Tertullian

General Information 一般信息

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, b.昆圖斯Septimius Florens Tertullianus灣 Carthage, c.155, d.迦太基, c.155 , 4 after 220, was one of the greatest Western theologians and writers of Christian antiquity.後220 ,是最偉大的神學家和作家西方的基督教文物。 Through his writings a witness to the doctrine and discipline of the early church in belief and worship is preserved.通過他的著作證人的原則和紀律,初期教會的信仰和崇拜保存。

An advocate in the law courts in Rome, Tertullian converted (c.193) to Christianity.主張在法院在羅馬,良轉換( c.193 )基督教。 About 207 he broke with the church and joined the Montanists (see Montanism) in Africa.約207名,他打破了教會,並加入了Montanists (見孟他努派)在非洲。 Soon after, however, he broke with them and formed his own party, known as the Tertullianists.不久之後,但是,他打破了他們,形成自己的政黨,稱為Tertullianists 。

An extremist by nature, he had gone through a period of licentiousness during his early years, but later he advocated a severe asceticism and discipline that his followers found hard to emulate.一個極端主義的性質,他曾經歷了一段淫在早年,但後來他主張嚴厲的禁慾主義和紀律,他的追隨者發現很難仿效。

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Tertullian was a man of fiery temperament, great talent, and unrelenting purpose.特土良是一位火熱的氣質,偉大的天才,和不懈的目的。 He wrote with brilliant rhetoric and biting satire.他寫了輝煌的言論和咬諷刺。 His passion for truth led him into polemics with his enemies: in turn pagans, Jews, heretics, and Catholics.他的激情,為真理爭辯,他與他的敵人:反過來異教徒,猶太人,異教徒,和天主教徒。 His admiration for Christian heroism under persecution seems to have been the strongest factor in his conversion.他欽佩下迫害基督教英雄似乎已經最強的因素,他的轉換。

Tertullian's writings, notably Apologeticum, De praescriptione haereticorum, and De carne Christi, had a lasting effect on Christian thought, especially through those who, like Cyprian of Carthage, always regarded him as a "master."德爾圖良的著作,特別是Apologeticum ,者praescriptione haereticorum ,和者卡爾內基督,有持久的影響基督教思想,特別是通過那些誰,如塞浦路斯的迦太基,一直視他為“主人” 。 He also greatly influenced the development of Western thought and the creation of Christian ecclesiastical Latin.他還極大地影響了西部開發的思想和創造的基督教教會拉丁美洲。

Agnes Cunningham阿格尼絲坎寧安

Bibliography 參考書目
Barnes, TD, Tertullian: A Historical and Literary Study (1971); Sider, RD, Ancient Rhetoric and the Art of Tertullian (1971).巴恩斯,運輸署,良:歷史和文學研究( 1971年) ; Sider路,修辭學和古代藝術的良( 1971年) 。


Tertullian

General Information 一般信息

Tertullian (160?-220?) was the first important Christian ecclesiastical writer in Latin, whose work is remarkable for its blunt sarcasm, epigrammatic phrasing, aggressive partisan spirit, and skillful - though sometimes specious - reasoning.德爾圖良( 160 ? -220 ? )是第一個重要的基督教教會在拉丁美洲的作家,他們的工作是了不起的生硬的諷刺, epigrammatic措辭,侵略性的黨派精神和熟練的-儘管有時似是而非-推理。 Tertullian was born Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus in Carthage, the son of a Roman centurion.良出生昆圖斯Septimius Florens Tertullianus在迦太基的兒子,羅馬百夫長。 He trained for a career in law and practiced his profession in Rome.他訓練的職業在法律上和實踐他的職業在羅馬舉行。 Sometime between 190 and 195, while still in Rome, he became a convert to the Christian faith, and it is evident that he visited Greece and possibly Asia Minor. In 197 he returned to Carthage, where he married and became a presbyter of the church.有時候190和195之間,而仍然在羅馬,他成為了皈依基督信仰,並很明顯,他訪問了希臘和小亞細亞可能。在197他返回迦太基,在那裡他已婚,並成為長老教會。 About 207 he aligned himself with Montanism, a sect that encouraged prophesying and espoused a rigorous form of asceticism.約207名他贊同孟他努,一個教派,鼓勵和支持預言了嚴格的形式的禁慾主義。 The Montanists, increasingly in conflict with church authorities, were finally declared heretical.該Montanists ,越來越多的衝突與教會當局,終於宣布邪教。

A zealous champion of Christianity, Tertullian wrote many theological treatises, of which 31 have survived.阿熱心冠軍基督教神學良寫了許多論文,其中有31個生還。 In his various works he strove either to defend Christianity, to refute heresy, or to argue some practical point of morality or church discipline. His views on ethics and discipline, rigorously ascetic from the first, became progressively more harsh in his later works.在他的各項工作,他不但可以捍衛基督教,駁斥異端,或爭辯一些實際的角度道德或教會紀律。他的意見道德和紀律,嚴格苦行第一,逐步更加嚴厲在晚年的作品。 After espousing Montanist doctrines, he was a severe critic of orthodox Christians, whom he accused of moral laxity.在信奉Montanist學說,他是一個嚴厲的批評東正教徒,他被控犯有道義上的鬆懈。

Tertullian profoundly influenced the later church fathers, especially Saint Cyprian - and through them, all Christian theologians of the West.良深刻影響了後來教會父親,尤其是聖塞浦路斯-並通過他們,所有的基督教神學家西。 Many of his works are accepted as orthodox by the Roman Catholic church and are included in the recognized body of patristic literature.他的許多作品被接受為正統的羅馬天主教會,並列入公認的機構教父文獻。

Tertullian's writings demonstrate a profound knowledge of Greek and Latin literature, both pagan and Christian.德爾圖良的作品表現出深厚的知識,希臘和拉丁文學,都異教徒和基督教。 He was the first writer in Latin to formulate Christian theological concepts, such as the nature of the Trinity.他是第一個在拉丁美洲作家制定基督教神學概念,如性質的三一。 Having no models to follow, he developed a terminology derived from many sources, chiefly Greek and the legal vocabulary of Rome.沒有任何模式可循,他制定了一個術語來自許多來源,主要是希臘和羅馬的法律詞彙。 His legal turn of mind imprinted on this newly minted theological language of the West a juridical character that has never been erased.他的法律之交的心印在這個新崛起的神學語言西方的司法品格,從來沒有被刪除。

The most famous work by Tertullian is Apologeticus (197?), an impassioned defense of Christians against pagan charges of immorality, economic worthlessness, and political subversion.最有名的工作,特土良是Apologeticus ( 197 ? ) ,一個熱情洋溢的國防基督徒對異教徒的不道德行為的指控,經濟毫無價值,政治顛覆。 Of his doctrinal treatises refuting heresy, the most important is De Praescriptione Hereticorum (On the Claims of Heretics), in which he argued that the church alone has the authority to declare what is and is not orthodox Christianity.他的理論論述,駁斥異端,最重要的是者Praescriptione Hereticorum (對索賠的異端) ,其中他認為,教會單獨有權宣布是什麼,而不是東正教。 In other writings he strongly disapproved of second marriages, exhorted Christians not to attend public shows, and favored simplicity of dress and strict fasts.其他著作中,他強烈反對第二次婚姻,激勵基督信徒不參加公開表演,並主張簡單的著裝和嚴格的齋戒。 Like all Montanists, Tertullian held that Christians should welcome persecution, not flee from it.像所有Montanists ,特土良認為迫害基督徒應該歡迎,而不是逃避它。 Christian historians value many of his writings, especially De Baptismo (On Baptism) and De Oratione (On Prayer), for the light they throw on contemporary religious practices.基督教史學價值,他的許多著作,特別是德Baptismo (論洗禮)和者Oratione (在祈禱) ,為他們投光當代宗教習俗。


Tertullian (ca. 155-220)德爾圖良(約公元155-220 )

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Tertullian was an early Latin father of the church.特土良是一個早期拉丁美洲父親教會。 He was born Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus at Carthage in modern Tunisia.他出生昆圖斯塞普蒂默斯Florens Tertullianus在迦太基在現代突尼斯。 The son of pagan parents, he was sent to Rome to study law.異教的兒子,父母,他被送往羅馬學習法律。 There he was converted to Christianity and rejected his licentious mode of life.在那裡,他是皈依基督教,並拒絕了他的淫亂的生活模式。 Returning to Carthage, he gave himself passionately to the propagation and defense of the gospel.返回迦太基,他給自己充滿激情的傳播和國防的福音。 Ultimately disenchanted with the laxity of the Roman Church, he broke away and espoused the rigorous asceticism and enthusiasm of Montanism.最終幻想與鬆弛的羅馬教會,他突然離開,並支持嚴格禁慾主義和熱情的孟他努。

