Books of Samuel圖書塞繆爾

General Information 一般信息

The two books of Samuel, which follow Judges in the Hebrew Bible and Ruth in the English, tell the stories of Samuel, Saul, and David.這兩本書的塞繆爾,這後續法官和露絲希伯來聖經中的英語,講故事的塞繆爾,掃羅,大衛。 The events from the cataclysmic breakup of Israel's premonarchic league through the foundation of Saul's monarchy and the beginnings of David's political emergence to the death of Saul are narrated in 1 Samuel. David's unification of Israel and Judah, his imperial expansion, and the subsequent struggle to decide who would succeed David are described in 2 Samuel.該事件的災難性解體,以色列通過premonarchic聯盟的基礎掃羅的君主制,並開始對大衛的政治出現的死亡掃羅是敘述在撒母耳記上。大衛統一以色列和猶太,他的帝國擴張,以及隨後的鬥爭決定誰接替大衛中所描述撒母耳記下。

The books are named after Samuel, the last major representative of the old league, who figured prominently in the transition to monarchy.書籍的名字命名的塞繆爾,過去主要代表的舊的聯盟,誰佔有突出地位過渡到君主立憲制。 He plays no role in 2 Samuel, however, which may explain why the Septuagint and Vulgate versions designate 1 - 2 Samuel as 1 - 2 Kings.他沒有發揮作用,撒母耳記下,然而,這可能解釋為什麼譯本和拉丁文聖經版本指定1 - 2塞繆爾為1 - 2國王。

Both volumes are part of the Deuteronomistic History (compiled in the time of Josiah, c. 640 - 609 BC), but they largely consist of preexisting literary sources, such as the pre Davidic narrative about the Ark (1 Sam. 2, 4 - 6) and the Solomonic Throne Succession Narrative (2 Sam. 9 - 20), that the final editor used relatively unchanged.這兩卷的一部分Deuteronomistic歷史(彙編時約書亞角640 - 609年) ,但它們主要包括原有文學來源,如前Davidic敘述的方舟( 1山姆。 2 , 4 - 6 )和Solomonic王位繼承敘事( 2山姆。 9 - 20 ) ,最後的編輯器使用相對不變。

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Bibliography 參考書目
PR Ackroyd, The First Book of Samuel (1971); FM Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (1973); HW Hertzberg, 1 and 2 Samuel (1964); PK McCarter, 1 Samuel (1980); RN Whybray, The Succession Narrative (1968).公關阿克羅伊德,第一本書的塞繆爾( 1971年) ;調頻交叉,迦南神話和希伯來語史詩( 1973年) ;老赫茲伯格, 1和撒母耳記下( 1964年) ;的PK麥卡特,撒母耳記上( 1980年) ;考試Whybray ,繼承敘事( 1968年) 。


Books of Samuel圖書塞繆爾

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Samuel as Judge (1Sam 1-7)塞繆爾法官( 1Sam 1-7 )
  2. Saul as King (1Sam 8-2Sam 1)掃羅國王( 1Sam 8 2Sam 1 )
  3. David as King (2Sam 2-24)大衛國王( 2Sam 2月24日)


Sam'uel

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Samuel, heard of God.薩穆埃爾,聽說過上帝。 The peculiar circumstances connected with his birth are recorded in 1 Sam.的特殊情況與他的出生記錄在1山姆。 1:20. 1:20 。 Hannah, one of the two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a son.漢娜,其中兩個妻子Elkanah ,誰走到希洛崇拜上帝面前,認真祈禱上帝,她可能成為母親的一個兒子。 Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was weaned she brought him to Shiloh nd consecrated him to the Lord as a perpetual Nazarite (1:23-2:11).她祈禱承蒙授予;後斷奶的孩子,她帶他到希洛次神聖他主作為一個永久Nazarite ( 1:23-2:11 ) 。 Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture.在這裡他的身體慾望和培訓都參加,以誰的婦女擔任帳幕,而禮照顧他的宗教文化。 Thus, probably, twelve years of his life passed away.因此,也許12年的生命過去了。 "The child Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men" (2:26; comp. Luke 2:52). “兒童塞繆爾增長,並有利於雙方的主,也與男人” ( 2時26分;補償。路加福音2時52分) 。 It was a time of great and growing degeneracy in Israel (Judg. 21:19-21; 1 Sam. 2: 12-17, 22).這是一個偉大的時代和日益增加的簡並在以色列( Judg. 21:19-21 ; 1山姆。 2 : 12月17日, 22 ) 。

The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically masters of the country, and kept the people in subjection (1 Sam. 10:5; 13:3).的非利士人,誰晚大大增加在數量和功率,實際上國家的主人,並保持人民隸屬( 1山姆。 10:5 ; 13時03分) 。 At this time new communications from God began to be made to the pious child.在這個時候新的通信從上帝開始向虔誠的孩子。 A mysterious voice came to him in the night season, calling him by name, and, instructed by Eli, he answered, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth."神秘的聲音向他在夜間賽季,稱他的名字,並指示禮,他回答, “說吧,主; heareth為你的僕人。 ” The message that came from the Lord was one of woe and ruin to Eli and his profligate sons.該郵件是來自上帝是一個休戚與共和毀滅,以禮和他的揮霍兒子。 Samuel told it all to Eli, whose only answer to the terrible denunciations (1 Sam. 3:11-18) was, "It is the Lord; let him do what seemeth him good", the passive submission of a weak character, not, in his case, the expression of the highest trust and faith.塞繆爾說,這一切禮,其唯一的答案的可怕譴責( 1山姆。 3:11-18 )是: “這是上帝;讓他做什麼seemeth他好” ,被動提交薄弱性質,而不是在他的情況下,表達最高的信任和信心。

The Lord revealed himself now in divers manners to Samuel, and his fame and his influence increased throughout the land as of one divinely called to the prophetical office.主透露自己目前在潛水員的舉止塞繆爾,他的名聲和他的影響力不斷增加的土地作為一個神聖的預言所謂辦公室。 A new period in the history of the kingdom of God now commenced.一個新階段的歷史上神的國現在開始。 The Philistine yoke was heavy, and the people, groaning under the wide-spread oppression, suddenly rose in revolt, and "went out against the Philistines to battle."在庸俗枷鎖是很高的,和人民,下呻吟廣泛的壓迫,突然上漲的反抗,以及“走出對非利士人戰鬥。 ” A fierce and disastrous battle was fought at Aphek, near to Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1, 2).阿激烈的和災難性的戰鬥是發生在Aphek ,近到埃比尼澤( 1山姆。 4:1 , 2 ) 。 The Israelites were defeated, leaving 4,000 dead "in the field."以色列人被打敗,使4000人死亡“在外地。 ” The chiefs of the people thought to repair this great disaster by carrying with them the ark of the covenant as the symbol of Jehovah's presence.酋長的人認為以修復這一偉大的災難與他們所攜帶的約櫃的象徵耶和華的存在。 They accordingly, without consulting Samuel, fetched it out of Shiloh to the camp near Aphek.他們因此,未經諮詢塞繆爾,提取出來的希洛難民營附近Aphek 。

At the sight of the ark among them the people "shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again."在看到它們之間的方舟的人“大聲喊了很大,所以地球鈴響了。 ” A second battle was fought, and again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, stormed their camp, slew 30,000 men, and took the sacred ark.第二次戰役戰鬥,並再次戰勝了非利士人的以色列人,衝進他們的營地,轉換30000人,並採取了神聖的方舟。 The tidings of this fatal battle was speedily conveyed to Shiloh; and so soon as the aged Eli heard that the ark of God was taken, he fell backward from his seat at the entrance of the sanctuary, and his neck brake, and he died.該消息對這種致命的戰鬥迅速傳達給希洛;和這麼快的年齡禮聽說方舟是上帝,他下跌落後從他的位子在入口處的庇護,他的頸部制動,他死亡。 The tabernacle with its furniture was probably, by the advice of Samuel, now about twenty years of age, removed from Shiloh to some place of safety, and finally to Nob, where it remained many years (21:1).帳幕的家具可能是,由塞繆爾的意見,現在大約20歲,從希洛一些安全的地方,並最終Nob ,它仍然是許多年( 21時01分) 。 The Philistines followed up their advantage, and marched upon Shiloh, which they plundered and destroyed (comp. Jer. 7:12; Ps. 78:59).隨訪的非利士人的優勢,遊行時希洛,他們掠奪和摧毀( comp.哲。 7點12分;聚苯乙烯。 78:59 ) 。

This was a great epoch in the history of Israel.這是一個偉大的劃時代的歷史上以色列。 For twenty years after this fatal battle at Aphek the whole land lay under the oppression of the Philistines. 20年後,這一致命的戰鬥Aphek奠定整個土地的壓迫下的非利士人。 During all these dreary years Samuel was a spiritual power in the land.在所有這些沉悶多年塞繆爾是一種精神力量的土地。 From Ramah, his native place, where he resided, his influence went forth on every side among the people.從Ramah ,他的故鄉,他在那裡居住,他的影響力提出了對每一方都在人民群眾中。 With unwearied zeal he went up and down from place to place, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the people, endeavouring to awaken in them a sense of their sinfulness, and to lead them to repentance.與他不倦的熱情向上和向下的地方, reproving ,譴責,並敦促人民,努力喚醒他們的責任感的罪孽,並引導他們悔改。 His labours were so far successful that "all the house of Israel lamented after the Lord." Samuel summoned the people to Mizpeh, one of the loftiest hills in Central Palestine, where they fasted and prayed, and prepared themselves there, under his direction, for a great war against the Philistines, who now marched their whole force toward Mizpeh, in order to crush the Israelites once for all.他的辛勤勞動是迄今成功, “所有的房子後,以色列感嘆上帝。 ”塞繆爾召見人民Mizpeh ,一個崇高的丘陵中部巴勒斯坦,在那裡他們禁食和祈禱,並準備自己那裡,在他的帶領下,一個偉大的戰爭的非利士人,誰現在整個部隊的行進方向Mizpeh ,為了粉碎以色列人一勞永逸的。

At the intercession of Samuel God interposed in behalf of Israel.在調解的塞繆爾上帝插嘴在代表以色列。 Samuel himself was their leader, the only occasion in which he acted as a leader in war.塞繆爾自己是他們的領導人,唯一的機會,他擔任的領導戰爭。 The Philistines were utterly routed.在非利士人的落花流水。 They fled in terror before the army of Israel, and a great slaughter ensued.他們逃離前在恐怖的以色列軍隊,偉大的屠宰接踵而至。 This battle, fought probably about BC 1095, put an end to the forty years of Philistine oppression.這場鬥爭中,戰鬥可能是約公元前1095年,結束了四十年的非利士人的壓迫。 In memory of this great deliverance, and in token of gratitude for the help vouchsafed, Samuel set up a great stone in the battlefield, and called it "Ebenezer," saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" (1 Sam. 7:1-12).在記憶體中的這一偉大的解救,並在象徵感謝幫助vouchsafed ,塞繆爾設立了一個巨大的石頭在戰場上,並稱之為“埃比尼澤, ”他說: “到目前為止上帝上帝幫助我們” ( 1山姆。 7 : 1月12日) 。 This was the spot where, twenty years before, the Israelites had suffered a great defeat, when the ark of God was taken.這是地方,二十年前,猶太人遭受了巨大的失敗,當方舟是上帝。 This victory over the Philistines was followed by a long period of peace for Israel (1 Sam. 7:13, 14), during which Samuel exercised the functions of judge, going "from year to year in circuit" from his home in Ramah to Bethel, thence to Gilgal (not that in the Jordan valley, but that which lay to the west of Ebal and Gerizim), and returning by Mizpeh to Ramah.此戰勝非利士人隨後進行了較長時期的和平,以色列( 1山姆。 7點13分, 14 ) ,在此期間,塞繆爾行使法官的職能,將“每年在電路”從他的家中Ramah以貝瑟爾,然後以Gilgal (不是在約旦谷地,但奠定以西Ebal和Gerizim ) ,並返還了Mizpeh以Ramah 。

