太人連同他們的評注。評注,這是百年來的經驗教訓的討論中,被稱為口頭律法來區分它們從摩西五本身,書面律法。


Pentateuch摩西五

General Information 一般信息

The Pentateuch is the five-fold volume, consisting of the first five books of the Old Testament.在摩西五是5倍量,包括五本書的第一舊約。 This word does not occur in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.這個詞不會出現在聖經,也不是肯定知道什麼時候推出,因此分為五個部分成因,出埃及記,利未記,民數記,申命記。 Probably that was done by the LXX.也許這樣做的LXX 。 translators.譯員。 Some modern critics speak of a Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group.一些現代評論家談論Hexateuch介紹約書亞記作為一個集團。 But this book is of an entirely different character from the other books, and has a different author. It stands by itself as the first of a series of historical books beginning with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan.但是,這本書是完全不同性質的其他書籍,並有不同的作者。它堅持自己的第一個系列的歷史書籍開始入口處的以色列人進入迦南。 (See Joshua.) (見光。 )

The books composing the Pentateuch are properly but one book, the "Law of Moses," the "Book of the Law of Moses," the "Book of Moses," or, as the Jews designate it, the "Torah" or "Law."書籍組成摩西五是正確,但一本書的“摩西律法”和“圖書摩西律法”和“摩西之書” ,或指定它的猶太人的“律法書”或“法。 “ That in its present form it "proceeds from a single author is proved by its plan and aim, according to which its whole contents refer to the covenant concluded between Jehovah and his people, by the instrumentality of Moses, in such a way that everything before his time is perceived to be preparatory to this fact, and all the rest to be the development of it. Nevertheless, this unity has not been stamped upon it as a matter of necessity by the latest redactor: it has been there from the beginning, and is visible in the first plan and in the whole execution of the work.", Keil, Einl.在目前的形式是“從一個單一的作者證明了它的計劃和目標,根據它的全部內容提及之間締結盟約耶和華和他的人民,由部門的摩西,以這樣一種方式,一切都在他的時間被認為是籌備了這一事實,以及所有其他的資訊科技發展。然而,這種團結還沒有蓋上它作為一種必要的最新redactor :它一直在那裡從一開始,和可見的第一項計劃,並在整個執行工作。 “ Keil公司, Einl 。 id AT身份證

A certain school of critics have set themselves to reconstruct the books of the Old Testament.某學校的批評者們為自己制定重建書籍舊約。 By a process of "scientific study" they have discovered that the socalled historical books of the Old Testament are not history at all, but a miscellaneous collection of stories, the inventions of many different writers, patched together by a variety of editors!進程的“科學研究”他們發現,所謂的歷史書籍舊約不是歷史,而是一個雜項收集的故事,發明了許多不同的作家,補丁,並通過各種不同的編輯! As regards the Pentateuch, they are not ashamed to attribute fraud, and even conspiracy, to its authors, who sought to find acceptance to their work which was composed partly in the age of Josiah, and partly in that of Ezra and Nehemiah, by giving it out to be the work of Moses!至於摩西五,他們不感到羞恥屬性欺詐,甚至陰謀,其作者,誰試圖找到接受他們的工作的組成部分是時代的約書亞,並在這部分的以斯拉和尼希米記,給予它是工作的摩西!

This is not the place to enter into the details of this controversy.這是不適合進入細節的爭論。 We may say frankly, however, that we have no faith in this "higher criticism."我們可以坦率地說,但是,我們不相信在這個“高的批評。 ” It degrades the books of the Old Testament below the level of fallible human writings, and the arguments on which its speculations are built are altogether untenable. The evidences in favour of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch are conclusive. We may thus state some of them briefly:,它降低了書籍舊約低於犯錯誤人的著作,和的論點,其投機是建立在完全站不住腳的。 的證據贊成花葉著作權的摩西五是決定性的。我們可能會因此其中一些國家簡要: ,

As regards the Passover, eg, we find it frequently spoken of or alluded to in the historical books following the Pentateuch, showing that the "Law of Moses" was then certainly known.至於逾越節,例如,我們發現它經常談到的或暗示的歷史之後,摩西五書,表明了“摩西律法”當時肯定知道。 It was celebrated in the time of Joshua (Josh. 5: 10, cf. 4:19), Hezekiah (2 Chr. 30), Josiah (2 Kings 23; 2 Chr. 35), and Zerubbabel (Ezra 6:19-22), and is referred to in such passages as 2 Kings 23:22; 2 Chr.這是慶祝的時候約書亞( Josh. 5 : 10 ,比照。 4:19 ) , Hezekiah ( 2染色體。 30 ) ,約書亞(列王紀下23 ; 2染色體。 35 ) ,並Zerubbabel (以斯拉6點19分- 22 ) ,並提到在這些通道的列王紀下23:22 ; 2染色體。 35:18; 1 Kings 9:25 ("three times in a year"); 2 Chr. 35:18 ;列王紀上9:25 ( “ 3倍於一年” ) ; 2染色體。 8:13. 8時13 。 Similarly we might show frequent references to the Feast of Tabernacles and other Jewish institutions, although we do not admit that any valid argument can be drawn from the silence of Scripture in such a case.同樣,我們可能會顯示經常提到的住棚節和其他猶太機構,雖然我們不承認任何有效的論點可以從沉默的聖經在這種情況下。

An examination of the following texts, 1 Kings 2:9; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chr.審查下列文本,列王紀上2時09 ;列王紀下14點06分; 2染色體。 23:18; 25:4; 34:14; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Dan. 23:18 ; 25:4 ; 34:14 ;以斯拉3:2 ; 7時06 ;丹。 9:11, 13, will also plainly show that the "Law of Moses" was known during all these centuries. 9時11分, 13日,也將清楚表明, “摩西律法”被稱為在所有這些百年。 Granting that in the time of Moses there existed certain oral traditions or written records and documents which he was divinely led to make use of in his history, and that his writing was revised by inspired successors, this will fully account for certain peculiarities of expression which critics have called "anachronisms" and "contradictions," but in no way militates against the doctrine that Moses was the original author of the whole of the Pentateuch.給予,在摩西的時間存在著一定的口頭傳統或書面記錄和文件,他是神使利用在其歷史上,他的寫作靈感修訂了接班人,這將充分考慮對某些特殊情況的表達批評者所謂的“過時”和“矛盾” ,但絕不會不利於摩西的理論,是在原始作者的整個摩西五。 It is not necessary for us to affirm that the whole is an original composition; but we affirm that the evidences clearly demonstrate that Moses was the author of those books which have come down to us bearing his name.這不是我們必須申明,整個是一個原始的成分,但我們申明,證據清楚地表明,摩西是這些圖書的作者已下降到我們銘記他的名字。 The Pentateuch is certainly the basis and necessary preliminary of the whole of the Old Testament history and literature.當然是在摩西五的基礎和必要的初步整個舊約歷史和文學。 (See Deuteronomy.) (見申命記。 )

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Torah律法

Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀信息

Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.名稱適用於五本書的摩西,成因,出埃及記,利未記,數字和申命記。 The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon.的內容律法作為一個整體進行了討論,從的角度來看,現代聖經批評,在摩西五,凡表給出的各種來源,而它的重要性為中心的結晶希伯來佳能下處理聖經佳能。 The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism. The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."本條款,因此,僅限於歷史上的五經後的聖經猶太教。的律法獲得冠軍由其內容,名稱本身connoting “理論。 ” The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" (eg, LXX., prologue to Ecclus. [Sirach], Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.希臘猶太人,但是,它的翻譯νόμος = “法律” (例如, LXX 。 ,序幕Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ] ,斐羅,約瑟夫和新約全書) ,何處來的“法書” ,這給導致錯誤的印象,即猶太宗教純粹是nomistic ,因此,它仍然經常指定為宗教的法律。 In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.但在現實中,包含了律法的教義,以及法律,即使後者提供的道德形式,載於歷史的敘述道德品格。

Name.名字。

In the books of the Bible the following names of the Pentateuch occur: in II Chron.在書本裡的聖經下列名稱的摩西五發生:在二專欄。 xvii.十七。 9, Neh. 9 , Neh 。 ix.九。 3, and, with the added epithet , II Chron. 3 ,並與增加修飾語,二專欄。 xxxiv.三十四。 14; while alone, without , is found in II Kings x. 14 ;而單獨,不,是在二王十 31, I Chron. 31日,我專欄。 xxii.二十二。 11, and II Chron. 11日,和二專欄。 xii.十二。 1, xxxi. 1 ,三十一。 3, 4, and xxxv. 3 , 4 ,和三十五。 26. 26 。 Sometimes , or a word of similar meaning, is added, as , Josh.有時,一個單詞或類似的含義,是說,因為,喬希。 xxiv.二十四。 26, Neh. 26日, Neh 。 viii.八。 18 (without , ib. x. 29). 18 (不包括,國際文憑。十29 ) 。 Another designation is , Josh.另一個指定,喬希。 viii.八。 31, xxiii. 31日,二十三。 6; II Kings xiv. 6 ;二世國王十四。 6; Neh. viii. 6 ; Neh 。八。 1; or , I Kings ii. 1 ;或者,我王二。 3; II Kings xxiii. 3 ;二國王二十三。 25; Mal. 25 ;條。 iii.三。 22 (AV iv. 4), with the addition of ; Ezra iii. 22 (影音四。 4 ) ,加上;以斯拉三。 2 (with the addition of ), vii. 2 (加上) ,第七章。 6; , II Chron. 6 ,二專欄。 xxv.二十五。 4 (preceded by ), xxxv. 4 (之前) ,三十五。 12. 12 。 The oldest name doubtless is (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), sometimes shortened to (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), or to (Neh. viii. 5), or to (Deut. xxxiii. 4).最古老的名字無疑是( Deut.一5 ;三十一。 9 , 11 , 24 ;三十二。 46 ; Neh 。八。 2 ) ,有時縮短至( Deut.一5 ;三十一。 9 , 11 , 24 ;三十二。 46 ; Neh 。八。 2 ) ,或( Neh.八。 5 ) ,或( Deut.三十三。 4 ) 。 The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.最後兩個偉大的名字出現的頻率在猶太傳統中,那裡的律法成為生物。 The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 40-43).中的表達“的五本書, ”這是原產地的“五經” ,只發生在猶太傳統中,這也已經來源為“創世紀”等,作為地名的書籍的摩西五(見布勞, “論導論在模具神聖Schrift , ”頁。 40-43 ) 。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五司律法。

