Song of Solomon, Song of Songs, Canticle of Canticles雅歌,歌歌,頌歌的Canticles

General Information 一般信息

A book in the Old Testament of the Bible, the Song of Solomon, also known as the Song of Songs or the Canticles, is a collection of lyric poetry celebrating human love. The tradition of Solomonic authorship does not stand scrutiny.一本書,舊約聖經的雅歌,也被稱為宋代詩經或Canticles ,是一家集抒情詩慶祝人類的愛。傳統Solomonic作者經不起審查。 The milieu of the poetry is heavily northern Israelite and the imagery rural, although it may have been among sophisticated urbanites.統治大量詩歌北部以色列人和圖像農村,但它可能已被先進的都市之一。 A reasonable hypothesis is that love lyrics from the period 950 - 750 BC were collected and supplemented in postexilic times and accepted among religious Jews as an allegory of the relationship of God and Israel.一個合理的假設是,愛歌詞期間950 -公元前750收集和補充的postexilic次,並接受宗教猶太人作為一個寓言的關係上帝和以色列。 The early Christian church accepted this explanation, with the allegory becoming that of Christ and his church.早期的基督教教堂接受這一解釋,與寓言成為以基督和他的教會。 Other scholars interpret the song as a collection of hymns to true love, sanctified by union.其他學者解釋這首歌作為收集讚美詩到真正的愛情,神聖的聯盟。 The poetry describes nature and the male and female bodies with an ardent and unjaded eroticism.詩歌敘述性質和男,女團體的熱情和unjaded性慾。

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Bibliography 參考書目
G Carr and DJ Wiseman, Song of Solomon (1984); R Gordis, The Song of Songs and Lamentations: A Study, Modern Translation, and Commentary (1974); JB White, A Study of the Language of Love in the Song of Songs (1978). G卡爾和DJ韋士民,雅歌( 1984年) ; R Gordis ,這首歌歌曲和耶利米哀歌:一項研究顯示,現代翻譯和評注( 1974年) ;巴頓白宮,研究語言的愛情之歌歌( 1978年) 。


Song of Solomon, Canticle of Canticles雅歌,頌歌的Canticles

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. The mutual admiration of the lovers (1:2-2:7)相互愛慕的戀人( 1:2-2:7 )
  2. Growth in love (2:8-3:5)生長在愛( 2:8-3:5 )
  3. The marriage (3:6-5:1)婚姻( 3:6-5:1 )
  4. Longing of the wife for her absent husband (5:2-6:9)渴望的妻子,她沒有丈夫( 5:2-6:9 )
  5. The beauty of the Shulammite bride (6:10-8:4)美麗的Shulammite新娘( 6:10-8:4 )
  6. The wonder of love (8:5-14)愛的奇蹟( 8:5-14 )

Different scholars have interpreted this book as:不同的學者們解釋這本書為:

Jews generally believe that the bridegroom is God and the bride is the Jewish people.猶太人普遍認為,是上帝的新郎和新娘是猶太人民。 Many Christians feel that the bridegroom is Christ and the bride is the Church.許多基督教徒認為是耶穌和新郎,新娘是教會。


Sol'omon

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Solomon, peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, ie, the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12).索羅門,和平, ( Heb. Shelomoh ) ,大衛的第二個兒子的拔示巴,即第一次在自己的合法婚姻( 2山姆。 12 ) 。 He was probably born about BC 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1).他可能是出生約公元前1035年( 1染色體。 22時05 ; 29:1 ) 。 He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age.他繼承父親的王位早期青壯年,大概16或18歲以下。 Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, ie, "beloved of the Lord" (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).彌敦道,他們的教育是intrusted他,叫他Jedidiah ,即“親愛的上帝” ( 2山姆。 12點24分, 25 ) 。 He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple."他是第一個國王以色列“出生在紫色。 ” His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me."他的父親選擇他作為他的繼任者,在經過要求哥哥的兒子: “我兒子肯定所羅門統治後應我。 ” His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr.他的歷史記錄在列王紀上1月11日和2染色體。 1-9. 1月9日。 His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40).他海拔王位發生在他父親去世,並加快對主要由彌敦道和拔示巴,在後果叛亂Adonijah (列王紀上1:5-40 ) 。 During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour.在他的長期統治四十年希伯來君主制獲得最高的輝煌。

This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals.這一時期也被稱為“奧古斯都時代”猶太史冊。 The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31).上半年,他的統治,但是,到目前為止,光明和更加繁榮;下半年被陰霾籠罩idolatries到他下跌,主要是從他的異教徒通婚(列王紀上11:1-8 ; 14點21分, 31 ) 。 Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9; 1 Chr. 22:7-16; 28).他去世之前大衛臨別指示了他的兒子(列王紀上2:1-9 ; 1染色體。 22:7-16 ; 28 ) 。 As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded.當他解決了自己在他的王國,並安排他的事務的廣泛帝國,他進入聯盟與埃及的結婚的女兒,法老(列王紀上3:1 ) ,其中,但是,沒有進一步被記錄下來。 He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered.他自己與周圍的一切奢侈品和外部宏偉的東方君主,和他的政府繁榮。 He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings.他進入聯盟,西貢,國王輪胎,誰在許多方面大大有助於他在眾多的承諾。

For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials (1 Chr. 29:6-9; 2 Chr. 2:3-7) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant.一些年來,他去世之前大衛從事的積極工作,收集材料( 1染色體。 29:6-9 ; 2染色體。 2:3-7 )建設一座寺廟在耶路撒冷作為永久居留權的方舟的盟約。 He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chr. 22:8); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon.他是不允許建立教堂( 1染色體。 22點08 ) ;這一榮譽是保留給他的兒子所羅門。 (See TEMPLE.) After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts of his kingdom. (見寺。 )完成後寺,所羅門群島從事豎立許多其他建築物的重要性,在耶路撒冷和其他地方的他的王國。 For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged in the erection of a royal palace on Ophel (1 Kings 7:1-12).對於長期的空間十三年他從事架設王宮Ophel (列王紀上7:1-12 ) 。 It was 100 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high.這是100肘長, 50廣, 30日高點。 Its lofty roof was supported by forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the Forest of Lebanon."其崇高屋頂得到45雪松支柱,使大廳就像一個森林的柏木,因此可能收到“的名義眾議院森林黎巴嫩。 ” In front of this "house" was another building, which was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was the "Hall of Judgment," or Throneroom (1 Kings 7:7; 10:18-20; 2 Chr. 9:17-19), "the King's Gate," where he administered justice and gave audience to his people.前面的這個“家”是另一個建設,這被稱為門廊的支柱,並在前面的這再次是“霍爾的判決, ”或Throneroom (列王紀上7時07分; 10:18-20 ; 2染色體。 9:17-19 ) , “國王之門” ,他管理的正義和給觀眾他的人民。

This palace was a building of great magnificence and beauty.此宮是一個偉大的建設的輝煌和美麗。 A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh.有一部分是分開的官邸王后的女兒法老。 From the palace there was a private staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the temple.從故宮有一個私人樓梯的紅色和香味檀木導致了廟宇。 Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city (Eccl. 2:4-6).索羅門還建造了偉大的工程,目的是確保充足的食水供應的城市( Eccl. 2:4-6 ) 。 He then built Millo (LXX., "Acra") for the defence of the city, completing a line of ramparts around it (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27).然後,他內置米洛( LXX. , “ Acra ” )為維護城市,完成了一系列的城牆圍繞它(列王紀上9:15 , 24 ; 11時27分) 。 He erected also many other fortifications for the defence of his kingdom at various points where it was exposed to the assault of enemies (1 Kings 9:15-19; 2 Chr. 8:2-6).他還豎立許多其他的防禦工事,為保衛他的英國各點在那裡接觸到的敵人的攻擊(列王紀上9:15-19 ; 2染色體。 8:2-6 ) 。 Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor (qv) in the wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a military outpost.在他的偉大的事業也必須提到了建設大德摩( qv )在野外作為一個商業倉庫,以及一個軍事哨所。 During his reign Palestine enjoyed great commercial prosperity.在他的統治巴勒斯坦享有巨大的商業繁榮。

Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (1 Kings 9:26-28; 10:11, 12; 2 Chr. 8:17, 18; 9:21).廣泛的交通是由土地的提爾和埃及和沙特阿拉伯,並與西班牙的海上,印度和非洲的海岸,其中積累了大量的商店所羅門群島財富和生產的所有國家(列王紀上9:26-28 ; 10時11分, 12歲; 2染色體。 8時17分, 18人; 9點21分) 。 This was the "golden age" of Israel.這是“黃金時代”的以色列。 The royal magnificence and splendour of Solomon's court were unrivalled.皇家壯麗和輝煌所羅門的法院是無與倫比的。 He had seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his wealth, and his sensuality.他的妻子和700 300小妾,證據一次他驕傲,他的財富,他的肉感。 The maintenance of his household involved immense expenditure.維持他的家庭參與巨大的開支。 The provision required for one day was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" (1 Kings 4:22, 23).提供所需的一天是“ 30措施細面,和六十措施餐, 10脂肪牛和20牛離開牧場,和一個100羊,旁邊哈茨和roebucks ,及休耕,鹿,脫脂雞“ (列王紀上4點22分, 23 ) 。 Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity, but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity.所羅門的統治不僅是一個時期的巨大的物質繁榮,但也同樣顯著的智力活動。 He was the leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new intellectual life.他領導他的人民在這起義其中包括新的生活。