A man of vast erudition, he employed the classical rhetorical arts and freely cited Greek and Latin authors, although he disclaimed a reliance on Greek philosphy.一名男子廣大博學,他採用了古典修辭藝術和自由引用希臘和拉丁作家,但他否認依賴希臘哲學。 Increasingly he wrote in the Latin vernacular and became the first great Latin church father.他寫道:越來越多的方言,成為拉美第一個偉大的拉丁教會的父親。 He set the concepts of Scripture in new language, and much of his terminology became normative in the theological discussions of the Western church.他設置的概念聖經中的新的語言,和他的大部分術語成為規範的神學討論西方教會。 He was peculiarly apt at pithy sayings, the most famous of which is, "The blood of Christians is the seed of the church."他特有的善於簡練的話,最有名的是“血的基督教徒是教會的種子。 ” It was Tertullian who coined the term "Trinity".這是特土良誰創造了“三位一體” 。 His postulation that the God-head was "one substance consisting in three persons" helped spare the West much of the bitter Christological controversy that raged in the Eastern church.他的任命的神頭是“物質在3人組成的”幫助備件西方的許多痛苦的基督爭議肆虐東部教堂。

His view of original sin was also to influence Western theology profoundly.他認為原罪也影響西方神學深刻。 Probably because of his early Stoic training, Tertullian held that the soul was actually material and that both body and soul were procreated simultaneously by an individual's parents.可能是因為他早期斯多葛培訓,特土良認為,實際上是材料的靈魂,這兩個身體和靈魂的生育同時個人的父母。 The inclination to sin was thus transmitted from Adam to successive generations of progeny.黃大仙的傾向,因此傳染給後代亞當的後代。

There are thirty-odd extant treatises by Tertullian.有30多個現存論文由良。 His Apology, addressed to Roman magistrates, defends Christians against slanderous charges and demands for them the same due process of law afforded to other citizens of the empire.道歉,給羅馬地方法官,捍衛基督徒對誹謗的指控,並要求他們同正當法律程序給予其他公民的帝國。 Other works deal with pratical aspects of Christian living, vindications of Montanism, the failings of early Catholicism, and polemic arguments against the heathen and heretics. These latter writings contained powerful and innovative expressions of Christian dogma that came to be regarded as definitive for orthodoxy. His Against Praxeas was famed in particular for its affirmation that Jesus Christ had two natures joined in one person.其他工程處理方面的實踐基督教生活, vindications的孟他努,缺陷的早期天主教和爭論的論點對異教徒和異端。後者著作載功能強大的和創新的表達基督教教條來被視為最終的正統。他反對Praxeas尤其是著名的肯定耶穌基督有兩個性質加入一個人。

RC Kroeger and CC Kroeger鋼筋混凝土克勒格爾和CC克勒格爾
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
TD Barnes, Tertullian: A Historical and Literary Study; GL Bray, Holiness and the Will of God: Perspectives on the Theology of Tertullian; J. Morgan, The Importance of Tertullian in the Development of Christian Dogma; RA Norris, Jr., God and World in Early Christian Though; RE Roberts, The Theology of Tertullian; C. de L.運輸署巴恩斯,良:歷史與文學研究;冰川布雷,聖潔和上帝的意志:透視神學良;學者摩根的重要性,特土良發展中的基督教教條;類風濕性關節炎諾里斯小上帝和早期基督教世界中雖然;稀土羅伯茨神學良;角屬 Shoritt, The Influence of Philosophy on the Mind of Tertullian; J. Quasten, Patrology, II, 246-319; BB Warfield, Studies in Tertullian and Augustine; ANF,III,IV. Shoritt的影響,哲學在人的精神上的良;學者Quasten , Patrology ,二, 246-319 ; BB心跳沃菲爾德,學良和奧古斯丁;心鈉素,三,四。


Tertullian

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(QUINTUS SEPTIMIUS FLORENS TERTULLIANUS). (昆圖斯SEPTIMIUS FLORENS TERTULLIANUS ) 。

Ecclesiastical writer in the second and third centuries, b.教會作家在第二和第三世紀灣 probably about 160 at Carthage, being the son of a centurion in the proconsular service.約160名可能在迦太基,是兒子的Centurion在proconsular服務。 He was evidently by profession an advocate in the law-courts, and he shows a close acquaintance with the procedure and terms of Roman law, though it is doubtful whether he is to be identified with a jurist Tertullian who is cited in the Pandects.他顯然是專業的倡導者在法律的法院,他顯示了熟人的程序和職權羅馬法,但令人懷疑的是,他是否將確定的法學家良誰是中提到的Pandects 。 He knew Greek as well as Latin, and wrote works in Greek which have not come down to us.他知道希臘以及拉丁美洲,寫作品在希臘還沒有來給我們。 A pagan until middle life, he had shared the pagan prejudices against Christianity, and had indulged like others in shameful pleasures.異教徒到中年,他已同意對基督教異教徒的偏見,並縱容其他國家一樣可恥的樂趣。 His conversion was not later than the year 197, and may have been earlier.他的轉換是不晚於197年,並可能已被較早。 He embraced the Faith with all the ardour of his impetuous nature.他接受了信仰的所有熱情,他浮躁的性質。 He became a priest, no doubt of the Church of Carthage.他成為一名牧師,毫無疑問,教會的迦太基。 Monceaux, followed by d'Ales, considers that his earlier writings were composed while he was yet a layman, and if this be so, then his ordination was about 200. Monceaux ,其次是德啤酒,認為他以前的作品組成,雖然他還沒有一個門外漢,如果這是這樣,那麼他的排序是約200名。 His extant writings range in date from the apologetics of 197 to the attack on a bishop who is probably Pope Callistus (after 218).他現存的著作中的日期範圍內的護教學的197攻擊主教誰可能是教皇卡利斯圖斯(後218 ) 。 It was after the year 206 that he joined the Montanist sect, and he seems to have definitively separated from the Church about 211 (Harnack) or 213 (Monceaux).這是206年後,他加入了Montanist節,他似乎已徹底脫離教會約211 (哈爾納克)或213 ( Monceaux ) 。 After writing more virulently against the Church than even against heathen and persecutors, he separated from the Montanists and founded a sect of his own.經過書面更virulently反對教會甚至比對異教徒和迫害,他脫離Montanists並創辦了一家自己的節。 The remnant of the Tertullianists was reconciled to the Church by St. Augustine.殘餘的Tertullianists是調和教會的聖奧古斯丁。 A number of the works of Tertullian are on special points of belief or discipline.一些作品的特土良是在特殊點的信仰或紀律。 According to St. Jerome he lived to extreme old age.據聖杰羅姆他生活在極端的老年生活。

The year 197 saw the publication of a short address by Tertullian, "To the Martyrs", and of his great apologetic works, the "Ad nationes" and the "Apologeticus".一年197看到出版了短期講話良, “烈士” ,和他的偉大的道歉作品, “廣告nationes ”和“ Apologeticus ” 。 The former has been considered a finished sketch for the latter; but it is more true to say that the second work has a different purpose, though a great deal of the same matter occurs in both, the same arguments being displayed in the same manner, with the same examples and even the same phrases. The appeal to the nations suffers from its transmission in a single codex, in which omissions of a word or several words or whole lines are to be deplored. Tertullian's style is difficult enough without such super added causes of obscurity.前者被認為是完成素描後者,但它更真實地說,第二個工作有著不同的目的,但大量的同一事項發生在這兩個,同樣的論點被顯示在相同的方式,以同樣的例子,甚至相同的詞組。呼籲聯合國患有傳染的一個單一的法典,其中遺漏的一個單詞或幾個單詞或整個線路痛惜。良的風格是很難說沒有這樣的超級原因默默無聞。 But the text of the "Ad nationes" must have been always rougher than that of the "Apologeticus", which is a more careful as well as a more perfect work, and contains more matter because of its better arrangement; for it is just the same length as the two books "Ad nationes".但是,文本的“廣告nationes ”必須一直粗糙比“ Apologeticus ” ,這是一個更仔細以及更完美的工作,並包含更多的問題,因為它更好的安排;因為它是公正的長度相同的兩本書“廣告nationes ” 。