According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.根據所有的批評,不論學校所屬的律法形式單一的工作,這是代表,即使在今天,由synagogal滾動法,也不知道歷史上的任何其他律法滾動。 The fivefold division of the Pentateuch was due to purely external causes, and not to a diversity of content; for in volume the Torah forms more than a fourth of all the books of the Bible, and contains, in round numbers, 300,000 letters of the 1,100,000 in the entire Bible.五倍司摩西五是由於純粹的外部原因,而不是內容的多樣性;為數量形式的律法超過四分之一的所有書籍的聖經,並載列,在第二輪號碼,三十點零零萬來信一百一十點○○萬在整個聖經。 A work of such compass far exceeded the normal size of an individual scroll among the Jews; and the Torah accordingly became a Pentateuch, thus being analogous to the Homeric poems, which originally formed a single epic, but which were later split into twenty-four parts each.的工作,如指南針遠遠超出了正常大小的個人猶太人之間的滾動和律法因此成為摩西五,從而類似荷馬詩歌,最初形成一個單一的史詩,但後來被分成24每個部分。

Division into Sections.司幾個部分。

Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 47-49), while subdivisions were also made into the so-called open and closed "parashiyyot," whose exact interrelation is not yet clear.與他們一樣,此外,摩西五分為根據常識和知識與令人欽佩的主題(布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen , ”頁。 47-49 ) ,而分支機構也作了到所謂的開啟和關閉“ parashiyyot , “其準確相互關係目前尚不清楚。 There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.在所有有669科, 290和379開放封閉。 Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.另一類parashiyyot分為每週的教訓,現在被稱為“ sidrot ” ,分為七個部分。 The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.的律法也屬於基礎上的經驗教訓的安息日,到54 sidrot根據年度週期,並納入155根據三年週期。 The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian. The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length (see Sidra).前部,現在幾乎普遍使用,是巴比倫;後者,最近被引入一些改革教會,是巴勒斯坦人。後者類sidrot ,然而,沒有外部標誌司春聯在猶太教堂;而分裂前,如parashiyyot ,是靠空格不同長度(見錫德拉) 。 This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.這可能意味著更大的古代的章節,因此指定的,但部門到5845詩句,這似乎仍然老年人,沒有向外馬克。 The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah, from the Vulgate.該系統的章節引入的希伯來文版本的聖經,因此到律法,從武加大。 This mode of division is not known to the Masorah, though it was incorporated in the final Masoretic notes, for individual books of the Pentateuch.這種模式的分工是不知道的Masorah ,儘管它被納入最後的馬所拉指出,個別書籍的摩西五。 It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.這是由於在現代版的希伯來文聖經的基礎上簡單的定型版本的英文聖經公會,隨後較早的例子。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.猶太傳統和律法。

The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts, Scroll of the Law, and Mantle of the Law; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article.外部形式的律法中討論這類物品的手稿,滾動法,與地幔的法律,但如此之多的傳統說法就其內容和價值,甚至重複的一小部分人將遠遠超出了本文的範圍。 Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.每一頁的塔木德和米德拉士充滿引文從摩西五和最令人生厭的讚美它,聯合國超人類的愛和神聖的尊重的。 In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in theaccount of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.在五卷巴切爾的工作哈加達的律法和其研究的範圍內形成一個特殊的theaccount每個“ sofer ” ,或學者法。 In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.在所有的概率有永遠是另一個人,但可能是婆羅門,圍繞它的神聖著作等方面,傳播,並通過與這些百年自我犧牲精神,維護了他們這麼短的變化超過2000年。 The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (BB 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid. 30a), "the counters of the letters."非常字母的律法被認為來自上帝( BB心跳15A條) ,並仔細清點,改為“ soferim ”表明,根據塔木德( Ḳid. 30A的) , “櫃檯的信件。 ” A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.一類特殊的學者專門所有生命的認真保存的文本( “ Masorah ” ) ,唯一的比喻在文學的世界被發現在印度,那裡的吠陀準確保存以類似方式。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的律法。

The Torah is older than the world, for it existed either 947 generations (Zeb. 116a, and parallels) or 2,000 years (Gen. R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p. 15) before the Creation.在律法是以上的世界,它的存在或者947一代( Zeb. 116a ,和Parallels )或2000年(將軍河八。 ,和Parallels ;韋伯, “ Jüdische神學” ,第15頁)成立之前。 The original Pentateuch, therefore, like everything celestial, consisted of fire, being written in black letters of flame upon a white ground of fire (Yer. Sheḳ. 49a, and parallels; Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p. 156).原來的五經,因此,像一切天體,包括火災,正在寫的書的火焰黑白色地面後起火( Yer.石。 49A條,和Parallels ;布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen ” ,第156頁) 。 God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.上帝舉行律師在創造的世界,因為它是智慧本身( Tan. , Bereshit ,各處) ,這是上帝的第一個啟示,在其本人參加。 It was given in completeness for all time and for all mankind, so that no further revelation can be expected.這是由於在完整性的所有時間和全人類的,所以沒有進一步的啟示可以預期。 It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, lc pp. 16-20; Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 84-100).這是由於在語文的所有人民的聲音,天啟是seventyfold (韋伯,信用證頁。 16-20 ;布勞, “論導論在模具神聖Schrift , ”頁。 84-100 ) 。 It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 203, 416), while everything found in the Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an. 9a), so that, if the Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned. 22b).它永遠閃耀,並轉錄的文士的70人(巴切爾, “銀。談。 ”二。 203 , 416 ) ,而一切都在先知和Hagiographa已經載於律法( Ta'an 。 9A條) ,因此,如果以色列人沒有罪,只有五本書的摩西本來給了他們( Ned. 22B款) 。 As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer. Meg. 70d).事實上,先知和Hagiographa將被廢止;但律法將永遠( Yer.梅格。 70d ) 。 Every letter of it is a living creature.每信這是一個生物。 When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut. xvii. 17), with which the prohibition of polygamy was spoken; and God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev. R. xix.; Yer. Sanh. 20c; Cant. R. 5, 11; comp. Bacher, lc ii. 123, note 5).當所羅門了許多妻子,申命記倒上帝面前並抱怨說,所羅門群島希望刪除的yod的摩西五字( Deut.十七。 17 ) ,與禁止一夫多妻制是口語;和上帝回答說: “所羅門和千像他應亡,但沒有一個字母的律法應銷毀“ ( Lev.河十九。 ;層。 Sanh 。 20C條;插件。河5日, 11日;補償。巴切爾,立法會二。 123注5 ) 。 The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, lci 347), an idea which is probably derived from Gnostic speculation.單一的信函hypostatized ,並積極,甚至在創造世界(巴切爾,國際獅子總會347 ) ,這一想法可能是來自諾斯底猜測。 The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er. 21a).整個世界都在說,只有三千二百分之一的律法( '呃。 21A條) 。

Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber. 5a, and parallels), for the book and the sword came together from heaven, and Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut. 40, end; Bacher, lc ii. 402, note 5); and whosoever denies the heavenly origin of the Torah will lose the future life (Sanh. x. 1).以色列收到此寶藏,只有通過痛苦( Ber. 5A型,和Parallels ) ,為這本書和劍走到一起從天上,以色列不得不選擇他們之間( Sifre , Deut 。 40 ,結束;巴切爾,立法會二。 402注5 ) ;和任何人否認了這一神聖的起源律法將失去未來的生活( Sanh.十1 ) 。 This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., BM iii. 24, xi. 23).這種崇高的敬意認定其表達的規則的副本摩西五是無限的價值,並在該條例中的居民的城市可能會迫使一個採購春聯法( Tosef. ,骨髓三。 24日,西安。 23 ) 。 The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue (ib. B. Ḳ. ii. 3); and it was the duty of each one to make one for himself, while the honor paid the Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 84-97).虔誠的遺贈一份律法的猶太教堂( ib.灣K表。二。 3 ) ;並有責任使每個人之一為自己的榮譽而付出了很大的影響聖經分配的副本和導致基礎圖書館(布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen , ”頁。 84-97 ) 。

Study of the Torah.研究律法。

The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.的最高理想的年輕人和老年人和小和大是研究法,從而形成了依據不屈不撓渴望的猶太人民的教育和難以抑制求知欲他們仍然特點。 "As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer. Ber. ch. ix.). “隨著孩子必須滿足其飢餓每天,也必須發展自己的人忙碌的律法每一小時” ( Yer.蘇貝等。通道。九。 ) 。 The mishnah (Pe'ah i.) incorporated in the daily prayer declares that the study of the Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg. 16b).該米示拿( Pe'ah一)納入日常祈禱宣布,該法的研究超越了所有的東西,大於挽救人的生命,而不是建設的廟,和比榮譽的父親和母親(梅格。 16B款) 。 It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er. 63b); a single day devoted to the Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab. 30a; comp. Men. 100a); while the fable of the Fish and the Fox, in which the latter seeks to entice the former to dry land, declares Israel can live only in the Law as fish can live only in the ocean.這是更有價值的產品比每日犧牲( '呃。 63b ) ;一天專門律法超過1000年犧牲( Shab. 30A的;補償。男性。 100號A ) ;而寓言的魚類和福克斯,在後者旨在吸引前乾旱的土地,宣布以色列不能只生活在法律的魚只生活在海洋中。 Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab. Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (BB 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag. 5b).誰分開自己從律法模具立即( '抗體。 Zarah 3B )款;消防消耗他,他落入地獄( BB心跳79A條) ;而上帝流淚超過誰可能被佔領自己被忽視,但這樣做(女巫。 5B號) 。 The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber. 63b; Shab. 83b).該研究必須是無私的: “人們應該研究律法與自我否定,甚至犧牲自己的生命;和非常死亡前1小時應投身這一責任” ( Soṭah第二十一期乙;小蘗鹼。 63b ;的Shab 。 83b ) 。 "Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned. 62a). “無論是誰使用了王冠上的律法應銷毀” ( Ned. 62a ) 。 All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber. 22a), while it was the duty of every one to read the entire weekly lesson twice (Ber. 8a); and the oldest benediction was the one spoken over the Torah (ib. 11b).所有,即使是麻風病人和不潔的,還需要研究法( Ber.為22A ) ,它雖然是義務的每一個閱讀整每週兩次課( Ber. 8A條) ;和最古老的祝福是一個口語比托拉( ib. 11B款) 。 Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering (ib. 5a), against sickness ('Er. 54b), and against oppression in the Messianic time (Sanh. 98b); so that it may be said that "the Torah protects all the world" (Sanh. 99b; comp. Ber. 31a).預防性權力也歸因於它:它使免受痛苦( ib. 5A型) ,疾病( '呃。 54b ) ,和反對壓迫的彌賽亞時間( Sanh. 98b ) ;因此,它可能會說, “律法保護世界上所有“ ( Sanh. 99B章;補償。小蘗鹼。 31A條) 。 The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ. 38a). "The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer. Pe'ah i.), a conclusive refutation of the current view of the Nomism of the Jewish faith. After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah" ('Ab. Zarah 3b).下列成語可引稱為特別是在這方面的啟發: “一項研究詹蒂萊誰的律法是一樣大的大祭司” (灣K表。 38A條) 。 “實踐的所有法律的摩西五是值得小於研究聖經的IT “ ( Yer. Pe'ah島) ,一個決定性的駁斥當前鑑於Nomism信仰猶太教。經過這些引文成為容易理解的是,根據塔木德認為, ”上帝坐在自己的律法和研究“ ( '抗體。 Zarah 3B )款。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.批評律法在猶太人。

