Book of Tobit, Tobias托比特書,托拜厄斯

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha 一本書,舊約偽經

General Information 一般信息

Tobit, or Tobias, is a book in the Old Testament Apocrypha, written (c.200 - 170 BC) in Hebrew or Aramaic and constructed as a didactic romance.托比書,或托拜厄斯,是一本書在舊約偽經書面( c.200 - 170年)在希伯來文或阿拉姆語和建造作為教學浪漫。 It became popular among Hellenistic Jews and Christians in its Greek translation.它成為深受希臘猶太人和基督徒在希臘翻譯。 The book relates how Tobit, a devout Jew in exile in Assyria, and his son Tobias were rewarded for their piety and good deeds.這本書涉及如何托比書,一個虔誠的猶太人流亡在亞述,和他的兒子托拜厄斯是獎勵他們的虔誠和善行。 Tobit buried the bodies of executed Jews in Nineveh. Despite this and other good works, he was blinded.托比書埋葬的屍體處決猶太人在尼納瓦。儘管這和其他的優秀作品,他失明。 As he prayed for God to end his life, Sarah, a widow whose seven husbands have each been killed by the demon Asmodeus on their wedding night, also entreats God to end her misery.他祈禱上帝給他的生命結束時,薩拉,寡婦的七個丈夫都被殺害的惡魔阿斯莫德他們新婚之夜,也entreats上帝結束她的痛苦。

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In answer to these prayers, God sends the angel Raphael to Earth to help them.在回答這些祈禱,上帝派天使拉斐爾地球幫助他們。 Tobias marries Sarah and, with Raphael's help, overcomes the demon and restores his father's sight.托比亞斯結婚薩拉,並拉斐爾的幫助下,克服了妖魔,恢復了父親的視線。 The demonology, magic, and folklore motifs in the story show affinities with ancient Near Eastern stories from 500 BC on.的魔鬼,魔術,民俗圖案的故事中表現出的相似性與古代近東的故事就從公元前500 。

Norman K Gottwald諾曼K哥特瓦爾德

Bibliography 參考書目
LH Brockington, A Critical Introduction to the Apocrypha (1961); S Zeitlin, ed., Jewish Apocryphal Literature (1958).黃體生成素Brockington ,關鍵介紹偽經( 1961年) ;縣澤特林,教育署。猶太人未經文學( 1958年) 。


Book of Tobit, Tobias托比特書,托拜厄斯

General Information 一般信息

Tobit is a book of the Old Testament in those versions of the Bible following the Greek Septuagint (generally Roman Catholic and Orthodox versions).托比書是一本書舊約在這些版本的聖經,希臘七十以下(通常是羅馬天主教和東正教的版本) 。 It does not appear in the Hebrew Bible and is placed with the Apocrypha in Protestant versions of the Bible.它不會出現在希伯來文聖經,並存放於偽經在新教版本的聖經。

The narrative is set in the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh sometime between the latter part of the 8th century BC, after the defeat of the kingdom of Israel by Assyria, and the destruction of Nineveh in 612BC.說明是古代亞述首都尼尼微之間的某個時候,後者的一部分,公元前八世紀,是在失敗之後王國以色列的亞述,並銷毀尼納瓦在612BC 。 Modern scholars generally agree, however, that Tobit reflects little that can be considered genuine history, except perhaps the names of some of the characters.現代學者普遍認同,然而,托比書反映很少,可以被視為真正的歷史,但也許是名字的某些字符。 A type of wisdom literature, the book was probably written as late as the 2nd or even the 1st century BC in Palestine. A型的智慧文學,這本書很可能寫才第2次,甚至是公元前一世紀在巴勒斯坦。 The author is unknown.作者不詳。 The language of the original was either Aramaic or Hebrew; the oldest surviving complete text is, however, in Greek.語言的原始要么阿拉姆或希伯來語;現存最古老的完整的文本,但是,在希臘。 In 1955 fragments of the book in Aramaic and in Hebrew were recovered at Qumrân (see Dead Sea Scrolls).在1955年這本書的片段在阿拉姆語和希伯來語收回在庫姆蘭(見死海古卷) 。

The narrative begins with Tobit, a pious Israelite of the tribe of Naphtali, who has become blind in Nineveh despite his good works and uprightness.敘事始於托比書,一個虔誠的以色列人的部落拿弗,誰已成為盲人在尼納瓦儘管他的優秀作品和浩然正氣。 Sorely afflicted, he asks God to let him die (see 1:1-3:6).痛苦折磨,他問上帝,讓他死(見1:1-3:6 ) 。 On the very day of Tobit's prayer, Sarah, a young relative of Tobit living in the Median capital, Ecbatana, also prays for death.就在一天的托比書的祈禱,莎拉,一個年輕的親戚托比特生活在首都的中位數,埃克巴塔那,也祈求死亡。 She has been married seven times, and every one of her husbands has been killed on their wedding night by the jealous demon Asmodeus.她已結婚7倍,每一個她的丈夫已被殺害他們的新婚之夜的嫉妒惡魔阿斯莫德。 The prayers of both are heard, and the archangel Raphael is sent to help them (see 3:7-17).的祈禱都聽到,和天使長拉斐爾發送到幫助他們(見3:7-17 ) 。 At this point, Tobit decides to send his son Tobias to the Median city of Rages (now Shahr-e Rey, near Tehrân, Iran) to recover money left there in trust with a friend.在這一點上,托比書決定派他的兒子托比亞斯中位數城市肆虐(現在沙赫爾薩雷伊,近伊朗德黑蘭)收回資金信託離開那裡的朋友。 Raphael (disguised as Azarias, another of Tobit's relatives) appears, to accompany and guide Tobias.拉斐爾(偽裝成阿扎里亞斯魯,另一個托比書的親屬)出現時,陪同和指導托比亞斯。 En route, Tobias catches a large fish in the Tigris River and is advised by his heavenly guide to keep its heart, liver, and gall because of their magical healing properties (see 6:1-8).途中,托比亞斯捕獲大型魚類在底格里斯河,並建議他天上的指導保持其心,肝,膽,因為與他們的神奇癒合傷口的特性(見6:1-8 ) 。 When they reach Ecbatana, the archangel persuades Tobias to marry Sarah.當他們達到埃克巴塔那,天使說服托比亞斯結婚薩拉。 On the wedding night, Tobias, using the heart and liver of the fish as instructed by the archangel, routs Asmodeus (see 6:9-8:21).在新婚之夜,托拜厄斯,使用心臟和肝臟的魚類的指示天使,路線阿斯莫德(見6:9-8:21 ) 。 The next four chapters relate Raphael's journey to Rages, to recover the money held in trust.在未來四年的章節涉及拉斐爾的旅程肆虐,收回這筆錢了信任。 Tobias, Sarah, and Raphael return to Nineveh, where Tobias uses the gall of the fish to restore his father's sight.托比亞斯,薩拉,和拉斐爾返回尼納瓦,在那裡使用膽托拜厄斯的魚類,以恢復他父親的視線。 Raphael then reveals his identity and departs. Immediately afterward, inspired by the archangel's final exhortation, Tobit composes and recites a hymn of praise to God (chap. 13). In chapter 14, the last, Tobit lives 100 years more in great happiness and, before dying, predicts the destruction of Nineveh.拉斐爾則顯示了自己的身份和背離。緊接著,靈感來自天使的最後告誡,托比書撰寫和叨唸1讚美詩讚美上帝(第13章) 。第14章,最後,托比特生活在100年以上巨大的幸福和之前,印染,預計銷毀尼納瓦。 Tobias departs with Sarah for Ecbatana, where they eventually hear of and rejoice over the fall of Nineveh before Tobias dies at the age of 127.托比亞斯背離與莎拉的埃克巴塔那,在那裡他們最終聽到的和感到高興的秋季之前,托拜厄斯尼納瓦死亡的年齡為127 。


Tobias托比亞斯

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name.我們將首先列舉各種聖經的人,然後對待這本書的這個名字。

I. PERSONS一人

A. Tobias (2 Chronicles 17:8).答:托拜厄斯(歷代誌下17點08 ) 。

Hebrew tobyyahu "Yahweh is good"; Septuagint Tobias - one of the Levites whom Josaphat sent to teach in the cities of Juda.希伯來語tobyyahu “耶和華是好的” ;七十托比亞斯-一個人約薩法特發出利教授在城市的猶大。 The name is omitted in the Vatican and Alexandrian codices, but given in the other important Greek manuscripts and the Vulgate.被忽略的名字在梵蒂岡和亞歷山大codices ,但鑑於在其他重要的手稿和希臘的武加大。

B. Tobias (Zechariah 6:10).灣托比亞斯(撒迦利亞6:10 ) 。

Hebrew tobyyahu, qeri tobyyah which is the reading also of verse 14; Septuagint chresimon (verse 10), tois chresimois autes (verse 14), which infers the reading tobeha; Vulgate Tobia - one of the party of Jews who came from Babylon to Jerusalem, in the time of Zorobabel, with silver and gold wherewith to make a crown for the head of Jesus, son of Josedec.希伯來語tobyyahu , qeri tobyyah這是閱讀的詩句也14 ;七十chresimon (詩10 ) , tois chresimois autes (詩14 ) ,其中推斷閱讀tobeha ;武加大托比亞之一-黨的猶太人誰來自巴比倫到耶路撒冷在時間的Zorobabel ,白銀和黃金wherewith作出官方的主管耶穌,兒子Josedec 。