The "Ad nationes" has for its entire object the refutation of calumnies against Christians. “廣告nationes ”已為整個對象的反駁誹謗對基督教徒。 In the first place they are proved to repose on unreasoning hatred only; the procedure of trial is illogical; the offence is nothing but the name of Christian, which ought rather to be a title of honour; no proof is forthcoming of any crimes, only rumour; the first persecutor was Nero, the worst of emperors.首先他們證明長眠於盭仇恨,僅審判的程序是不符合邏輯;罪行只不過是基督教的名稱,而這應該是一個榮譽稱號;沒有證據證明是即將舉行的任何罪行,只有謠言;第一是尼祿迫害者,最壞的皇帝。 Secondly, the individual charges are met; Tertullian challenges the reader to believe in anything so contrary to nature as the accusations of infanticide and incest.其次,個別收費得到滿足;良挑戰讀者相信任何這樣的性質相反的指控女嬰和亂倫。 Christians are not the causes of earthquakes and floods and famine, for these happened long before Christianity.基督徒的原因不是地震和洪水和飢荒,因為這些發生之前很久基督教。 The pagans despise their own gods, banish them, forbid their worship, mock them on the stage; the poets tell horrid stories of them; they were in reality only men, and bad men. You say we worship an ass's head, he goes on, but you worship all kinds of animals; your gods are images made on a cross framework, so you worship crosses. You say we worship the sun; so do you.異教徒瞧不起自己的神,消除他們,禁止他們的崇拜,模擬他們在舞台上;詩人告訴他們可怕的故事,他們在現實中唯一的男子,和壞男人。你說我們崇拜一個驢子的頭,他接著,但你崇拜各種動物;您的神的形象上取得一個跨框架,所以你崇拜的十字架。你說我們崇拜太陽,所以你。 A certain Jew hawked about a caricature of a creature half ass, half goat, as our god; but you actually adore half-animals.某猶太人兜售關於諷刺的產物一半驢子,山羊的一半,因為我們的上帝,但實際上,你喜歡半動物。 As for infanticide, you expose your own children and kill the unborn.至於女嬰,你暴露自己的孩子和殺死胎兒。 Your promiscuous lust causes you to be in danger of the incest of which you accuse us.您的混雜慾望的原因您的危險,其中的亂倫你指責我們。 We do not swear by the genius of Caesar, but we are loyal, for we pray for him, whereas you revolt.我們不發誓的天才凱撒,但我們忠誠的,因為我們為他祈禱,而你反抗。 Caesar does not want to be a god; he prefers to be alive.凱撒並不想成為一個神,他寧願被活活燒死。 You say it is through obstinacy that we despise death; but of old such contempt of death was esteemed heroic virtue.你說,這是通過固執,我們鄙視死亡;但老這種藐視死亡是受人尊敬的英雄美德。 Many among you brave death for gain or wagers; but we, because we believe in judgment.你們中許多人勇敢的收益或死亡的賭注,但是我們,因為我們認為在判斷。 Finally, do us justice; examine our case, and change your minds.最後,我們繩之以法;審查我們的情況下,並更改您的頭腦。 The second book consists entirely in an attack on the gods of the pagans; they are marshalled in classes after Varro.第二卷包括完全在攻擊神的異教徒,他們調動後瓦羅在班級。 It was not, urges the apologist, owing to these multitudinous gods that the empire grew.這不是,敦促辯護士,由於這些眾多的神的帝國增長。

Out of this fierce appeal and indictment was developed the grander "Apologeticus", addressed to the rulers of the empire and the administrators of justice.在這個激烈的上訴,並制定了起訴書宏大“ Apologeticus ” ,給統治者的帝國和行政司法工作。 The former work attacked popular prejudices; the new one is an imitation of the Greek Apologies, and was intended as an attempt to secure an amelioration in the treatment of Christians by alteration of the law or its administration.前工作攻擊流行偏見;新是一個仿希臘道歉,並打算作為一個嘗試,確保改善治療基督教徒的改變法律或其管理。 Tertullian cannot restrain his invective; yet he wishes to be conciliating, and it breaks out in spite of his argument, instead of being its essence as before.良不能限制他的謾罵,但他希望調解,它打破了,儘管他的論點,而不是像以前的本質。 He begins again by an appeal to reason.他開始再次呼籲原因。 There are no witnesses, he urges, to prove our crimes; Trajan ordered Pliny not to seek us out, but yet to punish us if we were known; - what a paralogism!沒有證人,他敦促,證明我們的罪行;圖拉真下令普林尼不尋求我們了,但還沒有懲罰如果我們都是眾所周知的; -什麼是謬論! The actual procedure is yet more strange.實際的程序是更奇怪。 Instead of being tortured until was confess, we are tortured until we deny.而不是被折磨直到被承認,我們正折磨,直到我們對此進行了否認。 So far the "Ad Nationes" is merely developed and strengthened.到目前為止, “廣告Nationes ”僅僅是發展和加強。 Then, after a condensed summary of the second book as to the heathen gods, Tertullian begins in chapter xvii an exposition of the belief of Christians in one God, the Creator, invisible, infinite, to whom the soul of man, which by nature is inclined to Christianity, bears witness.然後,經過概括的第二本書,以神的異教徒,良開始在第十七章闡述了信仰基督教的一個上帝,造物主,無形的,無限的,人的靈魂的人,這自然是傾向於基督教見證。 The floods and the fires have been His messengers.洪水和火災已被他的使者。 We have a testimony, he adds, from our sacred books, which are older than all your gods.我們已經證明,他補充說,從我們神聖的書籍,這是以上所有的神。 Fulfilled prophecy is the proof that they are divine.實現預言是證明,他們是神聖的。 It is then explained that Christ is God, the Word of God born of a virgin; His two comings, His miracles, passion, resurrection, and forty days with the disciples, are recounted.然後解釋說,基督是上帝,神的話語出生的處女,他的兩個往來,他的奇蹟,激情,復活,並四十天的弟子,是回憶。 The disciples spread His doctrine throughout the world; Nero sowed it with blood at Rome.他的弟子傳播學說在世界各地;尼祿播下它的血液在羅馬。 When tortured the Christian cries, "We worship God through Christ".當酷刑基督教的呼喊, “我們崇拜上帝通過耶穌” 。 The demons confess Him and they stir men up against us.惡魔承認他和他們挑起男子反對我們。 Next, loyalty to Ceasar is discussed at greater length than before.下一步,忠誠凱撒是更詳細地討論了比以往任何時候。 When the populace rises, how easily the Christians could take vengeance: "We are but of yesterday, yet we fill your cities, islands, forts, towns, councils, even camps, tribes, decuries, the palace, the senate, the forum; we have left you the temples alone".當民眾上升,多麼容易基督徒可以採取報復: “我們只不過是昨天,但我們填寫您的城市,島嶼,城堡,城鎮,議會,甚至營地,部落, decuries ,故宮,參議院,論壇;我們已經離開你的廟宇就有“ 。 We might migrate, and leave you in shame and in desolation.我們可能會遷移,並留下你的恥辱和悲哀。 We ought at least to be tolerated; for what are we? - a body compacted by community of religion, of discipline, and of hope.我們應該至少是不能容忍的,因為什麼是我們? -一個機構壓縮了社會的宗教,紀律,並希望。 We meet together to pray, even for the emperors and authorities, to hear readings from the holy books and exhortations.我們一起祈禱,即使是皇帝和當局,聽取讀數從聖書和規勸。 We judge and separate those who fall into crime.我們的判斷和獨立的那些誰落入犯罪。 We have elders of proved virtue to preside.我們已經證明憑藉長老主持。 Our common fund is replenished by voluntary donations each month, and is expended not on gluttony but on the poor and suffering.我們的共同基金是由自願捐款補充每個月,是花費不暴食,但對窮人和苦難。 This charity is quoted against us as a disgrace; see, it is said, how they love one another.這是慈善事業的報導對我們的恥辱;見,這是說,他們是如何彼此相愛。 We call ourselves brethren; you also are our brethren by nature, but bad brethren.我們呼籲我們的兄弟,你也有我們的兄弟的性質,但壞兄弟。 We are accused of every calamity. Yet we live with you; we avoid no profession, but those of assassins, sorcerers, and such like.我們每一個被告的災難。然而,我們的生活與你;我們避免沒有職業,但這些刺客,巫師,而且這種喜歡。 You spare the philosophers, though their conduct is less admirable than ours.您備用的哲學家,但他們的行為是令人敬佩的比我們少。 They confess that our teaching is older than theirs, for nothing is older than truth.他們承認,我們的教學是年齡比自己的,沒有什麼是以上事實。 The resurrection at which you jeer has many parallels in nature.復活在你嘲笑有許多相似之處的性質。 You think us fools; and we rejoice to suffer for this.你認為我們傻,我們感到歡欣鼓舞遭受此。 We conquer by our death.我們征服我們的死亡。 Inquire into the cause of our constancy.查究原因,我們恆常。 We believe this martyrdom to be the remission of all offences, and that he who is condemned before your tribunal is absolved before God.我們認為,這是殉道緩解所有罪行,他誰是你的面前譴責法庭赦免上帝面前。