The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.批評的精神,這種自然形成的獻身精神,五經,儘管信仰和崇敬。 The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoeverdenied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh. x.), shows that there was a school which assumed a critical attitude toward the Torah.存在本身的理論,法律是神聖的起源,並whosoeverdenied這種教條沒有分享生活中來( Sanh.十) ,結果表明,有一所學校承擔了一個關鍵的態度律法。 There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.有許多證據證明了這一點,但這裡只有批評的歷史的正統猶太教堂將討論。 It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ. 60a); and the further question was discussed, whether Moses or Joshua wrote the last eight verses of the Pentateuch (BB 14b-15a).這是一個模擬點法律是否給予一次或在小卷在不同的時間( Giṭ.第60A條) ;和進一步討論的問題是,無論是摩西或約書亞寫道過去八年詩句的摩西五( BB心跳第14B - 15A條) 。 It was definitely affirmed, on the other hand (ib.), that Moses composed the sections concerning Balaam (Num. xxii.-xxiv.), thus closing all discussions on that score.這是絕對肯定,另一方面( ib. ) ,即摩西的章節組成,涉及巴蘭( Num. xxii. - 24 。 ) ,從而關閉所有討論這個評分。 Many tacit doubts are scattered through the Talmud and Midrash, in addition to those which Einstein has collected.許多默契懷疑分散通過塔爾穆德和米德拉士,除了那些愛因斯坦收集。 In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.在後塔木德期間,在同樣的方式,也沒有缺少的批評,其中一些人再次認識到這種只有在最近時期,雖然亞伯拉罕本以斯拉,誰也加入了斯賓諾莎,長期以來一直被公認為屬於這一類。

Composition.組成。

The composition of the Torah should be discussed on the basis of the old Semitic concepts, which planned a work of literature practically rather than systematically.組成的律法應該討論的基礎上,舊的猶太人概念,而計劃工作的實際,而不是文學系統。 Repetitions, therefore, should not be eliminated, since things which are good and noble may and should be brought to remembrance many times.重複,因此,不應該被淘汰,因為事情是好的和崇高的可能,並應提請紀念多次。 From the point of view of effective emphasis, moreover, a change of context may develop a new and independent application of a given doctrine, especially if it be repeated in other words.從的角度來看,有效的重視,而且,改變背景可能開發一種新的,獨立的應用某一學說,尤其是如果它再在其他的話。 Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.因此,傳統(在32個規則埃利澤灣聖荷西河Gelili )在“重複原則”作為其解釋規則,並留下大量的重複(平行通道)在其收藏的口頭教誨。 The framework of the Pentateuch is historical narrative bound together by the thread of chronology.的框架內,摩西五是歷史敘事聯繫在一起的線程的年表。 There is no rigid adherence to the latter principle, however; and the Talmud itself accordingly postulates the rule: "There is no earlier and no later in the Torah" (Pes. 6b et passim). From a Masoretic point of view, the Mosaic code contains the history of a period of about 2,300 years.沒有任何僵硬的堅持後者的原則,但是;和塔爾穆德因此假設本身的規則: “毫無較早並且不遲於律法” ( Pes.型等各處) 。從馬所拉的角度來看,馬賽克代碼包含的歷史,為期約二千三百年。 As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.正如已經指出,關於姓名的個人書籍,塔爾穆德和Masorah劃分成較小的律法單位根據其內容,因此,成因包括故事創作和始祖,出埃及記帳戶離境來自埃及,啟示,等等。

Style.風格。

The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.風格的五經,以符合它的內容,不同的詞廣泛的先知和詩篇。 It is less lofty, although it is not lacking in dramatic force, and it is concrete rather than abstract.這是不到崇高,但並不缺乏戲劇性的力量,它是具體而不是抽象的。 Most of the laws are formulated in the second person as a direct address, the Decalogue being the best example.大多數的法律制定的第二人作為直接地址,十誡是最好的例子。 In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut. xix. 11-21).在某些情況下,然而,這個問題的性質,需要第三人;但律法歸還盡快第二次被認為是更有效的形式,地址( comp.例如, Deut 。十九。 11月21日) 。 In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.在摩西五,時間是通常的描述方法。 The process of creation, rather than the universe as a whole, is described; and the account brings the world visibly into being in six main parts.創造的過程,而不是宇宙作為一個整體,是描述和帳戶使世界形成了明顯的六個主要部分。 In the creation of man, of plants, and of paradise God is seen at work, and the same process of coming into being may be traced in the ark of Noah and similar descriptions.創作中的人,植物,和天堂神見於工作,並在同一過程中正在形成可追溯到中的諾亞方舟和類似的描述。 A remarkable example of word-painting is the account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the high-priesthood (Lev. viii.).一個成功的例子文字畫是到神聖的亞倫和他的兒子高鐸( Lev.八。 ) 。 Here the reader watches while Moses washes the candidates, dresses them, etc. ("Magyar-Zsidó Szemle," ix. 565 et seq.).在這裡,讀者手錶洗而摩西的候選人,服裝等等( “匈牙利, Zsidó評論, ”九。 565起。 ) 。 Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.樸素簡潔的一個特點是特徵Pentateuchal的風格,也理解藝術的沉默。 Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.因此,在所有偉大的產品的世界文學,女性美是沒有詳細說明;為薩拉,雷切爾,和其他英雄,只是說是美麗的,而完成了圖片是留給讀者的想像力。

Laws of the Torah.法律律法。

The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal.的內容律法分為兩個主要部分:歷史和法律。 The latter commences with Ex.後者開始單方面。 xii.; so that the Tannaim maintained that the Law actually began there, proceeding on the correct principle that the word "Torah" could be applied only to teachings which regulated the life of man, either leading him to perform certain acts (commands = ) or restraining him from them (prohibitions = ).十二。 ;使Tannaim堅持有法真正開始,程序的正確原則,即改為“律法”可能只適用於該規定的教義生活的人,無論是領先的他以執行某些行為(命令= )或禁止他從他們(禁止= ) 。 The Talmud enumerates a total of 613 rules, 248 being commands and 365 prohibitions (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 181, sv Commandments, The 613).猶太法典列舉了共613條, 248和365被命令禁止(見猶。 Encyc 。四。 181 ,希沃特戒律,該613 ) 。 In the post-Talmudic period many works were written on these 613 "miẓwot," some even by Maimonides.在後塔木德期間許多作品寫在這些613 “ miẓwot ” ,有的甚至由邁蒙尼德。 The legal parts of the Pentateuch include all the relations of human life, although these are discussed with greater detail in the Talmud (see Talmudic Laws).法律部分的摩西五包括所有關係人的生命,雖然這些是更詳細地討論了在塔木德(見塔木德法) 。 The Torah recognizes no subdivisions of the commandments; for all alike are the ordinances of God, and a distinction may be drawn only according to modern ideas, as when Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66) proposes a triple division, into juridical, ceremonial, and moral "torot."在確認沒有律法下屬的誡命;所有都上帝的法令,並有區別可以得出唯一按照現代觀念,當司機(在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經”三。 66 )提出了一個三司,到法人,禮儀和道德“ torot 。 ”

Penal Law.刑法。

Montefiore was correct when, in laying emphasis on the ethical aspect of the Biblical concept of God, he declared that even the law of the Bible was permeated with morality, propounding his view in the following words ("Hibbert Lectures," p. 64): "Most original and characteristic was the moral influence of Jahveh in the domain of law. Jahveh, to the Israelite, was emphatically the God of the right. . . . From the earliest times onward, Jahveh's sanctuary was the depository of law, and the priest was His spokesman."蒙特弗洛爾時是正確的,奠定強調道德方面的聖經概念的上帝,他宣稱,即使是法律的聖經是貫穿道德, propounding他認為在以下的話( “希伯特講座” ,第64頁) : “最原始的特徵是道義上的影響Jahveh領域的法律。 Jahveh ,向以色列人,是強調神權。 。 。 。從最早的時候起, Jahveh的聖殿是保存法,牧師是他的發言人。 “ The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.最突出的特點Pentateuchal法律,而法律的古老民族和中世紀的歐洲,是溫和,這一特點仍然是進一步發展中塔木德。 The Torah is justly regarded as the source of humane law.是公正的律法視為來源人道法。 Although such phrases occur as "that soul shall be cut off from his people" or "so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee," it would be incorrect to take them literally, or to deduce from them certain theories of penal law, as Förster has recently done.雖然這些詞組出現“這一靈魂,應切斷他的人民”或“所以你把書遠離邪惡之中你, ”那將是不正確加以字面上看,或從他們推斷某些理論刑法法,福斯特最近許多工作要做。 On the contrary, these expressions prove that the Mosaiclaw was not a legal code in the strict sense of the term, but an ethical work.相反,這些運算證明, Mosaiclaw不是一個法律的代碼在嚴格意義上的任期,但在道義上的工作。 Although the Talmudists made it a penal code, instinctively reading that character into it, the penal law of the Torah is something theoretical which was never put into practise.雖然Talmudists了刑法,本能地閱讀到它的性質,刑法的律法是理論這是從來沒有付諸實踐。 This view is supported by the fact that a commandment is stated sometimes without the threat of any penalty whatever for its violation, and sometimes with the assignment even of death as a punishment for its transgression.這一觀點得到了這樣一個事實,即誡命指出有時沒有威脅任何懲罰不論其違反的,有時甚至與轉讓的死亡作為一種懲罰的海侵。 In like manner, tradition frequently substitutes such a phrase as "he forfeited his life" for "transgression worthy of death."在同樣的方式,替代傳統的經常這樣一個詞組是“他放棄他的生命”為“侵值得死亡。 ”