C. Tobia (Ezra 2:60).角托比亞(以斯拉2:60 ) 。

Hebrew tobyyah, "Jah is my good"; Septuagint Tobeia (Vatican), Tobias (Alexandrian), the same name occurring in Nehemiah 7:62, as Tobia and in the apocryphal III Esdras 5:37 as baenan (Vatican) or ban (Alexandrian) - one of the families that, on their return from exile, could show no written proof of their genealogy.希伯來語tobyyah , “扎哈是我的好” ;七十Tobeia (梵蒂岡) ,托拜厄斯(亞歷山大) ,相同的名稱出現在尼希米記7:62 ,作為托比亞和未經三埃斯德拉斯5時37分作為baenan (梵蒂岡)或禁止(亞歷山大) -一個家庭,在他們返回的流亡,可以查看任何書面證據證明他們的家譜。

D. Tobias (Nehemiah 2:10). 4托比亞斯(尼希米記二時10分) 。

An Ammonite who together with Sanaballat the Horonite opposed the fortification of Jerusalem by Nehemias (Nehemiah 2:19; 4:3; 6:17; 13:4, 8).誰的菊石同Sanaballat的Horonite反對強化對耶路撒冷的Nehemias (尼希米記2點19分; 4:3 ; 6時17分; 13點04 , 8 ) 。 He is called "the servant"; we can only conjecture what that means.他被稱為“僕人” ;我們只能猜測這是什麼意思。 Cheyne (Encyclopedia Biblica, sv) thinks that haebed, servant, is a mistake for ha arbi, the Arab.陳(百科全書Biblica ,希沃特)認為, haebed ,僕人,是一個錯誤的醫管局阿爾,阿拉伯。

E. Tobias (2 Maccabees 3:11).體育托比亞斯( 2馬加比3點11 ) 。

The father of Hircanus.父親Hircanus 。

F. Tobias (Tobit 1:29, and passim).樓托比亞斯(托比特1時29分,並各處) 。

The son of the following.兒子的下面。

G. Tobias the elder.老灣托比亞斯。

The chief character in the book that bears his name.行政性質的書,他的名字命名。

II.二。 BOOK OF TOBIAS預定的托比亞斯

A canonical book of the Old Testament.一個規範的圖書舊約。

A. Name A.姓名

In Codex Alexandrinus, biblos logon Tobit; in Vaticanus, Tobeit; in Sinaiticus, Tobeith; in Latin manuscripts Liber Tobiae, Liber Tobit et Tobiae, Liber utriusque Tobiae.食品法典頸, biblos登錄托比書;在Vaticanus , Tobeit ;在西奈抄本, Tobeith ;在拉丁美洲手稿書Tobiae ,書等Tobiae托比書,書utriusque Tobiae 。 In the Vulgate and Hebrew Fagii both father and son have the same name, Tobias, tobyyah.在拉丁文聖經和希伯來文Fagii父親和兒子都具有相同的名稱,托拜厄斯, tobyyah 。 In other texts and versions, the name of the father varies: tobi, "my good" is Jahweh; in Hebrew Munster; Tobit or Tobeit in the Septuagint; Tobis, or Tobit, standing for tobith "goodness" of Jahweh, in the Old Latin.在其他的文本和版本的名稱父親不同: tobi , “我的好”是Jahweh ;希伯來文明斯特;托比書或Tobeit在七十;托比斯,或托比特,站立tobith “善”的Jahweh ,老拉丁美洲。

B. Text and Versions灣文字和版本

The original text, supposed to have been Hebrew, is lost; the reasons assigned for an Aramaic original warrant only a probable opinion that an Aramaic translation influenced our present Greek versions.原始案文,假定已經希伯來語,丟失的原因分配的阿拉姆原來只是一個可能令認為,阿拉姆語翻譯的影響,我們目前的希臘版本。

(1) Vulgate Versions ( 1 )武加大譯本

St. Jerome had not yet learned Aramaic, when, with the aid of a rabbi who knew both Aramaic and Hebrew, he made the Vulgate version.聖杰羅姆尚未教訓阿拉姆,當時的幫助下,一位拉比誰知道這兩個阿拉姆語和希伯來語,他的拉丁文聖經版本。 The rabbi expressed in Hebrew the thought of the Aramaic manuscripts and St. Jerome straightway put the same into Latin.拉比表示,在希伯來文的思想阿拉姆手稿和聖杰羅姆馬上把同到拉丁美洲。 It was the work of only a day (cf. Praef. in Tobiam).這是工作僅一天(參見Praef 。在Tobiam ) 。 The Old Latin certainly influenced this hurried version.老拉丁美洲肯定受到影響這匆匆的版本。 The Vulgate recension of the Aramaic version tells the story in the third person throughout, as do the Aramaic of Neubauer and the two Hebrew texts of Gaster (HL and HG), whereas all the other texts make Tobias speak in the first person up to 3:15.的武加大recension的阿拉姆語版本的故事在整個第三人,因為這樣做阿拉姆的紐鮑爾和兩個希伯來文法莫替丁( Ⅱ和HG ) ,而所有其他文本作出托比亞斯發言的第一人高達3 : 15 。 The following passages occur in the Vulgate alone: the wagging of the dog's tail (11:9); the comparison of the coating on Tobias's eye to the membrane of an egg (11:14); the wit of half an hour while the gall of the fish effected its cure (11:14); Tobias closing of the eyes of Raguel and Edna in death; also 2:12, 2:18, 3:19, 3:24, 6:16-18, 6:20-21, 8:4-5, 9:12b.下面的段落發生在武加大獨自:在搖動的狗尾巴( 11時09分) ;的比較塗層的托拜厄斯的眼睛的膜一個雞蛋( 11時14分) ;的智慧的一個半小時,而膽魚類影響其治愈率( 11點14分) ;托比亞斯閉幕的眼睛拉貴爾和埃德娜死亡;還2點12分, 2時18 , 3點19 , 3點24 , 6:16-18 , 6:20 -21 , 8:4-5 ,九點12灣 Some parts of the Vulgate, such as the continence of Tobias (6:18; 7:4), were looked upon at times as Christian interpolations of Jerome until they were found in one of Gaster's Hebrew texts (HL).一些地區的武加大,如可控的托拜厄斯( 6:18 ; 7點04分) ,被視作為基督教有時插的杰羅姆,直到他們發現了一個法莫替丁希伯來文( Ⅱ ) 。 Lastly, the Vulgate and HL omit all mention of Ahikhar; Achior of Vulgate 11:20, is probably an addition to the text.最後,武加大和HL省略所有提到Ahikhar ; Achior的武加大11:20 ,可能是除了文字。

(2) Aramaic Versions ( 2 )阿拉姆版本

Besides the Aramaic version used by Jerome and now lost, there is the extant Aramaic text recently found in an Aramaic commentary on Genesis, "Midrash Bereshit Rabba".除了用阿拉姆語版本杰羅姆,現在失去了,還有現存的阿拉姆文最近發現一個阿拉姆評成因, “米德拉士Bereshit Rabba ” 。 The writing of this midrash is fifteenth-century work; it contains the Book of Tobias as a haggada on the promise Jacob makes to give tithes to God (Genesis 28:22).撰寫本米德拉士第十五世紀的工作,它包含了圖書的托比亞斯作為haggada的承諾雅各布給予什一稅使上帝(創28:22 ) 。 Neubauer edited the text, "The Book of Tobit, a Chaldee Text from a unique manuscript in the Bodleian Library" (Oxford, 1878). He thinks that it is a briefer form of Jerome's Aramaic text.紐鮑爾的文字編輯, “這本書的托比書,一個Chaldee文字從一個獨特的手稿在伯德雷恩圖書館” (牛津, 1878年) 。他認為,這是一個簡短的形式杰羅姆的阿拉姆語文字。 This is not likely.這是不太可能。 The language is at times a transliteration of Greek and gives evidence of being a transliteration of one or other of the Greek texts.語言是時代的音譯希臘和提供證據被音譯一個或其他的希臘文本。 It agrees with the Vulgate in that from the outset the tale of Tobias is told in the third person; otherwise it is closer to Codex Vaticanus and closer still to Codex Sinaiticus.安理會同意武加大在這從一開始的故事,托拜厄斯是對第三人的,否則它是接近法典Vaticanus和密切仍然法典西奈抄本。

(3) Greek versions ( 3 )希臘版本

There are three Greek recensions of Tobias.有三個希臘recensions的托比亞斯。 We shall refer to them by the numbers given to the Vatican and Sinaitic codices in Vigouroux, "La sainte bible polyglote", III (Paris, 1902).我們應參照他們的號碼給梵蒂岡和Sinaitic codices在Vigouroux , “聖polyglote聖經” ,第三章(巴黎, 1902年) 。

(a) AB, the text of the Alexandrian (fifth century) and Vatican (fourth century) codices. (一)公司,該文亞歷山大( 5世紀)和梵蒂岡( 4世紀) codices 。 This recension is found in many other codices of the Greek text, has been used for centuries by the Greek Church, is incorporated into the Sixtine edition of the Septuagint, and has been translated into Armenian as the authentic text of that rite.這recension發現在許多其他codices的希臘文字,使用了幾個世紀的希臘教會,是納入Sixtine版的譯本,並已被翻譯成亞美尼亞的真確文本的儀式。 AB is preferred to the Sinaitic recension by Nöldeke, Grumm, and others, and yet rated by Nestle, Ewald, and Haris as a compendium rather than as a version of the entire original text. AB公司是首選的Sinaitic recension的Nöldeke , Grumm ,和其他人,但評價雀巢,埃瓦爾德,和Haris的彙編,而不是作為一個版本的整個原始案文。 It condenses Edna's Prayer (x, 13), omits the blessing of Gabael (9:6), and has three or four unique readings (3:16; 14:8-10; 11:8).它凝結埃德娜禱文(十, 13 ) ,忽略了祝福Gabael ( 9:6 ) ,並有3個或4個獨特的讀數( 3:16 ; 14:8-10 ; 11點08分) 。