"He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" (1 Kings 4: 32, 33). “他spake 3000諺語:和他的歌曲和5千。他spake的樹木,從雪松樹,這是黎巴嫩的hyssop甚至你們的springeth出牆:他spake還野獸,和家禽和蔓延的東西,魚“ (列王紀上4 : 32 , 33 ) 。 His fame was spread abroad through all lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon."他的名氣是通過在國外傳播的所有土地,和男子來自遠近“聽到所羅門的智慧。 ” Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" (Matt. 12:42), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix.除其他從而吸引到耶路撒冷是“女王的南方” (太12時42分) ,示巴女王,一個國家在沙特阿拉伯費。 "Deep, indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. “深,事實上,一定是她的渴望,以及他的名氣很大,這引起一個隱蔽阿拉伯王后衝破遠古的習俗她夢幻般的土地,並提出所需的能量冒著負擔和風險,只要一旅野外。

Yet this she undertook, and carried it out with safety." (1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chr. 9: 1-12.) She was filled with amazement by all she saw and heard: "there was no more spirit in her." After an interchange of presents she returned to her native land. But that golden age of Jewish history passed away. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. His decline and fall from his high estate is a sad record. Chief among the causes of his decline were his polygamy and his great wealth. "As he grew older he spent more of his time among his favourites.然而,這個她承諾,並實施它的安全。 “ (列王紀上10:1-13 ; 2染色體。 9 : 1-12 。 )她是充滿驚奇的所有她看到和聽到的: ”沒有更多的精神在她的。 “經過交換禮物她回到她的祖國的土地。但是,這黃金時代猶太歷史過去了。明亮的一天所羅門的榮耀結束了雲層和黑暗之中。他的衰亡從他高房地產是一個可悲的記錄。首席的原因之一,他拒絕了他的一夫多妻制和他的巨大財富。 “隨著年齡的增長,他花了更多的時間是他的最愛。 The idle king living among these idle women, for 1,000 women, with all their idle and mischievous attendants, filled the palaces and pleasure-houses which he had built (1 Kings 11:3), learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish ways.閒置國王生活在這些閒置的婦女,為1000年婦女,他們所有的閒置和淘氣員,填補了宮殿和高興,他的房屋建(列王紀上11時03分) ,第一次的教訓容忍然後模仿他們的異教方式。 He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his mind. He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at the great feasts.他沒有,甚至不再相信上帝對以色列主意。他並沒有因此而停止提供正常的犧牲在寺廟的偉大節日。

But his heart was not right with God; his worship became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement which offered itself.但他的心是不正確與神,他只是崇拜成為正式;他的靈魂,空出的死亡的真正的宗教熱情,力求充滿興奮任何宗教提供本身。 Now for the first time a worship was publicly set up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular or forbidden, like that of Gideon (Judg. 8:27), or the Danites (Judg. 18: 30, 31), but was downright idolatrous." (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13.) This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed against him (1 Kings 11:14-22, 23-25, 26-40), and one judgment after another fell upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died, after a reign of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel."現在,第一次公開崇拜設立的人民之間的上帝這不是簡單的不正常或禁止一樣,基甸( Judg. 8時27分) ,或Danites ( Judg. 18 : 30 , 31 ) ,但是徹頭徹尾的盲目崇拜。 “ (列王紀上11點07分;列王紀下23:13 。 )這使他的神聖不滿。他的敵人對他的普遍(列王紀上11:14-22 , 23-25 , 26-40 ) ,和一個判斷又落在了土地上。現在,一切結束了,他去世後,在位40年,是埋在城市的大衛,以及“他被安葬在該市的大衛,和“與他被安葬在短暫的輝煌和統一的以色列。 ” "He leaves behind him but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his kingdom and disgrace his name." “他留下,但他的一個薄弱和毫無價值的兒子,肢解他的英國和恥辱他的名字。 ” "The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history. “王國的所羅門說, ”羅林森, “是一個最突出的事實,在聖經的歷史。

A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and greatness.小額國家,數百年來一直保持著與困難單獨存在處於好戰的部落,每個這又行使支配權和壓迫,是突然提出的天才的一名士兵,國王的榮耀和偉大。 An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period of peace which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse.一個帝國的建立延伸從幼發拉底河的邊界埃及,距離四百五十英里;和這個帝國,快速建造,幾乎立即就進入一個時期的和平持續半個世紀。財富,宏偉,壯麗的建築,藝術英才,商業企業,有能力的尊嚴的偉大國家之間的地球,享受在這個空間,在年底有一個突然崩潰。 The ruling nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife, oppression, recovery, in-glorious submission, and desperate effort, re-commences.", Historical Illustrations.執政的民族分裂吐溫,主題比賽脫落,至高無上最近上漲正在全丟失,現場的鬥爭,衝突,壓迫,恢復,在光榮的提交,和絕望的努力,重新開始。 “歷史插圖。


Song of Sol'omon宋Sol'omon

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Song of Solomon, called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles."雅歌,還要求後,武加大,在“ Canticles 。 ” It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it.這是“歌的歌曲” ( 1:1 ) ,被認為是最好的和最寶貴的實物;最崇高的歌曲“之Hohelied , ”作為路德要求它。 The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen.著作權的Solomonic這本書已被質疑,但證據,內部和外部,建立公平的傳統觀點,這是該產品的所羅門的筆。 It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride.這是一個寓言詩列明的互愛的基督和教會,根據徽章的新郎和新娘。 (Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.) (比較馬特。 9:15 ;約翰3點29分;弗。 5時23分, 27 , 29 ;牧師19:7-9 ; 21時○二,第9條; 22:17 。比較也聚苯乙烯。 45 ;赫伊薩。 54 :4 - 6 ; 62:4 , 5 ;哲。 2時02分; 3:1 , 20 ;結。 16 ;飯店。 2點16分, 19 , 20 。 )

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Canticle of Canticles頌歌的Canticles

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Greek Aisma asmaton, Latin Canticum canticorum.) (希臘Aisma asmaton ,拉丁美洲Canticum canticorum 。 )

One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures.一個三本書的所羅門群島,載於希伯來文,希臘,佳能和基督教的聖經。 According to the general interpretation the name signifies "most excellent, best song".根據一般解釋的名稱意味著“最優秀的,最佳歌曲” 。 (Cf. the similar forms of expression in Exodus 26:33; Ezekiel 16:7; Daniel 8:25, used throughout the Bible to denote the highest and best of its kind.) Some commentators, because they have failed to grasp the homogeneousness of the book, regard it as a series or chain of songs. (參看類似形式的表達出埃及記26:33 ;厄澤克爾16點07分;丹尼爾8點25分,使用聖經指最高和最佳的同類。 )一些評論,因為他們沒有把握homogeneousness這本書,把它作為一個系列或連鎖的歌曲。

CONTENTS AND EXPOSITION目錄和博覽會

The book describes the love for each other of Solomon and the Sulamitess in lyrico-dramatic scenes and reciprocal songs.書中描述的愛情對彼此的所羅門群島和Sulamitess在lyrico ,戲劇性的場面和相互歌曲。 One part of the composition (iii, 6 to v, 1) is clearly a description of the wedding-day.其中的組成部分(三,六到五, 1 )顯然是一個說明的婚禮天。 Here the two chief personages approach each other in stately processlon, and the day is expressly called the wedding-day.在這裡,主要有兩方面人士的做法對方堂皇processlon ,並明確要求每天的婚禮天。 Moreover the bridal wreath and the bridal bed are referred to, and six times in this section of the song, although never before or after, the word spouse is used.此外,婚紗,婚紗花圈和床都提到,並6次本節中的歌曲,但從未之前或之後,這個詞是用來配偶。 All that has preceded is now seen to be preparatory to the marriage, while in what follows the Sulamitess is the queen and her garden is the garden of the king (v, 1-vi, 7 sq.), although such expressions as "friend", "beloved", and "dove", are common.所有這一切之前,現在已被視為籌備結婚,而在接下來的Sulamitess是女王和她的花園是花園國王(五, 1至六,七平方米) ,儘管這種表述為“朋友“ , ”親愛的“和”鴿派“ ,是常見的。 Along with the assurances of love for each other, there is a continually progressive action that represents the development of the warm friendship and affection of the pair, then the bridal union and the married life of the royal couple.隨著保證愛對方,有一個不斷進步的行動,代表了發展的熱情友誼和感情的兩人,然後婚紗聯盟和婚姻生活的皇室夫婦。 The bride, however, is exhibited as a simple shepherdess, consequently, when the king takes her, she has to undergo a training for the position of queen; in the course of this training occur various trials and sorrows (3:1; 5:5 sqq.; 6:11 -- Hebrews 12)新娘,然而,展出的是一個簡單的牧羊女,因此,當國王需要她,她已接受培訓的立場女王;在這一過程中發生的各種培訓審判和悲傷( 3:1 ; 5 : 5 sqq 。 ; 6點11 -希伯來書12 )