Civil Law.民法。

On the other hand, the civil law of the Torah, which is more developed and bears a practical character, probably accords more closely with ancient Jewish legal procedure.另一方面,民法的律法,這是更發達和負有實際性質,可能協定更緊密地與古老的猶太法律的程序。 It reflects the conditions of an agricultural state, since most of the laws relate to farming and cognate matters.它反映了一個農業條件的國家,因為大多數的法律涉及到農業和同源事項。 There was no Hebrew word for "store," although "just measure" was mentioned.沒有希伯來詞“商店” ,但“公正措施”中提到。 It must be borne in mind, however, that to satisfy the more advanced conditions of later times, the Talmudists both supplemented the Mosaic law and by means of analogy and similar expedients interpolated into the Torah much which it did not contain originally.必須牢記,但是,為了滿足更先進的條件後時代, Talmudists既補充了馬賽克法和類比的方式和類似的權宜之計插值到律法很多它不包含最初。

From the earliest times the Synagogue has proclaimed the divine origin of the Pentateuch, and has held that Moses wrote it down from dictation, while the religions based on Judaism have until very recently held the same view.從最早的時候宣布的猶太教堂的神源的五經,並認為,摩西寫從聽寫,而宗教的基礎上猶太教直到最近舉行了同樣的看法。 Biblical criticism, however, denies the Mosaic authorship and ascribes only a portion of varying extent to so ancient an origin.聖經批評,但是,否認花葉著作權和歸因只有部分的不同程度,以使古老的起源。 A history of criticism in regard to this point is given by Winer ("BR" ii. 419 et seq.) and by Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66), while Montefiore expresses himself as follows (lc): "The Torah-or teaching-of the priests, half judicial, half pædagogic, was a deep moral influence; and there was no element in the religion which was at once more genuinely Hebrew and more closely identified with the national God. There is good reason to believe that this priestly Torah is the one religious institution which can be correctly attributed to Moses. . . . Though Moses was not the author of the written law, he was unquestionably the founder of that oral teaching, or Torah, which preceded and became the basis of the codes of the Pentateuch." The legal parts of the Torah are found in Ex.由於歷史上的批評,就這一點是由溫納( “巴”二。 419起。 )和驅動程序(在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經”三。 66 ) ,而表示自己蒙特弗洛爾如下(立法會)說: “律法書或教學的牧師,半司法,一半pædagogic ,是一個深刻的道義上的影響;並沒有要素的宗教是一次真正的希伯來文和更多更緊密地與國家確定的上帝。有是很好的理由認為,這祭司律法是一個宗教機構,可正確地歸因於摩西。 。 。 。雖然摩西不是作者的書面法律,他是毫無疑問的創始人說,口語教學,或律法,其中之前,成為基礎代碼的摩西五。 “法律部分的律法是在惠。 xx.-xxiii., xxv.-xxxi., xxxiv.-xxxv.; Lev. xx. -二十三。 , xxv. -三十一。 , xxxiv. -三十五。 ;列夫。 i.-viii., xi.-xxv., xxvii.; Num. v.-x., xviii., xix., xxvii.-xxx., these laws being repeated in Deut. iv.一至八。 , xi. -二十五。 ,二十七。 ;序號。 v.-x. ,十八。 ,十九。 , xxvii. -三十。 ,這些法律中重複Deut 。四。 et seq.起。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau約瑟夫雅各布斯,路德維希布勞
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Bacher, Ag.巴切爾,銀。 Tan.; idem, Ag.談。 ;同上,銀。 Pal.帕爾。 Amor.奧馬爾。 Index, sv Tora and Studium der Lehre; Baumgartner, Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs, Geneva, 1886; Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Strasburg, 1894; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte, Strasburg, 1902; Büchler, The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets, in JQR vi.指數希沃特Tora和Studium之教;鮑姆加特納,法國研究Isagogiques桑切斯萊Juifs ,日內瓦, 1886年;布勞,論導論在模具神聖Schrift ,斯特拉斯堡, 1894年;同上, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen與楚Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte ,斯特拉斯堡, 1902年; Büchler ,三年期讀法和先知,在JQR六。 1-73; Eisenstadt, Ueber Bibelkritik in der Talmudischen Litteratur, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894; Förster, Das Mosaische Strafrecht in Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Leipsic, 1900; Hamburger, RBT supplementary vol. 1-73 ;艾森斯塔德,論Bibelkritik中的Talmudischen Litteratur ,法蘭克福式的主, 1894年;福斯特,達斯Mosaische刑法中Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung , Leipsic , 1900 ;漢堡,彩鈴補充第一卷。 iii.三。 60-75; Hastings, Dict. 60-75 ;黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bible, iii.聖經三。 64-73; Jew. 64-73 ;猶太人。 Encyc. Encyc 。 vii.七。 633-638; Michaelis-Saalschütz, Mosaisches Recht, Berlin, 1842-46; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. 633-638 ;米氏Saalschütz , Mosaisches法,柏林, 1842年至1846年;赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 xiii.十三。 486-502; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 486-502 ;韋伯Jüdische神學,頁。 14-34, and Index, Leipsic, 1897; Winer, BR 3d ed., i. 14-34 ,並編制索引, Leipsic , 1897年;納,商業登記的3D版。島 415-422. 415-422 。

For the criticism of the Torah compare the text-books of the history of Judaism and of Old Testament theology.對於批評律法比較教材的歷史,猶太教和舊約神學。 See also Pentateuch.又見五經。


Torah律法

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. USE OF WORD一,使用Word

Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for instance, the instruction of parents (Proverbs 1:8), or of the wise (Proverbs 3:1).律法, (參見Hiph 。的) ,標誌著第一“的方向,指示” ,例如,指導家長(箴言1:8 ) ,或智者(箴言3:1 ) 。 It is used chiefly in reference to the Divine instruction, especially through the revelation to Moses, the "Law", and to the teaching of the Prophets concerning the will of God.這是用主要是參照神聖指示,特別是通過啟示摩西的“法律” ,以及教學中的先知對上帝的意志。 In the sense of law "Torah" refers only to the Divine laws.在法律意義上的“律法書”是指只對神聖的法律。 "Torah" is applied to the books containing the teaching of the Mosaic revelation and the Law, that is, the Pentateuch. “律法書”適用於書籍包含教學的啟示和鑲嵌法,即摩西五。 In Jewish theology Torah signifies, first, the totality of Jewish doctrine, whether taken as a basis for religious knowledge and conduct, or as a basis for study.在猶太神學律法意味著,第一,整個猶太學說,無論是作為一個基礎,宗教知識和行為,或以此為基礎研究。 The body of Biblical writings, especially the Pentateuch, being the source of religious teaching and law, the term "Torah" is applied also to the entire Scriptures (cf. Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die hl. Schrift", Budapest, 1894, 16 sq.), or to passages from the Prophets and the Hagiographa, for instance, "Ab. zara", 17a, in reference to Prov., v, 8, and "Sanh."身體聖經的著作,特別是摩西五,正源的宗教教學和法, “律法書”是也適用於整個聖經(參見布勞, “論導論在模具hl 。 Schrift ” ,布達佩斯, 1894年, 16平方米) ,或段落先知和Hagiographa ,例如, “抗體。扎拉” , 17A條,參照省。 ,五,八,與“ Sanh 。 ” 91b, in connexion with Ps. 91b ,在聯接與聚苯乙烯。 lxxxiv, 5. lxxxiv , 5 。 The expression, however, generlly signifies the Pentateuch.中的表達,然而, generlly標誌著五經。 In passages like ("the Scriptures [Torah] consist of three parts, Torah, Prophets, and Hagiographa" [Midrash Tanchuma to Ex., xix, 1]) "Torah" is used in two senses–one general, meaning the whole Scriptures, the other special, signifying the Pentateuch.在通道像( “聖經[律法]包括三個部分,律法,先知,和Hagiographa ” [米德拉士Tanchuma當然。 , 19 , 1 ] ) “律法書”是用在兩種意義上,一個一般,這意味著整個聖經,其他特殊,標誌著五經。 Elsewhere (Siphre to 32, 13-135b 24) the Torah is plainly distinguished from the non-Pentateuchal books by the comparison of miqra () and Torah.在其他地方( Siphre至32 , 13 - 135b 24 )的律法是完全區別於非Pentateuchal書籍比較miqra ( )和律法。 Besides the "written" Torah, , the Judaism which holds to tradition speaks of an "oral" Torah, , the commentaries and the ordinances which put into effect the laws contained in the Pentateuch.此外, “書面”律法, ,擁有的猶太教傳統,講的“口頭”律法, ,評注和法例生效的法律載於摩西五。 This oral Torah, it is claimed, was revealed to Moses and has been preserved in Israel by tradition (see TALMUD.)這項口頭律法,據稱,發現摩西並一直保留在以色列的傳統(見TALMUD 。 )