He established regular services at Shiloh, where he built an altar; and at Ramah he gathered a company of young men around him and established a school of the prophets.他建立了定期服務,希洛,他在那裡建立了一個祭壇;和Ramah ,他收集了公司的年輕男子在他周圍,並建立了一個學校的先知。 The schools of the prophets, thus originated, and afterwards established also at Gibeah, Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho, exercised an important influence on the national character and history of the people in maintaining pure religion in the midst of growing corruption.學校的先知,從而起源,後來又在Gibeah設立,貝瑟爾, Gilgal ,和傑里科行使具有重要影響的國家性質和人民的歷史中保持純宗教處於越來越腐敗。 They continued to the end of the Jewish commonwealth.他們繼續年底猶太英聯邦。 Many years now passed, during which Samuel exercised the functions of his judicial office, being the friend and counsellor of the people in all matters of private and public interest.許多年過去了,在這期間塞繆爾行使其職能的司法辦公室,作為朋友和顧問的人的所有事項的私人和公共利益。 He was a great statesman as well as a reformer, and all regarded him with veneration as the "seer," the prophet of the Lord.他是一位偉大的政治家以及一位改革者,所有認為他崇拜的“先知”先知耶和華。

At the close of this period, when he was now an old man, the elders of Israel came to him at Ramah (1 Sam. 8:4, 5, 19-22); and feeling how great was the danger to which the nation was exposed from the misconduct of Samuel's sons, whom he had invested with judicial functions as his assistants, and had placed at Beersheba on the Philistine border, and also from a threatened invasion of the Ammonites, they demanded that a king should be set over them.在此期間結束時,他現在是一個老人,老人來到以色列他Ramah ( 1山姆。八點04分, 5日, 19日至22日) ;和感情有多麼大的危險是該國被揭露出來的不當行為塞繆爾的兒子,他投資了司法職能與他的助手,並放置在貝爾謝巴邊境上的庸俗,也從一個威脅入侵的菊石,他們要求國王應建立對他們。 This request was very displeasing to Samuel.這一要求是非常displeasing塞繆爾。 He remonstrated with them, and warned them of the consequences of such a step.他remonstrated他們,並警告他們的後果這樣一個步驟。 At length, however, referring the matter to God, he acceded to their desires, and anointed Saul (qv) to be their king (11:15). Before retiring from public life he convened an assembly of the people at Gilgal (ch. 12), and there solemnly addressed them with reference to his own relation to them as judge and prophet.在長,但是,提到這件事交給上帝,他加入了他們的慾望和受膏者掃羅( qv )是他們的國王( 11:15 ) 。退休前,他從公共生活中召開了一次大會的人Gilgal (章12 ) ,並鄭重地給他們提他自己與他們的判斷和預言家。

The remainder of his life he spent in retirement at Ramah, only occasionally and in special circumstances appearing again in public (1 Sam. 13, 15) with communications from God to king Saul.剩餘的生命,他用在退休Ramah ,只是偶爾和在特殊情況下,再次出現在公眾( 1山姆。 13日, 15日)的通報上帝掃羅王。 While mourning over the many evils which now fell upon the nation, he is suddenly summoned (ch.16) to go to Bethlehem and anoint David, the son of Jesse, as king over Israel instead of Saul.雖然悼念的許多罪惡現在下跌的國家,他是突然召見( ch.16 )前往伯利恆和塗油大衛的兒子傑西,因為國王對以色列不是索爾。 After this little is known of him till the time of his death, which took place at Ramah when he was probably about eighty years of age.在這之後知之甚少的他,直到他去世時,發生在Ramah當時大概八十年歲。 "And all Israel gathered themselves together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah" (25:1), not in the house itself, but in the court or garden of his house. “所有以色列自己收集在一起,哀嘆他,埋葬了他在他的家在Ramah ” ( 25:1 ) ,而不是在自己的房子,但在法院或花園的房子。 (Comp. 2 Kings 21:18; 2 Chr. 33:20; 1 Kings 2:34; John 19:41.) Samuel's devotion to God, and the special favour with which God regarded him, are referred to in Jer. ( Comp.列王紀下21:18 ; 2染色體。 33:20 ;列王紀上2時34分;約翰19:41 ) 。塞繆爾致力於上帝,特別贊成,上帝把他,被稱為在哲。 15:1 and Ps. 15:1和聚苯乙烯。 99:6. 99:6 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Books of Sam'uel圖書Sam'uel

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The LXX.該LXX 。 translators regarded the books of Samuel and of Kings as forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books, which they called "Books of the Kingdom."譯員把書籍塞繆爾和國王為形成一個連續的歷史,它們分為四本書,他們所謂的“圖書王國。 ” The Vulgate version followed this division, but styled them "Books of the Kings."拉丁文聖經版本的遵循了這一部門,但他們設計“書籍的國王。 ” These books of Samuel they accordingly called the "First" and "Second" Books of Kings, and not, as in the modern Protestant versions, the "First" and "Second" Books of Samuel.這些書籍的塞繆爾他們因此被稱為“第一”和“第二次”圖書的國王,而不是,因為在現代新教版本中, “第一”和“第二次”圖書的塞繆爾。 The authors of the books of Samuel were probably Samuel, Gad, and Nathan.作者的書很可能塞繆爾埃托奧,蓋德,與彌敦道。 Samuel penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book.塞繆爾寫第一24章的第一本書。 Gad, the companion of David (1 Sam. 22:5), continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1 Chr. 29:29).蓋德的伴侶大衛( 1山姆。 22點05 ) ,持續的歷史就此開始;及彌敦道完成它,可能對整個安排的形式,使我們現在有( 1染色體。 29:29 ) 。

The contents of the books.書的內容。

The first book comprises a period of about a hundred years, and nearly coincides with the life of Samuel.第一本書組成,為期約100年,幾乎正好與生活的塞繆爾。 It contains (1) the history of Eli (1-4); (2) the history of Samuel (5-12); (3) the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31).它包含( 1 )歷史的禮( 1-4 ) ; ( 2 )歷史上的塞繆爾( 5月12日) ; ( 3 )歷史上的掃羅,大衛和流亡( 13-31 ) 。

The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years, contains a history of the reign of David (1) over Judah (1-4), and (2) over all Israel (5-24), mainly in its political aspects.第二本書,其中包括一段也許五十年,包含的歷史時期大衛( 1 )超過猶太( 1-4 ) ,和( 2 )對所有以色列( 5月24日) ,主要是在政治方面。 The last four chapters of Second Samuel may be regarded as a sort of appendix recording various events, but not chronologically.在過去4章第二塞繆爾可視為一種附錄記錄各種活動,但沒有按時間順序。

These books do not contain complete histories.這些書不完整的歷史。 Frequent gaps are met with in the record, because their object is to present a history of the kingdom of God in its gradual development, and not of the events of the reigns of the successive rulers.頻繁的差距會見的記錄中,因為他們的目標是本歷史的神的國在其逐步發展,而不是事件的時期歷任統治者。 It is noticeable that the section (2 Sam. 11:2-12: 29) containing an account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chr.值得注意的是,這一節( 2山姆。 11:2-12 : 29 )載有大衛的罪惡在這個問題上的拔示巴省略相應的通行1染色體。 20. 20 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


First and Second Books of Kings第一次和第二次圖書的國王

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Also know as the FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL.) (亦稱為第一和第二的書籍秉槐。 )

For the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version see KINGS, THIRD AND FOURTH BOOKS OF.第一和第二圖書國王核定版本見國王,第三和第四的書籍。

In the Vulgate both titles are given (Liber Primus Samuelis, quem nos Primum Regum dicimus, etc.); in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions the second alone is recognized, the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings.在武加大雙料冠軍,給出(書普里默斯Samuelis ,關於我Primum Regum dicimus等) ;在希伯來文版和新教版本僅是第二次承認,第三次和第四次圖書的國王被稱為第一次和第二次圖書國王隊。 To avoid confusion, the designation "First and Second Books of Samuel" is adopted by Catholic writers when referring to the Hebrew text, otherwise "First and Second Books of Kings" is commonly used.為了避免混淆,指定“第一屆和第二屆圖書塞繆爾”是通過天主教作家時,指的是希伯來文,否則“第一屆和第二屆圖書國王”是常用的。 The testimony of Origen, St. Jerome, etc., confirmed by the Massoretic summary appended to the second book, as well as by the Hebrew manuscripts, shows that the two books originally formed but one, entitled "Samuel".作證的奧利,聖杰羅姆等,證實了Massoretic簡要附加到第二本書,以及由希伯來手稿,結果表明,兩本書,但最初成立的一個題為“塞繆爾” 。 This title was chosen not only because Samuel is the principal figure in the first part, but probably also because, by having been instrumental in the establishment of the kingdom and in the selection of Saul and David as kings, he may be said to have been a determining factor in the history of the whole period comprised by the book.這個標題被選定,這不僅是因為塞繆爾是主要的人物,第一部分,但也可能是因為,由曾在設立王國和在選擇掃羅和大衛作為國王,他可以說已經一個決定性因素的歷史,包括整個期間的預訂。 The division into two books was first introduced into the Septuagint, to conform to the shorter and more convenient size of scrolls in vogue among the Greeks.該司將兩本書首次引入到七十,以符合短,更方便大小春聯盛行的希臘人。 The Book of Kings was divided at the same time, and the four books, being considered as a consecutive history of the Kingdoms of Israel and Juda, were named "Books of the Kingdoms" (Basileiôn biblía).王書分為與此同時,和四本書,被視為一個連續的歷史演義以色列和猶大,被命名為“書演義” ( Basileiôn神) 。 St. Jerome retained the division into four books, which from the Septuagint had passed into the Itala, or old Latin translation, but changed the name "Books of the Kingdoms" (Libri Regnorum) into "Books of the Kings" (Libri Regum).聖杰羅姆保留分為四本書,從七十已經過去了到伊泰萊,或舊的拉丁美洲翻譯,但名稱改為“書演義” (利布里Regnorum )到“書籍的國王” (利布里Regum ) 。 The Hebrew text of the Books of Samuel and of the Books of Kings was first divided in Bomberg's edition of the rabbinical Bible (Venice, 1516-17), the individual books being distinguished as I B. of Samuel and II B. of Samuel, I B. of Kings and II B. of Kings.希伯來文圖書的塞繆爾和帳簿國王首次分為Bomberg出版的猶太教聖經(威尼斯, 1516年至1517年) ,個別圖書尊敬我灣塞繆爾和第二灣塞繆爾,國王本人灣和第二灣國王。 This nomenclature was adopted in the subsequent editions of the Hebrew Bible and in the Protestant translations, and thus became current among non-Catholics.這個術語是通過在後續版本希伯來聖經和新教翻譯,從而成為目前非天主教徒。

CONTENTS AND ANALYSIS目錄及分析

I-II Books of Kings comprise the history of Israel from the birth of Samuel to the close of David's public life, and cover a period of about a hundred years. The first book contains the history of Samuel and of the reign of Saul; the second, the history of the reign of David, the death of Saul marking the division between the two books.第一和第二的書籍包括國王的歷史,以色列從誕生的密切塞繆爾大衛的公共生活,並涵蓋了為期約100年。的第一本書包含的歷史,塞繆爾和統治掃羅;的第二,歷史上的統治大衛,掃羅的死亡標誌著司之間的兩本書。 The contents may be divided into five main sections: (1) I, i-vii, history of Samuel; (2) viii-xiv or, better, xv, history of Saul's government; (3) xvi-xxxi, Saul and David; (4) II, i-xx, history of the reign of David; (5) xxi-xxiv, appendix containing miscellaneous matter.內容可分為五個主要部分: ( 1 )一,一至七,歷史塞繆爾; ( 2 )八至十四,或者更好,十五,歷史掃羅的政府; ( 3 )本篤十六世,三十一,掃羅和大衛( 4 )二,一至二十,歷史時期大衛; ( 5 ) 21 - 24 ,附錄載雜項問題。 The division between (3) and (4) is sufficiently indicated by the death of Saul and by David's accession to power; the other sections are marked off by the summaries, vii, 15-17; xiv, 47-58; xx, 23-26; xv, however, which is an introduction to what follows, according to the subject-matter belongs to (2).之間的分工( 3 )和( 4 )有足夠的死亡所表明的掃羅和大衛加入權力;在其他章節標記關閉的總結,七, 15日至17日; 14 , 47-58 ;二十, 23 -26 ;十五,然而,這是一個什麼介紹如下,根據標的物屬於( 2 ) 。