Various meanings have been attributed to the contents of the song.各種意義已歸入內容的歌曲。 Before the sixteenth century tradition gave an allegorical or symbolical meaning to the love of Solomon for the Sulamitess.在16世紀的傳統介紹了寓言或象徵意義的愛所羅門群島的Sulamitess 。 The view held by the Jewish Synagogue was expressed by Akiba and Aben Ezra; that held by the Church, by Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine, and Jerome.認為舉行的猶太教堂表示秋葉和母親阿本以斯拉;該教堂舉行的,由奧利,格雷戈里的果樹,奧古斯丁,杰羅姆。 An opinion opposed to these found only isolated expression.意見反對這些發現只有零星的表達。 Akiba (first century after Christ) speaks severely of those who would strike the book from the Sacred Canon, while St. Philastrius (fourth century) refers to others who regarded it not as the work of the Holy Ghost but as the Composition of a purely sensuous poet.秋葉(二十一世紀後,基督)講嚴重誰將這些書籍罷工聖佳能,而聖Philastrius ( 4世紀)是指誰認為這是別人沒有的工作,聖靈,但作為一個純粹的組成感性的詩人。 Theodore of Mopsuestia aroused such indignation by declaring the Canticle of Canticles to be a love-song of Solomon's, and his contemptuous treatment of it gave great offense (Mansi, Coll. Conc., IX, 244 sqq; Migne, PG, LXVI, 699 sqq.).西奧多的Mopsuestia引起這種憤怒的宣布頌歌的Canticles是一個愛情所羅門之歌的,和他的輕蔑對待它給人巨大的進攻(曼西,科爾。濃。 ,九, 244 sqq ;米涅,前列腺素, LXVI , 699 sqq 。 ) 。 At the Œcumenical Council of Constantinople (553), Theodore's view was rejected as heretic and his own pupil Theoret, brought forward against him unanimous testimony of the Fathers (Migne, PG, LXXXI, 62).在Œcumenical安理會君士坦丁堡( 553 ) ,西奧多認為是拒絕邪教和他自己的學生Theoret ,提出了對他的一致作證的父親(米涅,前列腺素, LXXXI , 62 ) 。 Theodore's opinion was not revived until the sixteenth century, when the Calvinist Sebastien Castalion (Castalio), and also Johannes Clericus, made use of it.西奧多的意見是不能恢復到16世紀時,塞巴斯蒂安的加爾文主義Castalion ( Castalio ) ,也約翰內斯Clericus ,利用它。 The Anabaptists became partisans of this view; later adherents of the same opinion were Michaelis, Teller, Herder, and Eichhorn.游擊隊的Anabaptists成為這一看法;後來信徒同樣的觀點是米凱利斯,取款,赫德和艾希霍恩。 A middle position is taken by the "typical" exposition of the book.中間的位置是採取的“典型”的論述的書籍。 For the first and immediate sense the typical interpretation holds firmly to the historical and secular meaning, which has always been regarded by the Church as heretical; this interpretation gives, however, to the "Song of Love", a second and higher sense.第一和直接意義的典型解釋持有堅定的和世俗的歷史意義,它一向被視為教會視為異端;這種解釋使然而, “戀歌” ,第二和更高的意義。 As, namely, the figure of Solomon was a type of Christ, so is the actual love of Solomon for a shepherdess or for the daughter of Pharaoh, intended as a symbol of the love of Christ for His Church.正如,即數字所羅門群島是一個類型的基督,所以是真正的愛,所羅門群島的牧羊女或法老的女兒,作為一個象徵基督的愛內為他的教會。 Honorius of Autun and Luis of Leon (Aloysius Legionensis) did not actually teach this view, although their method of expression might be misleading (cf. Cornelius a Lapide, Prol. in Canticum, c. i).挪留的歐坦和路易斯的萊昂(上海教區Legionensis )實際上並沒有教導這一觀點,儘管他們的方式表達可能會引起誤解(見哥尼流1 Lapide海峽。在Canticum角一) 。 In earlier times reference was often made to a first and literal meaning of the words of a text, which meaning, however, was not the real sense of the context as intended by the author, but was held to be only its external covering or "husk".在較早的時候往往是參考了第一個和字面意義的話文字,其中的含義,然而,並沒有真正意義上的背景的作者的意圖,但被認為僅僅是其外部覆蓋或“稻殼“ 。 Entirely dissimilar to this method is the typical exposition of modern times, which accepts an actual double meaning of the text, the two senses being connected and intended by the author.完全不同,以這種方法是典型的論述近代以來,接受實際雙重意義上的文字,這兩個感官連接,並打算由作者。 Bossuet and Calmet may, perhaps, be regarded as holding this view; it is unmistakably held by the Protestant commentators Delitzsch and Zockler as also by Kingsbury (in The Speaker's Commentary) and Kossowicz.波舒哀和卡爾梅特可能,也許,被視為持有這種看法,這是明白無誤的新教舉行的評論員德里和Zockler也由金斯伯里(在發言者的評注)和Kossowicz 。 A few others hold to this view, but the number does not include Lowth (cf. De sacra poesi Hebr. prael., 31).其他一些持有這種觀點,但這個數字並不包括Lowth (參見者薩克拉poesi Hebr 。 prael 。 , 31 ) 。 Grotius makes it evident, not so much in words as in the method of exposition, that he is opposed to a higher interpretation.格羅提斯使得顯而易見的,沒有這麼多的詞的方法的論述,他反對向更高解釋。 At the present day most non-Catholics are strongly opposed to such an exposition; on the other hand most Catholics accept the allegorical interpretation of the book.在當今大多數非天主教徒的強烈反對這樣一個博覽會,另一方面大多數天主教徒接受寓言解釋的書籍。

Exposition of the Allegory博覽會的寓言

The reasons for this interpretation are to be found not only in tradition and the decision of the Church, but also in the song itself.造成這種情況的原因的解釋是要找到不僅在傳統和教會的決定,而且在歌曲本身。 As long as the effort is made to follow the thread of an ordinary love-song, so long will it be impossible to give a coherent exposition, and many despair of ever obtaining a successful interpretation.只要努力,按照線程的普通愛情的歌曲,只要將它不可能給一個連貫的論述,許多絕望的時候獲得一個成功的解釋。 In the commentary of the present writer, "Comment. in Eccl. et Canticum Canticorum" (Paris, 1890), a number of examples are given of the typical and of the purely secular interpretations, and besides these, in treating of each of the larger divisions, the varying methods of exposition are carefully investigated.在評注本作家, “評論。在Eccl 。等Canticum Canticorum ” (巴黎, 1890年) ,有一些例子典型和純粹世俗的解釋,除了這些,在治療的每一個較大的分歧,不同方法的論述,是認真調查。 The proper connection of scenes and parts can only be found in the realm of the ideal, in allegory.正確的連接場景和部分只能發現領域中的理想,在寓言。 In no other way can the dignity and sanctity befitting the Scriptures be preserved and the striking title, "Song of Songs", receive a satisfactory explanation.在沒有其他辦法可以神聖的尊嚴和符合聖經予以保留,並顯著標題“歌歌” ,得到一個滿意的交代。 The allegory, however, can be shown as possible and obvious by means of numerous passages in the Old and the New Testament, in which the relation of God to the Synagogue and of Christ to the Church or to the adoring soul is represented under the symbol of marriage or betrothal (Jeremiah 2:2; Psalm 44 - Hebrew 45; Hosea 19 sqq., Ezekiel 16:8 sqq., Matthew 25:1 sqq; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:23 sqq.; Revelation 19:7 sq., etc.).的寓言,但是,可以表明盡可能明顯的方式在許多段落和舊新約全書,在這種關係的神的猶太教堂和基督教教會或崇拜的靈魂代表,文因結婚或訂婚(耶利米2時02分;詩篇44 -希伯來語45 ;何西阿19 sqq 。以西結書16時08 sqq 。馬修25:1 sqq ;哥林多後書11時02分;以弗所5時23 sqq 。 ;啟示19 : 7平方米,等等) 。 A similar manner of speaking occurs frequently in Christian literature, nor does it appear forced or artificial.以類似方式的發言中經常出現基督教文學,也沒有出現強迫或人為的。 The testimony of Theodoret to the teaching of the Early Church is very important.的證詞Theodoret的教學初期教會是非常重要的。 He names Eusebius in Palestine, Origen in Egypt, Cyprian in Carthage, and "the Elders who stood close to the Apostles", consequently, Basil, the two Gregorys [of Nyssa and Nazianzen -- Ed.], Diodorus, and Chrysostom, "and all in agreement with one another".他的名字優西比烏在巴勒斯坦,奧利在埃及,塞浦路斯在迦太基和“長老誰站在靠近使徒” ,因此,羅勒,兩個Gregorys [的果樹和Nazianzen -埃德。 ] ,狄奧和金口“和所有的協議,與其他“ 。 To these may be added Ambrose (Migne, PL, XIII, 1855, 1911), Philastrius (Migne, PL, XII, 1267), Jerome (Migne, PL XXII, 547, 395; XXIII, 263), and Augustine (Migne, PL, XXXIV, 372, 925; XLI, 556).這些可能會增加安布羅斯(米涅,特等,十三, 1855 , 1911 ) , Philastrius (米涅,特等,十二, 1267年) ,杰羅姆(米涅,特等二十二, 547 , 395 ;二十三, 263 ) ,和奧古斯丁(米涅,特等,三十四, 372 , 925 ;四十一, 556 ) 。 It follows from this, that the typical interpretation, also, contradicts tradition, even if it does not come within the decree pronounced against Theodore of Mopsuestia.因此從這一點出發,認為典型的解釋,也違背了傳統,即使它不屬於該法令宣布對西奧多的Mopsuestia 。 This method of exposition has, moreover, very few adherents, because the typical can only be applied to separate individuals or things, and cannot be used for the interpretation of a connected text which contains only one genuine and proper meaning.這種方法的論述,此外,極少數追隨者,因為典型的只適用於單獨的個人或東西,並不能用於解釋連接的案文只包含一個真正的和適當的含義。 The foundation of the typical interpretation is destroyed at once when the historical explanation is held to be indefensible.的基礎,是典型的解釋時,一次銷毀的歷史的解釋是站不住腳的舉行將。