These points are all urged with infinite wit and pungency.這些要點都敦促無窮智慧和辣味。 The faults are obvious.斷層是顯而易見的。 The effect on the pagans may have been rather to irritate than to convince.影響的異教徒可能已被激怒,而不是說服。 The very brevity results in obscurity.非常簡潔的結果默默無聞。 But every lover of eloquence, and there were many in those days, will have relished with the pleasure of an epicure the feast of ingenious pleading and recondite learning.但每一個情人的口才,並有許多在那些日子裡,將有津津樂道的高興的美食家節巧妙的懇求和深奧學習。 The rapier thrusts are so swift, we can hardly realize their deadliness before they are renewed in showers, with sometimes a blow as of a bludgeon to vary the effect. The style is compressed like that of Tacitus, but the metrical closes are observed with care, against the rule of Tacitus; and that wonderful maker of phrases is outdone by his Christian successor in gemlike sentences which will be quoted while the world lasts.在劍桿織機主旨是如此迅速,我們也難以實現其致命,才重新在陣雨,有時一個打擊作為一個脅迫不同的效果。款式壓縮一樣,塔西佗,但韻律關閉與護理觀察對法治的塔西圖;和美妙的製造商詞組是不甘示弱,他的繼任者gemlike基督教判決將引用而世界即止。 Who does not know the anima naturaliter Christiana (soul by nature Christian); the Vide, inquiunt, ut invicem se diligant (see they exclaim, how they love one another), and the Semen est sanguis Christianorum (The blood of Christians is seed)?誰不知道自己的靈魂naturaliter克里斯蒂安娜(靈魂的性質基督教) ;的視頻, inquiunt , UT斯達康invicem申請diligant (見他們驚呼,他們如何彼此相愛) ,以及精液市盈率血Christianorum (血的基督教徒是種子) ? It was probably about the same time that Tertullian developed his thesis of the "Testimony of the Soul" to the existence of one God, in his little book with this title.這可能是約的同時,德爾圖良的論文開發的“證詞的靈魂”的存在,一個上帝,他在這本小書的標題。 With his usual eloquence he enlarges on the idea that common speech bids us use expressions such as "God grant", or "If God will", "God bless", "God sees", "May God repay".與他一貫的口才,他擴大了我們的想法是我們共同的講話出價使用如“真主保佑” ,或“如果上帝會” , “上帝保佑” , “上帝認為” , “願上帝償還” 。 The soul testifies also to devils, to just vengeance, and to its own immortality. Two or three years later (about 200) Tertullian assaulted heresy in a treatise even more brilliant, which, unlike the "Apologeticus", is not for his own day only but for all time.證明靈魂也德弗爾斯,公正報復,和其本身的不朽。兩個或3年後(約200 )良攻擊異端的論文更加輝煌的,這不同於“ Apologeticus ” ,是不是為自己的一天但只有所有的時間。 It is called "Liber de praescriptione haereticorum". Prescription now means the right obtained to something by long usage.這是所謂的“書日praescriptione haereticorum 。 ”現在處方權的手段獲得的東西長期使用。 In Roman law the signification was wider; it meant the cutting short of a question by the refusal to hear the adversary's arguments, on the ground of an anterior point which must cut away the ground under his feet.在羅馬法中被更廣泛的意義,它意味著縮短一個問題的拒絕聽取對手的論點,在地面上的一個點前必須截除地面他腳下。 So Tertullian deals with heresies: it is of no use to listen to their arguments or refute them, for we have a number of antecendent proofs that they cannot deserve a hearing. Heresies, he begins, must not astonish us, for they were prophesied.因此,特土良涉及邪說:這是沒有用的,聽取他們的論點或駁斥他們,因為我們有一些antecendent證明,他們無法得到的聽證會。邪說,他開始時,我們絕不能驚奇,因為他們預言。 Heretics urge the text, "Seek and ye shall find", but this was not said to Christians; we have a rule of faith to be accepted without question.異端敦促文字, “求你們會發現” ,但是這並不是說基督徒;我們有一個法治的信仰被接受沒有問題。 "Let curiosity give place to faith and vain glory make way for salvation", so Tertullian parodies a line of Cicero's. “讓我們的好奇心讓位於信仰和徒勞的榮耀讓位於救贖” ,所以良模仿一行西塞羅的。 The heretics argue out of Scripture; but, first, we are forbidden to consort with a heretic after one rebuke has been delivered, and secondly, disputation results only in blasphemy on the one side and indignation on the other, while the listener goes away more puzzled than he came.爭論的異教徒的聖經,但是,首先,我們被禁止配偶與邪教的指責後,已交付,第二,爭論的結果只有在褻瀆為一方和憤慨另一方面,而更多的聽眾消失比他感到困惑。 The real question is, "To whom does the Faith belong? Whose are the Scriptures? By whom, through whom, when and to whom has been handed down the discipline by which we are Christians? The answer is plain: Christ sent His apostles, who founded churches in each city, from which the others have borrowed the tradition of the Faith and the seed of doctrine and daily borrow in order to become churches; so that they also are Apostolic in that they are the offspring of the Apostolic churches. All are that one Church which the Apostles founded, so long as peace and intercommunion are observed [dum est illis communicatio pacis et appellatio fraternitatis et contesseratio hospitalitatis]. Therefore the testimony to the truth is this: We communicate with the apostolic Churches".真正的問題是, “為了誰信仰屬於?誰是聖經?由何人,通過人,何時,向誰一直流傳下來的紀律,我們是基督教徒?答案很簡單:他發出基督使徒,誰創立教會在每個城市,而其他人借用傳統的信仰和教義的種子和日常借閱,以便成為教會;使他們也有使徒,因為它們的後代使徒教堂。所有是一個教會的使徒成立,只要和平與交流得到遵守[達姆市盈率illis相通和平法等appellatio fraternitatis等contesseratio hospitalitatis ] 。因此,證明了的真理是:我們與使徒教會“ 。 The heretics will reply that the Apostles did not know all the truth.將答复的異端的使徒們不知道所有的真相。 Could anything be unknown to Peter, who was called the rock on which the Church was to be built?可能是未知的東西彼得,誰被稱為岩石上教堂是建? or to John, who lay on the Lord's breast?或約翰,誰躺在上帝乳腺癌? But they will say, the churches have erred.但是,他們會說,教會有錯誤。 Some indeed went wrong, and were corrected by the Apostle; though for others he had nothing but praise.有些確實出現問題,並糾正了使徒;雖然他人沒有任何關係,但他的讚揚。 "But let us admit that all have erred:- is it credible that all these great churches should have strayed into the same faith"? “但是,讓我們承認,所有人都犯了錯誤: -是可信的,所有這些偉大的教會應該有誤入同樣的信念” ? Admitting this absurdity, then all the baptisms, spiritual gifts, miracles, martyrdoms, were in vain until Marcion and Valentinus appeared at last!承認這一荒謬,那麼所有的洗禮,精神禮物,奇蹟, martyrdoms ,是徒勞的,直到馬吉安和瓦倫廷出現了! Truth will be younger than error; for both these heresiarchs are of yesterday, and were still Catholics at Rome in the episcopate of Eleutherius (this name is a slip or a false reading).真相將小於誤差;為這兩個heresiarchs是昨天,仍然在羅馬天主教的主教的Eleutherius (這個名字是一個失誤或虛假讀) 。 Anyhow the heresies are at best novelties, and have no continuity with the teaching of Christ.不管怎樣的歪理邪說是最佳新奇,沒有連續性的教導基督。 Perhaps some heretics may claim Apostolic antiquity: we reply: Let them publish the origins of their churches and unroll the catalogue of their bishops till now from the Apostles or from some bishop appointed by the Apostles, as the Smyrnaeans count from Polycarp and John, and the Romans from Clement and Peter; let heretics invent something to match this.也許有些異端可以要求使徒古代:我們的回答:讓他們出版的起源,他們的教堂和展現他們的主教目錄,到現在從使徒或從一些主教任命的使徒,因為Smyrnaeans伯爵從波利卡普和約翰,和羅馬人從克萊門特和Peter ;讓異端發明的東西,以符合這一點。 Why, their errors were denounced by the Apostles long ago.為什麼,他們的錯誤譴責使徒很久以前。 Finally (36), he names some Apostolic churches, pointing above all to Rome, whose witness is nearest at hand, - happy Church, in which the Apostles poured out their whole teaching with their blood, where Peter suffered a death like his Master's, where Paul was crowned with an end like the Baptist's, where John was plunged into fiery oil without hurt!最後( 36 ) ,他的名字有些使徒教堂,首先要指出,羅馬的證人是最近在另一方面, -幸福教會,其中使徒湧出整個教學與他們的血液,在那裡受到了死亡彼得喜歡他的碩士學位,保羅是在圓滿結束,如浸會的,在那裡約翰陷入火熱油而不傷害! The Roman Rule of Faith is summarized, no doubt from the old Roman Creed, the same as our present Apostles' Creed but for a few small additions in the latter; much the same summary was given in chapter xiii, and is found also in "De virginibus velandis" (chapter I).在羅馬的統治信仰總結,毫無疑問,從舊的羅馬信仰,同我們目前宗徒信經,但一些小的補充,後者;同樣總結了在第十三章,並在發現“者virginibus velandis “ (第一章) 。 Tertullian evidently avoids giving the exact words, which would be taught only to catechumens shortly before baptism.良顯然避免給予確切的話,這將是教慕道只前不久洗禮。 The whole luminous argument is founded on the first chapters of St. Irenæus's third book, but its forceful exposition is not more Tertullian's own than its exhaustive and compelling logic.整個發光論點是建立在第一章的聖Irenæus的第三本書,但它有力的論述,是不是更良自己比詳盡和令人信服的邏輯。 Never did he show himself less violent and less obscure.他從來沒有表現出自己那麼暴力和不太清楚。 The appeal to the Apostolic churches was unanswerable in his day; the rest of his argument is still valid.呼籲使徒教堂是無法回答的,他一天的休息,他的論點仍然有效。