(1) History of Samuel ( 1 )歷史的塞繆爾

Samuel's birth and consecration to the Lord, I, i-ii, 11.塞繆爾出生和奉獻給上帝,我,我,二, 11 。 Misdeeds of the sons of Heli and prediction of the downfall of his house, ii, 12-36.劣跡的兒子直升機和預測的倒台他的房子,二, 12-36 。 Samuel's call to the prophetic office; his first vision, in which the impending punishment of the house of Heli is revealed to him, iii.塞繆爾呼籲預言辦公室;他的遠見,在這即將懲治眾議院直升機是向他透露,三。 The army of Israel is defeated by the Philistines, Ophni and Phinees are slain and the ark taken; death of Heli, iv. The ark among the Philistines; it is brought back to Bethsames and then taken to Cariathiarim, v- vii, 1.以色列軍隊是戰勝了非利士人, Ophni和Phinees被殺害和方舟採取;死亡合力,四。方舟的非利士人,這是帶回Bethsames ,然後採取Cariathiarim ,五,七, 1 。 Samuel as judge; he is instrumental in bringing the people back to the Lord and in inflicting a crushing defeat on the Philistines, vii, 2-17.塞繆爾作為法官,他是在使人民回到主和造成慘敗的非利士人,七, 2月17日。

(2) History of Saul's Government ( 2 )歷史掃羅政府

The people demand a king; Samuel reluctantly yields to their request, viii. Saul, while seeking his father's asses, is privately annointed king by Samuel, ix-x, 16.人民要求國王;塞繆爾勉強收益率的要求,八。掃羅,同時尋求他父親的評估,是國王的私人受膏者塞繆爾,九,十, 16 。 Samuel convokes the people at Maspha (Mizpah) to elect a king; the lot falls on Saul, but he is not acknowledged by all, x, 17-27.塞繆爾convokes人民Maspha (米茲帕)選出一名國王的命運落在掃羅,但他並沒有大家公認的,第十, 17-27 。 Saul defeats the Ammonite king, Naas, and opposition to him ceases, xi.掃羅國王隊的菊石, Naas ,反對他停止,十一。 Samuel's farewell address to the people, xii.塞繆爾的告別演說的人,十二。 War against the Philistines; Saul's disobedience for which Samuel announces his rejection, xiii.戰爭對非利士人;掃羅的不服從命令而塞繆爾宣布他的拒絕,十三。 Jonathan's exploit at Machmas; he is condemned to death for an involuntary breach of his father's orders, but is pardoned at the people's prayer, xiv, 1-46.喬納森的利用在Machmas ;他被判處死刑的自願違背父親的命令,但赦免在人們的祈禱,十四, 1-46 。 Summary of Saul's wars; his family and chief commander, xiv, 47- 52.綜述掃羅的戰爭;他的家人和總指揮官,十四, 47 - 52 。 War against Amalec; second disobedience and final rejection of Saul, xv.抗日戰爭Amalec ;第二反抗和最後拒絕掃羅,十五。

(3) Saul and David ( 3 )掃羅和大衛

David at Court大衛在法院

David, the youngest son of Isai (Jesse), is anointed king at Bethlehem by Samuel, xvi, 1-33.大衛的小兒子Isai (傑西) ,是受膏者國王在伯利恆的塞繆爾,十六, 1-33 。 He is called to court to play before Saul and is made his armour-bearer, xvi, 14-23.他要求法院發揮之前掃羅和他的盔甲是旗手,十六, 14日至23日。 David and Goliath, xvii.大衛和歌利亞,十七。 Jonathan's friendship for David and Saul's jealousy; the latter, after attempting to pierce David with his lance, urges him on with treacherous intent to a daring feat against the Philistines by promising him his daughter Michol in marriage, xviii.喬納森的友誼為大衛和掃羅的嫉妒,後者後,試圖與他的大衛皮爾斯槍,敦促他與陰險的意圖大膽壯舉的非利士人對他的前途他的女兒Michol在婚姻,十八。 Jonathan softens his father for a time, but, David having again distinguished himself in a war against the Philistines, the enmity is renewed, and Saul a second time attempts to kill him, xix, 1-10.喬納森軟化他的父親有一段時間,但是,大衛在再度尊敬自己在戰爭中對非利士人,是新的敵意,並掃羅第二次試圖殺死他, 19 , 1-10 。 Michol helps David to escape; he repairs to Samuel at Ramatha, but, seeing after Jonathan's fruitless effort at mediation that all hope of reconciliation is gone, he flees to Achis, King of Geth, stopping on the way at Nobe, where Achimelech gives him the loaves of proposition and the sword of Goliath. Michol幫助大衛逃跑;他修理塞繆爾在Ramatha ,但看到後,喬納森的徒勞努力調解,所有希望和解已經一去不復返了,他逃離到Achis ,國王Geth ,停在道路上野邊,在那裡給他Achimelech在麵包的主張和劍戈利亞特。 Being recognized at Geth he saves himself by feigning madness, xix, 11-xxi.認識到保存在Geth他假裝自己的瘋狂, 19 , 11 - 21 。

David as an Outlaw大衛作為奧特洛

He takes refuge in the cave of Odollam (QR88-->Adullam), and becomes the leader of a band of outlaws; he places his parents under the protection of the King of Moab.他躲藏在山洞Odollam ( QR88 - “亞杜蘭) ,並成為領導人的一幫不法之徒,他的地方他的父母的保護下,國王的莫阿布。 Saul kills Achimelech and the priests of Nobe, xxii.掃羅殺死Achimelech和神父的諾貝爾,二十二。 David delivers Ceila from the Philistines, but to avoid capture by Saul he retires to the desert of Ziph, where he is visited by Jonathan.大衛提供Ceila從非利士人,但為了避免捕獲的掃羅他退休的沙漠Ziph ,他訪問了喬納森。 He is providentially delivered when surrounded by Saul's men, xxiii.他是providentially交付索爾貝時所包圍的男子,二十三。 He spares Saul's life in a cave of the desert of Engaddi, xxiv.他零部件掃羅的生活在山洞裡的沙漠Engaddi ,二十四。 Death of Samuel.死亡塞繆爾。 Episode of Nabal and Abigail; the latter becomes David's wife after her husband's death, xxv.發作納巴爾和阿比蓋爾;後者成為大衛的妻子在丈夫死後,二十五。 During a new pursuit, David enters Saul's camp at night and carries off his lance and cup, xxvi.在一個新的追求,大衛進入掃羅陣營在夜間進行了他的槍和世界杯,二十六。 He becomes a vassal of Achis, from whom he receives Siceleg (Ziklag); while pretending to raid the territory of Juda, he wars against the tribes of the south, xxvii.他將成為附庸Achis ,從他們那裡收到Siceleg ( Ziklag ) ;而假裝突襲領土猶大,他的部落戰爭的南方,二十七。 New war with the Philistines; Saul's interview with the witch of Endor, xxviii. David accompanies the army of Achis, but his fidelity being doubted by the Philistine chiefs he is sent back.新的戰爭與非利士人;索爾的採訪女巫的恩,二十八。大衛伴隨的軍隊Achis ,但他的忠誠受到懷疑的非利士人的首領,他被送回。 On his return he finds that Siceleg has been sacked by the Amalecites during his absence, and Abigail carried off with other prisoners; he pursues the marauders and recovers the prisoners and the booty, xxix-xxx.在他返回他認為, Siceleg已被解僱的Amalecites在他離港期間,和阿比蓋爾抬下場與其他囚犯;他奉行亂兵和恢復戰俘和戰利品,二十九,三十。 Battle of Gelboe; death of Saul and Jonathan, xxxi.戰役Gelboe ;死亡掃羅和Jonathan ,三十一。

(4) History of the Reign of David ( 4 )歷史時期的大衛

David at Hebron大衛在希伯倫

He hears of the death of Saul and Jonathan; his lament over them, II, i.他聽到的死亡掃羅和Jonathan ;他悲嘆他們,二,一, He is anointed King of Juda at Hebron, ii, 1-7.他是受膏者國王猶大在希伯倫,二, 1月7日。 War between David and Isboseth, or Esbaal (Ishbaal), the son of Saul, who is recognized by the other tribes, ii, 8-32.大衛之間的戰爭和Isboseth ,或Esbaal ( Ishbaal )的兒子掃羅,誰是公認的其他部落,二, 8-32 。 Abner, the commander of Isboseth's forces, having quarrelled with his master, submits to David and is treacherously slain by Joab, iii.阿布納,指揮官Isboseth的部隊,在爭吵與他的主人,向大衛和背信棄義的殺害是由喬阿布,三。 Isboseth is assassinated; David punishes the murderers and is acknowledged by all the tribes, iv-v, 5. Isboseth是暗殺;大衛懲罰兇手,是大家公認的部落,四,五, 5 。

David at Jerusalem大衛在耶路撒冷

Jerusalem is taken from the Jebusites and becomes the capital, v, 6-16.耶路撒冷是從耶布斯人,成為資本,五, 6月16日。 War with the Philistines, v, 17-25.戰爭與非利士人,五, 17-25 。 The ark is solemnly carried from Cariathiarim to Sion, vi.方舟是莊嚴進行從Cariathiarim以錫永,六。 David thinks of building a temple; his intention, though not accepted, is rewarded with the promise that his throne will last forever, vii.大衛認為,建立一個廟,他的意圖,但沒有被接受,是回報的承諾,他的王位將永遠持續下去,七。 Summary of the various wars waged by David, and list of his officers, viii.總結歷次戰爭發動的大衛和他的人員名單,八。 His kindness to Miphiboseth, or Meribbaal, the son of Jonathan, ix.他的善良,以Miphiboseth ,或Meribbaal的兒子喬納森,九。 War with Ammon and Syria, x.戰爭與阿蒙和敘利亞,十

David's Family History大衛的家庭史

His adultery with Bethsabee, the wife of Urias, xi.他與Bethsabee通姦的妻子Urias ,十一。 His repentance when the greatness of his crime is brought home to him by Nathan, xii, 1-23.他懺悔的偉大時,他的罪行是帶回家給他的彌敦道,十二, 1月23日。 Birth of Solomon; David is present at the taking of Rabbath, xii, 24-31.出生所羅門;大衛出席採取Rabbath ,十二, 24-31 。 Amnon ravishes Thamar, the sister of Absalom; the latter has him assassinated and flies to Gessur; through the intervention of Joab he is recalled and reconciled with his father, xiii-xiv.阿姆農ravishes Thamar ,押沙龍的妹妹,後者已被殺害,他將飛往Gessur ;通過干預喬阿布他回顧和調和與他的父親,十三,十四。 Rebellion of Absalom; David flies from Jerusalem; Siba, Miphiboseth's servant, brings him provisions and accuses his master of disloyalty; Semei curses David; Absalom goes in to his father's concubines, xv-xvi.叛亂押沙龍;大衛蒼蠅從耶路撒冷; Siba , Miphiboseth的僕人,使他的規定,並指責他的主人的不忠; Semei咒罵大衛;押沙龍不用到他父親的小妾,十五,十六。 Achitophel counsels immediate pursuit, but Absalom follows the advice of Chusai, David's adherent, to delay, and thus gives the fugitive king time to cross the Jordan, xvii. Achitophel律師立即實現,但押沙龍如下的意見Chusai ,大衛的粘附,延遲,從而使逃犯國王時間跨越約旦,十七。 Battle of Mahanaim; Absalom is defeated and slain by Joab against the king's order, xviii.戰役瑪哈念;押沙龍被打敗和被殺害的喬阿布對國王的命令,十八。 David's intense grief, from which he is aroused by Joab's remonstrance.大衛的強烈悲痛,而他是引起喬阿布的抗議。 At the passage of the Jordan he pardons Semei, receives Miphiboseth back into his good graces, and invites to court Berzellai, who had supplied provisions to the army, xix, 1-39.在通過了約旦,他赦免Semei ,收到Miphiboseth回到他的青睞,並請法院Berzellai ,誰提供了規定的軍隊, 19 , 1-39 。 Jealousies between Israel and Juda lead to the revolt of Seba; Amasa is commissioned to raise a levy, but, as the troops are collected too slowly, Joab and Abisai are sent with the bodyguard in pursuit of the rebels; Joab treacherously slays Amasa.忌妒以色列和猶大導致的反感施; Amasa的委託,以提高徵稅,但正如部隊收集太慢,喬阿布和Abisai發送的保鏢在追求叛軍;喬阿布背信棄義slays Amasa 。 Summary of officers, xix, 40-xx.綜述人員, 19 , 40 - XX元。