In the allegorical interpretation of the song, it makes no essential difference whether the bride is taken as a symbol of the Synagogue, that is, of the congregation of the Old Covenant or of the Church of God of the New Covenant.寓言中的解釋,這首歌,它並沒有本質區別的新娘是否是作為一個象徵猶太教堂,也就是在教會的舊盟約或上帝教會的新約。 In truth, the song turns aside from both; by the spouse should be understood human nature as elected (electa elevata, sc. natura humana) and received by God.事實上,這首歌原來除了兩個;的配偶應當理解人性當選( electa elevata ,美國南卡羅來納。自然Humana公司) ,並收到了上帝。 This is embodied, above all, in the great Church of God upon earth, which God takes to Himself with the love of a bridegroom, makes the crowning point of all His external works, and adorns with the bridal ornament of supernatural grace.這是體現最重要的是,在偉大的上帝教會地球時,它需要對自己的上帝的愛的新郎,使鼓點他的所有外部工程,以及裝飾的婚紗飾品超自然寬限期。 In the song the bride is not reproached with sins and guilt but, on the contrary, her good qualities and beauty receive high praise; consequently, the chosen community of God appears here under that form which is according to the Apostle, without spot or blemish (Ephesians 5:27).宋代新娘不是責備和內疚與罪過,相反,她的良好素質和美麗得到高度讚揚,因此,所選擇的社會似乎上帝在這種形式下是根據使徒,沒有現貨或污點(以弗所書5點27 ) 。 It is plain that the Canticle of Canticles finds its most evident application to the most holy Humanity of Jesus Christ, which is united in the most intimate bond of love with the Godhead, and is absolutely spotless and essentially sanctified; after this to the most holy Mother of God as the most beautiful flower of the Church of God.這是平原的頌歌的Canticles認定其最明顯的申請,最神聖的人性耶穌基督,這是美國的最親密的債券的愛與神體,是絕對一塵不染,基本上認可;在這最神聖的上帝之母的最美麗的花的天主的教會。 (In regard to a twofold sense of this kind of in the Scriptures, cf. "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1903, p. 381.) The soul that has been purified by grace is also in a more remote yet real sense a worthly bride of Lord. (就具有雙重意義上的這種在聖經,比照。 “雜誌天主教神學” , 1903年,頁381 。 )的靈魂已被淨化寬限期也是在較為偏遠的尚未真正意義上值得新娘勳爵。 The actual meaning of Canticles is not, however, to be limited to any one of these applications, but is to be appropriated to the elected "bride of God in her relation of devotion to God".實際意義上的Canticles不是,但是,僅限於上述任何一個應用程序,但要劃撥給當選的“上帝的新娘在她的關係,奉獻上帝” 。

As a matter of fact, the spiritual interpretation of the song has proved a rich source for mystical theology and asceticism.事實上,精神解釋這首歌已經證明了豐富的神秘神學和禁慾主義。 It is only necessary to call to mind the best of the old commentaries and interpretations of the book.它只是要想到最好的舊評論和解釋,這本書。 There are still in existence fifteen homilies by St. Gregory of Nyssa on the first six chapters (Migne, PG, XLI, 755 sqq.).目前仍然存在的15講道詞聖格雷戈里的果樹上的前6章(米涅,前列腺素,四十一, 755 sqq 。 ) 。 The commentary of Theodoret (Migne, PG, LXXXI, 27 sqq.) is rich in suggestion.評注的Theodoret (米涅,前列腺素, LXXXI , 27 sqq 。 )具有豐富的建議。 In the eleventh century Psellus compiled a "Catena" from the writings of Nilus, Gregory of Nyssa, and Maximus (Auctar. bibl. Patr., II, 681 sqq.).於11世紀Psellus彙編了“連鎖”的著作Nilus ,格雷戈里的果樹,並馬克西穆斯( Auctar. bibl 。 Patr 。 ,二, 681 sqq 。 ) 。 Among the Latins Ambrose made such frequent use of the Canticle of Canticles that a whole commentary may be developed from the many applications, rich in piety, that he made of it (Migne, PL, XV, 1851 sqq.).在拉丁美洲,劉漢銓提出這樣頻繁使用的頌歌的Canticles說,整個評注可開發的許多應用,豐富的虔誠,他提出的IT (米涅,特等,十五, 1851年sqq 。 ) 。 Three commentaries are to be found in the works of Gregory the Great (Migne, P L., LXXIX, 471 sqq., 905; CLXXX, 441 sqq.).三是評注中可以找到工作的格里高利大(米涅,磷研究, LXXIX , 471 sqq 。 , 905 ; CLXXX , 441 sqq 。 ) 。 Apponius wrote a very comprehensive commentary which, even as late as 1843, was republished at Rome. The Venerable Bede prepared the matter for a number of smaller commentaries. Apponius寫了非常全面的評注的,即使是在1843年,是重新在羅馬。受人尊敬貝德準備這件事對一些規模較小的評注。 The elaborate exposition by Honorius of Autun of the book in its historical, allegorical, tropological, and anagogical meanings deserves special mention.在詳細論述挪留的歐坦的書籍在其歷史,寓言, tropological ,並anagogical意義特別值得一提。 The eighty-six homilies left by St. Bernard are universally known.在86講道詞留下的聖伯納德是舉世皆知。 Gilbert of Hoyland added to this number forty-eight more.吉爾伯特的Hoyland加入這一數字48以上。 The greatest of the saints enkindled their love for God on the tender expressions of affection of Christ and His bride, the Church, in the Canticle of Canticles.最偉大的聖人enkindled他們對上帝的愛的招標表達的感情是耶穌和他的新娘,教會,在頌歌的Canticles 。 Even in Old Testament times it must have greatly consoled the Hebrews to read of the eternal covenant of love between God and His faithful people.即使是在舊約時代就必須有很大的安慰希伯來閱讀的永恆的公約之間的愛上帝和他的忠實的人。