(b) Aleph, the text of the Sinaitic (fourth-century) Codex. (二)阿萊夫,案文Sinaitic (四世紀)法典。 Its style is very much more diffuse than that of AB, which seems to have omitted of set purpose many stichoi of Aleph -- cf.其風格是非常更加分散比AB公司,這似乎省略了很多的設置目的stichoi的阿萊夫-比照。 2:12, "on the seventh of Dustros she cut the web"; 5:3, the incident of the bond divided into two parts, one for Tobias and the other for Raguel; 5:5, the long conversation between Raphael and young Tobias; 6:8; 10:10; 12:8, etc. Aleph omits 4:7-19, and 13:6b-9, of AB. 2時12分, “上的第七個Dustros她削減網絡” ;五點03分,這一事件的債券分為兩個部分,一個是托拜厄斯和其他的拉貴爾;五點05分,長期對話拉斐爾和青年托比亞斯; 6點08 ; 10:10 ; 12時08分,等等阿萊夫省略4:7-19 ,和13點06 β - 9公司。

(c) The text of Codices 44, 106, 107 for 6:9-13:8.-The first portion (1:1-6:8) and the last (13:9 to end) are identical with AB; the remainder seems to be an attempt at a better version of the original text. (三)的案文Codices 44 , 106 , 107為6:9-13:8 .-會議的第一部分( 1:1-6:8 )和去年( 13時09分結束)是相同的與AB公司的其餘的似乎是一種嘗試,一個更好的版本的原始文字。 Independent work is shown by 6:9 to 7:17; 8:1 to 12:6, is very close to the Syriac and nearer to Aleph than to AB; 12:7-13:8 resembles each text in various small details.獨立的工作所顯示的6點09分至七時17分; 8:1至十二時06分,是非常接近敘利亞和接近阿萊夫比AB公司; 12:7-13:8類似於每個文字,各種小細節。 Distinctive readings of these cursives are Edna's Gnostic prayer, "Let all the Æons praise thee" (8:15); and the fact that Anna saw the dog running before Tobias (11:5). (d) What seems to be a third recension of the second chapter is presented in Grenfell and Hunt, "Oxyrhyneus Papyri" (Oxford, 1911), part viii.獨特的讀數這些cursives是埃德娜的諾斯底祈禱, “讓所有Æons讚美你” ( 8:15 ) ;和安娜的事實,看到了狗運行之前,托拜厄斯(十一時05分) 。 (四)什麼似乎三分之一recension第二章中介紹格倫費爾和亨特, “ Oxyrhyneus紙莎草紙” (牛津, 1911年) ,第八部分。 The text differs from both AB and Aleph and consequently the Greek cursives.不同於文字都AB和阿萊夫,因此希臘cursives 。

(4) Old Latin Versions ( 4 )舊版本拉丁美洲

Previous to the Latin Vulgate translation of the Aramaic recension (see above) there existed at least three Old Latin versions of a Greek text which was substantially Aleph; (a) the recension of Codex Regius Parisiensis 3654 and Codex 4 of the Library of St-Germain; (b) the recension of Cod.前的拉丁語武加大譯本的阿拉姆recension (見上文)存在至少三個老拉丁美洲版本的希臘文字大大阿萊夫; (一) recension法典Regius Parisiensis 3654和法典4圖書館的聖德; ( b )在recension的鱈魚。 Vat.增值稅。 7, containing 1-6:12; (c) the recension of the "Speculum" of St. Augustine. 7 ,含有1-6:12 ; ( c )該recension的“窺鏡”的聖奧古斯丁。

(5) Syriac Version ( 5 )敘利亞文版本

Down to 7:9, it is a translation of AB; thereafter, it agrees with the Greek cursive text, save that 13:9-18, is omitted.到7點09 ,這是一個翻譯公司;此後,同意希臘草書文字,保存13:9-18 ,省略。 This second part is clearly a second recension; its proper names are not spelled as in the first part.這顯然是第二部分的第二recension ;適當的名稱尚未確定為第一部分。 Ahikhar (14:10) is Achior (2:10); 'Edna (7:14) is 'Edna (7:2) 'Arag (9:2) is Raga (4:1, 4:20). Ahikhar ( 14:10 )是Achior ( 2點10 ) ; '艾德娜( 7時14 )是'艾德娜( 7時02分) ' Arag ( 9時02分)是拉格( 4:1 ,四點20分) 。

(6) Hebrew Versions ( 6 )希伯來文版本

There are four Hebrew versions of this deuterocanonical story:有四個希伯來語版本的此deuterocanonical的故事:

(a) HL, Hebrew Londinii, a thirteenth-century manuscript, found by Gaster in the British Museum, and translated by him in the "Proceedings of the Soc. of the Bibl. Archaeology" (xvii and xx). (一)霍奇金希伯來語Londinii ,一個十三世紀的手稿,發現法莫替丁在大英博物館,並翻譯了他的“程序的系統芯片。的Bibl 。考古學” ( 17和20 ) 。 Besides a cento of Scriptural exhortations, this manuscript contains the narrative portion of Tobias, translated, Gaster thinks, from a text that stood in closest relation to the Aramaic used by St. Jerome.除了聖經琴的規勸,這手稿包含敘述部分的托拜厄斯,翻譯,法莫替丁認為,從文字,站在最接近有關阿拉姆用聖杰羅姆。 It is just possible, though not in the least probable, that the thirteenth-century Jewish author of HL made use of the Vulgate.這只是可能的,雖然不是在最可能的,即十三世紀猶太作家對HL利用武加大。

(b) HG, Hebrew Gasteri, a text copied by Gaster from a midrash on the Pentateuch and published in the "Proc. of the Soc. of Bib. Arch." (二)汞,希伯來語Gasteri ,文字複製法莫替丁從米德拉士關於摩西五出版的“過程。對在SoC 。的書目。弓。 ” (xix). (十九) 。 This manuscript, now lost, agreed with the Aramaic of Neubauer and was in a compact style like that of the Vulgate recension.此手稿,現在已經失去,同意阿拉姆的紐鮑爾,並在一個緊湊的風格一樣,在武加大recension 。

(c) HF, Hebrew Fagii, a very free translation of AB, done in the twelfth century by a Jewish scholar: it is found in Walton's "Polyglot". (三)短波,希伯來語Fagii ,一個非常自由的翻譯公司,在12世紀的猶太學者:這是在沃爾頓的“多元” 。

(d) HM, Hebrew Munsteri, published by Munster in Basle AD 1542, found in Walton's "Polyglot". (四)陛下,希伯來語Munsteri出版的明斯特在巴塞爾公元1542年,在沃頓的“多元” 。 This text agrees as a rule with Neubauer's Aramaic, even when the latter is at variance with AB.本文同意作為一項規則與紐鮑爾的阿拉姆語,即使後者是不符合公司。 It is, according to Ginsburg, of fifth-century origin.它是根據金斯伯格,第五世紀的原產地。 The Hebrew versions together with the Aramaic omit reference to the dog, which plays a prominent part in the other versions. The foregoing review of the various and diverse recensions of the Book of Tobias shows how hard it would be to reconstruct the original text and how easily textual errors may have crept into our Vulgate or the Aramaic on which it depends.希伯來語版本一起阿拉姆省略提到棒球,發揮了突出的部分在其他版本。上述審查各種不同的圖書recensions的托比亞斯說明這將是艱苦的重建原始文字,以及如何輕鬆文字錯誤可能已悄悄進入我們的武加大或阿拉姆它所依賴。

C. Contents角目錄

Unless otherwise stated, these references are to the Vulgate recension, whereof the Douay is a translation.除非另有說明,這些提法的武加大recension ,信守的Douay是一個翻譯。 The story naturally divides itself into two parts:故事自然分割成兩個部分:

(1) The fidelity of Tobias the elder and of Sara to the Lord (1:1-3:25) ( 1 )的高保真托比亞斯老和薩拉主( 1:1-3:25 )

The fidelity of Tobias (1:1-3:6) shown by his acts of mercy to fellow captives (1:11-17) and especially to the dead (1:18-25), acts that resulted in his blindness (2:1-18), the taunts of his wife (2:19-23), and the recourse of Tobias to God in prayer (3:1-6).富達的托拜厄斯( 1:1-3:6 )他的行為所表現出的憐憫同胞俘虜( 1:11-17 ) ,特別是向遇難者( 1:18-25 ) ,行為,導致他的失明( 2 :1 - 18 ) ,奚落他的妻子( 2:19-23 ) ,和追索的托拜厄斯在祈禱上帝( 3:1-6 ) 。

The fidelity of Sara, daughter of Raguel and Edna (3:7-23).的高保真莎拉的女兒,拉貴爾和埃德娜( 3:7-23 ) 。 The very day that Tobias in Ninive was taunted by his wife and turned to God, Sara in Ecbatana was taunted by her maid as the murderess of seven husbands (3:7-10), and turned to God in prayer (3:11-23).這一天是托拜厄斯在Ninive被嘲弄了他的妻子和轉向上帝,莎拉在埃克巴塔那是嘲笑她的侍女的murderess七個丈夫( 3:7-10 ) ,並拒絕向上帝祈禱( 3時11分- 23 ) 。 The prayers of both were heard (3:24-25).的祈禱都聽到( 3:24-25 ) 。

(2) The fidelity of the Lord to Tobias and to Sara through the ministrations of the angel Raphael (4:1-12:22). ( 2 )忠誠的主托比亞斯和莎拉通過ministrations天使拉斐爾( 4:1-12:22 ) 。