(5) Appendix ( 5 )附錄

The two sons of Respha, Saul's concubine, and the five sons of Merob, Saul's daughter, are put to death by the Gabaonites, xxi, 1-14.兩個兒子Respha ,掃羅的妾,五個兒子Merob ,索爾的女兒,是把死亡的Gabaonites ,二十一, 1月14日。 Various exploits against the Philistines, xxi, 15-22.各種漏洞對非利士人,二十一世紀, 15-22 。 David's psalm of thanksgiving (Ps. xvii), xxii.大衛的詩篇的感恩節( Ps.十七) ,二十二。 His "last words", xxiii, 1-7.他的“遺言” , 23 , 1-7 。 Enumeration of David's valiant men, xxiii, 8-39.列舉大衛英勇的男子, 23 , 8-39 。 The numbering of the people and the pestilence following it, xxiv.編號人民和瘟疫下列它,二十四。

UNITY AND OBJECT團結和對象

I-II Books of Kings never formed one work with III-IV, as was believed by the older commentators and is still maintained by some modern writers, although the consecutive numbering of the books in the Septuagint and the account of David's last days and death at the beginning of III Kings seem to lend colour to such a supposition.第一和第二圖書國王從來沒有形成一個工作與三,四,如被認為是較舊的評論員,並仍保持一些現代作家,儘管連續編號的書籍中譯本和帳戶的大衛的最後幾天和死亡開始時,三國王似乎借給膚色這種假設。 The difference of plan and method pursued in the two pairs of books shows that they originally formed two distinct works.差異的計劃和方法推行的2雙書籍表明,他們最初形成兩個不同的作品。 The author of III-IV gives a more or less brief sketch of each reign, and then refers his readers for further information to the source whence he has drawn his data; while the author of I-II furnishes such full and minute details, even when they are of little importance, that his work looks more like a series of biographies than a history, and, with the exception of II, i, 18, where he refers to the "Book of the Just", he never mentions his sources.作者的三至四提供了或多或少的簡短素描每個時期,然後是指他的讀者提供進一步資料的來源何處,他已引起他的數據,而作者的第一和第二提供這種充分和微小的細節,甚至當他們沒有多大意義,他的工作看起來更像一系列傳記比歷史和,除了二,一, 18日,他指的是“圖書的正義” ,他從來沒有提到他的消息來源。 Moreover, the writer of III-IV supplies abundant chronological data.此外,作家的三至四供應充裕時間的數據。 Besides giving the length of each reign, he usually notes the age of the king at his accession and, after the division, the year of the reign of the contemporary ruler of the other kingdom; he also frequently dates particular events.除了給予每個長度統治,他的年齡通常注意到國王在他的加入,並在該司的一年統治當代統治者的其他王國,他還經常日期特定事件。 In the first two books, on the contrary, chronological data are so scant that it is impossible to determine the length of the period covered by them.在頭兩本書,相反,時間的數據是如此稀少,這是無法確定的長度所涵蓋的期間他們。 The position taken by the author of III-IV, with regard to the facts he relates, is also quite different from that of the author of the other two.所採取的立場作者三,四,關於他涉及的事實,也很不同,作者的其他兩個。 The former praises or blames the acts of the various rulers, especially with respect to forbidding or allowing sacrifices outside the sanctuary, while the latter rarely expresses a judgment and repeatedly records sacrifices contrary to the prescriptions of the Pentateuch without a word of censure or comment.前者稱讚或指責的行為不同的統治者,特別是關於禁止或允許之外的犧牲庇護,而後者則很少表示判決,並反复記錄犧牲違反規定的摩西五沒有一個字的譴責或評論。 Lastly, there is a marked difference in style between the two sets of books; the last two show decided Aramaic influence, whereas the first two belong to the best period of Hebrew literature.最後,有一個明顯的差別風格兩組書籍;在過去兩年顯示決定阿拉姆的影響,而前兩個屬於最好時期希伯萊文學。 At the most, it might be said that the first two chapters of the third book originally were part of the Book of Samuel, and were later detached by the author of the Book of Kings to serve as an introduction to the history of Solomon; but even this is doubtful.在最,可以說,前兩章的第三本書的一部分,原來的圖書的薩穆埃爾,以及後來獨立的一書的作者王充當介紹所羅門群島的歷史,但即使這是值得懷疑的。 These chapters are not required by the object which the author of the Book of Samuel had in view, and the work is a complete whole without them. Besides, the summary, II, xx, 23-26, sufficiently marks the conclusion of the history of David.這些章節是不需要的對象本書的作者塞繆爾了看法,和工作是一個完整的整體沒有他們。此外,總結,二,二十, 23日至26日,充分標誌著結束歷史大衛。 In any case these two chapters are so closely connected with the following that they must have belonged to the Book of Kings from its very beginning.在任何情況下,這兩個章節是如此密切相關,以下,他們必須有屬於國王書從一開始。

The general subject of I-II Kings is the foundation and development of the Kingdom of Israel, the history of Samuel being merely a preliminary section intended to explain the circumstances which brought about the establishment of the royal form of government.一般主題第一和第二國王是基礎和發展的以色列王國的歷史塞繆爾正在只是一個初步節旨在解釋的情況,帶來了建立皇家的政府形式。 On closer examination of the contents, however, it is seen that the author is guided by a leading idea in the choice of his matter, and that his main object is not to give a history of the first two kings of Israel, but to relate the providential foundation of a permanent royal dynasty in the family of David.在仔細審查的內容,但是,看到作者是一家領先的指導思想在他的選擇的問題,他的主要目的是不給歷史的前兩個國王的以色列,而是要涉及基金會的天賜一個永久王朝在家庭中的大衛。 This strikingly appears in the account of Saul's reign, which may be summarized in the words: elected, found wanting, and rejected in favour of David.這突出顯示在帳戶的掃羅的統治地位,這可以概括的話:當選,缺少,並拒絕了贊成票大衛。 The detailed history of the struggle between David and Saul and his house is plainly intended to show how David, the chosen of the Lord, was providentially preserved amid many imminent dangers and how he ultimately triumphed, while Saul perished with his house.的詳細歷史之間的鬥爭大衛和掃羅和他的房子顯然是為了表明如何大衛,選擇的主,是providentially保存在許多迫在眉睫的危險,以及他如何最終取得勝利,而滅亡掃羅與他的房子。 The early events of David's rule over united Israel are told in few words, even such an important fact as the capture of Jerusalem being little insisted on, but his zeal for God's worship and its reward in the solemn promise that his throne would last forever (II, vii, 11-16) are related in full detail.早期事件大衛的統治以色列被告知聯合國的幾句話,即使這樣一個重要事實,抓獲耶路撒冷是沒有堅持,但他的熱情,在上帝的崇拜和獎勵的莊嚴承諾,他的王位將永遠(二,七, 11月16日)在有關的全部細節。 The remaining chapters tell how, in pursuance of this promise, God helps him to extend and consolidate his kingdom, and does not abandon him even after his great crime, though he punishes him in his tenderest feelings.其餘的章節告訴你,根據這一承諾,上帝幫助他擴大和鞏固自己的王國,並沒有放棄他,即使他的罪行,但他懲罰他tenderest感情。 The conclusion shows him in peaceful possession of the throne after two dangerous rebellions.結果表明他在和平擁有王位後兩個危險叛亂。 The whole story is thus built around a central idea and reaches its climax in the Messianic promise, II, vii, 11 sqq. Besides this main object a secondary one may be observed, which is to convey to king and people the lesson that to obtain God's protection they must observe His commands.整個故事是圍繞著這樣一個核心思想和達到高潮的彌賽亞的諾言,二,七, 11 sqq 。除了這個主要對象中一可以看出,這是向國王和人民的教訓,以獲取上帝的保護,他們必須遵守他的命令。

AUTHOR AND DATE作者和日期

The Talmud attributes to Samuel the whole work bearing his name; this strange opinion was later adopted by St. Gregory the Great, who naïvely persuaded himself that Samuel wrote the events which occurred after his death by prophetic revelation.猶太法典屬性塞繆爾整個工作同時他的名字;這一奇怪的意見,後來通過的聖格里高利大,誰天真地說服自己寫的塞繆爾發生的事件在他死後的先知啟示。 Rabbinical tradition and most of the older Christian writers ascribe to this prophet the part referring to his time (I, i-xxiv), the rest to the Prophets Gad and Nathan.猶太教的傳統,大多數老年人基督教作家賦予這一預言的一部分指的是他的時間(我,我- 24 ) ,其餘的先知蓋德及彌敦道。 This view is evidently based on I Par., xxix, 29, "Now the acts of king David first and last are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer." But the wording of the text indicates that there is question of three distinct works.這種觀點顯然是基於I標準桿。 ,第29 , 29 , “現在的行為大衛王第一個和最後一個是寫在書的預言家塞繆爾,並在書中的彌敦道先知,在這本書的谷氨酸脫羧酶預言家。 “不過的案文的措詞表明,有問題的三種不同的作品。 Besides, the unity of plan and the close connection between the different parts exclude composite authorship; we must at least admit a redactor who combined the three narratives.此外,統一的計劃和之間的密切聯繫的不同部分排除複合著作權;我們必須至少承認redactor誰合併三個敘述。 This redactor, according to Hummelauer, is the prophet Nathan; the work, however, can hardly be placed so early.這redactor ,根據Hummelauer ,是先知彌敦道;的工作,然而,就很難把這麼早。 Others attribute it to Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechias, or Esdras.其他屬性它伊薩亞,赫雷米亞斯,埃澤希亞甚,或埃斯德拉斯。 None of these opinions rests on any solid ground, and we can only say that the author is unknown. The same diversity of opinion exists as to the date of composition.這些意見取決於任何堅固的地面,我們只能說,作者不詳。同樣存在不同的意見,以組成的日期。 Hummelauer assigns it to the last days of David. Hummelauer賦予它的最後幾天大衛。 Vigouroux, Cornely, Lesêtre, and Thenius place it under Roboam; Kaulen, under Abiam the son of Roboam; Haevernick, not long after David, Ewald, some thirty years after Solomon; Clair, between the death of David and the destruction of the Kingdom of Juda. Vigouroux , Cornely , Lesêtre ,並把它Thenius下Roboam ; Kaulen ,根據Abiam的兒子Roboam ; Haevernick不久後,大衛,埃瓦爾德,一些30年後所羅門群島;克萊爾,死亡之間的大衛和破壞王國的猶大。 According to recent critics it belongs to the seventh century, but received retouches as late as the fifth or even the fourth century.根據最近的批評它屬於七世紀,但沒有收到retouches遲第五或什至4世紀。 No sufficient data are at hand to fix a precise date.沒有足夠的數據來解決手頭上的確切日期。 We can, however, assign cedrtain limits of time within which the work must have been composed.然而,我們可以指定cedrtain限制的時間內的工作必須已經組成。 The explanation concerning the dress of the king's daughters in David's time (II, xiii, 18) supposes that a considerable period had elapsed in the interval, and points to a date later than Solomon, during whose reign a change in the style of dress was most likely introduced by his foreign wives.解釋關於穿著國王的女兒在大衛的時間(二,第十三條, 18條)假定在相當長的時間已經過去了的間隔,並指出一個日期晚於所羅門,在其在位改變風格的服裝是最有可能引進他的外籍妻子。 How much later is indicated by the remark: "For which reason Siceleg belongeth to the kings of Juda unto this day."多少後來所表明的話: “由於這個原因Siceleg belongeth向國王的猶大你們這一天。 ” (I, xxvii, 6). (一,二十七, 6 ) 。 The expression kings of Juda implies that at the time of writing the Kingdom of Israel had been divided, and that at least two or three kings had reigned over Juda alone.國王的表達的猶大意味著在編寫本報告時,以色列王國分裂了,而且至少有兩個或三個國王統治猶大的。 The earliest date cannot, therefore, be placed berfore the reign of Abiam.的最早日期,因此不能放在berfore統治Abiam 。 The latest date, on the other hand, must be assigned to a time prior to Josias's reform (621 BC).最新的日期,另一方面,必須分配到一個時間之前Josias的改革( 621年) 。 As has been remarked, the author repeatedly records without censure or comment violations of the Pentateuchal law regarding sacrifices.正如人們所說,作者多次記錄沒有訓斥或評論侵犯Pentateuchal法中關於犧牲。 Now it is not likely that he would have acted thus if he had written after these practices had been abolished and their unlawfulness impressed on the people, since at this time his readers would have taken scandal at the violation of the Law by such a person as Samuel, and at the toleration of unlawful rites by a king like David.現在是不太可能,他將採取行動因此,如果他寫了之後,這些做法已被廢除和不法的人留下深刻的印象,因為在這個時候他的讀者會採取醜聞在違反法律規定的這樣一個人塞繆爾,並在容忍非法儀式由國王像大衛。 The force of this reason will be seen if we consider how the author of II-IV Kings, who wrote after Josias's reform, censures every departure from the Law in this respect or, as in 1 Kings 3:2, explains it.該部隊的這個原因可以看出,如果我們考慮如何作者的二至四王,誰後寫道Josias的改革,譴責一切偏離法律在這方面,或在列王紀上3:2 ,說明了它。 The purity of language speaks for an early rather than a late date within the above limits. The appendix, however, may possibly be due to a somewhat later hand.純淨的語言講早日而不是晚在上述限制。附錄,不過,可能是由於後來的手。 Moreover, additions by a subsequent inspired revisor may be admitted without difficulty.此外,增加了隨後的啟發revisor可接納沒有困難。