Within certain limits the application to the relation between God and the individual soul adorned with supernatural grace is self-evident and an aid to virtuous living.在某些限制的申請上帝之間的關係和個人的靈魂與超自然的寬限期裝飾是不言自明的和良性的援助生活。 The bride is first raised by the bridegroom to a relation of complete affection, afterwards betrothed or married (iii 6-v, 1), and, finally, after a successful activity (vii, 12 sq.; viii, 11 sq.); is received into the heavenly dwellings.首先是新娘新郎提出一個完整的感情關係,之後訂婚或結婚(三6五, 1 ) ,並最終成功後活動(第七章, 12平方米;八, 11平方米) ;收到到天上的住房。 A life of contemplation and activity bound up with painful trials is the way there.沉思的生活和活動的約束與痛苦的審判方式存在。 In the Breviary and Missal the Church has repeatedly applied the song to the Mother of God (see B. Schafer in Komment., p. 255 sqq.). In truth the bride adorned with the beauty of spotless purity and deep affection is a figure most appropriate to the Mother of God.在祈禱和彌撒教會一再適用宋代的上帝之母(見灣謝弗在Komment 。 ,第255頁sqq 。 ) 。事實上新娘裝飾著美麗的一塵不染純度和深厚的感情是一個數字最適當的上帝之母。 This is the reason why St. Ambrose in his book "De virginibus", so repeatedly and especially quotes Canticles.這就是為什麼聖安布羅斯在他的著作“者virginibus ” ,所以反复,特別是報價Canticles 。 Finally, the application of the song to the history of the life of Christ and of the Church offers pious thought rich material for contemplation. In doing thus the natural course of the song can, in some measure, be followed. At His entrance into life, and especially at the time of His public activity as a teachers the Saviour sought the Church, His bride and she came lovingly towards Him.最後,這首歌中的應用,以歷史上的生活是耶穌和教會的虔誠的思想提供了豐富的物質的沉思。因此在這樣做的自然過程中的歌曲可以在一定程度上,應遵循。在他進入生活,尤其是在他作為一個公共活動的救世主要求教師教會,他的新娘和她親切的對他。 He united Himself with her at the Cross (iii, 11), the Church itself makes use of this thought in a number of offices.他聯合自己的她在十字(三11 ) ,教會本身就是使用這種思想在一些辦事處。 The affectionate conversations with the bride (to ch. v, 1) take place after the Resurrection. What follows may be referred to the later history of the Church.在親切交談新娘(以總。五, 1 )在復活之後。以下可能提到後來教會歷史。 A distinction should be made in such methods of interpretation, however, between what may be accepted as certain or probable in the context and what pious contemplation has, more or less arbitrarily, added.應當區分在這種方法的解釋,但是,兩者之間可以接受某些或有可能在什麼範圍內和虔誠的沉思了,或多或少,任意增加。 For this reason, it is important to ascertain more exactly than was done in earlier times the genuine and true sense of the text.出於這個原因,重要的是要確定更確切地說是在比以前的真正的和真正意義上的文字。

LITERARY FORM OF THE SONG文學形式的歌曲

Both of the traditional poetic accentuation and language used to express the thoughts show the book to be a genuine poem.這兩個傳統詩重讀和使用的語言來表達思想的圖書展是一個真正的詩。 The attempt has been made in various ways to prove the existence of a definite metre in the Hebrew text.的嘗試已取得了不同的方式證明存在一定的米,在希伯來文的文字。 The opinion of the present writer is that a six-syllable trochaic metre may be applied to the original Hebrerw version (De re metrica Hebraeorum, Freiburg, Baden, 1880).認為目前的作家是, 6個音節長短格的米可用於原始Hebrerw版本(者重新metrica Hebraeorum ,弗賴堡,巴登, 1880年) 。 e and true sense of the text. E和真正意義上的文字。 The essentially lyrical character of the song is unmistakable.基本上是抒情性質的歌曲是明白無誤的。 But as various voices and scenes appear, neither should the dramatic character of the poem fail of recognition; it is, however, evident that the development of an external action is not so much the intention as the unfolding of the lyrical expression of feeling under varying circumstances.但是,隨著各種聲音和畫面出現,也不應該的戲劇性特徵的詩不承認它是,但是,顯然,發展的外部行動與其說是打算作為展現的抒情表達在不同的感覺情況。 The cantata form of composition is suggested by the presence of a chorus of the "daughters of Jerusalem" though the text does not indicate clearly how the words are divided among the various characters.在大合唱的形式組成的建議,在場的情況下合唱的“女兒的耶路撒冷”的文字雖然沒有明確說明的話是如何劃分的各種字符。 This accounts for the theory put forward at times that there are different personages who, as bride and bridegroom, or as lovers, talk with, or of, cach other.此帳戶的理論提出的時代有不同的人士誰,因為新郎新娘,或作為愛好者,交談,或,格等。 Stickel in his commentary assigns three different persons to the role of the bridegroom, and two to that of the bride.在他的評注Stickel指派三個不同的人的作用,新郎,兩個到新娘。 But such arbitrary treatment is the result of the attempt to make the Canticle of Canticles into a drama suitable for the stage.但是,這種任意對待的原因是企圖使頌歌的Canticles成話劇適合階段。

Unity of the Canticle團結的頌歌

The commentator just mentioned and other exegetes start from the natural conviction that the poem, simply called the Song of Songs and handed down to posterity as a book, must be regarded as a homogeneous whole.剛才提到的評論員和其他exegetes從自然的信念,即這首詩,只是被稱為宋歌曲和流傳後世的一本書,必須被視為一個統一的整體。 It is evident that the three clearly distinguished roles of bridegroom, bride, and chorus maintain their plainly defined characters from beginning to end; in the same way certain other designations, as "beloved", "friend", etc., and certain refrains keep recurring.很明顯,這三個明確區分作用新郎,新娘,合唱保持明顯造字從開始到結束,以同樣的方式某些其他名稱,如“親愛的” , “朋友”等,並保持一定的避免經常性的。 Moreover, several parts apparently repeat one another, and a peculiar phraseology is found throughout the book.此外,一些地方似乎彼此重複,以及獨特的用語是找到這本書。 The attempt has, however, been made to resolve the poem into separate songs (some twenty in all); thus has been tried by Herder, Eichhorn, Goethe, Reuss, Stade, Budde, and Siegfried.企圖然而,解決了這首詩成不同的歌曲(大約20個) ,因此一直受到赫德,艾希霍恩,歌德, Reuss ,體育場,布德和齊格弗里德。 But It has been found exceedingly difficult to separate these songs from one another, and to give to each lyric a meaning dlstinctly its own.但是,人們發現很難區分這些歌曲從彼此,並給每個詞的含義dlstinctly自己的。 Goethe believed this impossible, and it is necessary to resort to a working over of the songs by the person who collected them.歌德認為這不可能,這是必要訴諸一個工作了的歌曲的人誰收集他們。 But in this everything would depend on a vague personal impression.但在這一切都將取決於一個模糊的個人印象。 It is true that a mutual dependence of all the parts cannot be maintained in the secular (historical) interpretation.的確,相互依存的所有部件不能保持在世俗(歷史)的解釋。 For, even in the historical hypothesis, the attempt to obtain a flawless drama is successful only when arbitrary additions are made which permit the transition from one scene to another, but these interpolations have no foundation in the text itself. Tradition also knows nothing of genuine dramatic poetry among the Hebrews, nor is the Semitic race more than slightly acquainted with this form of poetry. Driven by necessity, Kämpf and others even invent double roles, so that at times other personages appear along with Solomon and the Sulamitess; yet it cannot be said that any one of these hypotheses has produced a probable interpretation of the entire song.因為,即使是在歷史的假設,試圖獲得完美的戲劇是成功的只有當任意增加了允許從一個場景到另一個,但這些插值沒有基礎的文本本身。傳統也知道什麼真正的戲劇性的希伯來詩歌,也不是猶太人的種族超過略微熟悉這種形式的詩歌。驅動的必要性,奮鬥和其他甚至發明雙重角色,因此,有時其他人士一起出現在所羅門群島和Sulamitess ,但它不能可以說,任何一個這些假設已經製作了一個可能的解釋整個歌曲。

DIFFICULTIES OF INTERPRETATION解釋方面的困難

Allegorical寓言

All the hypotheses of the above-mentioned kind owe their origin to the prevalent dislike of allegory and symbolism.所有的假設上述實物欠其原產地為普遍厭惡的寓言和象徵意義。 It is well known how extremely distasteful poetic allegory is to our age.眾所周知如何極為反感詩意寓言是我們這個時代。 Nevertheless allegory has been employed at times by the greatest poets of all ages.然而寓言一直受僱於次的大詩人的青睞。 Its use was widespread in the Middle Ages, and it was always a preliminary condition in the interpretation of the Scriptures by the Fathers.它的使用十分普遍在中世紀,它一直是初步條件在解釋聖經的父親。 There are many passages in the Old and New Testaments which it is simply impossible to understand without allegory.有許多段落新舊約它根本無法了解沒有寓言。 It is true that the allegorical method of Interpretation has been greatly misused.的確,寓言法的解釋已經大大濫用。 Yet the Canticle of Canticles can be proved to be a flawlessly consecutive poem by the employment of rules for poetical allegory and its interpretation which are fixed and according to the canons of art.然而,頌歌的Canticles可以證明是一個完美的連續詩就業的規則詩意寓言和其解釋是固定的,根據經典的藝術品。 The proof of the correctness of the interpretation lies in such a combination of all the parts of the song into a homogeneous whole.證明是正確的解釋是這樣的組合的所有部分的歌曲到一個統一的整體。 The dramatic form, as far as it can be plainly seen in the traditional text, is not destroyed by this method of elucidation; indeed a number (four to seven) of more or less independent scenes must be recognized.戲劇性的形式,就可以清楚看到在傳統的文字,是不是破壞了這種方法的說明;確實是一個號碼( 6時56分)或多或少地獨立場景必須得到承認。 In separating these scenes from one another the Jewish or Syrian bridal customs may be taken into consideration, as has been done, especially by Budde and Siegfried, if the result is the simplifying of the explanation and not the distortion of the scenes, or other acts of caprice.分離這些場面從彼此的猶太人或敘利亞婚紗海關可予以考慮,因為已經做了,特別是布德和齊格弗里德,如果結果是簡化的解釋,而不是歪曲的場景,或其他行為的任性。 An attempt has been made in the commentary (p. 388 sqq.) of the present writer to give in detail the determinative rules for a sound allegorical interpretation.嘗試已取得了在評注(第388 sqq 。 )本作家給予了詳細的決定性規則健全的寓言解釋。