II.二。 TORAH IN THE RESTRICTED SENSE OF PENTATEUCH TORAH在限制意義上的摩西五

The Torah relates the preparatory measures for and the establishment of the Old-Testament theocracy, and contains the institutions and laws in which this theocracy found its visible expression.涉及的律法的籌備措施和建立的老聖經神,並載有機構和法律在本神發現其明顯的表達。 The old Testament itself calls the entire work after its main contents (ha)tora or sefer (), ha-tora, that is, "the book of the Torah", as in II Esd.舊約本身要求的全部工作後,其主要內容(公頃)托拉博拉或sefer ( ) ,哈虎,就是“這本書的律法” ,如在二可持續發展教育。 viii, 2; to emphasize its Divine origin it is called torath Yahwe, sefer torath Yahwe (Ezra 7:10; 1 Chronicles 16:40; Nehemiah 8:8), and sefer torath Yahwe Elohim (II Esd. ix, 3); while sefer torath Moshe (Nehemiah 8:1), sefer Moshe (Ezra 6:18; Nehemiah 13:1; 2 Chronicles 25:4; 35:12) indicate its author.八, 2 ;強調其神聖的起源被稱為torath Yahwe , sefer torath Yahwe (以斯拉7:10 ;歷代誌上16:40 ;尼希米記8點08分) ,並sefer torath Yahwe耶洛因(二可持續發展教育。九, 3 ) ;同時sefer torath摩西卡(尼希米記8:1 ) , sefer摩西卡(以斯拉6:18 ;尼希米記13點零一;歷代誌下25:4 ; 35:12 )表明其作者。 The Talmud and later Jewish writings call the Pentateuch sefer (ha) tora; the name is always used if the whole work were written as a scroll (megilla) for use in the Divine service.猶太法典,後來猶太人著作致電摩西五sefer (公頃)托拉博拉;的名字總是用於如果整個工作書面作為滾動( megilla )用於禮拜。 If the work is written in five scrolls or in book form it is called hamisha humeshe (ha)tora (), "the five- fifths of the law".如果是書面的工作在五個捲軸或以書籍形式被稱為hamisha humeshe (公頃)虎( ) , “五五分之四的法律” 。 This division into five parts is old, and in the time of Nehemias served as a model for the division of the Psalter into five books.這分為五個部分是舊的,並在規定的時間內的Nehemias擔任模型司Psalter成五本書。 The Jews generally named the individual books after the first word: (1) bereshith, ; (2) shemath or we-elle shemoth, or ; (3) wayyiqra, ; (4) bemidbar or wayyedabber, , ; (5) debarim or -elle ha-debarim, (cf. as early a writer as Origen on Ps. 1: Bresith, O-ualesmoth, O-uikra, -Elle ‘addebarim).猶太人一般命名為個別書籍後的第一個字: ( 1 ) bereshith , ( 2 ) shemath或我們,艾麗shemoth ,或; ( 3 ) wayyiqra , ( 4 ) bemidbar或wayyedabber , , ( 5 ) debarim或-艾麗河debarim , (參見早作家作為奧利在PS 。 1 : Bresith , O型ualesmoth , O型uikra , -世界時裝之苑' addebarim ) 。 There are also names indicating the main contents of the books given to Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy: torah kohanim, , "law of the priests", for instance in "Meg.", iii, 6; homesh ha-piqqudim, , "the fifth of the numberings", as in "Yoma", vii, 1, mishne tora (), ie, Deuteronomy, as in Masorah to Deut., xvii, 18.也有姓名,說明主要內容的書籍給利未記,數字和申命記:律法kohanim , “法律的神父” ,例如在“梅格。 ” ,三,六;霍麥什河piqqudim , “五分之一的numberings “ ,如在”山脈“ ,第七章, 1 , mishne虎( ) ,即申命記,如在Masorah到Deut 。 , 17 , 18 。 On the other hand sefer yeçira, , "book of the Creation", in Sanh., 62b, and neziqin, , "injuries", Masorah to Genesis 24:8, are not to be applied, as is often done, to Genesis and Exodus; they refer only to the account of the Creation and to Exodus 21:22.另一方面sefer yeçira , “本書的創作” ,在Sanh 。 , 62b和neziqin , “受傷” , Masorah成因24:8 ,不適用,正如人們經常做的那樣,成因與出埃及記;他們只提到的帳戶,並創造出埃及記21:22 。

Another method of division is that by which the paragraphs, or parashiyyoth (, sing. ), are indicated in the scrolls of the Torah used in the synagogues.司的另一種方法是,其中段落,或parashiyyoth (唱歌。 ) ,是中指出春聯的律法中使用的猶太教堂。 In the older Midrashim these divisions are called parashiyyoth pethuhoth, , "open parashiyyoth"; or parashiyyoth sethumoth, , "closed parashiyyoth".在老的米大示這些部門被稱為parashiyyoth pethuhoth , “開放parashiyyoth ” ;或parashiyyoth sethumoth , “封閉parashiyyoth ” 。 In the former, the portion of the line following the last word is left blank; in the latter the termination of the paragraph is indicated by leaving only part of the line blank.在前者,部分線以下硬道理留空;後者終止段所指出的只留下部分線空白。 Such paragraphs are called "small parashiyyoth" and they are generally indicated in the printed editions of the Bible by or .這種段被稱為“小parashiyyoth ” ,他們一般都表示,在印刷版本的聖經或。 The Pentateuch has altogether 290 open and 379 closed parashiyyoth.在摩西五共有290和379開放封閉parashiyyoth 。 In quoting they are generally called after main contents (as Baba bathra 14a: that is, Numbers 22:2-24:25), but sometimes after the first words (as Ta'anith iv, 3, the first six parashiyyoth of Genesis).在引用它們通常稱為後主要內容(如巴巴加納bathra 14A條:這就是,數字22:2-24:25 ) ,但有時後的第一句話(如Ta'anith四,第3 ,第6 parashiyyoth的成因) 。 The parashiyyoth are regarded as the arrangement of the divisions of the Pentateuch according to contents; but the basis of the distinction between open and closed parashiyyoth is not known with certainty. Another division of the Torah is connected with the reading of lessons read in the synagogue on the Sabbath, a practice referred to in Acts, xv, 21, -ek geneôn -archaíon as being ancient (cf. also Josephus, "Contra Apion.", II, xvii).該parashiyyoth被視為安排分歧的摩西五根據內容;但根據區分開啟和關閉parashiyyoth並不確知。另一個司律法是與閱讀理解的經驗教訓的猶太教堂在安息日,這種做法中提到的行為,十五, 21日,寬geneôn - archaíon作為古代(參見也約瑟夫, “康特拉阿皮翁。 ”二,十七) 。 It was customary in Palestine to have a three years' cycle of these lessons (Meg., 29b); some writers say there was also a cycle of three years and a half.有人習慣在巴勒斯坦有一個3年的週期,這些經驗教訓( Meg. , 29B款) ;一些作者說,還有一個週期為三年半。 The Pentateuch, therefore, was divided into 154-175 sections or sedarim (, sing. ). These sedarim though not indicated in our Bibles, are important for understanding the structure of the old Midrashim (cf. Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle" in "Jew. Quart. Rev.", V, 420 sqq., VI, 1 sqq., VIII, 528 sq.).在摩西五,因此,被分為154-175部分或sedarim (唱歌。 ) 。這些sedarim雖然不是在我們的聖經,是非常重要的理解結構的舊米大示(見Büchler , “閱讀法和先知在三年週期“中的”猶太人。夸脫。牧師“ ,第五章, 420 sqq 。 ,六, 1 sqq 。 ,八, 528平方米) 。 In the course of time an annual cycle, which first acquired authority among the Babylonian Jews, and is now accepted by nearly all Jewish communities, was adopted.在每年的時間週期,而第一次獲得授權的巴比倫的猶太人,現在接受了幾乎所有的猶太社區,獲得通過。 Maimonides (Hilhoth Tephilla, XIII, 1) calls it the prevailing custom of his era (twelfth century), but says that some read the Pentateuch in three years, which, according to Benjamin of Tudela, was the practice about 1170 among scattered communities in Egypt (cf. Jew. Quart. Rev., V, 420).邁蒙尼德( Hilhoth Tephilla ,十三, 1 )要求的普遍習慣,他那個時代( 12世紀) ,但是他說,一些在讀五經3年,而根據本傑明的杜德拉,是1170年的實踐中分散的社區埃及(見猶。夸脫。牧師,五, 420 ) 。 In this one-year cycle the Pentateuch is divided into fifty-four Sabbath lessons generally called large parashiyyoth.在這一年的五經週期分為54安息日教訓一般稱為大parashiyyoth 。 A Jewish intercalary year consisting of thirteen lunar months contains fifty-three sabbaths, and the final section is always read on the day of the "joy of the Law" (), that is, the ninth day after the feast of booths (twenty-third day of Tishri).猶太人組成的閏年農曆13月包含53安息日,和最後一節始終是閱讀當日的“歡樂法” ( ) ,也就是第9天之後,棚( 21第三天提市黎月) 。 In ordinary years, when there are forty-seven sabbaths, two parashiyyoth are joined on each of seven sabbaths in order to complete the number.在普通的時間裡,當有47安息日,兩個parashiyyoth是加入的每一個7安息日,以完成的數量。 In Genesis there are twelve sabbath parashiyyoth, in Exodus eleven, in Leviticus and Numbers ten each, and in Deuteronomy eleven.在成因有12安息日parashiyyoth ,在出埃及記11 ,在利未記和每個號碼10 ,並在申命記11 。 They are named from and quoted by the first words.它們是由和所報的第一句話。 In the printed editions of the Bible they are indicated, as they are also the opening words the open or closed parashiyyoth, by or , with exception of the twelfth lesson, at the beginning of which (Genesis 47:28) only the breadth of a letter should remain blank.在印刷版聖經他們指出,因為他們還開頭的開啟或關閉parashiyyoth ,或,除第十二課開始時,這(創47:28 )的寬度只有一個信中應保持空白。 Concerning the distribution of the fifty-four parashiyyoth for the year, cf.關於分配54 parashiyyoth的一年,比照。 Loeb, "Rev. des études juives", VI, 250 sqq.; Derenbourg, ibid., VII, 146 sqq.; Schmid, "Überverschiedene Einteilungen der hl. Schrift" (Graz, 1892), 4 sqq.勒布, “牧師之高等研究juives ” ,六, 250 sqq 。 ; Derenbourg ,同上。 ,七, 146 sqq 。 ;施密德, “ Überverschiedene Einteilungen之hl 。 Schrift ” (格拉茨, 1892年) , 4 sqq 。

The Old Synagogue and the Talmud firmly maintain the Mosaic authorship of the Torah, but doubts are entertained regarding a number of passages.老猶太教堂和猶太法典堅決維護花葉作者的律法,但懷疑是娛樂方面的一些段落。 In "Baba bathra" 15e only the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, which speak of the death and burial of Moses, are assigned to another author.在“巴巴bathra ” 15e只有最後8申命記詩句,這說的是死亡和埋葬摩西,被分配到其他作者。 On the other hand Simeon (loc. cit.) teaches, referring to Deut., xxxi, 26, that these verses were also written by Moses under Divine direction (cf. also Josephus, "Antiq Jud.", IV, viii, 48).另一方面西蒙(如上。 )教授在談到Deut 。 ,三十一, 26歲,這些詩也寫的摩西下神聖的方向(參見也約瑟夫, “ Antiq珠德。 ” ,四,八, 48 ) 。 During the Middle Ages doubts were exprerssed as to the possibility of Moses writing certain sentences; for instance, by Rabbi Yishaq (to Genesis 36:11) who was opposed by Aben Ezra, and as well by Aben Ezra himself (to Genesis 12:6; Exodus 25:4; Deuteronomy 1:1; 31:22).在中世紀的懷疑exprerssed的可能性摩西書面某些句子,例如,由拉比Yishaq (成因36:11 )誰是反對母親阿本以斯拉和以及他的母親阿本以斯拉(成因十二時06分;出埃及記25:4 ;申命記1:1 ; 31:22 ) 。 Taken altogether, even in the succeeding period the belief in the Mosaic authorship remained undisputed, at least by the orthodox Jews.採取完全,即使是在成功期間,相信仍然是無可爭議的馬賽克作品,至少在正統猶太教徒。 They hold, moreover, the Divine origin of the entire Torah, and the eighth of the thirteen articles of faith formulated by Maimonides and incorporated into the prayer-book reads: "I believe with full faith that the entire Torah as it is in our hands is the one which was given to our teacher Moses, to whom be peace."他們認為,此外,神源是整個律法,和第八的13條制定的信仰邁蒙尼德並納入祈禱書內容如下: “我認為充分的信仰,整個律法,因為它是在我們的手中這是一個給我們的老師摩西,他們是和平。 “ (See PENTATEUCH .) (見摩西五。 )