SOURCES

It is now universally recognized that the author of I-II Kings made use of written documents in composing his work.現在人們普遍認識到,作者第一和第二國王使用書面文件,撰寫他的工作。 One such document, "The Book of the Just", is mentioned in connection with David's lament over Saul and Jonathan (II, i, 18).一個這樣的文件, “這本書的正義”中提到的與大衛的悲嘆掃羅和Jonathan (二,一, 18 ) 。 The canticle of Anna (I, ii, 1-10), David's hymn of thanksgiving (II, 22:2-51; cf. Psalm 17), and his "last words" were very probably also drawn from a written source.的頌歌安娜(一,二, 1月10日) ,大衛的讚美詩感恩(二22:2-51 ;比照。詩篇17 ) ,和他的“最後一句話”人很可能也來自書面來源。 But besides these minor sources, the writer must have had at hand, at least for the history of David, a document containing much of the historical matter which he narrates.但除了這些未成年人的來源,作者必須有在另一方面,至少在歷史上的大衛,一份載有大量的歷史問題,他敘述。 This we infer from the passages common to I-II Kings and the First Book of Paralipomenon (Chronicles), which are shown in the following list:–為此,我們推斷從通道共同第一和第二國王和第一本書的Paralipomenon (編年史) ,這是顯示在下面的列表: -

I K., xxxi II K., iii, 2-5 v, 1-10 v, 11-25 vi, 1-11 vi, 12-23俺光,光三十一二,三, 2月5日五, 1月10日五, 11月25日六, 1月11日六, 12月23日

viiI Par., x, 1-12 iii, 1-4 xi, 1-9 xiv, 1-16 xiii, 1-14 xv, 25-29 xvi, 1-3, 43 xviiI K., viii x,1-xi, 1 xii, 26-31 xxi, 18-22 xxiii, 8-39 xxiv八桿。 ,第十章, 1月12日三, 1月4日第十一1-9十四, 1月16日十三, 1月14日十五,十六世25日至29日, 1月3日, 43十八光,八第十1 -十一, 1第十二26-31 21 18-22二十三,二十四8-39

I Par., xviii xix, 1-xx.餘票。 ,十八19 , 1 - XX元。 1 xx, 1-3 xx, 4-8 xi, 10-46 xxi 1第XX號, 1月3日第XX號, 4月8日十一,二十一世紀10-46

Although these passages often agree word for word, the differences are such that the author of Paralipomenon, the later writer, cannot be said to have copied from I-II Kings, and we must conclude that both authors made use of the same document.雖然這些通道往往同意逐字逐句的差異,例如,作者的Paralipomenon ,後來的作家,不能說已複製從I -二王,我們必須得出結論,兩位作者採用了同樣的文件。 This seems to have been an official record of important public events and of matters pertaining to the administration, such as was probably kept by the court "recorder" (2 Samuel 8:16; 20:24), and is very likely the same as the "Chronicles of King David" (1 Chronicles 27:24).這似乎已經正式記錄重要的公共活動和有關的事項向行政部門,如可能是由法院保持“錄音機” (撒母耳記下8時16分; 20:24 ) ,並很可能是相同的在“納尼亞大衛王” (歷代誌上27:24 ) 。 To this document we may add three others mentioned in I Par.本文件,我們可以添加其他三人中提到的餘票。 (xxix, 29) as sources of information for the history of David, namely, the "Book of Samuel", the "Book of Gad", and the "Book of Nathan". (第29屆, 29歲)作為信息來源的歷史大衛,即“周易塞繆爾”的“圖書谷氨酸脫羧酶”和“圖書的彌敦道” 。 These were works of the three Prophets, as we gather from II Par., ix, 29; xii, 15; xx, 34, etc.; and our author would hardly neglect writings recommended by such names.這些工程的三個先知,因為我們集合了來自二桿。 ,第九,第29條;十二, 15 ;二十, 34等;和我們的作者將很難忽視這樣的著作中所建議的名稱。 Samuel very probably furnished the matter for his own history and for part of Saul's; Gad, David's companion in exile, the details of that part of David's life, as well as of his early days as king; and Nathan, information concerning the latter part, or even the whole, of his reign.薩穆埃爾很可能提供這個問題的歷史和自己的一部分掃羅的;蓋德,大衛的同伴在流亡中,詳情一部分大衛的生活,以及他早期國王;及彌敦道,關於後者的一部分,甚至從總體上看,他的統治。 Thus between them they would have fairly covered the period treated of, if, indeed, their narratives did not partially overlap.因此,他們之間有相當所涉期間處理的,事實上,如果沒有他們的敘述部分重疊。 Besides these four documents other sources may occasionally have been used.除了這四個文件其他來源可能偶爾會一直使用。 A comparison of the passages of I-II Kings and I Par.比較通道的第一和第二國王和我標準桿。 given in the list above shows further that both writers frequently transferred their source to their own pages with but few changes; for, since one did not copy from the other, the agreement between them cannot be explained except on the supposition that they more or less reproduce the same document.由於在上述清單進一步表明,這兩個作家的來源經常轉移到自己的網頁,但很少變化;的,因為一個沒有複製另一方面,他們之間的協議是無法解釋,除非是假定他們或多或少複製相同的文件。 We have therefore reason to believe that our author followed the same course in other cases, but to what extent we have no means of determining.因此,我們有理由相信,我們的作者遵循同樣的課程在其他情況下,但到什麼程度,我們沒有辦法確定。

THE CRITICAL THEORY批判理論

According to recent critics, I-II Kings is nothing but a compilation of different narratives so unskillfully combined that they may be separated with comparative ease.根據最近的批評,一至二國王只不過是彙編的不同說明,以便unskillfully合併,它們可以被分離與比較方便。 In spite of this comparative ease in distinguishing the different elements, the critics are not agreed as to the number of sources, nor as to the particular souce to which certain passages are to be ascribed.儘管這樣比較容易區分不同的內容,批評是不同意的數量,來源,也不至於特別源的某些段落要歸功於。 At present the Wellhausen-Budde theory is accepted, at least in its main outlines, by nearly the whole critical school.目前,豪森-布德理論是公認的,至少在其主要概述,幾乎整個學校的關鍵。 According to this theory, II, ix-xx, forms one document, which is practically contemporary with the events described; the rest (excluding the appendix) is chiefly made up of two writings, an older one, J, of the ninth century, and a later one, E, of the end of the eighth or the beginning of the seventh century.根據這一理論,二,九,二十,形成一個文件,該文件實際上是當代與描述的事件,其餘的(不包括附錄)主要是由兩個作品,一個舊,強,第九屆世紀,和以後的一中,英,結束的第八屆或年初七世紀。 They are designated J and E, because they are either due to the authors of the Jahwist and Elohist documents of the Hexateuch, or to writers belonging to the same schools.他們被指定為J和英文,因為他們都是由於作者Jahwist和Elohist文件Hexateuch ,或作者屬於同一所學校。 Both J and E underwent modifications by a revisor, J² and E² respectively, and after being welded together by a redactor, RJE, were edited by a writer of the Deuteronomic school, RD. J和é雙方進行修改的revisor ,強²和E ²分別與被焊接在一起的redactor , RJE ,是編輯的一個作家的Deuteronomic學校路。 After this redaction some further additions were made, among them the appendix.在這之後纂進一步增加了,其中包括附錄。 The different elements are thus divided by Budde:–的不同組成部分,因此除以布德: -

J.–I, ix, 1-x, 7, 9-16; xi, 1-11, 15; xiii, 1-7a, 15b-18; xiv, 1-46, 52; xvi, 14-23; xviii, 5-6, 11, 20-30; xx, 1-10, 18-39, 42b; xxii, 1-4, 6-18, 20-23; xxiii, 1-14a; xxvi; xxvii; xxix-xxxi.學者一,九, 1一X 7 , 9月16日;十一, 1月11日, 15日;第十三1 - 7A條,第15B - 18 ; 14 , 1-46 , 52 ;十六世, 14日至23日;十八, 5月6日, 11 , 20-30 ;二十, 1-10 , 18-39 , 42b ;二十二, 1月4日, 6月18日, 20日至23日;二十三, 1 - 14A條;二十六,二十七,二十九,三十一。 II, i, 1-4, 11-12, 17-27; ii, 1-9, 10b, 12-32; iii; iv; v, 1-3, 6-10, 17-25; vi; ix-xi; xii, 1-9, 13-30, xiii-xx, 22. J².–I, x, 8; xiii, 7b- 15a, 19-22.二,一, 1-4 , 11-12 , 17-27 ;二, 1月9日, 10B條, 12-32 ;三;四;五, 1月3日, 6月10日, 17-25 ;第六;第九十一;十二, 1月9日, 13至30 ,十三,二十, 22 。 J ² .-一,十, 8 ;第十三7B條,第15A , 19日至22日。

E.–I, iv, 1b-vii, 1; xv, 2-34; xvii, 1-11, 14-58; xviii, 1-4, 13-29; xix, 1, 4-6, 8-17; xxi, 1- 9; xxi, 19; xxii, 19-xxiv, 19; xxv; xxviii.東一,四, 1B款,第七章, 1 ;十五2-34 ;十七, 1月11日, 14-58 ; 18 , 1-4 , 13-29 ;十九, 1 , 4月6日, 8月17日; 21 , 1 - 9 ; 21 , 19 ; 22 , 19 - 24 , 19 ;二十五;二十八。 II, i, 6-10, 13-16; vii. E².–I, i, 1-28; ii, 11- 22a, 23-26; iii, 1-iv, 1a; vii, 2-viii, 22; x, 17-24; xii.二,一, 6月10日, 13日至16日;七。 é ² .-我,我, 1月28日;二, 11 - 22A條, 23日至26日;三, 1個第四,第1a ;七, 2至第八,第22 ;第十17-24 ;十二。