Historical歷史

According to Wetzstein, whom Budde and others follow, the book should be regarded as a collection of short songs such as are still used by the bedouins of Syria in the "threshing-board".據Wetzstein ,其中布德和其他後續,這本書應被視為一種短期收集的歌曲,如仍然使用的貝都因人對敘利亞的“打板” 。 The features of similarity are the appearance of the bridal pair for seven days as king and queen the immoderate praise of the two, and the dance of the queen, during which she swings a sword to the accompaniment of a song by the chorus.相似的特點是外觀的婚紗一雙七天作為國王和王后的過分讚揚兩個,以及舞蹈皇后,她在波動劍的伴奏的歌曲的合唱。 Bruston and Rothstein have, however, expressed doubts as to this theory. Bruston和羅斯坦但是,表示懷疑,這一理論。 In Solomon's song the bride, in reality, does not appear as a queen and does not swing a sword; the other traces of similarity are of so general a character that they probably belong to the wedding festivities of many nations.在所羅門的歌,新娘,在現實生活中,似乎並不為御用,不擺劍,其他的痕跡是如此的相似性一般的特點,它們可能屬於婚禮慶典的許多國家。 But the worst is that the essential songs avowedly do not stand in the proper order.但最糟糕的是,基本的歌曲公然沒有站在正確的順序。 Consequently it is presupposed that the order.因此,有先決條件的順序。 Consequently it is presupposed that the order of succession is accidental.因此,有先決條件的順序繼承是偶然的。 This opens wide once more the door to caprice.這將打開廣泛再次大門任性。 Thus, as what is said does not fit this theory it is claimed that a collector, or later redactor who misunderstood various matters, must have made small additions with which it is impossible now to do anything.因此,什麼是不適合說,這個理論是聲稱,收藏家,或更新redactor誰誤解的各種事項,必須取得小增補它是不可能的現在做任何事情。 Others, as Rothstein in Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, presuppose that the collector, or rather the redactor, or even the author, had a dramatic end in view, as life and motion and action are, taken all together, unmistakable.其他人,因為羅思坦在黑斯廷斯,字典聖經先決條件,採集,或者說redactor ,甚至作者,有一個戲劇性的目的,為生活和行動的動議,並採取一切在一起,無誤。

It is accepted (at least for the present form of the poem) that the book presents a pastoral poem that the book presents a pastoral poem in dramatis or, at least, melodramatic form.這是公認的(至少在目前的形式,這首詩)這本書介紹了牧場的詩這本書提出了牧區詩劇中人,或至少濫情形式。 The poem, according to this theory, shows how a beautiful shepherdess keeps her betrothal vow to her lover of the same rank in fife notwithstanding the allurements and acts of violence of a king.這首詩,根據這一理論,顯示了如何保持美麗的牧羊女她訂婚的誓言:在她的情人同一職級的法伊夫儘管allurements和暴力行為的一個國王。 But this shepherd has to be interpolated into the text and not much can be said for the imaginary faith kept with the distant lover, as the Sulamitess, in the middle section of the Song of Solomon, gives herself willingly to the king, and no reason is apparent in the text why her boundless praise should not be intended for the present king and not for an absent lover.但是,這牧羊人要插值到文本並沒有太多可說的想像保持信仰的遙遠的戀人,因為Sulamitess ,在中段的雅歌,讓她心甘情願地向國王,並沒有任何理由很明顯的文字為什麼她無限的讚美不應為目前的國王而不是一個沒有情人。 Stickel overcomes the great difficulties which still remain in a very arbitrary manner. Stickel克服了巨大困難,仍然是在一個非常武斷的方式。 He allows a second pair of lovers to come suddenly forward, these know nothing of the chief personages and are employed by the poet merely as an interlude.他允許第二對戀人突然提出來,這些一竅不通的主要人士,都受僱於詩人不僅僅是一個插曲。 Stickel gives this pair three short passages, namely: i, 7 sq.; i, 15-ii, 4; iv, 7-v, 1. Moreover in these hypotheses appears the difficulty which is ever connected with the historical interpretation, that is, the lowering of the song which is so highly prized by the Church. Stickel讓這對三個簡短的段落,即:一, 7平方米;一, 15二, 4 ;四, 7五, 1 。此外,在這些假設的困難似乎是以往任何時候都與歷史的解釋,這是,降低宋如此珍貴的教會。 The historical interpretation transforms it into ordinary love-scenes, in various moments of which, moreover, a fiery, sensuous love breaks forth.歷史解釋轉換成普通的愛情故事,在不同的時刻,此外,激烈,感性的愛休息,等等。 For the same expressions which, when referred allegoricallly to Christ and the Church, announce the strength of the love of God, are under ordinary conditions the utterances of a repellent passion.出於同樣的表情,當提到allegoricallly到了基督和教會,宣布的力量,上帝的愛,是一般情況下的話語一個塗激情。

AGE AND AUTHOR OF THE CANTICLE年齡和作者頌歌

Tradition, in harmony with the superscription, attributes the song to Solomon. Even in modern times quite a number of exegetes have held this opinion: among Protestants, for example, Hengstenberg, Delitzsch, Zöckler, and Keil.傳統,在和諧與superscription ,屬性的歌曲所羅門。即使在現代不少exegetes舉行了這一觀點:新教徒之間,例如,亨斯,德里, Zöckler和Keil 。 De Wette says: "The entire series of pictures and relationships and the freshness of the life connect these songs with the age of Solomon."者Wette說: “整個系列的圖片和關係和新鮮的生活連接到這些歌曲的年齡所羅門。 ” The song evidences the love of Solomon for nature (it contains twenty-one names of plants and fifteen of animals), for beauty and art, and for regal splendour; bound up with this latter is an ideal simplicity suitable to the type of character of the royal poet. There is also evident a strain of the most tender feeling and a love of peace which are well in keeping with the reputation of Solomon.這首歌證明愛所羅門的性質(它包含21名的植物和15的動物) ,美和藝術,並為富豪輝煌;約束與後者是一個理想的簡單合適的類型特點皇家詩人。也有明顯的壓力的最溫情和對和平的熱愛,並以它們為符合的聲譽所羅門。 The somewhat unusual language in connection with the skilful and brilliant style point to a well-practised writer.有些不尋常的語言與幹練和輝煌的風格指向一個良好的執業作家。 If some Aramaic or foreign expressions are to be found in the song, in relation to Solomon, such cannot cause surprise.如果某些或外國表達阿拉姆發現有宋代,在涉及所羅門群島,例如不能造成意外。 It is remarkable that in Proverbs the fuller form of the relative is always used, while in Canticles the shorter form is employed, the one used earlier in the song of Debbora.值得注意的是,在諺語充分形式的相對總是使用,而在較短的形式Canticles僱用,使用較早的一首歌中的Debbora 。 But in the same way Jeremias used the ordinary form in his prophecies, while in the Lamentations he repeatedly employed the shorter.但是,以同樣的方式赫雷米亞斯使用普通形式在他的預言,而在耶利米哀歌他反复採用了短。 The point is raised that Tirzah (vi, 4 - Heb.) is mentioned along with Jerusalem as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ten Tribes.問題的關鍵是提出Tirzah (六, 4 -河北。 )一起提及耶路撒冷為首都的英國十大部落。 The comparison, though, is made only as to beauty, and Tirzah had, above all, a reputation for loveliness.的比較,不過,是只以美, Tirzah了最重要的是,聲譽可愛。 Many other commentators, as Bottcher, Ewald, Hitzig, and Kämpf, put the composition of the book in the time directly after Solomon.其他許多評論家認為,作為Bottcher ,埃瓦爾德,希齊格和奮鬥,使組成的圖書在規定的時間內直接在所羅門群島。 They assert that the action of the poem takes place in the northern part of Palestine, that the author is especially well acquainted with this section of the country, and writes in the form of the language used there.他們斷言,這首詩的行動發生在北部地區的巴勒斯坦, ,作者尤其是熟悉本節的國家,並寫入的形式,所用的語言有。 It is further said that Tirzah could only be compared with Jerusalem at the time when if was the capital of the Kingdom of the Ten Tribes that is after the age of Solomon but before the time when Samaria was the capital of the Northern Kingdom.它進一步說, Tirzah只能與耶路撒冷的時候,如果是資本王國部落是10歲以後,但在此之前所羅門時薩馬里亞是資本北方王國。 All these reasons however, have more subjective than objective value.所有這些原因,但有更多的主觀比客觀價值。 No more convincing, finally, are the reasons that cause others to place the book in post-Exilic times; among such exegetes may be mentioned: Stade, Kautzsch, Cornill, Grätz, Budde, and Siegfried.沒有更有說服力的,最終的原因,造成他人把書籍後Exilic倍;在這些exegetes可能會提到:體育場, Kautzsch , Cornill ,格拉茨,布德和齊格弗里德。 They support their theory by reference to many peculiarities of language and believe they even find traces of Greek influence in the song; but for all this there is a lack of clear proof.他們支持他們的理論參考許多特殊性的語言,並認為他們甚至找到痕跡希臘影響的歌曲,但是這一切有一個缺乏明確的證據。