Raphael cares for the young Tobias on his journey to Gabael in Rages of Media to obtain the ten talents of silver left in bond by his father (4:1-9:12).拉斐爾關心年輕的托拜厄斯在他的旅程Gabael在激烈的媒體,以獲取銀十人才留在債券由他的父親( 4:1-9:12 ) 。 The young man set out, after long instruction by his father (4:1-23); Raphael joins him as guide (5:1-28); Tobias while bathing in the Tigris is attacked by a large fish, catches it, and, at the advice of Raphael, keeps its heart, liver, and gall (6:1-22); they pass through Ecbatana, stop at Raguel's; Tobias asks Sara for wife and receives her (7:1-20); by continence and exorcism and the odor of the burning liver of the fish and the aid of Raphael, he conquers the devil who had slain the seven previous husbands of Sara (8:1-24); Raphael gets the money of Gabael in Rages, and brings him to Ecbatana to the marriage celebration of young Tobias (9:1-23).這個年輕人規定,經過長期的指示他的父親( 4:1-23 ) ;拉斐爾加入他的指南( 5:1-28 ) ;托比亞斯同時沐浴在底格里斯河是攻擊一個大型魚類,漁獲物,並在拉斐爾的意見,保持了心,肝,膽和( 6:1-22 ) ;他們通過埃克巴塔那,停在拉貴爾的;托比亞斯要求莎拉收到的妻子和她( 7:1-20 ) ;的控和驅魔的氣味和燃燒肝的魚類和拉斐爾的幫助下,他征服魔鬼誰殺害了7個前丈夫薩拉( 8:1-24 ) ;拉斐爾獲得金錢的Gabael在肆虐,並帶來了他埃克巴塔那結婚慶祝年輕托比亞斯( 9:1-23 ) 。

Raphael cures the blindness of the elder Tobias, on the return of his son, and manifests the truth that he is an angel (10:2-12:31).拉斐爾治愈失明的老人托比亞斯,關於歸還他的兒子,並體現了真理,他是一個天使( 10:2-12:31 ) 。 Conclusion: the hymn of thanksgiving of Tobias the elder, and the subsequent history of both father and son (13:1-14:7).結論:讚美詩感恩的托比亞斯老,以及其後的歷史既父親和兒子( 13:1-14:7 ) 。

D. Purpose 4目的

To show that God is faithful to those that are faithful to Him is evidently the chief purpose of the book, Neubauer (op. cit., p. xvi) makes out the burial of the dead to be the chief lesson; but the lesson of almsgiving is more prominent. Ewald, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel", IV, 233, sets fidelity to the Mosaic code as the main drift of the author, who writes for Jews of the Dispersion; but the book is meant for all Jews, and clearly inculcates for them many secondary lessons and one that is fundamental to the rest -- God is true to those who are true to Him.表明,上帝是忠實於那些忠誠於他的主要目的顯然是這本書,紐鮑爾(同前。山口十六)作出了埋葬死者是行政教訓;但教訓救濟是更加突出。埃瓦爾德“ Gesch 。沙漠Volkes以色列” ,四, 233套高保真的馬賽克代碼作為主漂移的作者,誰寫的猶太人的色散;但是這本書的目的是為所有的猶太人,並清楚地灌輸他們許多中學的教訓之一,是基本的休息-上帝是真實的人誰是真正的他。

E. Canonicity大腸桿菌正規

(1) In Judaism ( 1 )在猶太教

The Book of Tobias is deuterocanonical, ie contained not in the Canon of Palestine but in that of Alexandria.書托拜厄斯是deuterocanonical ,即不包含在佳能巴勒斯坦,但在這亞歷山大。 That the Jews of the Dispersion accepted the book as canonical Scripture is clear from its place in the Septuagint.猶太人的色散接受這本書作為典型聖經清楚地表明其在七十。 That the Palestinian Jews reverenced Tobias as a sacred book may be argued from the existence of the Aramaic translation used by St. Jerome and that published by Neubauer, as also from the four extant Hebrew translators.巴勒斯坦猶太人reverenced托比亞斯為一個神聖的書可以說從存在的阿拉姆語翻譯使用的聖杰羅姆和出版紐鮑爾,也是從四個現存希伯來語翻譯。 Then, most of these Semitic version were found as Midrashim, or hagganda, of the Pentateuch.然後,這些猶太人的版本被發現為米大示,或hagganda ,在摩西五。

(2) Among Christians ( 2 ) ,基督徒

Despite the rejection of Tobias from the Protestant Canon, its place in the Christian Canon of Holy Writ is undoubted.儘管拒絕托比亞斯從新教佳能,其在佳能的基督教聖地令狀是不容置疑的。 The Catholic Church has ever esteemed it as inspired.天主教會歷來尊敬它啟發。

St. Polycarp (AD 117), "Ad Philippenses", x, urges almsgiving, and cites Tobit 4:10, and 12:9, as authority for his urging. Deutero-Clement (AD 150), "Ad Corinthios", xvi, has praises of almsgiving that are an echo of Tobit 12:8-9.聖波利卡普(公元117 ) , “廣告Philippenses ” ,第十章,敦促救濟,並列舉托比特4時10分,和十二時09分,因為他的權力,敦促。 Deutero -克萊門特(公元150 ) , “廣告Corinthios ” ,本篤十六世已歌頌救濟所的迴聲托比書12:8-9 。

St. Clement of Alexandria (AD 190-210), in "Stromata", vi, 12 (PG, IX, 324), cites as the words of Holy Writ "Fasting is good with prayer" (Tobit 12:9); and in "Stromata", i, 21, ii, 23 (PG, VIII, 853, 1089), "What thou hatest, do not unto another" (Tobit 4:16).聖克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(公元190-210 ) ,在“ Stromata ” ,六, 12級( PG ,九, 324 ) ,瀕危物種公約的話聖經“禁食祈禱是好的” (托比書十二點09分) ;和在“ Stromata ” ,我, 21歲,二, 23級( PG ,第八,第853 , 1089年) , “什麼你hatest ,不要給另一個” (托比書4時16分) 。

Origen (about AD 230) cites as Scripture Tobit 3:24 and 12:12-15, in "De oratione", II; Tobit 2:1, in sec.俄利根(約公元230 )引用的聖經和12:12-15托比特3時24分,在“德oratione ” ,二;托比書2:1 ,在秒。 14; Tobit 12:12, in sec. 14 ;托比書12:12 ,在秒。 31 (cf. PG, XI, 448, 461, 553); and writing to Africanus (PG, XI, 80) he explains that, although the Hebrews do not use Tobias, yet the Church does. 31日(見指引,十一, 448 , 461 , 553 ) ;和書面阿菲利加努斯公司( PG ,十一, 80 ) ,他解釋說,雖然希伯來書不使用托比亞斯,但沒有教會。

St. Athanasius (AD 350) uses Tobit 12:7 and 4:19, with the distinctive phrase "as it is written", cf.聖亞他那修(公元350 )使用托比書12點07分和4:19 ,以獨特的“一詞,因為它是用” ,比照。 "Apol. contra arianos", II, and "Apol. ad Imper. Constantium" (PG, XXV, 268, 616). “ Apol 。康特拉arianos ” ,二,和“ Apol 。廣告Imper 。 Constantium ”公司( PG , 25 , 268 , 616 ) 。

In the Western Church, St. Cyprian (about AD 248) very often refers to Tobias as of Divine authority just as he refers to other books of Holy Writ; cf.在西方教會,聖塞浦路斯(約公元248 ) ,往往是指托比亞斯作為神聖權力正如他提到的其他書籍的聖經;比照。 "De mortalitate", x; "De opere et eleemosynis", v, xx; "De patientia", xviii (PG, IV, 588, 606, 634); "Ad Quirinum", i, 20 for Tobit 12; iii, 1 for Tobit 2:2; and iv, 5-11; ii, 62 for Tobit 4:12 (PG, IV, 689, 728, 729, 767). “者mortalitate ” ,第十章; “者opere等eleemosynis ” ,第五,第XX號“ ;者酸模” ,十八(前列腺素,四, 588 , 606 , 634 ) ; “廣告Quirinum ” ,我, 20托比書12 ;三, 1 ,托比特2點02 ;和第四, 5月11日;二, 62個托比特4時12分(前列腺素,四, 689 , 728 , 729 , 767 ) 。

St. Ambrose (about AD 370) wrote a book entitled "De Tobia" against usury (PL, XIV, 759), and introduced it by referring to the Biblical work of that name as "a prophetic book", "Scripture".聖安布羅斯(約公元370 )寫了一本書,題為“者托比亞”打擊高利貸(特等, 14 , 759 ) ,並介紹了它指的是聖經的工作,該名稱為“先知書” , “經文” 。

In the entire Western Church, however, the canonicity of Tobias is clearest from its presence in the Old Latin Version, the authentic text of Scripture for the Latin Church from about AD 150 until St. Jerome's Vulgate replaced it.在整個西方教會,但是,正規的托拜厄斯是明確其在拉丁美洲的老版本的真確本聖經為拉丁美洲教會從公元150到聖杰羅姆的武加大取而代之。

The canonical use of Tobias in that part of the Byzantine Church whose language was Syriac is seen in the writings of St. Ephraem (about AD 362) and of St. Archelaus (about AD 278).規範使用托比亞斯在這一部分的拜占庭教堂的語言是在敘利亞的著作街Ephraem (約公元362 )和聖Archelaus (約公元278 ) 。

The earliest canonical lists all contain the Book of Tobias; they are those of the Council of Hippo (AD 393), the Councils of Carthage (AD 397 and 419), St.最早的典型列出所有包含圖書的托比亞斯;它們是安理會的河馬(公元393 ) ,安理會的迦太基(公元397和419 ) ,聖 Innocent I (AD 405), St. Augustine (AD 397).無辜口(公元405 ) ,聖奧古斯丁(公元397 ) 。

Moreover, the great fourth- and fifth- century manuscripts of the Septuagint are proof that not only the Jews but the Christians used Tobias as canonical. For the Catholic the question of the canonicity of Tobias was infallibly settled by the decisions of the Councils of Trent, Session IV (8 April, 1546) and of the Vatican, Session III, ch.此外,巨大的第四和第五世紀手稿的七十證明,不僅是猶太人,但作為基督徒使用托比亞斯典型。對於天主教的問題,正規的托拜厄斯是infallibly定居的決定,安理會的遄,第四次會議( 1546年4月8日)和梵蒂岡,第三次會議,甲烷。 2 (24 April, 1870). 2 ( 1870年4月24日) 。