A series of short works addressed to catechumens belong also to Tertullian's Catholic days, and fall between 200 and 206.了一系列簡短的作品給慕道良也屬於天主教天,介於200和206 。 "De spectaculis" explains and probably exaggerates the impossibility for a Christian to attend any heathen shows, even races or theatrical performances, without either wounding his faith by participation in idolatry or arousing his passions. “者spectaculis ”解釋,可能誇大了不可能一個基督徒參加任何異教徒表明,即使比賽或文藝演出,沒有任何傷害他的信仰崇拜的參與或引起他的激情。 "De idololatria" is by some placed at a later date, but it is anyhow closely connected with the former work. “者idololatria ”是由一些放置在稍後的日期,但它無論如何密切相關的前工作。 It explains that the making of idols is forbidden, and similarly astrology, selling of incense, etc. A schoolmaster cannot elude contamination.它解釋說,作出禁止偶像,和同樣的占星術,銷售香等,校長無法逃避污染。 A Christian cannot be a soldier.基督徒不能士兵。 To the question, "How am I then to live?", Tertullian replies that faith fears not famine; for the Faith we must give up our life, how much more our living?的問題, “我怎麼那麼生活? ” ,良答复信仰擔心沒有飢荒;的信念,我們必須放棄我們的生命,多少我們的生活? "De baptismo" is an instruction on the necessity of baptism and on its effects; it is directed against a female teacher of error belonging to the sect of Gaius (perhaps the Anti-Montanist). “者baptismo ”是一個教學的必要性的洗禮和其影響,它是針對女教師的錯誤屬於節的蓋(也許是反Montanist ) 。 We learn that baptism was conferred regularly by the bishop, but with his consent could be administered by priests, deacons, or even laymen.我們了解到,被授予洗禮定期由主教,但他同意可以管理的司鐸,執事,甚至外行人。 The proper times were Easter and Pentecost.適當的時間復活節和聖靈降臨節。 Preparation was made by fasting, vigils, and prayers. Confirmation was conferred immediately after by unction and laying on of hands. "De paenitentia" will be mentioned later.製備作了禁食,祈禱,並為他們祈禱。確認後立即賦予的油膏和倒在了手裡。 “者paenitentia ”將提到更高版本。 "De oratione" contains aan exposition of the Lord's Prayer, totius evangelii breviarium. “者oratione ”包含河畔博覽會的主禱文, totius evangelii breviarium 。 "De cultu feminarum" is an instruction on modesty and plainness in dress; Tertullian enjoys detailing the extravagances of female toilet and ridiculing them. “者培養feminarum ”是一個指導謙遜和正直的服飾;良享有的詳細extravagances女洗手間和嘲笑他們。 Besides these didactic works to catechumens, Tertullian wrote at the same period two books, "Ad uxorem", in the former of which he begs his wife not to marry again after his death, as it is not proper for a Christian, while in the second book he enjoins upon her at least to marry a Christian if she does marry, for pagans must not be consorted with.除了這些說教工程慕道,良寫在同一時期的兩本書, “廣告uxorem ” ,前,他沒有迴避他的妻子結婚,再次在他死後,因為它是不恰當的基督教,而在第二本書,他責成她至少要嫁給一個基督徒,如果她沒有結婚,為異教徒不得consorted的。 A little book on patience is touching, for the writer admits that it is an impudence in him to discourse on a virtue in which he is so conspicuously lacking.一本小書的耐心感動,為作家承認,它是一個無恥的他話語中的一種美德,他是如此地缺乏。 A book against the Jews contains some curious chronology, used to prove the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks.一本書對猶太人包含一些奇怪的年表,用來證明履行丹尼爾的預言的70個星期。 The latter half of the book is nearly identical with part of the third book against Marcion.下半年的這本書是幾乎相同的部分的第三本書對馬吉安。 It would seem that Tertullian used over again what he had written in the earliest form of that work, which dates from this time.看來,良再次用什麼寫的,他最早的形式,這項工作,可以追溯到這個時候。 "Adversus Hermogenem" is against a certain Hermogenes, a painter (of idols?) who taught that God created the world out of pre-existing matter. “ Adversus Hermogenem ”是針對某些何摩金斯,畫家(的偶像? )誰告訴我們,上帝創造了世界的預先存在的問題。 Tertullian reduces his view ad absurdum, and establishes the creation out of nothing both from Scripture and reason.良降低他認為荒謬,並確立了建立無中生有從聖經和理智。