RJE.–I, x, 25-27; xi, 12-14; xv, 1; xviii, 21b; xix, 2-3, 7; xx, 11-17, 40-42a; xxii, 10b; xxiii, 14b-18; xxiv, 16, 20-22a. RJE.一,十, 25日至27日;十一, 12月14日;十五, 1 ;十八,第二十一期乙;十九, 2月3日, 7日;二十, 11月17日, 40 - 42a ;二十二, 10B條;二十三,第14B -18 ; 24 , 16 , 20 - 22A條。 II, i, 5. RD.–1, iv, 18 (last clause); vii, 2; xiii, 1; xiv, 47-51; xxviii, 3.二,我5 。 RD. - 1 ,四,第18條(最後條款) ;七, 2 ;第十三1 ; 14 , 47-51 ;二十八, 3 。 II, ii, 10a, 11; v, 4-5; viii; xii, 10-12.二,二, 10A條,第11條;五, 4月5日;第八;十二, 10月12日。

Additions of a later editor.–I, iv, 15, 22; vi, 11b, 15, 17-29; xi, 8b; xv, 4; xxiv, 14; xxx, 5.加成以後editor.一,四, 15日, 22日;六, 11B款,第15 , 17-29 ;第十一8B條;十五, 4 ; 24 , 14 ;三十, 5 。 II, iii, 30; v, 6b, 7b, 8b; xv, 24; xx, 25- 26.二,三, 30 ;五型, 7B條,第8B ;十五, 24 ;二十, 25 - 26 。

Latest additions.–I, ii, 1-10, 22b; xvi, 1-13; xvii, 12-13; xix, 18-24; xx, 10-15; xxii, 5.最新additions. ,一,二, 1月10日, 22B款;十六, 1月13日;十七, 12月13日; 19 , 18-24 ;二十, 10月15日; 22 , 5 。 II, xiv, 26; xxi-xxiv.二,第十四條, 26條; 21 - 24 。

This minute division, by which even short clauses are to a nicety apportioned to their proper sources, is based on the following grounds.這分鐘司,其中甚至短期條款以準確分攤給他們適當的來源,是基於以下的理由。 (1) There are duplicate narratives giving a different or even a contradictory presentation of the same event. ( 1 )有重複敘述給予不同的,甚至是矛盾的介紹了同一事件。 There are two accounts of Saul's election (I, viii, 1-xi), of his rejection (xiii, 1-14 and xv), of his death (I, xxxi, 1 sqq., and II, i, 4 sqq.), of his attempt to pierce David (I, xxiii, 10-11, and xix, 9-10d).有兩個賬戶的掃羅的選舉(一,八, 1 - 11 ) ,他拒絕(十三, 1月14日和XV )號決議,他的死亡(一,三十一, 1 sqq 。 ,和二,一, 4 sqq 。 ) ,他的企圖大衛皮爾斯(我, 23 , 10月11日,和19 , 9 - 10D條) 。 There are also two accounts of David's introduction to Saul (I, xvi, 14 sqq. and xvii, 55-58), of his flight from court (xix, 10 sqq., and xxi, 10), of his taking refuge with Achis (xxi, 10 sqq., and xxvii, 1 sqq.), of his sparing Saul's life (xxiv, and xxvi).也有兩個帳戶的大衛介紹掃羅(一,本篤十六世, 14 sqq 。和十七, 55-58 ) ,他的飛行由法院( 19 , 10 sqq 。 ,和21 , 10 ) ,他的避難與Achis ( 21 , 10 sqq 。 ,和二十七, 1 sqq 。 ) ,他不遺餘力掃羅的生命(二十四,並XXVI )號決議。 Lastly, there are two accounts of the origin of the proverb: "Is Saul too among the prophets?"最後,有兩個賬戶的起源諺語: “是索爾太多的先知? ” (x, 12; xix, 24). (十, 12歲; 19 , 24 ) 。 Some of these double narratives are not only different, but contradictory.其中的一些雙重說明不僅是不同的,但矛盾的。 In one account of Saul's election the people demand a king, because they are dissatisfied with the sons of Samuel; the prophet manifests great displeasure and tries to turn them from their purpose; he yields, however, and Saul is chosen by lot.在一個帳戶的索爾的選舉人民需求的國王,因為他們是不滿意的兒子塞繆爾;先知的表現非常不滿,並試圖把他們從他們的目的,他的產量,但是,和索爾是通過抽籤決定。 In the other, Samuel shows no aversion to the kingdom; he privately anoints Saul at God's command that he may deliver Israel from the Philistines; Saul is proclaimed king only after, and in reward of his victory over the Ammonite king, Naas.在另一方面,塞繆爾沒有厭惡王國;他的私人anoints掃羅在上帝的命令,他可能提供以色列從非利士人;掃羅是國王之後才宣布,並在獎勵他戰勝國王的菊石, Naas 。 According to one version of Saul's death, he killed himself by falling on his sword; according to the other, he was slain at his own request by an Amalecite.據一個版本掃羅的死,他自殺身亡的下降,他的劍;根據其他,他被殺害在自己的要求,一個Amalecite 。 Again, in xvi, David, then arrived at full manhood and experienced in warfare, is called to court to play before Saul and is made his armour-bearer, and yet in the very next chapter he appears as a shepherd lad unused to arms and unknown both to Saul and to Abner.再次,在十六,大衛,然後抵達充分青壯年和有經驗的戰爭中,被稱為法院發揮掃羅和之前他的盔甲是旗手,但在非常下一章他似乎作為一個牧羊人的孩子使用的武器和未知既掃羅和阿布納。 Moreover, there are statements at variance with one another.此外,有報表不符合彼此。 In I, vii, 33, it is stated that "the Philistines . . . did not come any more into the borders of Israel . . . all the days of Samuel"; while in ix, 16, Saul is elected king to deliver Israel from them, and in xiii a Philistine invasion is described.在第一,第七,有33個,這是說, “非利士人。 。 。並沒有任何更多的邊界進入以色列。 。 。所有的日子塞繆爾” ;而在九, 16日,國王掃羅當選以色列提供他們,並在第十三1非利士人入侵描述。 In I, vii, 15, Samuel is said to have judged Israel all the days of his life, though in his old age he delegated his powers to his sons (viii, 1), and after the election of Saul solemnly laid down his office (xii). Finally, in I, xv, 35, Samuel is said never to have seen Saul again, and yet in xix, 24, Saul appears before him.在第一,第七, 15日,塞繆爾據說判斷以色列所有的日子裡他的生活,但在晚年,他的權力下放給他的兩個兒子(八, 1 ) ,並在選舉後的掃羅莊嚴放下辦公室(十二) 。最後,在一,十五, 35歲的塞繆爾說從來沒有看到再次掃羅,但在19 , 24 ,掃羅出現在他面前。 All this shows that two narratives, often differing in their presentation of the facts, have been combined, the differences in some cases being left unharmonized.這一切表明,兩個說明,往往在他們的介紹不同的事實,已合併的差異在某些情況下,留unharmonized 。 (2) Certain passages present religious conceptions belonging to a later age, and must therefore be ascribed to a later writer, who viewed the events of past times in the light of the religious ideas of his own. ( 2 )某些段落本宗教觀念屬於年齡,因此必須為其以後的作家,誰看待過去發生的事件時,考慮到宗教思想自己。 A difference of literary style can also be detected in the different parts of the work.相差文體也可以發現在不同地區的工作。 If all this were true, the theory of the critics would have to be admitted.如果這一切是真的,理論的批評者都必須承認。 In that case much of I-II Kings would have but little historical value.在這種情況下,許多第一和第二國王,但很少有歷史價值。 The argument from the religious conceptions assumes the truth of Wellhausen's theory on the evolution of the religion of Israel; while that from literary style is reduced to a list of words and expressions most of which must have been part of the current speech, and for this reason could not have been the exclusive property of any writer.這個論點從宗教觀念假設的真理豪森的理論的演變宗教以色列;而從文體減至名單詞語其中大多數必須有一部分目前講話,並為此理由不可能的獨家財產的任何作家。 The whole theory, therefore, rests on the argument from double narratives and contradictions.整個理論,因此,取決於論點雙重敘述和矛盾。 As this seems very plausible, and presents some real difficulties, it demands an examination.因為這似乎很合理,並提出了一些實際困難,它要求進行檢查。

DOUBLETS AND CONTRADICTIONS DOUBLETS和矛盾

Some of the narratives said to be doublets, while having a general resemblance, differ in every detail.一些敘述說是聯,而在一般的相似,不同的每一個細節。 This is the case with the two accounts of Saul's disobedience and rejection, with the two narratives of David's sparing Saul's life, and of his seeking refuge with Achis.屬於這種情況的兩個帳戶的掃羅的反抗和拒絕,兩國說明大衛的節約掃羅的一生,以及他投靠Achis 。 Such narratives cannot be identified, unless the improbability of the events occurring as related be shown.這種說明無法確定,除非不大可能發生的事件的有關證明。 But is it improbable that Saul should on two different occasions have disregarded Samuel's directions and that the latter should repeat with greater emphasis the announcement of his rejection?但是,它不可能是掃羅應在兩個不同場合無視塞繆爾的指示,而後者應更加強調重複宣布他拒絕? Or that in the game of hide-and-seek among the mountains David should have twice succeeded in getting near the person of Saul and should on both occasions have refrained from harming him?或者在遊戲中的捉迷藏山區大衛之間應該有兩次成功地接近人掃羅,並應在這兩次都沒有傷害他嗎? Or that under changed conditions he should have entered into negotiations with Achis and become his vassal?或者說,根據變化的條件,他應該進入談判Achis ,並成為他的附庸? Even where the circumstances are the same, we cannot at once pronounce the narratives to be only different accounts of the same occurrence. It is not at all strange that Saul in his insane moods should twice have attempted to spear David, or that the loyal Ziphites should twice have betrayed to Saul David's whereabouts.即使在這種情況下是相同的,我們不能立即表態說明只是不同的帳戶相同的發生。這是不奇怪的是,在他的瘋狂掃羅的心情應該兩次試圖矛大衛,或者說,忠於Ziphites應兩次背叛到掃羅大衛的下落。 The two accounts of Saul among the prophets at first sight seem to be real doublets, not so much because the two narratives are alike, for they differ considerably, as because both incidents seem to be given as the origin of the proverb: "Is Saul too among the prophets?"這兩個帳戶之間的掃羅先知乍一看似乎是真正的聯,而不是這麼多,因為這兩個說明都是一樣的,因為它們差別很大,因為這兩起事件作為似乎是作為原產地的諺語: “難道掃羅太多的先知? “ The first, however, is alone said to have given rise to the proverb.第一,但是,僅說,已引起諺語。 The expression used in the other case–"Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?"–does not necessarily imply that the proverb did not exist before, but may be understood to say that it then became popular.表達中使用的其他情況下, “何故,他們說,就是掃羅也是先知? ” ,並不一定意味著諺語並不存在,但可以理解地說,當時很受歡迎。 The translation of the Vulgate, "Unde et exivit proverbium", is misleading.翻譯拉丁文聖經“ Unde等exivit proverbium ” ,有誤導之嫌。 There is no double mention of David's flight from court.不存在重複提到大衛的航班由法院。 When in xxi, 10, he is said to have fled from the face of Saul, nothing more is affirmed than that he fled to avoid being taken by Saul, the meaning of the expression "to flee from the face of" being to flee for fear of some one.當在21日, 10日,據說,他逃離面對掃羅,只不過肯定比他逃往避免所採取的掃羅的含義表達“逃離面對”正在逃離的害怕一個人。 The double narrative of Saul's election is obtained by tearing asunder parts which complement and explain one another.雙說明掃羅的選舉中得到了撕裂四分五裂部分補充和解釋一個。 Many a true story thus handled will yield the same results.許多人一個真實的故事就此處理會產生同樣的結果。 The story as it stands is natural and well connected.這個故事,因為它是自然的看台以及連接。 The people, disgusted at the conduct of the sons of Samuel, and feeling that a strong central government would be an advantage for the defence of the country, request a king.人民厭惡的行為塞繆爾的兒子,並認為一個強大的中央政府將是一個優勢,保衛國家,請求國王。 Samuel receives the request with displeasure, but yields at God's command and appoints the time and place for the election.塞繆爾收到請求的不滿,但收益率在上帝的命令,並任命的時間和地點參加選舉。 In the meanwhile he anoints Saul, who is later designated by lot and acclaimed king.與此同時,他anoints掃羅,誰隨後被指定由抽籤和讚譽國王。 All, however, did not recognize him.然而,不承認他。 Influential persons belonging to the larger tribes were very likely piqued that an unknown man of the smallest tribe should have been chosen.有影響力的人屬於有較大的部落很可能激起一個不知名男子的最小部落應已選定。 Under the circumstances Saul wisely delayed assuming royal power till a favourable opportunity presented itself, which came a month later, when Naas besieged Jabes.在這種情況下明智地推遲假定掃羅王權到一個有利的機會本身,這是一個月後,傑別斯Naas圍困。 It is objected, indeed, that, since the Jabesites did not send a message to Saul in their pressing danger, chap.這是反對,事實上,說,自Jabesites沒有將消息發送給索爾在其緊迫的危險,第一章。 xi, 4 sq., must have belonged to an account in which Saul had not yet been proclaimed king, whence a double narrative is clearly indicated.十一, 4平方米,必須有屬於一個帳戶中,掃羅尚未宣布國王,何處雙重敘事清楚表明。 But even if the Jabesites had sent no message, the fact would have no significance, since Saul had not received universal recognition; nothing, however, warrants us to read such a meaning into the text.但即使沒有Jabesites發出郵件,但事實不會有任何意義,因為掃羅沒有收到普遍承認;但是,沒有任何東西值得我們閱讀這樣的含義到文本。 At all events, Saul on hearing the news immediately exercised royal power by threatening with severe punishment anyone who would not follow him.總之,索爾聽到這個消息立即皇家權力的行使與嚴厲的懲罰威脅任何人誰不跟他走。 Difficulties, it is true, exist as to some particulars, but difficulties are found also in the theory of a double account.困難,這是事實,存在的一些細節,但困難也發現理論的雙重帳戶。 The two accounts of Saul's death are really contradictory; but only one is the historian's; the other is the story told by the Amalecite who brought to David the news of Saul's death, and nothing indicates that the writer intends to relate it as true.這兩個帳戶的掃羅的死是真的矛盾,但只有一個是歷史學家的,其他的故事告訴Amalecite是誰把大衛的新聞掃羅的死亡,而且沒有證據表明作家打算涉及它視為真實的。 We need have little hesitation in pronouncing it a fabrication of the Amalecite. Lying to promote one's interests is not unusual, and the hope of winning David's favour was a sufficient inducement for the man to invent his story.我們需要很少毫不猶豫地宣布它製造的Amalecite 。撒謊,促進人的利益的情況並不罕見,並希望贏得大衛的贊成票是一個足夠的誘因,該名男子發明他的故事。