Publication information Written by F. Schühlein.出版信息作者:樓Schühlein 。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 In memory of Fr.在內存神父。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio -- Fidelis servus et prudens, quem constituit Dominus super familiam suam. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.約翰Hilkert ,俄亥俄州阿克倫-忠誠servus等prudens ,關於constituit主超級familiam蘇阿姆。天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Torah律法

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Name.名字。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五司律法。

Division into Sections.司幾個部分。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.猶太傳統和律法。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的律法。

Study of the Torah.研究律法。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.批評律法在猶太人。

Composition.組成。

Style.風格。

Laws of the Torah.法律律法。

Penal Law.刑法。

Civil Law.民法。

Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.名稱適用於五本書的摩西,成因,出埃及記,利未記,數字和申命記。 The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon.的內容律法作為一個整體進行了討論,從的角度來看,現代聖經批評,在摩西五,凡表給出的各種來源,而它的重要性為中心的結晶希伯來佳能下處理聖經佳能。 The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism. The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."本條款,因此,僅限於歷史上的五經後的聖經猶太教。的律法獲得冠軍由其內容,名稱本身connoting “理論。 ” The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" (eg, LXX., prologue to Ecclus. [Sirach], Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.希臘猶太人,但是,它的翻譯νόμος = “法律” (例如, LXX 。 ,序幕Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ] ,斐羅,約瑟夫和新約全書) ,何處來的“法書” ,這給導致錯誤的印象,即猶太宗教純粹是nomistic ,因此,它仍然經常指定為宗教的法律。 In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.但在現實中,包含了律法的教義,以及法律,即使後者提供的道德形式,載於歷史的敘述道德品格。

Name.名字。

In the books of the Bible the following names of the Pentateuch occur: in II Chron.在書本裡的聖經下列名稱的摩西五發生:在二專欄。 xvii.十七。 9, Neh. 9 , Neh 。 ix.九。 3, and, with the added epithet , II Chron. 3 ,並與增加修飾語,二專欄。 xxxiv.三十四。 14; while alone, without , is found in II Kings x. 14 ;而單獨,不,是在二王十 31, I Chron. 31日,我專欄。 xxii.二十二。 11, and II Chron. 11日,和二專欄。 xii.十二。 1, xxxi. 1 ,三十一。 3, 4, and xxxv. 3 , 4 ,和三十五。 26. 26 。 Sometimes , or a word of similar meaning, is added, as , Josh.有時,一個單詞或類似的含義,是說,因為,喬希。 xxiv.二十四。 26, Neh. 26日, Neh 。 viii.八。 18 (without , ib. x. 29). 18 (不包括,國際文憑。十29 ) 。 Another designation is , Josh.另一個指定,喬希。 viii.八。 31, xxiii. 31日,二十三。 6; II Kings xiv. 6 ;二世國王十四。 6; Neh. viii. 6 ; Neh 。八。 1; or , I Kings ii. 1 ;或者,我王二。 3; II Kings xxiii. 3 ;二國王二十三。 25; Mal. 25 ;條。 iii.三。 22 (AV iv. 4), with the addition of ; Ezra iii. 22 (影音四。 4 ) ,加上;以斯拉三。 2 (with the addition of ), vii. 2 (加上) ,第七章。 6; , II Chron. 6 ,二專欄。 xxv.二十五。 4 (preceded by ), xxxv. 4 (之前) ,三十五。 12. 12 。 The oldest name doubtless is (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), sometimes shortened to (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), or to (Neh. viii. 5), or to (Deut. xxxiii. 4).最古老的名字無疑是( Deut.一5 ;三十一。 9 , 11 , 24 ;三十二。 46 ; Neh 。八。 2 ) ,有時縮短至( Deut.一5 ;三十一。 9 , 11 , 24 ;三十二。 46 ; Neh 。八。 2 ) ,或( Neh.八。 5 ) ,或( Deut.三十三。 4 ) 。 The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.最後兩個偉大的名字出現的頻率在猶太傳統中,那裡的律法成為生物。 The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 40-43).中的表達“的五本書, ”這是原產地的“五經” ,只發生在猶太傳統中,這也已經來源為“創世紀”等,作為地名的書籍的摩西五(見布勞, “論導論在模具神聖Schrift , ”頁。 40-43 ) 。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五司律法。

According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.根據所有的批評,不論學校所屬的律法形式單一的工作,這是代表,即使在今天,由synagogal滾動法,也不知道歷史上的任何其他律法滾動。 The fivefold division of the Pentateuch was due to purely external causes, and not to a diversity of content; for in volume the Torah forms more than a fourth of all the books of the Bible, and contains, in round numbers, 300,000 letters of the 1,100,000 in the entire Bible.五倍司摩西五是由於純粹的外部原因,而不是內容的多樣性;為數量形式的律法超過四分之一的所有書籍的聖經,並載列,在第二輪號碼,三十點〇 〇 〇萬來信一百一十點○○萬在整個聖經。 A work of such compass far exceeded the normal size of an individual scroll among the Jews; and the Torah accordingly became a Pentateuch, thus being analogous to the Homeric poems, which originally formed a single epic, but which were later split into twenty-four parts each.的工作,如指南針遠遠超出了正常大小的個人猶太人之間的滾動和律法因此成為摩西五,從而類似荷馬詩歌,最初形成一個單一的史詩,但後來被分成24每個部分。

Division into Sections.司幾個部分。

Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 47-49), while subdivisions were also made into the so-called open and closed "parashiyyot," whose exact interrelation is not yet clear.與他們一樣,此外,摩西五分為根據常識和知識與令人欽佩的主題(布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen , ”頁。 47-49 ) ,而分支機構也作了到所謂的開啟和關閉“ parashiyyot , “其準確相互關係目前尚不清楚。 There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.在所有有669科, 290和379開放封閉。 Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.另一類parashiyyot分為每週的教訓,現在被稱為“ sidrot ” ,分為七個部分。 The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.的律法也屬於基礎上的經驗教訓的安息日,到54 sidrot根據年度週期,並納入155根據三年週期。 The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian. The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length (see Sidra).前部,現在幾乎普遍使用,是巴比倫;後者,最近被引入一些改革教會,是巴勒斯坦人。後者類sidrot ,然而,沒有外部標誌司春聯在猶太教堂;而分裂前,如parashiyyot ,是靠空格不同長度(見錫德拉) 。 This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.這可能意味著更大的古代的章節,因此指定的,但部門到5845詩句,這似乎仍然老年人,沒有向外馬克。 The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah, from the Vulgate.該系統的章節引入的希伯來文版本的聖經,因此到律法,從武加大。 This mode of division is not known to the Masorah, though it was incorporated in the final Masoretic notes, for individual books of the Pentateuch.這種模式的分工是不知道的Masorah ,儘管它被納入最後的馬所拉指出,個別書籍的摩西五。 It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.這是由於在現代版的希伯來文聖經的基礎上簡單的定型版本的英文聖經公會,隨後較早的例子。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.猶太傳統和律法。

The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts, Scroll of the Law, and Mantle of the Law; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article.外部形式的律法中討論這類物品的手稿,滾動法,與地幔的法律,但如此之多的傳統說法就其內容和價值,甚至重複的一小部分人將遠遠超出了本文的範圍。 Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.每一頁的塔木德和米德拉士充滿引文從摩西五和最令人生厭的讚美它,聯合國超人類的愛和神聖的尊重的。 In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in theaccount of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.在五卷巴切爾的工作哈加達的律法和其研究的範圍內形成一個特殊的theaccount每個“ sofer ” ,或學者法。 In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.在所有的概率有永遠是另一個人,但可能是婆羅門,圍繞它的神聖著作等方面,傳播,並通過與這些百年自我犧牲精神,維護了他們這麼短的變化超過2000年。 The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (BB 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid. 30a), "the counters of the letters."非常字母的律法被認為是來自上帝( BB心跳15A條) ,並仔細清點,改為“ soferim ”表明,根據塔木德( Ḳid. 30A的) , “櫃檯的信件。 ” A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.一類特殊的學者專門所有生命的認真保存的文本( “ Masorah ” ) ,唯一的比喻在文學的世界被發現在印度,那裡的吠陀準確保存以類似方式。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的律法。

The Torah is older than the world, for it existed either 947 generations (Zeb. 116a, and parallels) or 2,000 years (Gen. R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p. 15) before the Creation.在律法是以上的世界,它的存在或者947一代( Zeb. 116a ,和Parallels )或2000年(將軍河八。 ,和Parallels ;韋伯, “ Jüdische神學” ,第15頁)成立之前。 The original Pentateuch, therefore, like everything celestial, consisted of fire, being written in black letters of flame upon a white ground of fire (Yer. Sheḳ. 49a, and parallels; Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p. 156).原來的五經,因此,像一切天體,包括火災,正在寫的書的火焰黑白色地面後起火( Yer.石。 49A條,和Parallels ;布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen ” ,第156頁) 。 God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.上帝舉行律師在創造的世界,因為它是智慧本身( Tan. , Bereshit ,各處) ,這是上帝的第一個啟示,在其本人參加。 It was given in completeness for all time and for all mankind, so that no further revelation can be expected.這是由於在完整性的所有時間和全人類的,所以沒有進一步的啟示可以預期。 It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, lc pp. 16-20; Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 84-100).這是由於在語文的所有人民的聲音,天啟是seventyfold (韋伯,信用證頁。 16-20 ;布勞, “論導論在模具神聖Schrift , ”頁。 84-100 ) 。 It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 203, 416), while everything found in the Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an. 9a), so that, if the Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned. 22b).它永遠閃耀,並轉錄的文士的70人(巴切爾, “銀。談。 ”二。 203 , 416 ) ,而一切都在先知和Hagiographa已經載於律法( Ta'an 。 9A條) ,因此,如果以色列人沒有罪,只有五本書的摩西本來給了他們( Ned. 22B款) 。 As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer. Meg. 70d).事實上,先知和Hagiographa將被廢止;但律法將永遠( Yer.梅格。 70d ) 。 Every letter of it is a living creature.每信這是一個生物。 When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut. xvii. 17), with which the prohibition of polygamy was spoken; and God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev. R. xix.; Yer. Sanh. 20c; Cant. R. 5, 11; comp. Bacher, lc ii. 123, note 5).當所羅門了許多妻子,申命記倒上帝面前並抱怨說,所羅門群島希望刪除的yod的摩西五字( Deut.十七。 17 ) ,與禁止一夫多妻制是口語;和上帝回答說: “所羅門和千像他應亡,但沒有一個字母的律法應銷毀“ ( Lev.河十九。 ;層。 Sanh 。 20C條;插件。河5日, 11日;補償。巴切爾,立法會二。 123注5 ) 。 The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, lci 347), an idea which is probably derived from Gnostic speculation.單一的信函hypostatized ,並積極,甚至在創造世界(巴切爾,國際獅子總會347 ) ,這一想法可能是來自諾斯底猜測。 The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er. 21a).整個世界都在說,只有3200分之1的律法( '呃。 21A條) 。

Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber. 5a, and parallels), for the book and the sword came together from heaven, and Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut. 40, end; Bacher, lc ii. 402, note 5); and whosoever denies the heavenly origin of the Torah will lose the future life (Sanh. x. 1).以色列收到此寶藏,只有通過痛苦( Ber. 5A型,和Parallels ) ,為這本書和劍走到一起從天上,以色列不得不選擇他們之間( Sifre , Deut 。 40 ,結束;巴切爾,立法會二。 402注5 ) ;和任何人否認了這一神聖的起源律法將失去未來的生活( Sanh.十1 ) 。 This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., BM iii. 24, xi. 23).這種崇高的敬意認定其表達的規則的副本摩西五是無限的價值,並在該條例中的居民的城市可能會迫使一個採購春聯法( Tosef. ,骨髓三。 24日,西安。 23 ) 。 The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue (ib. B. Ḳ. ii. 3); and it was the duty of each one to make one for himself, while the honor paid the Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 84-97).虔誠的遺贈一份律法的猶太教堂( ib.灣K表。二。 3 ) ;並有責任使每個人之一為自己的榮譽而付出了很大的影響聖經分配的副本和導致基礎圖書館(布勞, “ Althebräisches Buchwesen , ”頁。 84-97 ) 。

Study of the Torah.研究律法。

The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.的最高理想的年輕人和老年人和小和大是研究法,從而形成了依據不屈不撓渴望的猶太人民的教育和難以抑制求知欲他們仍然特點。 "As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer. Ber. ch. ix.). “隨著孩子必須滿足其飢餓每天,也必須發展自己的人忙碌的律法每一小時” ( Yer.蘇貝等。通道。九。 ) 。 The mishnah (Pe'ah i.) incorporated in the daily prayer declares that the study of the Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg. 16b).該米示拿( Pe'ah一)納入日常祈禱宣布,該法的研究超越了所有的東西,大於挽救人的生命,而不是建設的廟,和比榮譽的父親和母親(梅格。 16B款) 。 It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er. 63b); a single day devoted to the Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab. 30a; comp. Men. 100a); while the fable of the Fish and the Fox, in which the latter seeks to entice the former to dry land, declares Israel can live only in the Law as fish can live only in the ocean.這是更有價值的產品比每日犧牲( '呃。 63b ) ;一天專門律法超過1000年犧牲( Shab. 30A的;補償。男性。 100號A ) ;而寓言的魚類和福克斯,在後者旨在吸引前乾旱的土地,宣布以色列不能只生活在法律的魚只生活在海洋中。 Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab. Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (BB 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag. 5b).誰分開自己從律法模具立即( '抗體。 Zarah 3B )款;消防消耗他,他落入地獄( BB心跳79A條) ;而上帝流淚超過誰可能被佔領自己被忽視,但這樣做(女巫。 5B號) 。 The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber. 63b; Shab. 83b).該研究必須是無私的: “人們應該研究律法與自我否定,甚至犧牲自己的生命;和非常死亡前1小時應投身這一責任” ( Soṭah第二十一期乙;小蘗鹼。 63b ;的Shab 。 83b ) 。 "Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned. 62a). “無論是誰使用了王冠上的律法應銷毀” ( Ned. 62a ) 。 All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber. 22a), while it was the duty of every one to read the entire weekly lesson twice (Ber. 8a); and the oldest benediction was the one spoken over the Torah (ib. 11b).所有,即使是麻風病人和不潔的,還需要研究法( Ber.為22A ) ,它雖然是義務的每一個閱讀整每週兩次課( Ber. 8A條) ;和最古老的祝福是一個口語比托拉( ib. 11B款) 。 Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering (ib. 5a), against sickness ('Er. 54b), and against oppression in the Messianic time (Sanh. 98b); so that it may be said that "the Torah protects all the world" (Sanh. 99b; comp. Ber. 31a).預防性權力也歸因於它:它使免受痛苦( ib. 5A型) ,疾病( '呃。 54b ) ,和反對壓迫的彌賽亞時間( Sanh. 98b ) ;因此,它可能會說, “律法保護世界上所有“ ( Sanh. 99B章;補償。小蘗鹼。 31A條) 。 The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ. 38a). "The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer. Pe'ah i.), a conclusive refutation of the current view of the Nomism of the Jewish faith. After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah" ('Ab. Zarah 3b).下列成語可引稱為特別是在這方面的啟發: “一項研究詹蒂萊誰的律法是一樣大的大祭司” (灣K表。 38A條) 。 “實踐的所有法律的摩西五是值得小於研究聖經的IT “ ( Yer. Pe'ah島) ,一個決定性的駁斥當前鑑於Nomism信仰猶太教。經過這些引文成為容易理解的是,根據塔木德認為, ”上帝坐在自己的律法和研究“ ( '抗體。 Zarah 3B )款。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.批評律法在猶太人。

The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.批評的精神,這種自然形成的獻身精神,五經,儘管信仰和崇敬。 The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoeverdenied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh. x.), shows that there was a school which assumed a critical attitude toward the Torah.存在本身的理論,法律是神聖的起源,並whosoeverdenied這種教條沒有分享生活中來( Sanh.十) ,結果表明,有一所學校承擔了一個關鍵的態度律法。 There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.有許多證據證明了這一點,但這裡只有批評的歷史的正統猶太教堂將討論。 It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ. 60a); and the further question was discussed, whether Moses or Joshua wrote the last eight verses of the Pentateuch (BB 14b-15a).這是一個模擬點法律是否給予一次或在小卷在不同的時間( Giṭ.第60A條) ;和進一步討論的問題是,無論是摩西或約書亞寫道過去八年詩句的摩西五( BB心跳第14B - 15A條) 。 It was definitely affirmed, on the other hand (ib.), that Moses composed the sections concerning Balaam (Num. xxii.-xxiv.), thus closing all discussions on that score.這是絕對肯定,另一方面( ib. ) ,即摩西的章節組成,涉及巴蘭( Num. xxii. - 24 。 ) ,從而關閉所有討論這個評分。 Many tacit doubts are scattered through the Talmud and Midrash, in addition to those which Einstein has collected.許多默契懷疑分散通過塔木德和米德拉士,除了那些愛因斯坦收集。 In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.在後塔木德期間,在同樣的方式,也沒有缺少的批評,其中一些人再次認識到這種只有在最近時期,雖然亞伯拉罕本以斯拉,誰也加入了斯賓諾莎,長期以來一直被公認為屬於這一類。

Composition.組成。

The composition of the Torah should be discussed on the basis of the old Semitic concepts, which planned a work of literature practically rather than systematically.組成的律法應該討論的基礎上,舊的猶太人概念,而計劃工作的實際,而不是文學系統。 Repetitions, therefore, should not be eliminated, since things which are good and noble may and should be brought to remembrance many times.重複,因此,不應該被淘汰,因為事情是好的和崇高的可能,並應提請紀念多次。 From the point of view of effective emphasis, moreover, a change of context may develop a new and independent application of a given doctrine, especially if it be repeated in other words.從的角度來看,有效的重視,而且,改變背景可能開發一種新的,獨立的應用某一學說,尤其是如果它再在其他的話。 Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.因此,傳統(在32個規則埃利澤灣聖荷西河Gelili )在“重複原則”作為其解釋規則,並留下大量的重複(平行通道)在其收藏的口頭教誨。 The framework of the Pentateuch is historical narrative bound together by the thread of chronology.的框架內,摩西五是歷史敘事聯繫在一起的線程的年表。 There is no rigid adherence to the latter principle, however; and the Talmud itself accordingly postulates the rule: "There is no earlier and no later in the Torah" (Pes. 6b et passim). From a Masoretic point of view, the Mosaic code contains the history of a period of about 2,300 years.沒有任何僵硬的堅持後者的原則,但是;和塔爾穆德因此假設本身的規則: “毫無較早並且不遲於律法” ( Pes.型等各處) 。從馬所拉的角度來看,馬賽克代碼包含的歷史,為期約二千三百年。 As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.正如已經指出,關於姓名的個人書籍,塔爾穆德和Masorah劃分成較小的律法單位根據其內容,因此,成因包括故事創作和始祖,出埃及記帳戶離境來自埃及,啟示,等等。

Style.風格。

The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.風格的五經,以符合它的內容,不同的詞廣泛的先知和詩篇。 It is less lofty, although it is not lacking in dramatic force, and it is concrete rather than abstract.這是不到崇高,但並不缺乏戲劇性的力量,它是具體而不是抽象的。 Most of the laws are formulated in the second person as a direct address, the Decalogue being the best example.大多數的法律制定的第二人作為直接地址,十誡是最好的例子。 In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut. xix. 11-21).在某些情況下,然而,這個問題的性質,需要第三人;但律法歸還盡快第二次被認為是更有效的形式,地址( comp.例如, Deut 。十九。 11月21日) 。 In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.在摩西五,時間是通常的描述方法。 The process of creation, rather than the universe as a whole, is described; and the account brings the world visibly into being in six main parts.創造的過程,而不是宇宙作為一個整體,是描述和帳戶使世界形成了明顯的六個主要部分。 In the creation of man, of plants, and of paradise God is seen at work, and the same process of coming into being may be traced in the ark of Noah and similar descriptions.創作中的人,植物,和天堂神見於工作,並在同一過程中正在形成可追溯到中的諾亞方舟和類似的描述。 A remarkable example of word-painting is the account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the high-priesthood (Lev. viii.).一個成功的例子文字畫是到神聖的亞倫和他的兒子高鐸( Lev.八。 ) 。 Here the reader watches while Moses washes the candidates, dresses them, etc. ("Magyar-Zsidó Szemle," ix. 565 et seq.).在這裡,讀者手錶洗而摩西的候選人,服裝等等( “匈牙利, Zsidó評論, ”九。 565起。 ) 。 Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.樸素簡潔的一個特點是特徵Pentateuchal的風格,也理解藝術的沉默。 Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.因此,在所有偉大的產品的世界文學,女性美是沒有詳細說明;為薩拉,雷切爾,和其他英雄,只是說是美麗的,而完成了圖片是留給讀者的想像力。