The next period of Tertullian's literary activity shows distinct evidence of Montanist opinions, but he has not yet openly broken with the Church, which had not as yet condemned the new prophecy.今後一個時期的特土良的文學活動的證據表明Montanist不同意見,但他尚未公開打破了教會,其中尚未譴責了新的預言。 Montanus and the prophetesses Priscilla and Maximilla had been long dead when Tertullian was converted to belief in their inspiration.蒙塔努斯和prophetesses普里西拉和馬克西米拉已經死時長良轉化為信念,他們的靈感。 He held the words of Montanus to be really those of the Paraclete, and he characteristically exaggerated their import.他的話蒙塔努斯真正是聖靈,他的特點誇大其進口。 We find him henceforth lapsing into rigorism, and condemning absolutely second marriage and forgiveness of certain sins, and insisting on new fasts.我們找到他從此陷入rigorism ,並譴責絕對第二次婚姻和寬恕的某些罪惡,並堅持新的齋戒。 His teaching had always been excessive in its severity; now he positively revels in harshness.他的教學一直是過度的嚴重性,現在他正狂歡在嚴酷。 Harnack and d'Alès look upon "De Virginibus velandis" as the first work of this time, though it has been placed later by Monceaux and others on account of its irritated tone.哈納克與德Alès視“者Virginibus velandis ”作為第一個工作的這個時候,儘管它已被後來的Monceaux和其他帳戶的惱火基調。 We learn that Carthage was divided by a dispute whether virgins should be veiled; Tertullian and the pro-Montanist party stood for the affirmative.我們了解到,迦太基是除以爭端是否處女應該含蓄;良和親Montanist黨的主張是肯定的。 The book had been preceded by a Greek writing on the same subject. Tertullian declares that the Rule of Faith is unchangeable, but discipline is progressive.這本書之前,希臘寫就同一議題。良宣布的法治信仰是不變的,但紀律是漸進的。 He quotes a dream in favour of the veil.他引用了一個夢想贊成面紗。 The date may be about 206. Shortly afterwards Tertullian published his largest extant work, five books against Marcion.日期可能是約206 。不久良發表了他最大的現存工作,五本書對馬吉安。 A first draft had been written much earlier; a second recension had been published, when yet unfinished, without the writer's consent; the first book of the final edition was finished in the fifteenth year of Severus, 207. The last book may be a few years later.初稿已書面更早;第二recension出版了,當時還沒有完成,但作者的同意;的第一本書的最後版本是完成第十五年的塞弗拉斯, 207 。最後預訂可能有幾多年後。 This controversy is most important for our knowledge of Marcion's doctrine.這場爭論最重要的,是我們所知的馬吉安的理論。 The refutation of it out of his own New Testament, which consisted of St. Luke's Gospel and St. Paul's Epistles, enables us to reconstitute much of the heretic's Scripture text.它的駁斥了他自己的新約,其中包括聖盧克福音和聖保祿書信,使我們能夠重新大部分邪教的聖經文本。 The result may be seen in Zahn's, "Geschichte des NT Kanons", II, 455-524.結果可以看出贊恩的, “史新台幣Kanons ” ,二, 455-524 。 A work against the Valentinians followed.一項工作對Valentinians其次。 It is mainly based on the first book of St. Irenæus. In 209 the little book "De pallio" appeared.這主要是基於第一本書聖Irenæus 。在209的小書“者pallio ”出現了。 Tertullian had excited remark by adopting the Greek pallium, the recognized dress of philosophers, and he defends his conduct in a witty pamphlet.良曾興奮的話,通過了希臘的披肩公認著裝的哲學家,他捍衛自己的行為在一個詼諧的小冊子。 A long book, "De anima", gives Tertullian's psychology.長書“者靈魂” ,使德爾圖良的心理。 He well describes the unity of the soul; he teaches that it is spiritual, but immateriality in the fullest sense he admits for nothing that exists, - even God is corpus.他也介紹了統一的靈魂,他教導我們,這是精神,但immateriality完全意義的,他承認沒有任何存在, -即使是上帝語料庫。 Two works are against the docetism of the Gnostics, "De carne Christi" and "De resurrectione carnis".兩件作品是對docetism的Gnostics “者卡爾內里斯蒂”和“者resurrectione carnis ” 。 Here he emphasizes the reality of Christ's Body and His virgin-birth, and teaches a corporal resurrection.在這裡,他強調了現實的基督身體和他的美屬維爾京出生,教一名下士復活。 But he seems to deny the virginity of Mary, the Mother of Christ, in partu, though he affirms it ante partum.但他似乎否認童貞瑪利亞,基督之母,在partu ,但他申明它事前產後。 He addressed to a convert who was a widower an exhortation to avoid second marriage, which is equivalent to fornication.他給皈依誰是鰥夫的勸告,以避免第二次婚姻,這相當於私通。 This work, "De exhortatione castitatis", implies that the writer is not yet separated from the Church.這項工作, “德exhortatione castitatis ” ,意味著作家尚未脫離教會。 The same excessive rigour appears in the "De corona", in which Tertullian defends a soldier who had refused to wear a chaplet on his head when he received the donative granted to the army on the accession of Caracalla and Geta in 211.同樣的過度嚴格出現在“德冠” ,其中一名士兵良捍衛誰拒絕戴上花冠要他的人頭,他收到了donative給予軍隊的加入卡拉卡拉和木屐在211 。 The man had been degraded and imprisoned.該名男子已退化和監禁。 Many Christians thought his action extravagant, and refused to regard him as a martyr.很多基督徒認為他的行動奢華,並拒絕把他當作烈士。 Tertullian not only declares that to wear the crown would have been idolatry, but argues that no Christian can be a soldier without compromising his faith.良不僅宣布戴王冠本來偶像崇拜,但認為沒有基督教的士兵可以在不損害自己的信仰。 Next in order is the "Scorpiace", or antidote to the bite of the Scorpion, directed against the teaching of the Valentinians that God cannot approve of martyrdom, since He does not want man's death; they even permitted the external act of idolatry.下一步,以便為“ Scorpiace ” ,或解毒劑的叮咬蝎子,針對教學的Valentinians上帝不能批准的烈士,因為他不想人的死亡;他們甚至允許外部行為的盲目崇拜。 Tertullian shows that God desires the courage of the martyrs and their victory over temptation; he proves from Scripture the duty of suffering death for the Faith and the great promises attached to this heroism.良表明,上帝希望的勇氣的烈士和他們戰勝誘惑;他證明從聖經的責任痛苦死亡的信仰和偉大的承諾附在本英雄。 To the year 212 belongs the open letter "Ad scapulam", addressed to the proconsul of Africa who was renewing the persecution, which had ceased since 203.到212屬於公開信“廣告scapulam ” ,給proconsul非洲誰是革新的迫害,這已經停止,因為203 。 He is solemnly warned of the retribution which overtakes persecutors. The formal secession of Tertullian from the Church of Carthage seems to have taken place either in 211 or at the end of 212 at latest.他鄭重警告,報復而超越迫害。正式脫離良從教會的迦太基似乎發生了一些無論是在211或結束時,在最新的212 。 The earlier date is fixed by Harnack on account of the close connection between the "De corona" of 211 with the "De fuga", which must, he thinks, have immediately followed the "De corona".較早的日期是固定的,哈爾納克對帳戶之間的密切關係“德冠” 211與“者風雅” ,這必須他認為,必須立即按照“德冠” 。 It is certain that "De fuga in persecutione" was written after the secession.可以肯定的是, “德風雅的persecutione ”寫後分裂。 It condemns flight in time of persecution, for God's providence has intended the suffering.安理會譴責航班在時間上的迫害,在上帝的普羅維登斯已打算的痛苦。 This intolerable doctrine had not been held by Tertullian in his Catholic days.這種不能容忍的理論尚未舉行良在他的天主教天。 He now terms the Catholics "Psychici", as opposed to the "spiritual" Montanists.他現在的條件天主教徒“ Psychici ” ,而不是“精神” Montanists 。 The cause of his schism is not mentioned. It is unlikely that he left the Church by his own act.原因是他的分裂沒有提到。這是不可能的,他離開了教會他自己的行為。 Rather it would seem that when the Montanist prophecies were finally disapproved at Rome, the Church of Carthage excommunicated at least the more violent among their adherents.相反,它似乎在Montanist的預言終於被拒絕在羅馬,教會的迦太基逐出教會至少更暴力之間的追隨者。 After "De fuga" come "De monogamia" (in which the wickedness of second marriage is yet more severely censured) and "De jejunio", a defence of the Montanist fasts.經過“者風雅”來“者monogamia ” (在該案中,邪惡的第二次婚姻是更嚴厲譴責)和“者jejunio ” ,一個捍衛Montanist齋戒。 A dogmatic work, "Adversus Prazean", is of great importance.教條式的工作, “ Adversus Prazean ” ,是非常重要的。 Praxeas had prevented, according to Tertullian, the recognition of the Montanist prophecy by the pope; Tertullian attacks him as a Monarchian, and develops his own doctrine of the Holy Trinity (see MONARCHIANS and PRAXEAS). Praxeas阻止,根據良,承認Montanist預言教皇;良攻擊他為Monarchian ,並發展自己的理論,聖三一(見MONARCHIANS和PRAXEAS ) 。 The last remaining work of the passionate schismatic is apparently "De pudicitia", if it is a protest, as is generally held, aagainst a Decree of Pope Callistus, in which the pardon of adulterers and fornicators, after due penance done, was published at the intercession of the martyrs.最後剩下的工作熱情的分裂顯然是“者pudicitia ” ,如果它是一個抗議,這是普遍, aagainst法令教皇卡利斯圖斯,其中赦免姦淫和fornicators後,由於做懺悔,是出版在調解的烈士。 Monceaux, however, still supports the view which was once commoner than it now is, that the Decree in question was issued by a bishop of Carthage. Monceaux ,但是,仍然支持這樣的觀點是一次平民比現在是,該法令的問題發表了主教的迦太基。 In any case Tertullian's attribution of it to a would-be episcopus episcoporum and pontifex maximus merely attests its peremptory character.在任何情況下,德爾圖良的歸屬到一個可能的episcopus episcoporum和pontifex鮃只是證明其強制性質。 The identification of this Decree with the far wider relaxation of discipline with which Hippolytus reproaches Callistus is uncertain.確定這項法令的廣泛得多的紀律鬆弛與西波呂責備卡利斯圖斯是不確定的。

The argument of Tertullian must be considered in some detail, since his witness to the ancient system of penance is of first-rate importance.德爾圖良的論點時必須考慮到一些細節,因為他親眼目睹了古代制度懺悔是一流的重要性。 As a Catholic, he addressed "De paenitentia" to catechumens as an exhortation to repentance previous to baptism.作為一個天主教徒,他給“者paenitentia ”的慕道作為告誡悔改前向洗禮。 Besides that sacrament he mentions, with an expression of unwillingness, a "last hope", a second plank of salvation, after which there is no other.除此之外,他提到聖餐,並表達了不願意, “最後的希望” ,第二個木板救贖後,沒有其他。 This is the severe remedy of exomologesis, confession, involving a long penance in sackcloth and ashes for the remission of post-baptismal sin.這是嚴重的補救exomologesis ,招供,涉及長期苦修的喪服和骨灰的緩解後的洗禮罪。 In the "De pudicitia" the Montanist now declared that there is no forgiveness for the gravest sins, precisely those for which exomologesis is necessary.在“者pudicitia ”的Montanist現在宣布,沒有任何寬恕的最嚴重的罪過,這正是那些exomologesis是必要的。 It is said by some modern critics, such as Funk and Turmel among Catholics, that Tertullian did not really change his view on this point the writing of the two treatises.據悉,一些現代的批評,如克和Turmel天主教徒之間,即良沒有真正改變他的觀點在這一點上,撰寫兩篇。 It is pointed out that in "De paenitentia" there is no mention of the restoration of the penitent to communion; he is to do penance, but with no hope of pardon in this life; no sacrament is administered, and the satisfaction is lifelong.它指出,在“德paenitentia ”沒有提及恢復懺悔共融;他是做懺悔,但沒有任何希望在這一赦免的生活;沒有聖禮管理和滿意是終生的。 This view is impossible.這種看法是不可能的。 Tertullian declares in "De pud."良宣布在“者前腳。 ” That he has changed his mind and expects to be taunted for his inconsistency.他已改變主意,預計將奚落他不一致。 He implies that he used to hold such a relaxation, as the one he is attacking, to be lawful.他暗示說,他用來舉行這樣一次放鬆,因為他是一個打擊,是合法的。 At any rate in the "De paen."無論如何在“者paen 。 ” he parallels baptism with exomologesis, and supposes that the latter has the same effect as the former, obviously the forgiveness of sin in this life.他平行的洗禮與exomologesis ,和假設,後者具有相同的效果前,顯然寬恕罪孽在此生活。 Communion is never mentioned, since catechumens are addressed; but if exomologesis did not eventually restore all Christian privileges, there could be no reason for fearing that the mention of it should act as an encouragement to sin, for a lifelong penance would hardly be a reassuring prospect.聖餐是從來沒有說過,因為慕道都得到解決;但如果沒有最終exomologesis恢復所有基督教的特權,有可能是沒有理由的擔心,提及它應作為一種鼓勵罪惡,為終身懺悔將很難令人放心前景。 No length is mentioned, evidently because the duration depended on the nature of the sin and the judgment of the bishop; had death been the term, this would have been emphatically expressed.沒有提到的長度,顯然是因為時間取決於性質罪的判決和主教;已經死亡的任期,這將一直強調表示。 Finally.最後。 And this is conclusive, it could not be insisted on that no second penance was ever allowed, if all penance was lifelong.這是決定性的,就不能堅持,沒有第二個懺悔是以往任何時候都可以,如果所有的懺悔是終身。