With regard to the apparent contradiction between xvi, 14-23, and xvii, it should be remarked that the Vatican (B) and a few other manuscripts of the Septuagint omit xvii, 12-31 and xvii, 55-xviii, 5.對於明顯的矛盾十六, 14日至23日,和十七,應該說,梵蒂岡( B )和其他一些手稿的七十省略十七, 12月31日和17 , 55 - 18 , 5 。 This form of the text is held to be the more original, not only by some conservative writers, but by such critics as Cornill, Stade, WR Smith, and HP Smith.這種形式的案文將舉行更原始,不僅是一些保守的作家,但這種批評作為Cornill ,體育場,水利史密斯和惠普史密斯。 But though this text, if it were certain, would lessen the difficulty, it would not entirely remove it, as David still appears as a boy unused to arms.但是,儘管這一案文,如果確定,將減少的困難,也不會完全將其刪除,因為大衛仍然顯示為一個男孩未使用的武器。 The apparent contradiction disappears if we take xvi, 14-23, to be out of its chronological place, a common enough occurrence in the historical books both of the Old and of the New Testament.明顯的矛盾消失,如果我們考慮本篤十六世, 14日至23日,以擺脫其順序地方,一個共同的足夠發生的歷史書籍都舊和新約。 The reason of the inversion seems to be in the desire of the author to bring out the contrast between David, upon whom the spirit of the Lord came from the day of his anointing, and Saul, who was thenceforth deserted by the spirit of the Lord, and troubled by an evil spirit.的原因似乎是反轉的願望實現了作者之間的反差大衛時,他們的精神,主來自一天,他輔之以抹,並掃羅,誰是此後開小差的精神主和不安的邪惡的精神。 Or it may be due to the fact that with xvii the author begins to follow a new source.或者它可能是由於這樣一個事實,即與十七作者開始走一條新的來源。 This supposition would explain the repetition of some details concerning David's family, if xvii, 17-21, is original.這一假設可以解釋重複一些細節大衛的家庭,如果十七, 17日至21日,是原來的。 According to the real sequence of events, David after his victory over Goliath returned home, and later, having been recommended by one who was aware of his musical skill, he was called to court and permanently attached to the person of Saul.根據真實事件序列,大衛在他戰勝戈利亞特回家,後來,曾建議由一個誰知道他的音樂技巧,他要求法院永久性地附著在人的緣故。 This explanation might seem inadmissible, because it is said (xviii, 2) that "Saul took him that day, and would not let him return to his father's house."這種解釋似乎不能接受的,因為它是說(十八, 2 ) “掃羅把他那一天,不會讓他回到他父親的家。 ” But as "on that day" is often used in a loose way, it need not be taken to refer to the day on which David slew Goliath, and room will thus be left for the incident related in xvi, 14-23.但是,正如“在這一天”是常用的一個鬆散的方式,它不需要採取提及這一天大衛一系列戈利亞特,和室,從而將留待有關這一事件的本篤十六世, 14日至23日。 It is not true, therefore, that it is impossible to reconcile the two accounts, as is asserted. The so-called contradictory statements may also be satisfactorily explained.這不是真的,因此,這是無法調和的兩個帳戶,這是斷言。所謂矛盾的陳述也可以得到令人滿意的解釋。 As vii is a summary of Samuel's administration, the words "the Philistines . . . did not come any more into the borders of Israel" must be taken to refer only to Samuel's term of office, and not to his whole lifetime; they do not, therefore, stand in contradiction with xiii, where an incursion during the reign of Saul is described.作為七概括了塞繆爾的管理,改為“非利士人。 。 。並沒有任何更多的邊界進入以色列”必須採取僅指塞繆爾的任期,而不是他的整個一生;他們不因此,站在矛盾十三,凡入侵時期的掃羅描述。 Besides, it is not said that there were no further wars with the Philistines; the following clause: "And the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines, all the days of Samuel", rather supposes the contrary.此外,這不是說,沒有進一步的戰爭與非利士人;以下條款: “與上帝之手是對非利士人,所有的日子塞繆爾” ,而不是假設相反。 There were wars, indeed, but the Philistines were always defeated and never succeeded in gaining a foothold in the country.有戰爭,的確,但非利士人總是失敗,從來沒有成功地站住腳跟,在該國。 Still they remained dangerous neighbours, who might attack Israel at any moment.儘管如此,他們仍然是危險的鄰居,誰可能會攻擊以色列在任何時候。 Hence it could well be said of Saul, "He shall save my people out of the hands of the Philistines" (ix, 16), which expression does not necessarily connote that they were under the power of the Philistines.因此,可以說的掃羅, “他應救我的人,手中的非利士人” (第九章,第16 ) ,其中的表達,並不一定意味著他們的權力下的非利士人。 Ch.總。 xiii, 19-21, which seems to indicate that the Philistines were occupying the country at the time of Saul's election, is generally acknowledged to be misplaced.十三, 19日至21日,這似乎表明,非利士人佔領該國的時候,索爾的選舉中,人們普遍承認是錯誤的。 Further, when Samuel delegated his powers to his sons, he still retained his office, and when he did resign it, after the election of Saul, he continued to advise and reprove both king and people (cf. I, xii, 23); he can therefore be truly said to have judged Israel all the days of his life.此外,當塞繆爾授予他的權力,他的兒子,他仍然保留他的辦公室,當他沒有辭職是,大選後的索爾,他繼續提出意見和責備兩個國王和人民(見一,十二, 23 ) ;他因此可以說,真正有評判以色列所有的日子裡他的生命。 The last contradiction, which Budde declares to be inexplicable, rests on a mere quibble about the verb "to see".在過去的矛盾,這布德宣布其令人費解的,依賴於僅僅狡辯的動詞“看到” 。 The context shows clearly enought that when the writer states that "Samuel saw Saul no more till the day of his death" (xv, 35), he means to say that Samuel had no further dealings with Saul, and not that he never beheld him again with his eyes.背景清楚地表明enought ,當作家指出: “塞繆爾看見掃羅沒有更多,直到一天,他死” (十五, 35歲) ,他的意思說,塞繆爾沒有進一步的交往與掃羅,而不是說,他從來沒有看見他再次與他的眼睛。 Really, is it likely that a redactor who, we are told, often harmonizes his sources, and who plainly intends to present a coherent story, and not merely a collection of old documents, would allow glaring contradictions to stand?真的,它很可能是一個redactor誰,我們被告知,他的消息來源常常協調,誰顯然打算提出一個連貫的故事,而不是僅僅收集了舊文件,將允許突出矛盾立場? There is no sufficient reason, then, why we should not grant a historical character to the section I, i-II, viii, as well as to the rest of the work.沒有充足的理由,那麼,為什麼我們不應該給予歷史特徵的第一節,第一和第二,八,以及其他的工作。 Those internal marks–namely, lifelike touches, minuteness of detail, bright and flowing style–which move the critics to consider the latter part as of early origin and of undoubted historical value, are equally found in the first.這些內部馬克,即逼真的色彩, minuteness細節,明亮,流暢的風格,其中移動批評考慮後一部分作為早期起源和不容置疑的歷史價值,也同樣發現第一。