Laws of the Torah.法律律法。

The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal.的內容律法分為兩個主要部分:歷史和法律。 The latter commences with Ex.後者開始單方面。 xii.; so that the Tannaim maintained that the Law actually began there, proceeding on the correct principle that the word "Torah" could be applied only to teachings which regulated the life of man, either leading him to perform certain acts (commands = ) or restraining him from them (prohibitions = ).十二。 ;使Tannaim堅持有法真正開始,程序的正確原則,即改為“律法”可能只適用於該規定的教義生活的人,無論是領先的他以執行某些行為(命令= )或禁止他從他們(禁止= ) 。 The Talmud enumerates a total of 613 rules, 248 being commands and 365 prohibitions (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 181, sv Commandments, The 613).猶太法典列舉了共613條, 248和365被命令禁止(見猶。 Encyc 。四。 181 ,希沃特戒律,該613 ) 。 In the post-Talmudic period many works were written on these 613 "miẓwot," some even by Maimonides.在後塔木德期間許多作品寫在這些613 “ miẓwot ” ,有的甚至由邁蒙尼德。 The legal parts of the Pentateuch include all the relations of human life, although these are discussed with greater detail in the Talmud (see Talmudic Laws).法律部分的摩西五包括所有關係人的生命,雖然這些是更詳細地討論了在塔木德(見塔木德法) 。 The Torah recognizes no subdivisions of the commandments; for all alike are the ordinances of God, and a distinction may be drawn only according to modern ideas, as when Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66) proposes a triple division, into juridical, ceremonial, and moral "torot."在確認沒有律法下屬的誡命;所有都上帝的法令,並有區別可以得出唯一按照現代觀念,當司機(在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經”三。 66 )提出了一個三司,到法人,禮儀和道德“ torot 。 ”

Penal Law.刑法。

Montefiore was correct when, in laying emphasis on the ethical aspect of the Biblical concept of God, he declared that even the law of the Bible was permeated with morality, propounding his view in the following words ("Hibbert Lectures," p. 64): "Most original and characteristic was the moral influence of Jahveh in the domain of law. Jahveh, to the Israelite, was emphatically the God of the right. . . . From the earliest times onward, Jahveh's sanctuary was the depository of law, and the priest was His spokesman."蒙特弗洛爾時是正確的,奠定強調道德方面的聖經概念的上帝,他宣稱,即使是法律的聖經是貫穿道德, propounding他認為在以下的話( “希伯特講座” ,第64頁) : “最原始的特徵是道義上的影響Jahveh領域的法律。 Jahveh ,向以色列人,是強調神權。 。 。 。從最早的時候起, Jahveh的聖殿是保存法,牧師是他的發言人。 “ The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.最突出的特點Pentateuchal法律,而法律的古老民族和中世紀的歐洲,是溫和,這一特點仍然是進一步發展中塔木德。 The Torah is justly regarded as the source of humane law.是公正的律法視為來源人道法。 Although such phrases occur as "that soul shall be cut off from his people" or "so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee," it would be incorrect to take them literally, or to deduce from them certain theories of penal law, as Förster has recently done.雖然這些詞組出現“這一靈魂,應切斷他的人民”或“所以你把書遠離邪惡之中你, ”那將是不正確加以字面上看,或從他們推斷某些理論刑法法,福斯特最近許多工作要做。 On the contrary, these expressions prove that the Mosaiclaw was not a legal code in the strict sense of the term, but an ethical work.相反,這些運算證明, Mosaiclaw不是一個法律的代碼在嚴格意義上的任期,但在道義上的工作。 Although the Talmudists made it a penal code, instinctively reading that character into it, the penal law of the Torah is something theoretical which was never put into practise.雖然Talmudists了刑法,本能地閱讀到它的性質,刑法的律法是理論這是從來沒有付諸實踐。 This view is supported by the fact that a commandment is stated sometimes without the threat of any penalty whatever for its violation, and sometimes with the assignment even of death as a punishment for its transgression.這一觀點得到了這樣一個事實,即誡命指出有時沒有威脅任何懲罰不論其違反的,有時甚至與轉讓的死亡作為一種懲罰的海侵。 In like manner, tradition frequently substitutes such a phrase as "he forfeited his life" for "transgression worthy of death."在同樣的方式,替代傳統的經常這樣一個詞組是“他放棄他的生命”為“侵值得死亡。 ”

Civil Law.民法。

On the other hand, the civil law of the Torah, which is more developed and bears a practical character, probably accords more closely with ancient Jewish legal procedure.另一方面,民法的律法,這是更發達和負有實際性質,可能協定更緊密地與古老的猶太法律的程序。 It reflects the conditions of an agricultural state, since most of the laws relate to farming and cognate matters.它反映了一個農業條件的國家,因為大多數的法律涉及到農業和同源事項。 There was no Hebrew word for "store," although "just measure" was mentioned.沒有希伯來詞“商店” ,但“公正措施”中提到。 It must be borne in mind, however, that to satisfy the more advanced conditions of later times, the Talmudists both supplemented the Mosaic law and by means of analogy and similar expedients interpolated into the Torah much which it did not contain originally.必須牢記,但是,為了滿足更先進的條件後時代, Talmudists既補充了馬賽克法和類比的方式和類似的權宜之計插值到律法很多它不包含最初。

From the earliest times the Synagogue has proclaimed the divine origin of the Pentateuch, and has held that Moses wrote it down from dictation, while the religions based on Judaism have until very recently held the same view.從最早的時候宣布的猶太教堂的神源的五經,並認為,摩西寫從聽寫,而宗教的基礎上猶太教直到最近舉行了同樣的看法。 Biblical criticism, however, denies the Mosaic authorship and ascribes only a portion of varying extent to so ancient an origin.聖經批評,但是,否認花葉著作權和歸因只有部分的不同程度,以使古老的起源。 A history of criticism in regard to this point is given by Winer ("BR" ii. 419 et seq.) and by Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66), while Montefiore expresses himself as follows (lc):由於歷史上的批評,就這一點是由溫納( “巴”二。 419起。 )和驅動程序(在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經”三。 66 ) ,而表示自己蒙特弗洛爾如下(立法會) :

"The Torah-or teaching-of the priests, half judicial, half pædagogic, was a deep moral influence; and there was no element in the religion which was at once more genuinely Hebrew and more closely identified with the national God. There is good reason to believe that this priestly Torah is the one religious institution which can be correctly attributed to Moses. . . . Though Moses was not the author of the written law, he was unquestionably the founder of that oral teaching, or Torah, which preceded and became the basis of the codes of the Pentateuch." “的律法或教學的牧師,半司法,一半pædagogic ,是一個深刻的道義上的影響;並沒有要素的宗教是一次真正的希伯來文和更多更密切的確定與國家的上帝。有很好的有理由相信,這個牧師律法是一個宗教機構,可正確地歸因於摩西。 。 。 。雖然摩西不是作者的書面法律,他是毫無疑問的創始人說,口語教學,或律法,先和而根據守則的摩西五。 “

The legal parts of the Torah are found in Ex.法律部分律法是在惠。 xx.-xxiii., xxv.-xxxi., xxxiv.-xxxv.; Lev. xx. -二十三。 , xxv. -三十一。 , xxxiv. -三十五。 ;列夫。 i.-viii., xi.-xxv., xxvii.; Num. v.-x., xviii., xix., xxvii.-xxx., these laws being repeated in Deut. iv.一至八。 , xi. -二十五。 ,二十七。 ;序號。 v.-x. ,十八。 ,十九。 , xxvii. -三十。 ,這些法律中重複Deut 。四。 et seq.起。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau約瑟夫雅各布斯,路德維希布勞

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Bacher, Ag.巴切爾,銀。 Tan.; idem, Ag.談。 ;同上,銀。 Pal.帕爾。 Amor.奧馬爾。 Index, sv Tora and Studium der Lehre; Baumgartner, Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs, Geneva, 1886; Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Strasburg, 1894; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte, Strasburg, 1902; Büchler, The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets, in JQR vi.指數希沃特Tora和Studium之教;鮑姆加特納,法國研究Isagogiques桑切斯萊Juifs ,日內瓦, 1886年;布勞,論導論在模具神聖Schrift ,斯特拉斯堡, 1894年;同上, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen與楚Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte ,斯特拉斯堡, 1902年; Büchler ,三年期讀法和先知,在JQR六。 1-73; Eisenstadt, Ueber Bibelkritik in der Talmudischen Litteratur, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894; Förster, Das Mosaische Strafrecht in Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Leipsic, 1900; Hamburger, RBT supplementary vol. 1-73 ;艾森斯塔德,論Bibelkritik中的Talmudischen Litteratur ,法蘭克福式的主, 1894年;福斯特,達斯Mosaische刑法中Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung , Leipsic , 1900 ;漢堡,彩鈴補充第一卷。 iii.三。 60-75; Hastings, Dict. 60-75 ;黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bible, iii.聖經三。 64-73; Jew. 64-73 ;猶太人。 Encyc. Encyc 。 vii.七。 633-638; Michaelis-Saalschütz, Mosaisches Recht, Berlin, 1842-46; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. 633-638 ;米氏Saalschütz , Mosaisches法,柏林, 1842年至1846年;赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 xiii.十三。 486-502; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 486-502 ;韋伯Jüdische神學,頁。 14-34, and Index, Leipsic, 1897; Winer, BR 3d ed., i. 14-34 ,並編制索引, Leipsic , 1897年;納,商業登記的3D版。島 415-422. 415-422 。

For the criticism of the Torah compare the text-books of the history of Judaism and of Old Testament theology.對於批評律法比較教材的歷史,猶太教和舊約神學。 See also Pentateuch.JLB又見Pentateuch.JLB


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