For the full understanding of Tertullian's doctrine we must know his division of sin into three classes.為充分了解良的學說,我們必須知道他的罪過司分為三個班。 There are first the terrible crimes of idolatry, blasphemy, homicide, adultery, fornication, false witness, fraud (Adv. Marc., IV, ix; in "De Pud." he substitutes apostasy for false witness and adds unnatural vice).有第一次的可怕罪行的偶像崇拜,褻瀆的,殺人,通姦,私通,偽證,詐騙( Adv.馬克。 ,第四,第九,在“德Pud 。 ”他的替代品叛教偽證,並增加了非自然副主席) 。 As a Montanist he calls these irremissible.作為一個Montanist他呼籲這些irremissible 。 Between these and mere venial sins there are modica or media (De Pud.., I), less grave but yet serious sins, which he enumerates in "De Pud.", xix: "Sins of daily committal, to which we are all subject; to whom indeed does it not occur to be angry without cause and after the sun has set, or to give a blow, or easily to curse, or to swear rashly, or break a contract, or lie through shame or necessity? How much we are tempted in business, in duties, in trade, in food, in sight, in hearing! So that, if there were no forgiveness for such things, none could be saved. Therefore there will be forgiveness for these sins by the prayer of Christ to the Father" (De Pud., xix).這些,僅僅venial罪惡有莫迪卡或媒體(者Pud .. ,我) ,小於嚴重,但尚未嚴重的罪過,他列舉了在“者Pud 。 ”十九: “每日交付的原罪,因為我們都主題;人實際上它不發生的原因和憤怒之後,沒有太陽已成立,或給予打擊,或輕鬆地罵人,或發誓草率,或打破了一項合同,或躺臥,或必須通過羞恥嗎?許多誘惑,我們的業務,在關稅,在貿易,糧食,視力,聽力!所以,如果沒有寬恕這種事情,沒有任何可以挽救。因此,將免除這些罪惡的祈禱基督之父“ (者Pud 。 ,十九) 。

Another list (De pud., vii) represents the sins which may constitute a lost sheep, as distinguished from one that is dead: "The faithful is lost if he attend the chariot races, or gladiatorial combats, or the unclean theatre, or athletic shows, or playing, or feasts on some secular solemnity, or if he has exercised an art which in any way serves idolatry, or has lapsed without consideration into some denial or blasphemy".另一份名單(者前腳。 ,七)代表罪孽可能構成迷途羔羊不同於一個已經死了: “忠實地丟失,如果他參加的戰車比賽,或爭論的打擊,或不潔劇院,或運動顯示或播放,或在一些世俗節日嚴肅,或者如果他行使了藝術以任何方式為偶像,或已失效,沒有考慮到一些被剝奪或褻瀆“ 。 For these sins there is forgiveness, though the sinner has strayed from the flock.對於這些罪惡有寬恕,但罪人已經偏離了羊群。 How is forgiveness obtained?如何獲得寬恕? We learn this only incidentally from the words: "That kind of penitence which is subsequent to faith, which can either obtain forgiveness from the bishop for lesser sins, or from God only for those which are irremissible" (ib.,xviii).我們了解這只是偶然的話: “這樣的懺悔這是以後的信念,這可以得到原諒的主教較輕的罪行,或從上帝不僅對那些irremissible ” ( ib. ,十八) 。 Thus Tertullian admits the power of the bishop for all but "irremissible" sins.因此良承認的權力,但對所有主教“ irremissible ”罪孽。 The absolution which he still acknowledges for frequent sins was obviously not limited to a single occasion, but must have been frequently repeated.預告解除他仍然承認經常罪顯然不僅限於一個單一的場合,但必須經常重複。 It is not even referred to in "De paen", which deals only with baptism and public penance for the gravest sins.它甚至沒有提到在“者paen ” ,其中僅涉及公眾懺悔的洗禮和最嚴重的罪過。 Again, in "De pud.", Tertullian repudiates his own earlier teaching that the keys were left by Christ through Peter to His Church (Scorpiace, x); he now declares (De pud., xxi) that the gift was to Peter personally, and cannot be claimed by the Church of the Psychici.同樣,在“者前腳。 ”良否定自己先前的教學鑰匙留下的基督,他通過彼得教堂( Scorpiace ,第十章) ;他現在宣布(者前腳。 , XXI )號決議的禮物是彼得親自,不能索賠的教堂Psychici 。 The spiritual have the right to forgive, but the Paraclete said: "The Church has the power to forgive sins but I will not do so, lest they sin afresh."精神有權原諒,但聖靈說: “教會的權力,原諒的罪過,但我會不這樣做,以免他們重新罪。 ”