Against the canonicity of Tobias are urged several rather trivial objections which would at first sight seem to impugn the inspiration of the narrative.對正規的托拜厄斯是敦促一些小事而反對將乍一看似乎非難啟示說明。

(a) Raphael told an untruth when he said he was "Azarias the son of the great Ananias" (5:18). (一)拉斐爾說一個謊言,他說他是“阿扎里亞斯魯的兒子,偉大的阿納尼亞斯” ( 5:18 ) 。 There is no untruth in this.沒有任何謊言在此。 The angel was in appearance just what he said he was.天使是什麼樣的外觀,他說他。 Besides, he may have meant by azaryah, "the healer of Jah"; and by ananyah, "the goodness of Jah".此外,他可能指的azaryah , “在醫生的扎哈” ;和ananyah “的善良的扎哈” 。 In this event he only told the young Tobias that he was God's helper and the offspring of the great goodness of God; in this there would be no falsehood.在這種情況下,他才告訴年輕的托拜厄斯說,他是上帝的助手和後代的偉大善良的上帝在這就不會有謊言。

(b) A second objection is that the angelology of Tobias is taken over from that of the Avesta either directly by Iranian influence or indirectly by the inroad of Syriac or Grecian folk-lore. ( b )第二個反對意見是,天使的托拜厄斯是接管,在阿維斯塔伊朗直接或間接地影響了對敘利亞的侵略或希臘民俗學。 For Raphael says: "I am the angel Raphael, one of the seven who stand before the Lord" (12:15).對拉斐爾說: “我的天使拉斐爾,其中7誰站在上帝” ( 12:15 ) 。 These seven are the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism: cf.這七個是Amesha Spentas的拜火教:比照。 Fritzsche, "Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apocr.", II (Leipzig, 1853), 61.弗里切“ Exegetisches手冊楚蘭旦Apocr 。 ”二(萊比錫, 1853年) , 61 。 The answer is that the reading seven is doubtful; it is in Aleph, AB, Old Latin, and Vulgate; it is wanting in the Greek cursive text, Syriac, and HM.答案是,讀了令人懷疑,它是在阿萊夫, AB公司,舊拉丁美洲和武加大,這是想在希臘草書文字,敘利亞,和HM 。 Still, admitting the reading of the Vulgate, the Amesha Spentas have infiltrated into Avestic religion from the seven Angels of Hebraistic Revelation and not vice versa.不過,承認讀拉丁文聖經的Amesha Spentas已滲入Avestic宗教從七個天使Hebraistic啟示,而不是相反。 Moreover, there are not seven Amesha Spentas in the angelology of the Avesta, but only six.此外,有沒有7 Amesha Spentas在天使的阿維斯塔,但只有6個。 They are subordinated to Ahura Mazda, the first principle of good.他們服從胡馬自達的第一原則良好。 True, he is, at times, grouped with the six lower spirits as seven Amesha Spentas; but in this grouping we have not by any means seven angels standing before the Deity.的確,他是,有時,分為六個低酒精七個Amesha Spentas ;但在這個集團,我們沒有以任何方式七個天使站在神。

F. Historical Worth樓的歷史價值

(1) To Protestants ( 1 )新教徒

The destructive criticism which, among Protestants, has striven to do away with the canonical books of the Old Testament have quite naturally had no respect for those books the critics call apocryphal.破壞性的批評,除新教徒,努力消除規範圖書舊約有相當自然不尊重這些圖書評論家呼籲未經證實。 The Book of Tobias is to them no more than are the Testament of Job, the Book of Jubilees, and the story of Ahikhar. From the standpoint of historical criticism it is to be grouped with these three apocryphal (JT Marshall, Principal of the Baptist College, Manchester, in Hasting's "Dict. of the Bible", sv).書托拜厄斯是他們不超過全書的是就業,這本書的Jubilees ,以及故事Ahikhar 。從歷史的角度批評它是歸入這三個未經(特魯利馬歇爾校長浸會大學,曼徹斯特,在哈斯丁的“快譯通。聖經” ,希沃特) 。 Simrock in "Der gute Gerhard und die dankbaren Todten" (Bonn, 1858) reduces the story to the folk-lore theme of the gratitude of the departed spirit; the yarn is spun out of this slim thread of fancy that the souls of the dead, whose remains Tobias buried, did not forget his benevolence.西姆羅克在“明鏡歐特總理與模具dankbaren Todten ” (波恩, 1858 )減少了故事的民俗學主題感謝離開精神;紗線是失控超薄花式線的靈魂的死亡,托拜厄斯埋葬遺體,也沒有忘記他的仁慈。 Erbt (Encycl. Biblica, sv) finds traces of Iranian legend in the name of the demon Asmodeus (Tobit 3:8) which is the Persian Aeshma daeva; as also in the dog -- "with the Persians a certain power over evil spirits was assigned to the dog." Erbt ( Encycl. Biblica ,希沃特)認定痕跡伊朗傳說中的名稱惡魔阿斯莫德(托比書3點08 )這是波斯Aeshma daeva ;也在狗- “與波斯人一定權力辟邪被分配到的狗。 “ And again: "the Jewish nation takes up a foreign legend, goes on repeating it until it has got it into fixed oral form, in order next to pass it on to some story-writer who is able to shape it into an edifying household tale, capable of ministering comfort to many succeeding generations." Moulton, "The Iranian background of Tobit" (Expository Time, 1900, p. 257), considers the book to be Median folk-lore, in which the Semitic and Iranian elements meet.並再次: “猶太民族佔用外國傳說,接著重複它,直到它得到了它變成固定的口頭形式,以便通過它旁邊的一些故事,作家誰能夠塑造成一個有啟發性的家庭故事,能夠ministering安慰許多後世。 “莫爾頓, ”伊朗背景托比書“ (說明性時間, 1900年,第257頁) ,認為這本書是中民俗學,其中猶太人和伊朗要素滿足。

On the Ahikhar story, cf.論Ahikhar故事,比照。 "The Story of Ahikhar from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek, and Slavonic versions" by Conybeare, Harris, and Mrs. Smith, a work which will be brought back to 407 BC in a new edition soon to appear (Expositor, March 1912, p. 212). “的故事Ahikhar從敘利亞文,阿拉伯語,亞美尼亞語,埃塞俄比亞,希臘和斯拉夫語版”的科尼比爾,哈里斯,史密斯夫婦的工作,會被帶回407年的新版本中即將出現( Expositor , 1912年3月,第212頁) 。

(2) To Catholics ( 2 )天主教徒

Until recently there never was question among Catholics in regard to the historicity of Tobias.直到最近,未就此問題方面天主教徒之間的歷史性托比亞斯。 It was among the historical books of the Old Testament, the Fathers had always referred to both elder and younger Tobias and to the other personages of the narratives as to facts and not to fancies.它是歷史的書籍舊約,父親一直都提到老人和年輕的托拜厄斯和其他人士的敘述,以事實,而不是幻想。 The stories of almsgiving, burial of the dead, angelophany, exorcism, marriage of Sara with Tobias the younger, cure of the elder Tobias -- all these incidents were taken for granted as fact-narrative; nor was there ever any question of likening them to the tales of "The Arabian Nights" and the "Fables of Æsop".故事中的救濟,埋葬死者, angelophany ,驅魔,婚姻的莎拉與托比亞斯年輕,治愈老年托比亞斯-所有這些事件都認為是理所當然的事實說明;也沒有任何問題都比喻他們到的故事“一千零一夜”和“伊索寓言” 。 Jahn, "Introductio in libros sacros", 2nd ed.雅恩, “引libros sacros ” ,第二版。 (Vienna, 1814), 452, gives the stock objections to the historicity of Tobias, and suggests that either the entire composition is a parable to teach that the prayers of the upright are heard or at most only the main outline is fact-narrative. (維也納, 1814年) , 452 ,使庫存反對歷史性托比亞斯,並建議要么整個組成是一個寓言教的祈禱直立或聽到最多只有大綱的主要事實說明。 His book was put on the Index (26 Aug., 1822).他的書是放在指數( 8月26日, 1822年) 。 Anton Scholz, "Die heilige Schrift", II, iii, p.安東肖爾茨, “模具神聖Schrift ” ,二,三,第 12, and Movers in "Kirchenlexicon" (first ed., I, p. 481) hold that Tobias is a poetic fiction. Cosquin, in "Revue biblique" (1899, pp. 50-82), tries to show that the sacred writer of Tobias had before his eyes a form of the Ahikhar story and worked it over rather freely as a vehicle to carry the inspired thought of the moral he wished to convey to his readers. 12 ,和推動者“ Kirchenlexicon ” (第一編。 ,我,第481段)認為,托拜厄斯是一種詩意的小說。 Cosquin ,在“雜誌biblique ” ( 1899年,頁。 50-82 ) ,試圖表明,神聖作家托比亞斯收到了他的眼睛的一種形式的Ahikhar故事和工作自由,而它作為一種工具來進行的啟發思想道德他希望轉達他的讀者。 Barry, "The Tradition of Scripture" (New York, 1906), p.巴里說: “傳統的聖經” (紐約, 1906年) ,第 128, says: "Its relation to other stories, such as The Grateful Dead and the tale of Ahichar, has been used in illustration of the romantic nature ascribed to it by modern readers; so, too, the symbolical names of its personages, and the borrowings, as they say, from Persian mythology of Asmodeus, etc." 128 ,說: “它與其他的故事,如感恩死的故事Ahichar ,已用於說明浪漫性質歸咎於它的現代讀者,所以,在象徵名稱及其人士,和借款,因為他們說,從波斯神話阿斯莫德等“ Gigot, "Special introduction to the study of the Old Testament", I (New York, 1901), 343-7, gives at length the arguments in favour of the non-historical character of the book and attempts no refutation of the same.吉戈特“ ,特別介紹了研究舊約” ,我(紐約, 1901 ) , 343-7 ,給了詳細的論據支持非歷史特點的書籍,並嘗試沒有反駁相同。