Condition of the Hebrew Text條件希伯來文字

Gratz, Bickell, Budde, and Cheyne believe that they have been able to prove the existence of various mistakes and changes in the text.格拉茨, Bickell ,布德和潮認為,他們已經能夠證明存在的各種錯誤和變化的案文。 The passages referred to are: vi, 12; vii, 1; iii, 6-11; for alterations of the text see chapters vi and vii.通道所指的是:六, 12 ;第七章, 1 ;三, 6月11日;用於改建的案文,見第六章和第七章。

Publication information Written by G. Gietmann.出版信息書面由G. Gietmann 。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.轉錄約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,第三卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat , 08年11月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Song of Songs宋歌

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Interpretation: Solomon as Bridegroom.釋義:所羅門群島作為新郎。

Rustic Wedding.鄉村婚禮。

Date.日期。

One of the Five Megillot.從5個Megillot 。 The Hebrew title, , is commonly understood to mean "the most excellent of songs, composed by Solomon" (not "one of the songs composed by Solomon"); the title, however, is later than the poem, in which the relative pronoun is always希伯來文標題,是普遍理解為“最優秀的歌曲組成,由所羅門” (而不是“一個歌曲組成的所羅門” ) ;的標題,然而,晚於這首詩,其中的關係代詞總是 , never . The ancient versions follow the Hebrew; from the rendering in the Latin Vulgate, "Canticum Canticorum," comes the title "Canticles." ,從來沒有。古老的希伯來文版本的後續;從渲染在拉丁語武加大, “ Canticum Canticorum ”的標題是“ Canticles 。 ”

Interpretation: Solomon as Bridegroom.釋義:所羅門群島作為新郎。

The oldest known interpretation of the Song (induced by the demand for an ethical and religious element in its content) is allegorical: the Midrash and the Targum represent it as depicting the relations between God and Israel.已知最古老的解釋宋(誘導需求的一種道德和宗教因素,它的內容)是寓言:在米德拉士和代表它的根之間的關係描繪上帝和以色列。 The allegorical conception of it passed over into the Christian Church, and has been elaborated by a long line of writers from Origen down to the present time, the deeper meaning being assumed to be the relation between God or Jesus and the Church or the individual soul.觀念的寓言通過到基督教會,並制定了一個長長的作家奧利下降到目前,更深的意義被假定為上帝之間的關係或耶穌和教會或個人的靈魂。 The literal interpretation of the poem as simply a eulogy of married love had its representatives in early times (Theodore of Mopsuestia, and, to some extent, Abraham ibn Ezra), and, in the renaissance of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, was maintained by Grotius, Clericus, and others; but it is only in the last hundred years that this interpretation has practically ousted the allegorical.字面解釋,這首詩作為一種悼詞的已婚愛情有其代表的早期(西奧多的Mopsuestia ,並在一定程度上,亞伯拉罕本以斯拉) ,以及文藝復興時期的16和17世紀,是保持格羅提斯, Clericus ,和其他人;但它僅在過去的百年,這種解釋實際上已經推翻了寓言。 The Song is now taken, almost universally, to be the celebration of a marriage, there being, in fact, no hint of allegory in the text.宋現正考慮,幾乎普遍,為慶祝結婚,存在,事實上,沒有任何提示的寓言中的文字。 Obviously there are two principal personages, a bridegroom and a bride; but opinions differ as to who the bridegroom is.顯然有兩個主要的人物,新郎和新娘,但意見分歧是誰的新娘。 If the title be accepted as genuine, it is a natural conclusion that the poem describes the nuptials of Solomon and a princess (the daughter of Pharaoh) or a country maiden (so Delitzsch and others).如果標題被接納為真正的,它是一個自然的結論,即這首詩敘述了婚禮的所羅門群島和一位公主(法老的女兒) ,或一個國家的處女(所謂德里和其他) 。 But, apart from the question of date, this construction is proved impossible by the fact that the bridegroom is distinguished from Solomon in viii.但是,除了這個問題的日期,這是不可能建造的事實是,新郎是區別於所羅門在八。 11, 12, and probably, by revision, in vi. 11日, 12日,並可能通過修訂,在六。 8, 9. 8日, 9日。 To meet this difficulty it is assumed (by Ewald, Driver, and many others) that the bridegroom or fiancé is a young shepherd, and that Solomon is his would-be rival; that the king has carried off a beautiful rustic maiden (vi. 10-12) and has brought her to his palace in Jerusalem (i. 4), where he endeavors to win her affections; but that she, resisting the allurements of the court, remains true to her country lover, and is finally united to him (viii. 5-14).為了滿足這種困難是假定(由埃瓦爾德,駕駛,及許多其他網站)的新郎或未婚夫是一個年輕的牧羊人,這是他的所羅門將成為競爭對手; ,國王已進行了一個美麗的鄉村少女( vi. 10月12日) ,並把她帶到他的宮殿在耶路撒冷(島4 ) ,在那裡他的努力贏得她的感情,但是,她抗拒allurements法院,仍然忠實於她的情人,並最終統一他( viii. 5月14日) 。 This theory, however, rests on unwarranted interpretations of particular passages.這個理論,但是,依賴於無理的解釋特別通道。 The alleged rivalry between a king and a shepherd appears nowhere in the text: there is only one lover, as there is only one maiden; Solomon is introduced as an actor in only one place (iii. 6-11), and here he is represented as the shepherd bridegroom himself.據稱對立的國王和一個牧羊人似乎沒有在文本中:只有一個情人,因為只有一個處女;索羅門介紹了作為一個演員中,只有一個地方( iii. 6月11日) ,在這裡,他是代表作為牧人新郎本人。 Both the views described above (and the various modifications of them) regard the poem as a drama: it is divided by expositors into acts and scenes. It is, in fact, dramatically conceived (like the Job poem, for instance), since it consists not of narratives, but of lyric utterances put into the mouths of certain characters; but it is not a drama.雙方的意見,上述(以及各種修改它們)關於這首詩作為戲劇:它是除以expositors到行為和場面。這是,事實上,極大地設想(如就業詩,例如) ,因為它包括不是敘述,而是抒情話語放入口中的某些特徵,但它不是一個戲劇。 Not only is there no definite indication of time or place, all being vaguely rhapsodical; but there is no movement, no culmination or catastrophe.不但沒有明確的說明時間和地點,都被模糊rhapsodical ;但沒有行動,沒有高潮或災難。 The marriage is already consummated in i.婚姻已經完善的一 6 (and so in ii. 6, iv. 16-v. 1, vii. 9 [AV 8]); and the story is no farther advanced in viii. 6 (因此,在二。 6 ,四。 16五。 1 ,七。 9 [影音8 ] ) ;和故事遠沒有先進的八。