The system of the Church of Carthage in Tertullian's time was therefore manifestly this: Those who committed grievous sins confessed them to the bishop, and he absolved them after due penance enjoined and performed, unless the case was in his judgment so grave that public penance was obligatory.該系統的教會迦太基在良的時間,因此顯然這一點:這些誰犯下嚴重罪行供認他們的主教,他赦免後,由於他們的懺悔,並責成執行,除非在他的案件的判決如此嚴重,公眾懺悔是強制性的。 This public penance was only allowed once; it was for protracted periods, even sometimes until the hour of death, but at the end of it forgiveness and restoration were promised.本次公開懺悔是只允許一次,它是長時間,有時甚至到每小時死亡,但最終它寬恕和恢復承諾。 The term was frequently shortened at the prayer of martyrs. Of the lost works of Tertullian the most important was the defence of the Montanist manner of prophesying, "De ecstasi", in six books, with a seventh book against Apollonius.這個詞經常被縮短在祈禱的烈士。損失良作品最重要的是捍衛Montanist地預言, “德ecstasi ” ,在6個圖書,圖書與七分之一對阿波羅紐斯。 To the peculiarities of Tertullian's views which have already been explained must be added some further remarks.的特殊性的戴爾都良的觀點已經解釋必須是增加了一些進一步的評論。 He did not care for philosophy: the philosophers are the "patriarchs of the heretics".他不在乎的哲學:哲學家的“始祖的異端” 。 His notion that all things, pure spirits and even God, must be bodies, is accounted for by his ignorance of philosophical terminology.他的概念,所有的事情,純粹的精神,甚至上帝,必須機構,是由他的無知的哲學術語。 Yet of the human soul he actually says that it was seen in a vision as tender, light, and of the colour of air! All our souls were contained in Adam, and are transmitted to us with the taint of original sin upon them, - an ingenious if gross form of traducianism.然而,人的靈魂,他說,實際上,它被視為一個遠景投標,光,和膚色的空氣!所有我們的靈魂中載有亞當,並轉發給我們提供了污點原罪他們, -一個巧妙的形式,如果總traducianism 。 His Trinitarian teaching is inconsistent, being an amalgamation of the Roman doctrine with that of St. Justin Martyr.他三位一體的教學是不一致的,被合併羅馬理論與聖賈斯汀烈士。 Tertullian has the true formula for the Holy Trinity, tres Personae, una Substantia.德爾圖良的真正公式,聖三一特雷斯克人,協會質。 The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are numerically distinct, and each is God; they are of one substance, one state, and one power.聖父,聖子,聖靈數值不同,每一個是上帝,它們是一個物質,一個國家,和一個電源。 So far the doctrine is accurately Nicene.迄今為止,理論是正確尼西亞。 But by the side of this appears the Greek view which was one day to develop into Arianism: that the unity is to be sought not in the Essence but in the origin of the Persons.但是,一側這似乎希臘認為這是一天發展成為Arianism :說,團結是不是要尋求的本質,但在原產地的人。 He says that from all eternity there was reason (ratio) in God, and in reason the Word (Sermo), not distinct from God, but in vulva cordis.他說,從所有永恆有理由(比率)在上帝,而在理性的Word ( Sermo ) ,而不是有別於上帝,但在外陰科迪斯。 For the purpose of creation the Word received a perfect birth as Son.為了創造的詞獲得了完美的出生的兒子。 There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.曾經有一段時間,有沒有兒子,也沒有罪,當上帝既不是父親,也不法官。 In his Christology Tertullian has had no Greek influence, and is purely Roman.在他的基督良一直沒有希臘影響,純粹是羅馬。 Like most Latin Fathers he speaks not of two Natures but of two Substances in one Person, united without confusion, and distinct in their operations.像大多數拉丁美洲父親講,他沒有兩個性質的兩種物質,但在一個人,美國方面不會出現混亂,和獨特的業務。 Thus he condemns by anticipation the Nestorian, Monophysite, and Monothelite heresies.因此,他譴責了預期的景教, Monophysite ,並Monothelite邪說。 But he seems to teach that Mary, the Mother of Christ, had other children.但他似乎告訴我們,瑪麗的母親基督,有其他兒童。 Yet he makes her the second Eve, who by her obedience effaced the disobedience of the first Eve. Tertullian's doctrine of the Holy Eucharist has been much discussed, especially the words: "Acceptum panem et distributum discipulis corpus suum illum fecit, hoc est corpus meum dicendo, id est, figura corporis mei".然而,他使她的第二個除夕夜,誰抹去了她的不服從服從的第一夜。良的理論,聖體聖事已經進行了大量討論,尤其是的話: “ Acceptum麵包與distributum discipulis語料庫豬伊錄姆fecit ,特設市盈率語料庫meum dicendo ,編號市盈率, figura癬美“ 。 A consideration of the context shows only one interpretation to be possible.考慮的範圍內顯示,只有一種解釋是可能的。 Tertullian is proving that Our Lord Himself explained bread in Jer., xi, 19 (mittamus lignum in panem ejus) to refer to His Body, when He said, "This is My Body", that is, that bread was the symbol of His Body.德爾圖良是證明我們的主親自解釋麵包哲。 ,十一, 19 ( mittamus木材在麵包ejus )提及他的身體時,他說: “這是我的身體” ,也就是說,麵包是他的象徵身體。 Nothing can be elicited either for or against the Real Presence; for Tertullian does not explain whether the bread is the symbol of the Body present or absent.什麼都無法得到支持或反對的真實存在;為良沒有解釋是否麵包象徵身體本或根本沒有。 The context suggests the former meaning.建議的背景前的含義。 Another passage is: Panem, quo ipsum corpus suum repraesentat.另一個通道是:麵包,現狀本身語料庫豬repraesentat 。 This might mean "Bread which stands for His Body", or "Presents, makes present".這可能意味著“麵包,代表他的身體”或“禮物,使本” 。 D'Ales has calculated that the sense of presentation to the imagination occurs seven times in Tertullian, and the similar moral sense (presentation by picture, etc.) occurs twelve times, whereas the sense of physical presentation occurs thirty-three times.德啤酒計算出的意義上介紹的想像力發生7次良,和類似的道德感(由圖片,等等)發生12次,而物理意義上的介紹出現33次。 In the treatise in question against Marcion the physical sense alone is found, and fourteen times.在論文中對馬吉安問題的物理意義上僅僅發現,和14倍。 A more direct assertion of the Real Presence is Corpus ejus in pane censetur (De orat., vi).更直接的說法真實的存在是語料庫ejus在窗格censetur (者orat 。 ,六) 。 As to the grace given, he has some beautiful expressions, such as: "Itaque petendo panem quotidianum, perpetuitatem postulamus in Christo et individuitatem a corpore ejus" (In petitioning for daily bread, we ask for perpetuity in Christ, and indivisibility from His body. - Ibid.).至於給予寬限期,他有一些美麗的表達方式,如: “ Itaque petendo麵包quotidianum , perpetuitatem postulamus在克里斯托等individuitatem 1 corpore ejus ” (在信訪日常麵包,我們要求在基督永久和不可分割的身體。 -同上。 ) 。 A famous passage on the Sacraments of Baptism, Unction, Confirmation, Orders and Eucharist runs: "Caro abluitur ut anima maculetur; caro ungitur ut anima consecretur; caro signatur ut et anima muniatur; caro manus impositione adumbratur ut et anima spiritu illuminetur; caro corpore et sanguine Christi vescitur ut et anima de Deo saginetur" (The flesh is washed, in order that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated; the flesh is signed [with the cross], that the soul, too, may be fortified; the flesh is shadowed with the imposition of hands, that the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit; the flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul likewise may have its fill of God - "Deres. Carnis.", viii).一位著名的通道上的聖禮的洗禮,油膏,確認,訂單和聖體運行: “卡羅abluitur UT斯達康靈魂maculetur ;卡羅ungitur UT斯達康靈魂consecretur ;卡羅signatur UT斯達康等動物muniatur ;卡羅馬努斯impositione adumbratur UT斯達康等動物spiritu illuminetur ;卡羅corpore與樂觀的基督vescitur UT斯達康等動物的上帝saginetur “ (肉是水洗,以使靈魂可清洗;肉是受膏者,這可能是靈魂的神聖;肉體簽署[與跨] ,即靈魂,也可以強化;肉體是陰影與實行手中,即靈魂也可能是照明的精神;肉飼料對身體和基督的血,即靈魂同樣可能有其填寫的上帝- “ Deres 。 Carnis 。 ”八) 。 He testifies to the practice of daily communion, and the preserving of the Holy Eucharist by private persons for this purpose.他證明了實踐的日常交流,並保存的聖體聖事私人用於這一目的。 What will a heathen husband think of that which is taken by his Christian wife before all other food?什麼將一異教徒的丈夫認為這是採取了基督教的妻子面前所有其他的食物? "If he knows that it is Bread, will he not believe that it is simply what it is called?" “如果他知道,這是麵包,他會不會認為這僅僅是它是什麼要求? ” This implies not merely the Real Presence, but transubstantiation.這意味著不僅是真實存在,但transubstantiation 。 The station days were Wednesday and Friday; on what other days besides Holy Mass was offered we do not know.站內有三,五;在什麼其他天除了彌撒提供我們不知道。 Some thought that Holy Communion would break their fast on station days; Tertullian explains: "When you have received and reserved the Body of the Lord, you will have assisted at the Sacrifice and have accomplished the duty of fasting as well" (De oratione, xix).有人認為聖餐將打破其快速站天;良解釋道: “當你收到和保留的正文中主,你會協助犧牲和已經完成的職責空腹以及” (者oratione ,十九) 。 Tertullian's list of customs observed by Apostolic tradition though not in Scripture (De cor., iii) is famous: the baptismal renunciations and feeding with milk and honey, fasting Communion, offerings for the dead (Masses) on their anniversaries, no fasting or kneeling on the Lord's Day and between Easter and Pentecost, anxiety as to the falling to the ground of any crumb or drop of the Holy Eucharist, the Sign of the Cross made continually during the day.德爾圖良的名單海關遵守使徒傳統雖然沒有在聖經(者心病。 ,三)是著名的:放棄的洗禮和餵養的牛奶和蜂蜜,空腹聖餐,產品為死者(群眾)對他們的紀念日,沒有空腹或跪對基督日和復活節,聖靈降臨節之間,焦慮至於下降到地面的任何屑或下降的聖體聖事,該申請提出的跨不斷在白天進行。

Tertullian's canon of the Old Testament included the deuterocanonical books, since he quotes most of them.德爾圖良的佳能舊約包括deuterocanonical書籍,因為他引用其中的大多數。 He also cites the Book of Enoch as inspired, and thinks those who rejected it were wrong.他還列舉了圖書的伊諾克的啟發,並認為這些誰拒絕它錯了。 He seems also to recognize IV Esdras, and the Sibyl, though he admits that there are many sibylline forgeries.他似乎也認識到四埃斯德拉斯和Sibyl ,但他承認,有許多sibylline偽造的。 In the New Testament he knows the Four Gospels, Acts, Epistles of St. Paul, I Peter (Ad Ponticos), I John, Jude, Apocalypse.在新約,他知道的四福音書,行為,書信聖保羅,我彼得(廣告Ponticos ) ,約翰一,裘德,啟示。 He does not know James and II Peter, but we cannot tell that he did not know II, III John.他不知道詹姆斯和二彼得,但我們不能說他不知道二,三約翰。 He attributes Hebrews to St. Barnabas.他屬性希伯來聖巴納巴斯。 He rejects the "Pastor" of Hermas and says that many councils of the Psychici had also rejected it.他反對“牧師”的書,並說,許多議會的Psychici還拒絕了這一要求。 Tertullian was learned, but careless in his historical statements.良得知,但不小心在他的歷史報表。 He quotes Varro and a medical writer, Soranus of Ephesus, and was evidently well read in pagan literature.他引用了瓦羅和醫療作家,索蘭納斯以弗所,並明顯以及閱讀異教文學。 He cites Irenaeus, Justin, Miltiades, and Proclus.他舉例依,賈斯汀,米裡基阿德,和Proclus 。 He probably knew parts of Clement of Alexandria's writings.他也許知道部分克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞的著作。 He is the first of Latin theological writers.他是第一個拉美神學作家。 To some extent, how great we cannot tell, he must have invented a theological idiom and have coined new expressions.在某種程度上,多麼偉大的,我們不能說,他必須有發明了一種神學的成語,並創造新的表現形式。 He is the first witness to the existence of a Latin Bible, though he seems frequently to have translated from the Greek Bible as he wrote. Zahn has denied that he possessed any Latin translation, but this opinion is commonly rejected, and St. Perpetua certainly had one at Carthage in 203. He is the first witness to the existence of a Latin Bible, though he seems frequently to have translated from the Greek Bible as he wrote. Zahn has denied that he possessed any Latin translation, but this opinion is commonly rejected, and St. Perpetua certainly有一個在迦太基在203 。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息作者約翰查普曼。 Transcribed by Lucy Tobin. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.轉錄的露西托賓。天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


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