With these and a few other exceptions, Catholic exegetes are unanimous in clearly defending the historicity of Tobias.有了這些和其他一些例外,天主教exegetes一致明確捍衛歷史性托比亞斯。 Cf.比照。 Welte in "Kirchenlexikon" (first ed., sv Tobias); Reusch, "Das Buch Tobias", p.答在“ Kirchenlexikon ” (第一編。 ,希沃特托比亞斯) ; Reusch , “達斯圖書托比亞斯” ,第 vi; Vigouroux, "Manuel biblique", II (Paris, 1883), 134; Cornely, "Introd. in utriusque testamenti libros sacros", II (Paris, 1887), i, 378; Danko, "Hist. revelationis vt", 369; Haneburg, "Gesch. der bibl. Offenbarung" (3rd ed., Ratisbon, 1863), 489; Kaulen, "Einleitung in die heilige Schrift" (Freiburg, 1890), 215; Zschokke, "Hist. sacra AT", 245; Seisenberger, "Practical Handbook for the Study of the Bible" (New York, 1911), 343.六; Vigouroux , “曼努埃爾biblique ” ,第二章(巴黎, 1883年) , 134 ; Cornely , “ Introd 。在utriusque testamenti libros sacros ” ,第二章(巴黎, 1887年) ,我, 378 ;照剛, “組織胺。 revelationis虛擬化技術” , 369 ; Haneburg “ Gesch 。河畔bibl 。啟示” (第3版。 , Ratisbon , 1863年) , 489 ; Kaulen , “導論中死亡神聖Schrift ” (弗賴堡, 1890 ) , 215 ; Zschokke “組織胺。薩克拉在” , 245 ; Seisenberger , “實用手冊研究聖經” (紐約, 1911年) , 343 。 This almost unanimity among Catholic exegetes is quite in keeping with the decision of the Biblical Commission (23 June, 1905).這幾乎一致天主教exegetes是非常符合的決定聖經委員會( 1905年6月23日) 。 By this Decree Catholics are forbidden to hold that a book of the Holy Writ, which has generally been looked upon as historical, is either entirely or in part not history properly so called, unless it be proven by solid arguments that the sacred writer did not wish to write history; and the solidity of the arguments against the historicity of an historical book of the Bible we are not to admit either readily or rashly.根據這一法令,禁止天主教徒認為,一本書聖令狀,這一般被看作歷史,或者完全或部分沒有所謂正確的歷史,除非它被證明是由堅實的論據,沒有神聖作家想寫信歷史;和鞏固的論點,反對的歷史性歷史書聖經我們不承認或者容易或草率。 Now the arguments against the historical worth of Tobias are not at all solid; they are mere conjectures, which it would be most rash to admit.現在的論據對歷史價值的托拜厄斯是不牢固的,他們僅僅是猜測,這將是最皮疹承認。 We shall examine some of these conjectures.我們應審查其中的一些猜測。

(a) The Ahikhar story is not in the Vulgate at all. (一) Ahikhar故事並不在武加大在所有。 As it is in AB, Aleph, and the Old Latin, St. Jerome undoubtedly knew it.因為它是在公司,阿萊夫,與舊拉丁美洲,聖杰羅姆無疑很明白這一點。 Why did he follow the Aramaic text to the exclusion of this episode?他為什麼要按照阿拉姆文本排除此事件? He may have looked upon it as an interpolation, which was not written by the inspired author.他可能期待它作為插值,這不是寫作者的靈感。 Even though it were not an interpolation, the Ahikhar episode of Tobias has not been proven to be a legend drawn from a non-canonical source.儘管它不是一個插值的Ahikhar集托比亞斯還沒有被證明是一個傳說,從一個非正規的來源。

(b) The angelic apparition and all incidents connected therewith are no more difficult to explain than the angelophanies of Genesis 18:19 and Acts 12:6. (c) The demonology is not unlike to that of the New Testament. (二)天使般的幻影和與此相關的所有事件不再有難以解釋的比angelophanies成因18時19和行為12時06 。 ( c )在魔鬼是沒有什麼不同,與新約。 The name "Asmodeus" need not be of Iranian origin; but may just as readily be explained as Semitic.命名為“阿斯莫德”不必原籍伊朗,但一樣隨時可能被解釋為猶太人。 The Aramaic word ashmeday is cognate with the Hebrew hashmed, "destruction". ashmeday的阿拉姆是同源詞的希伯來hashmed , “毀滅” 。 And even though it be a mutilated form of some Iranian ancestor of the Persian Aeshma daeva, what more natural than a Median name for a demon whose obsession was accomplished upon Median soil?儘管它是一個被肢解的一些伊朗的祖先波斯人Aeshma daeva ,比什麼更自然位數名稱惡魔的痴迷完成後,中位數土壤? The slaying of the seven husbands was allowed by God in punishment of their lust (Vulgate, v. 16); it is the youth Tobias, not the sacred writer, that suggests (according to AB, Aleph, and Old Latin) the demon's lust as the motive of his killing all rivals.殺害的七個丈夫是上帝允許在懲罰他們的慾望(武加大,五, 16 ) ;這是托拜厄斯的青年,而不是神聖的作家,這表明(根據AB公司,阿萊夫,舊拉丁美洲)的惡魔的慾望為動力,他殺死所有的競爭對手。 The binding of the devil in the desert of Upper Egypt, the farthest end of the then known world (8:3), has the same figurative meaning as the binding of Satan for a thousand years (Revelation 20:2).結合魔鬼在沙漠上埃及,最遠結束當時稱為世界(八時03 ) ,具有相同的象徵意義的約束力撒旦一千年(啟示20點02分) 。

(d) The unlikelihood of the many coincidences in the Book of Tobias is mere conjecture (cf. Gigot, op. cit., 345). (四)不可能的許多巧合在這本書中的托拜厄斯只是猜想(參見吉戈特,同前。前。 , 345頁) 。 Divine Providence may have brought about these siimilarities of incident, with a view to the use of them in an inspired book.神的可能帶來的這些siimilarities的事件,以期利用他們在啟發的書。

(e) Certain historical difficulties are due to the very imperfect condition in whch the text has reached us. ( e )某些歷史上困難的原因是非常不完善的情況whch的文本已達到我們。

It was Theglathphalasar III who led Nephthali (2 Kings 15:29) into captivity (734 BC), and not, as Tobias says (1:2), Salmanasar.這是誰領導Theglathphalasar三Nephthali (列王紀下15:29 )到圈養( 734年) ,而不是作為托拜厄斯說, ( 1:2 ) , Salmanasar 。 Yet this reading of the Vulgate, Old Latin, and Aramaic is to be corrected by the name Enemesar of AB and Aleph.然而,這種閱讀的武加大,舊拉丁美洲和阿拉姆是要糾正的名稱Enemesar的AB和阿萊夫。 The latter reading would be equivalent to the Hebrew transliteration of the Assyrian kenum sar.後者讀等於希伯來文的音譯亞述kenum特區。 As the appellative sar "king", may precede or follow a personal name, kenum sar is sar kenum, that is Gargon (sarru-kenu II, BC 722).作為通稱特區“王” , 5月之前或按照個人的名義, kenum特區特區kenum ,這是Gargon ( sarru - kenu二,公元前722 ) 。 It can readily be that, twelve years after Theglath-phalasar III began the deportation of Israel out of Samaria, Sardon's scouts completed the work and routed some of the tribe of Nephthali from their fastnesses.它可以很容易地說, 12年後Theglath - phalasar三開始驅逐以色列的撒馬利亞, Sardon的球探的工作和完成路由一些部落的Nephthali從牢度。

A like solution is to be given to the difficulty that Sennacherib is said to have been the son of Salmanasar (1:18), whereas he was the son of the usurper Sargon.類似的辦法,是考慮到困難森納赫里布據說是兒子Salmanasar ( 1:18 ) ,而他的兒子篡權薩爾貢。 The Vulgate reading here, as in 1:2, should be that of AB and Aleph, to wit, Enemesar; and this stands for Sargon.閱讀這裡的武加大,如在1:2 ,應該是AB和阿萊夫,即, Enemesar ;和這個主張薩爾貢。

In B, 14:15, Ninive is said to have been captured by Ahasuerus (Asoueros) and Nabuchodonosor.在B , 14:15 , Ninive據說是被Ahasuerus ( Asoueros )和Nabuchodonosor 。 This is a mistake of the scribe.這是一個錯誤的抄寫。 Aleph reads that Achiacharos took Ninive and adds that "he praised God for all He had done against the children of Ninive and Assyria".艾禮富內容的Achiacharos了Ninive和補充說, “他說,上帝為他做了對兒童的Ninive和亞述” 。 The word for Assyria is Athoureias, Hebrew asshur, Aramaic ahur: This Greek word mislead the scribe to write Lsyeros for the name of the king, Achiacharos, ie the Median King Cyaxares.字的亞述是Athoureias ,希伯來語asshur ,阿拉姆ahur :這個希臘詞誤導抄寫寫Lsyeros的名稱國王, Achiacharos ,即中金Cyaxares 。 According to Berossus, Cyaxares was, in his campaign against Ninive, allied to the Babylonian King Nabopalassar, the father of Nabuchodonosor; the scribe of V has written the name for the son for that of the father, as Nabopalassar was unknown to him.據Berossus , Cyaxares是,在他的運動Ninive ,結盟的巴比倫國王Nabopalassar的父親Nabuchodonosor ;釩的抄寫寫的名字為兒子的父親,因為Nabopalassar不明他。