Rustic Wedding.鄉村婚禮。

Still another view regards the book as picturing the popular festivities held in Palestine in connection with the wedding-week. Of such festivities there are hints in the Old Testament (Judges xiv. 10-12; Jer. xvi. 9; Ps. xix. 6 [5]; comp. Matt. xxv. 1 et seq.); and Wetzstein (in his article "Die Syrische Dreschtafel," in Bastian's "Zeitschrift für Ethnologie," 1873, pp. 270 et seq., and in the appendix to Delitzsch's commentary on the Song) has given the details of the modern Syrian marriage celebration, in which he finds parallels to those of the poem.還有另一種意見認為,本書作為想像的全民慶祝活動舉行的巴勒斯坦方面的婚禮一周。這類活動有提示在舊約(法官十四。 10月12日;哲。十六。 9 ;聚苯乙烯。十九。 6 [ 5 ] ;補償。馬特。二十五。 1起。 ) ;和Wetzstein (在他的文章“模具Syrische Dreschtafel , ”在魏因斯泰格的“雜誌Ethnologie , ” 1873年,頁。 270起。 ,並在附錄到德里的評注宋)給予的細節現代敘利亞結婚慶典,其中他認為這些平行的詩。 In the week succeeding the marriage the villagers assemble; the thrashing-board is set up as a throne, on which the newly married pair take their seats as "king" and "queen"; there are songs in praise of the physical charms of the pair, and dances, in which bridegroom and bride take part; especially noteworthy is the "sword-dance," performed by the bride with a naked sword in one hand (see vii. 1 [RV vi. 13]).在上週成功的婚姻村民組裝;的大勝,委員會成立的王位,這兩人的新婚考慮自己的座位上為“國王”和“女王” ,有歌曲,讚美的身體魅力的對,和舞蹈,在新郎新娘參加;尤其值得注意的是, “劍舞” ,由新娘的白刃在一方面(見第七章。 1 [右六。 13 ] ) 。 In accordance with this view the "king" of the poem, sometimes called "Solomon" (an imaginative designation of a person of ideal beauty), is the bridegroom; the "daughters of Jerusalem" are the village maidens in attendance on the bride; the royal procession of iii. 6-11 is that of the bridegroom (comp. Ps. xix. 6 [5]); the dialogues, descriptions of bodily charms, and other pieces are folk-songs; according to Budde, the name "Shulamite," given to the bride once (vii. 1 [vi. 13]), is equivalent to "Shunemmite," and isan imaginative reminiscence of the fair Abishag (I Kings i. 3). Some explanation such as this is required by the character of the book.根據這一觀點的“國王”的詩,有時被稱為“所羅門” (一種富有想像力的指定一個人的理想之美) ,是新郎的“女兒的耶路撒冷”是村姑娘參加的新娘;皇家遊行三。 6月11日是新郎( comp.聚苯乙烯。十九。 6 [ 5 ] ) ;的對話,說明身體的魅力,以及其他作品的民間歌曲;據布德,名稱為“ Shulamite , “考慮到新娘一旦( vii. 1 [六。 13 ] ) ,相當於” Shunemmite “和富有想像力的懷舊isan的公平Abishag (王一3 ) 。一些解釋,例如這是必需的性質的書。 It is a collection of pieces in praise of the physical delights of wedded love.這是一個收集件讚揚物理美食拘泥於愛情。 The freeness of expression (especially in vii. 2-10 [1-9]), offensive to modern taste, is in accord with ancient custom (comp. Ezek. xvi., xxiii.; Prov. v. 16-20): it may be due in part also to the license of popular festivities.在游離的表達(尤其是在七。 2月10日[ 1-9 ] ) ,進攻現代味道的,是符合古老風俗( comp.結。十六。 ,二十三。 ;省。訴16-20日) :它可能是由於部分也許可的熱門活動。 It is not necessary, however, to suppose that the author has merely reproduced the songs of the rustic celebrations of his time; rather, a poet of high ability here sings of married love, following the lines of the festive customs, but giving free play to his imagination: such charm of style as the book shows is not to be looked for in rustic songs. The unity of the poem is one of emotion-all the situations reflect the same circumstances and the same sentiments.這是沒有必要,但是,假設,作者只是複製歌曲的鄉村慶祝活動的時間,而是一個詩人在這裡的高能力的已婚愛唱後,按照海關的節日,但讓它們自由發揮以他的想像:這種魅力的風格是這本書表明不被期待的鄉村歌曲。團結,這首詩是一種情緒的情況都反映了相同的情況下,同樣的情緒。

Date.日期。

The date of the Song is indicated by its literary form: the idyl is foreign to the Hebrew genius, and points to the time when the Jews imitated Greek models (Theocritus and Bion).日期的宋表明其文學形式:外國的牧歌是天才的希伯來文,並指出當時的猶太人模仿希臘模型(忒奧克里托斯和比昂) 。 The word (= "palanquin" [iii. 9]) appears to be the Greek φορεῖον; (iv. 13) was not introduced earlier than the later Persian period (for other late words see Driver, "Introduction").字( = “轎” [三。 9 ] )似乎是希臘φορεῖον ; ( iv. 13 )是不是比年初推出後波斯時期(後期的話,其他見驅動程序, “導言” ) 。 The date of the book can hardly be determined precisely: it was probably composed in the period 200-100 BC; but some of the material may be older.在這本書之日起就很難準確確定:它可能是在此期間組成公元前200-100 ,但一些物質可能是老年人。

The discussions at the Synod of Jabneh (Jamnia) show that toward the end of the first Christian century the canonical authority of the Song was disputed in certain quarters (see Bible Canon, § 11). Probably the ground of opposition was its non-religious character: it does not contain the Divine Name (except "Yah" in viii. 6, Hebr., as an expression of intensity); its love is sensuous; and its only ethical element is the devotion of one man to one woman in marriage. It is quoted neither by Philo nor in the New Testament.上的討論會議的Jabneh (詹姆尼)表明,快要結束的第一個基督教世紀的規範權威的歌曲是有爭議的,在某些季度(見聖經佳能, § 11 ) 。也許反對的理由是其非宗教特點:它不包含神聖名稱(除“嚴”在八。 6 , Hebr 。 ,作為表達強度) ;其愛情是感性的,而且它不僅是道德因素是奉獻精神的一個人一名婦女在婚姻。這是引用的斐羅既不也不在新約。 But it appears to have gained popularity; and the probability is that at an early day it was interpreted allegorically by the sages, and that it was on the basis of such an interpretation that its canonicity was finally established.但它似乎已經獲得了普及;的概率是,在早期每天有人解釋allegorically的聖人,這是根據這樣的解釋,其正規終於成立。 On its ritual use at Passover see Megillot, The Five.儀式上使用的逾越節見Megillot ,五個。

Emil G. Hirsch, Crawford Howell Toy埃米爾赫斯基灣,克勞福德霍威爾玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: On the history of the interpretation: S. Salfeld, Das Hohelied Salomo's bei den Jüdischen Erklärern des Mittelalters, 1879; W.參考書目:在歷史上的解釋:南Salfeld ,達斯Hohelied Salomo的北大街Jüdischen Erklärern萬Mittelalters , 1879年;總統 Riegel, Die Auslegung des Hohenliedes in der Jüdischen Gemeinde und der Griechischen Kirche, 1898; E.裡格爾,模具之Hohenliedes解釋中的Jüdischen之Griechischen教區和教堂, 1898年;大腸桿菌 Reuss, La Bible (gives a conspectus of various schemes); CD Ginsburg, Song of Songs, 1857; Cheyne, in Encyc. Reuss ,香格里拉聖經(給出了概論的各種計劃) ;光盤金斯伯格,宋代的歌曲, 1857年;進益,在Encyc 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 sv Canticles. The traditional interpretation (Solomon as bridegroom) is given in Delitzsch's commentary, 1875; and the fuller dramatic interpretation (the shepherd lover) in: Ewald, Dichter, 1867; WR Smith, Canticles, in Encyc.西沃特Canticles 。傳統的解釋(所羅門群島作為新郎)是在德里的評注, 1875年;和全面的戲劇性解釋(牧人的情人)在:埃瓦爾德,詩人, 1867年;水利史密斯Canticles ,在Encyc 。 Brit.英。 9th ed.; Rothstein, Das Hohe Lied, 1893; idem, Song of Songs, in Hastings' Dict.第9版。 ;羅斯坦,達斯霍厄撒謊, 1893年;同上,宋代的歌曲,在黑斯廷斯'快譯通。 Bible; Driver, Introduction (which gives a full outline of the schemes of Delitzsch and Ewald); Wetzstein, in Budde, The Song of Solomon, in The New World, 1894, vol.聖經;驅動器,導言(這使全面概述了計劃的德里和埃瓦爾德) ; Wetzstein ,在布德,該雅歌,在新的世界, 1894年,第二卷。 iii.; idem, Commentary, in KHC; Siegfried, Commentary, in Nowack's Handkommentar; and Cheyne, lc On the relation between the Song and Theocritus: WM Fullerton, in Unitarian Review (Boston), July, 1886; DS Margoliouth, Lines of Defense of the Biblical Revelation, London, 1900.三。 ;同上,評注, KHC ;齊格弗里德,評注, Nowack的Handkommentar ;和進益,立法會的關係宋和忒奧克里托斯:西醫爾頓,在統一審查(波士頓) , 7月, 1886年;德尚Margoliouth ,系國防部的聖經啟示,倫敦, 1900年。 On the meter: Budde's commentary; and on the Hebrew text: this and the commentaries of Graetz and Siegfried.EGHT關於米:布德的評論;和希伯來文:這和評注的Graetz和Siegfried.EGHT


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