Rages is a Seleucid town and hence an anachronism.肆虐是塞流西鎮,因此是一種時代錯誤。 Not at all; it is an ancient Median town, which the Seleucids restored.不,這是一個古老的城市中,其中Seleucids恢復。

G. Origin灣的由來

It is likely that the elder Tobias wrote at least that part of the original work in which he uses the first person singular, cf.可能是老托拜厄斯寫道至少這一部分的原創作品,其中他使用了第一人稱單數,比照。 1:1-3:6, in all texts except the Vulgate and Aramaic. 1:1-3:6 ,在所有文本除武加大和阿拉姆語。 As the entire narrative is historical, this part is probably autobiographical.由於整個敘述的歷史,這一部分可能是自傳。 After revealing his angelic nature, Raphael bade both father and son to tell all the wonders that God had done them (Vulgate, 12:20) and to write in a book all the incidents of his stay with them (cf. same verse in AB, Aleph, Old Latin, HF, and HM).在透露他天使般的性質,拉斐爾吩咐兩個父親和兒子,告訴所有的奇蹟,上帝做了他們(武加大, 12:20 ) ,並寫了一本書所有的事件,他與他們(參見同一詩句在AB公司,阿萊夫,老拉丁美洲,高頻,和HM ) 。 If we accept the story as fact-narrative, we naturally conclude that it was written originally during the Babylonian Exile, in the early portion of the seventh century BC; and that all save the last chapter was the work of the elder and younger Tobias.如果我們接受這個故事的事實說明,我們自然得出這樣的結論:這是寫在巴比倫最初流放,在早期部分公元前七世紀和所有儲存的最後一章是工作的年長者和年輕的托比亞斯。 Almost all Protestant scholars consider the book post-Exilic.幾乎所有的基督教學者認為這本書後Exilic 。 Ewald assigns it to 350 BC; Hgen, the bulk to 280 BC; Gratz, to AD 130; Kohut, to AD 226.埃瓦爾德分配到350年; Hgen ,大部分公元前280 ;格拉茨,至公元130 ;胡特,至公元226 。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.轉錄的邁克爾巴雷特。 Dedicated to Sr. Anne Marie The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.致力於老安妮瑪麗天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The introductions of CORNELY, KAULEN, DANKO, GIGOT, SEISENBERGER.的介紹CORNELY , KAULEN , DANKO , GIGOT , SEISENBERGER 。 Although the Fathers use Tobias, only BEDE (PL, XCI, 923-38) and WALAFRID STRABO (PL, CXIII, 725) have left us commentaries thereon.雖然父親使用托比亞斯,只有BEDE (特等, XCI , 923-38 )和WALAFRID斯特拉博(特等, CXIII , 725 )給我們留下評論此事。 During the Middle Ages, HUGH OF ST.在中世紀,休聖。 VICTOR, Allegoriarum in Vetus Testamentum, IX (PL, CLXXV, 725), and NICHOLAS OF LYRA, DENIS THE CARTHUSIAN, HUGH DE S. CARO, in their commentaries on all Scripture, interpreted the Book of Tobias.維克托, Allegoriarum在Vetus Testamentum ,九(特等, CLXXV , 725 ) ,和尼古拉斯的LYRA ,丹尼斯的卡爾特,休德南卡羅,在其所有聖經評注,解釋了圖書的托比亞斯。 Later Commentators are SERRARI (Monza, 1599); SANCTIUS (Lyons, 1628); MAUSCHBERGER (Olmutz, 1758); JUSTINIANI (Rome, 1620); DE CELADA (Lyons, 1644); DREXEL (Antwerp, 1652); NEUVILLE (Paris, 1723); GUTBERLET (Munster, 1854); REUSCH (Freiburg, 1857); GILLET DE MOOR, Tobie et Akhiahar (Louvain, 1902); VETTER, Das Buch Tobias und die Achikar-Sage in Theol.後來評論員SERRARI (蒙扎, 1599年) ; SANCTIUS (里昂, 1628年) ; MAUSCHBERGER ( Olmutz , 1758年) ; JUSTINIANI (羅馬, 1620年) ;可選擇丟棄CELADA (里昂, 1644年) ; DREXEL (安特衛普, 1652年) ;訥維爾(巴黎, 1723年) ; GUTBERLET (明斯特, 1854年) ; REUSCH (弗賴堡, 1857年) ; GILLET德高沼Tobie等Akhiahar (盧萬, 1902年) ; VETTER ,達斯圖書托比亞斯和死亡Achikar -賢者在Theol 。 Quartalschrift (Tubingen, 1904). Quartalschrift (蒂賓根, 1904年) 。 The principal Protestant authorities have been cited in the body of the article.主要新教當局一直引用正文中的文章。


Book of Tobit托比特書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Outline of the Story.綱要的故事。

Text and Original Language.文字和原文。

Time and Place.時間和地點。

A late Jewish work, never received into the Jewish canon, and included in the Apocrypha by Protestants, although it was pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Trent (1546).晚猶太工作,從未收到過的猶太人佳能,並列入了偽經的新教徒,雖然它突出典型理事會的迦太基( 397 )和安理會的遄達( 1546年) 。 It takes its name from the central figure, called Τωβείτ (Τωβείτ, Τωβείθ) in Greek, and Ṭobi () in a late Hebrew manuscript.它的名字從中央數字,所謂Τωβείτ ( Τωβείτ , Τωβείθ )在希臘和Ṭobi ( )在希伯來文手稿晚。

Outline of the Story.綱要的故事。

The story of the book is as follows: Tobit, a pious man of the tribe of Naphtali, who remained faithful to Jerusalem when his tribe fell away to Jeroboam's cult of the bull, was carried captive to Nineveh in the time of Enemessar (Shalmaneser), King of Assyria.這個故事的書籍如下:托比書,一個虔誠的人的部落拿弗,誰仍然忠實於耶路撒冷下跌時,他的部落去耶羅波安的邪教的牛市,進行圈養,以尼納瓦時代的Enemessar (撒縵)國王亞述。 There, together with his wife, Anna, and his son Tobias, he gave alms to the needy, and buried the outcast bodies of the slain, keeping himself pure, moreover, from the food of the Gentiles.在那裡,與他的妻子安娜和他的兒子托比亞斯,他施捨給需要幫助的,並掩埋了棄兒機構被殺,保持自己純潔,此外,從糧食的外邦人。 He was in favor with the king, however, and so prosperous that he was able to deposit ten talents of silver in trust with a friend in Media.他討好國王,然而,如此繁榮的,他能夠存款10人才中銀的信任與一個朋友在媒體。 With the accession of Sennacherib (the successor of Enemessar) the situation changed.隨著加入森納赫里布(繼承的Enemessar )改變這種狀況。 Accused of burying the dead slain by the king, he had to flee, and his property was confiscated; but when Sarchedonus (Esarhaddon) came to the throne Tobit was allowed to return to Nineveh at the intercession of his nephew Achiacharus (Aḥiḳar), the king's chancellor.被告的埋葬死者殺害國王,他不得不逃離,他的財產被沒收;但是當Sarchedonus (以撒哈頓)來到寶座托比書被允許返回尼納瓦在調解的他的侄子Achiacharus ( Aḥiḳar )中,國王的校長。 Here he continued his works of mercy; but, accidentally losing his eyesight, he fell into great poverty, so that in his dire distress he prayed that he might die.在這裡,他繼續他的作品的憐憫,但是不小心失去了視力,他陷入巨大的貧困,所以,在他的可怕的痛苦,他祈禱,他可能死亡。 On that same day a similar prayer was offered by Sarah, the daughter of Raguel of Ecbatana (in Media), in despair because she had been married to seven husbands who had each been slain by a demon on the wedding night.在同一天被一個類似的祈禱所提供薩拉的女兒拉貴爾的埃克巴塔那(媒體) ,在絕望中,因為她已經結婚七年的丈夫是誰殺害了每一個惡魔的新婚之夜。 The same day Tobit, remembering his deposit of money in Media, determined to send his son for it.同一天托比書,回憶他的存款的資金,媒體,決定派他的兒子了。 A companion and guide (who turns out to be the angel Raphael) being found for him, the two proceeded on their journey.阿同伴和指導(誰原來是天使拉斐爾)被發現,他的兩個接著對他們的旅程。 At the river Tigris, Tobit caught a fish and was instructed by his companion to preserve its heart, liver, and gall.在河底格里斯河,托比書捕獲的魚,並指示他的同伴保持其心臟,肝臟,和膽囊。 Conducted to Raguel's house, he asked Sarah's hand in marriage, drove away the demon by burning the heart and liver of the fish in the bridal chamber, sent Raphael (whose assumed name was Azarias) for the money, and returned, with him and Sarah, to Nineveh, where Tobit's eyesight was restored by smearing his eyes with the fish's gall.進行拉貴爾的房子,他問薩拉的手在婚姻中,趕走了惡魔燃燒的心臟和肝臟的魚洞房,發送拉斐爾(其化名為阿扎里亞斯魯)的資金,並歸還,他和薩拉,以尼納瓦,其中托比特的視力恢復塗抹他的眼睛的魚的膽。 Father, mother, and son reached a good old age (Tobias living to rejoice over the destruction of Nineveh), and died in peace.父親,母親,兒子達到了良好的老年(托比亞斯生活感到歡欣鼓舞的破壞尼納瓦)和死亡的和平。 This brief outline does not do justice to the artistic construction of the story, or to the fine touches in its descriptions of family life, social customs, and individual experiences.這簡述不公平對待藝術建設的故事,或罰款涉及其描述家庭生活,社會習俗和個人經驗。 It may be reckoned among the most delightful of short stories.這可能是不可忽視的最愉快的短篇小說。

Text and Original Language.文字和原文。

The text exists in Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Judæo-Aramaic, besides two late Hebrew translations.案文中存在希臘語,拉丁語,敘利亞,和Judæo -阿拉姆,除了兩晚希伯來語翻譯。 Of the Greek there are three versions: one given in the Vatican and Alexandrian manuscripts of the Septuagint; one in the Sinaitic; and one in Codices 44, 106, 107 of Holmes and Parsons.希臘有三個版本:一個是給在梵蒂岡和亞歷山大手稿的譯本;一個在Sinaitic ; ,一個在Codices 44 , 106 , 107 Holmes和帕森斯。 Of the Latin there are two recensions: the Old Latin, which agrees substantially with the Sinaitic Septuagint; and the Vulgate, made by Jerome from an Aramaic text, which often agrees with it, although it presents many divergencies.拉丁美洲有兩個recensions :舊拉丁美洲,其中同意大幅度的Sinaitic七十;和武加大,由杰羅姆從亞拉姆語的文字,往往同意它,儘管它提出了許多分歧。 The Syriac follows the Vatican in general, although it is by no means lit-eral, while Codices 44, 106, 107 agree sometimes with this text, sometimes with that of the Sinaitic.敘利亞如下梵蒂岡一般,但它絕不是點燃6:00 ,而Codices 44 , 106 , 107同意有時這個文本,有時是Sinaitic 。 The Aramaic text (published by Neubauer) also represents the Sinaitic recension in a general way, but is late, and can scarcely be considered the descendant of Jerome's original.在阿拉姆文(發表紐鮑爾)還代表Sinaitic recension從總的方面,但是已經晚了,幾乎可以被視為後裔杰羅姆的原始。 The Hebrew copies are late and of no authority.希伯萊副本遲到和沒有權力。 The two chief Greek recensions are the earliest sources for the text of Tobit, though suggestions may be gained from the Latin and the Syriac.兩個主要希臘recensions是最早來源的案文托比特,但建議可獲得拉丁美洲和敘利亞。 Of the Greek forms the Vatican is the shortest (except in ch. iv.); its style is rough and often incorrect, and it has many errors, frequently clerical in nature.希臘形式梵蒂岡是最短(除在CH 。四。 ) ;其風格是粗,而且往往是不正確的,它有許多錯誤,往往文書的性質。 The Sinaitic text is diffuse, but frequently gives the better readings.該Sinaitic文字瀰漫,但更經常的讀數。 Both of them may depend on an earlier form which has been corrupted in the Vatican and expanded in the Sinaitic, although the question is a difficult one.他們都可能取決於早期形式已損壞在梵蒂岡和擴大在Sinaitic ,但現在的問題是艱難的一年。 Equally problematical is the determination of the original language of the book.同樣的事是確定的原始語言的書籍。 The forms of the proper names, and such an expression as χάριν καὶ μορφήν (i. 13), which suggests (Esth. ii. 17), may be held to point to Hebrew, as may also the type of piety portrayed, although it must be noted that there is no mention in early times of a Hebrew text, which Jerome would doubtless have used had he known of its existence.各種形式的適當的名稱,這樣的表達χάριν καὶ μορφήν (一13 ) ,這表明( Esth.二。 17 ) ,可舉行以指向希伯來語,也可作為類型的虔誠描述,但它必須指出的是,沒有提到早期的希伯來文,這無疑會杰羅姆使用了他知道它的存在。 The Sinaitic forms "Ather" for "Asur" (xiv. 4) and "Athoureias" for "Asureias" (xiv. 15), on the other hand, are Aramaic. Sinaitic形式的“動脈”的“ Asur ” ( xiv. 4 )和“ Athoureias ”為“ Asureias ” ( xiv. 15 ) ,另一方面,是阿拉姆語。 The excellent Greek style of the Sinaitic may suggest a Greek original.出色的希臘風格的Sinaitic可能暗示希臘原始。 In view of the conflicting character of the data, it is best to reserve opinion as to the original language; the text appears to have suffered a number of revisions and misreadings.鑑於衝突的性質的數據,最好是保留意見的原始語言的文字似乎已受到了一些修改意見和誤讀。

Time and Place.時間和地點。

The picture of religious life given in Tobit (especially the devotion to ritual details) indicates a post-Ezran date for the book.該圖片的宗教生活提供了托比書(尤其是奉獻儀式詳情)顯示後Ezran日期為這本書。 The special significance attached to almsgiving (iv. 10; xii. 8, 9) is identical with the idea in Ecclus.的特殊意義重視救濟( iv. 10 ;十二。 8日, 9日)是相同的想法在Ecclus 。 (Sirach) iii. ( Sirach )三。 30 (comp. also Prov. x. 2), and the injunction in iv. 30 ( comp.還省。十2 ) ,以及禁制令四。 17, "Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just, but give nothing to the wicked," is repeated in import in Ecclus. 17 , “傾吐你的麵包埋葬的公正,但沒有給惡人” ,是一再在進口Ecclus 。 (Sirach) xii. ( Sirach )十二。 4-5. 4月5日。 The prediction in xiv.預測在十四。 5 implies a period after the building of the Second Temple, and, apparently, before the commencement of Herod's Temple. 5意味著以後期間的建設,第二聖殿,並很顯然,之前的希律聖殿。 The prominence given to the duty of burying the outcast slain (the survival of a very ancient conception) seems to point to a time when the Jews were slaughtered by foreign enemies, as, for example, by Antiochus or by Hadrian.在突出的責任埋葬棄兒被殺害(生存的一個非常古老的概念)似乎指向的時候,猶太人被屠殺的外國敵人,因為,例如,安提阿哥或哈德良。 The necessity of marrying within the kin was recognized during a long period and does not define the date precisely.必須結婚的親屬中被確認和長時間沒有界定明確的日期。 Polycarp's saying ("Ad Phil." x.), "Almsgiving delivers from death," does not prove that he was acquainted with Tobit, since Prov.波利卡普的話說( “廣告菲爾。 ”十) , “救濟提供的死亡, ”並不能證明他是熟悉托比書,因為省。 x. 2 may have been so understood by him. 5月2日已如此理解他。 There is no Messianic hope expressed in the book.沒有救世主表示希望在這本書。 The more probable view is that it was composed between 200 and 50 BC If the original language was Hebrew, the place was Palestine; if Greek, it was Egypt; but this point, too, must be left undecided.更可能的觀點是,它是由200至公元前50年,如果原文是希伯來文,是巴勒斯坦的地方,如果希臘,這是埃及,但是這一點,也必須仍未確定。

The reference in xiv.中提到的十四。 10 to Achiacharus introduces new perplexities into the question of the origin of the book (see Aḥiḳar). 10日至Achiacharus引入了新的困惑的問題的起源書(見Aḥiḳar ) 。 Here it need only be remarked that the reference is merely an illustration, showing acquaintance with an Aḥiḳar story; the allusion is scarcely organically connected with the story of Tobit.在這裡只需要指出的提法僅僅是一個例子,顯示熟人的Aḥiḳar故事;的典故幾乎有機與托比書的故事。

The original form of the book may have told simply how a pious man, doing his duty, came safe out of trouble.原始形式的書籍可能只是如何告訴一個虔誠的人,做自己的職責,是安全的麻煩。 The episode of Sarah and Asmodeus appears to be a separate story, here skilfully combined with the other.這一事件的薩拉和阿斯莫德似乎是一個單獨的故事,在這裡巧妙地結合其他。 The advisory discourses in iv.諮詢話語中四。 (much shortened in the Sinaitic text) and xii. (亦縮短在Sinaitic文本)和第十二章。 look like the insertions of an editor. For the ethical tone see especially iv.看起來像插入編輯。對於道德基調尤其見四。 15, 16, and for the religious ideas, xii. 15日, 16日,和宗教思想,十二。 8. 8 。 The book is to be compared with Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Daniel, and Ecclesiastes.這本書以與諺語, Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach ) ,丹尼爾,和傳道書。

Crawford Howell Toy克勞福德霍威爾玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: Swete, The Old Testament in Greek (texts of the Vatican, Alexandrian, and Sinaitic codices); Fritzsche, in Handbuch zu den Apokryphen; Neubauer, The Book of Tobit (Old Latin, Aramaic, and modern Hebrew texts); Schürer, in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.參考書目: Swete ,舊約中希(文本梵蒂岡,亞歷山大,並Sinaitic codices ) ;弗里切,在手冊楚蘭旦Apokryphen ;紐鮑爾,這本書的托比書(舊拉丁美洲,亞拉姆語和現代希伯來文) ; Schürer ,在赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 i.; Robertson Smith, in Encyc.一;羅伯遜史密斯,在Encyc 。 Brit.; Erbt, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc.英。 ; Erbt ,在陳和黑色, Encyc 。 Bibl.; Marshall, in Hastings, Dict. Bibl 。 ;馬歇爾,在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bible; Schenkel, Bibel-Lexikon; Schürer, Gesch.聖經;謝恩克爾,聖經-辭典; Schürer , Gesch 。 3d ed., iii.; Andrée, Les Apocryphes de l'Ancien Testament; Nöldeke, in Monatsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1879; Kohut, in Geiger's Jüd.三維版。 ,三。 ;康布斯的雷阿勒Apocryphes法國舊全書; Nöldeke ,在德國柏林科學院Monatsberichte之學問, 1879年;胡特,在蓋格的珠德。 Zeit.; Grätz, Gesch.特。 ;格拉茨, Gesch 。 iv.; Plath, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1901; Israel Lévi, in REJ 1902; Abrahams, in JQR i.; Bissell, The Apocrypha of the Old Testament (Lange series); Fuller, in Wace, Apocrypha.T.四。 ;普拉絲,在神學Studien與Kritiken , 1901年;以色列列維在REJ 1902年;亞伯拉罕,在JQR島;比斯爾的偽經舊約(蘭格系列) ;富勒,在Wace , Apocrypha.T 。


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