THE HEBREW TEXT, THE SEPTUAGINT, AND THE VULGATE希伯來文文本,七十,與VULGATE

The Hebrew text has come down to us in a rather unsatisfactory condition, by reason of the numerous errors due to transcribers.希伯來文已下降到我們在一個相當令人不滿意的狀況,由於眾多的錯誤,由於謄寫。 The numbers especially have suffered, probably because in the oldest manuscripts they were not written out in full.數量特別是遭受了,可能是因為在最古老的手稿他們不寫在充分。 In I, vi, 19, seventy men become "seventy men, and fifty thousand of the common people."在一,六, 19日, 70人成為“ 70名男子,並五點零零萬普通民眾。 ” In I, xiii, 5, the Philistines are given the impossible number of thirty thousand chariots.在一,第十三條, 5 ,非利士人不可能給出人數3.0萬戰車。 Saul is only a year old when he begins to reign, and reigns but two years (I, xiii, 1).掃羅只有一歲時,他開始執政,並統治,但兩年(一,第十三條, 1 ) 。 Absalom is made to wait forty years to accomplish the vow he made while in Gessur (II, xv, 7).押沙龍是等待四十年來完成他的誓言,而在Gessur (二,十五, 7 ) 。 In I, viii, 16, oxen are metamorphosed into "goodliest young men", while in II, x, 18, forty thousand footmen are changed into horsemen.在第一,第八章, 16日,牛正演變成“ goodliest青年男子” ,而在第二,第十,第18 ,四點○○萬僕人都變成了騎兵。 Michol, who in II, vi, 23, is said to have had no children, in II, xxi, 8, is credited with the five sons of her sister Merob (cf. I, xviii, 19; xxv, 44; II, iii, 15). Michol ,誰在第二,第六, 23歲,據說是沒有子女,在二21日, 8日,記入的五個兒子的她的妹妹Merob (見一,十八,十九;二十五, 44 ;二,三, 15 ) 。 In II, xxi, 19, Goliath is again slain by Elchanan, and, strange to say, though I Par., xx, 5, tells us that the man killed by Elchanan was the brother of the giant, some critics here also see a contradiction.在二,二十一世紀, 19日,巨人再次被殺的Elchanan ,而且奇怪的是,雖然我標準桿。 ,第XX號, 5 ,告訴我們,這名男子殺害Elchanan是兄弟的巨頭,一些批評者在這裡還看到一個矛盾。 Badan in I, xii, 11, should be changed to Abdon or Barak, and Samuel, in the same verse, to Samson, etc. Many of these mistakes can readily be corrected by a comparison with Paralipomenon, the Septuagint, and other ancient versions.巴丹在我十二, 11日,應改為阿夫東或巴拉克和薩穆埃爾,在相同的詩句,以大力士等許多這些錯誤可以很容易地糾正了以比較Paralipomenon的譯本,和其他古老的版本。 Others antedate all translations, and are therefore found in the versions as well as in the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.其他antedate所有翻譯,因此中發現的版本以及Massoretic (希伯來文)的案文。 In spite of the work of correction done by modern commentators and textual critics, a perfectly satisfactory critical text is still a desideratum.儘管工作所做的修正和文字現代評論家的批評,一個完全令人滿意的關鍵文字仍然是一個願望。 The Septuagint differs considerably from the Massoretic text in many instances; in others the case is not so clear.有很大不同的譯本由Massoretic文字在許多情況下,在另一些國家的情況就不那麼明確了。 The Vulgate was translated from a Hebrew text closely resembling the Massoretic; but the original text has been interpolated by additions and duplicate translations, which have crept in from the Itala. Additions occur: I, iv, 1; v, 6, 9: viii, 18; x, 1; xi, 1; xiii, 15; siv, 22, 41; xv, 3, 12; xvii, 36; xxi, 11; xxx, 15; II, i, 26; v, 23; x, 19; xiii, 21, 27; xiv, 30; duplicate translations, I, ix, 15; xv, 32; xx, 15; xxiii, 13, 14; II, i, 18; iv, 5; vi, 12; xv, 18, 20.翻譯的武加大從希伯來文相似的Massoretic ;但原來的案文已被插值的增加和重複翻譯,它們悄悄從伊泰萊。添置發生:第一,四, 1 ;五, 6日, 9日:八, 18 ;十, 1 ;十一, 1 ;第十三15 ;西夫, 22 , 41 ;十五, 3 , 12 ; 17 , 36 ; 21 , 11 ;三十, 15 ;二,一, 26 ;五, 23 ; x 19 ; 13 , 21 , 27 ; 14 , 30 ;重複翻譯,我,九, 15 ;十五,第32條;第XX號,第15 ; 23 , 13 , 14 ;二,一, 18歲;四,五;六, 12歲;十五, 18 , 20 。

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.出版信息作者:樓貝克特爾。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Catholic: GIGOT, Special Introd.天主教: GIGOT ,特別Introd 。 (New York, 1901), 251-65; CORNELY, Introductio, (Paris, 1897), i, 240-76; HUMMELBAUER, Comm. (紐約, 1901 ) , 251-65 ; CORNELY ,引, (巴黎, 1897年) ,我, 240-76 ; HUMMELBAUER ,商業。 in Libros Samuelis (Paris, 1886); FILLION in VIG., Dict.在Libros Samuelis (巴黎, 1886年) ;菲利安在VIG 。 ,快譯通。 de la Bible, sv Rois (les quatre livres des); VIGOROUX, Manuel Bibl., 10th ed., II (Paris, 1899), 80 sqq.; CLAIR, Livres des Rois (Paris, 1884); DHORME, Les Livres de Samuel (Paris, 1910); KAULEN, Einleitung (3rd ed., Freiburg im Br., 1890), 223-30; SCHÄFERS, I Sam., i-xv literarkritisch untersucht in Bibl.德拉薩聖經希沃特羅伊斯(之四里弗萬) ; VIGOROUX曼努埃爾Bibl 。 ,第10版。 ,第二章(巴黎, 1899年) , 80 sqq 。 ;克萊爾,書局萬羅伊斯(巴黎, 1884年) ; DHORME ,法國圖書日塞繆爾(巴黎, 1910 ) ; KAULEN導論(第3版。 ,弗賴堡一二。 , 1890 ) , 223-30 ; SCHÄFERS ,我薩姆。 ,我- XV號literarkritisch untersucht在Bibl 。 Zeitschr., V (1907), 1, 126, 235, 359; VI, 117; PETERS, Beiträge zur Text-und Literaturkritik der B252;cher Samuels (Vienna, 1904); WIESMANN, Die Einführung des Königtums in Israel in Zeitsch. Zeitschr 。 ,五( 1907年) , 1 , 126 , 235 , 359 ;六, 117 ;彼得斯Beiträge楚文字與Literaturkritik之B252 ;雪兒塞繆爾(維也納, 1904年) ; WIESMANN ,模具Einführung萬Königtums在以色列Zeitsch 。 für Kathol. f黵Kathol 。 Theologie, XXXIV (1910), 118-153; IDEM, Bemerkungen zum I Buche Samuels, ibid., XXXII (1908), 187, 597; XXXIII, 129, 385, 796.神學,三十四( 1910 ) , 118-153 ;同上, Bemerkungen zum我Buche塞穆爾斯,同上。 ,三十二( 1908年) , 187 , 597 ;三十三, 129 , 385 , 796 。

Non-Catholic: STENNING in HAST., Dict of the Bible, sv Samuel, I and II; DRIVER, Literat.非天主教:斯在你。 ,快譯通的聖經希沃特塞繆爾,第一和第二;司機, Literat 。 of the OT, 8th ed.的催產素,第八版。 (Edinburgh, 1909), 172-85; IDEM, Notes on Heb. (愛丁堡, 1909年) , 172-85 ;同上,注記河北。 Text of the B. of Samuel (Oxford, 1890); HP SMITH, Comm.文灣塞繆爾(牛津, 1890年) ;惠普史密斯,商業。 on the B. of Samuel (New York, 1899); WELLHAUSEN, Composition des Hexateuchs und der Histor. Bücher des AT (Berlin, 1899); IDEM, Text der Bücher Samuels (Göttingen, 1871); BUDDE, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel (Giessen, 1890); IDEM, The Books of Samuel in HAUPT, Sacred Books of the OT (Baltimore, 1894); IDEM, Die Bücher Samuel in MARTI, Kurzer Hand Comm.上灣塞繆爾(紐約, 1899年) ;豪森,組成萬Hexateuchs與德國Histor 。 Bücher萬在(柏林, 1899年) ;同上,文字之Bücher塞穆爾斯(哥廷根, 1871年) ;布德,模具Bücher里克特和塞繆爾(吉森, 1890年) ;同上,帳簿塞繆爾在豪普特,聖書催產素(巴爾的摩, 1894年) ;同上,模具Bücher塞繆爾在馬蒂Kurzer手通信。 zum AT, (1902); CORNILL in Zeitschr. zum在處, ( 1902 ) ; CORNILL在Zeitschr 。 für kirchl. f黵kirchl 。 Wissensch. Wissensch 。 und kirchl.與kirchl 。 Leben (1885), 113 sqq.; IDEM in Königsberg. Studien (1887); 25 sqq.; IDEM in Zeitsch.生活( 1885年) , 113 sqq 。 ; IDEM在Königsberg 。 Studien ( 1887年) ; 25 sqq 。 ; IDEM在Zeitsch 。 für AT Wissensch., (1890), 96 sqq.; THENIUS, Die Bücher Samuels, ed. f黵在Wissensch 。 , ( 1890 ) , 96 sqq 。 ; THENIUS ,模具Bücher塞穆爾斯,教育署。 LÖHR (Leipzig, 1898); KLOSTERMANN, Die Bücher Samuels und der Könige (Munich, 1887). LÖHR (萊比錫, 1898年) ; KLOSTERMANN ,模具Bücher塞繆爾斯和德國節(慕尼黑, 1887年) 。


Books of Samuel圖書塞繆爾

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Name and Contents.名稱和內容。

First Book of Samuel:第一本書的塞繆爾:

Saul Assumes the Kingship.掃羅承擔王權。

Saul's Jealousy of David.掃羅的嫉妒大衛。

Closing Days of Saul's Reign.最後幾天掃羅的執政。

Second Book of Samuel:第二本書的塞繆爾:

David in Hebron.大衛在希伯倫。

The Ark Brought to Jerusalem.方舟帶來耶路撒冷。

David and Uriah.大衛和尤賴厄。

David and Absalom.大衛和押沙龍。

Complex Documentary Sources.複雜的文件來源。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Oldest Literary Strata.最古老的文學階層。

Story of the Ark.故事阿肯色州

Supposed Time of Redaction.假定時間Redaction 。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Two books in the second great division of the canon, the "Nebi'im," or Prophets, and, more specifically, in the former of its subdivisions, the "Nebi'im Rishonim," or Earlier, Prophets, following upon Joshua and Judges; the third and fourth of the historical writings according to the arrangement of the Masoretic text.兩本書的第二次大分裂,佳能的“ Nebi'im ” ,或先知,更具體地說,前其下屬的“ Nebi'im Rishonim ” ,或更早,先知,繼約書亞和法官;第三次和第四次的歷史著作根據安排,馬所拉文本。 Originally the two books of Samuel formed a single book, as did the two books of Kings.最初的兩本書的塞繆爾形成一本書一樣,兩本書的國王。 In the Septuagint Samuel and Kings were treated as one continuous and complete history of Israel and Judah, and the work was divided into four books under the title Βίβλια Βασιλειῶν ("Books of Kingdoms").在七十塞繆爾和國王被視為一個連續的和完整的歷史記錄,對以色列和猶太,和工作分為四本書的標題下Βίβλια Βασιλειῶν ( “書志” ) 。 This division was accepted in the Vulgate by Jerome, who changed the name to "Books of Kings."該司已被接受的拉丁文聖經的杰羅姆,誰改變了名稱,以“圖書的國王。 ” Thence it passed into the editions of the Hebrew Bible published by Daniel Bomberg of Venice in the sixteenth century; and it has since reappeared in every Hebrew printed edition though the individual books retained the captions they had in the Hebrew manuscripts, viz., "I Samuel" and "II Samuel" for the first two of the four Kings, and "I Kings" and "II Kings" for the last two.再通過將版本的希伯來聖經出版的丹尼爾Bomberg的威尼斯在16世紀,它已經出現在每一個印刷版希伯來雖然個別書籍保留了標題,他們在希伯來文手稿,即。 , “我塞繆爾“和”二塞繆爾“的頭兩年的四大天王,而”王“和”二王“在過去兩年。 But the Masorah continued to be placed after II Samuel for both I and II.但Masorah繼續放在後二塞繆爾為第一和第二。

Name and Contents.名稱和內容。

The name "Samuel," by which the book, now divided into two, is designated in Hebrew, was construed to imply that Samuel was the author (see below).命名為“塞繆爾” ,其中本書,現在分成兩個,被指定在希伯來語,被解釋為意味著塞繆爾撰文(見下文) 。 More likely, the title was chosen because Samuel is the most important of all the personages mentioned in the record, he having a prominent, even dominant, part in most of the events related in book I. The two books comprise, according to the Masoretic note at the end, thirty-four "sedarim" (the mnemonic word is given as ); in the printed editions the first book has thirty-one chapters and the second twenty-four, making fifty-five chapters in all.更有可能,標題是選擇,因為塞繆爾是最重要的所有人士的記錄中提到,他有一個突出的,甚至佔主導地位,在大部分的事件有關的書一,兩本書組成,根據馬所拉說明結束時, 34 “ sedarim ” (在記憶單詞給出) ;在印刷版的第一本書有31章和第二次2004年,使55章中的所有。 They give the history of Israel from the concluding days of the period of the Judges-Samuel being considered the last of them-through the reigns of the first two kings, Saul and David, and continue the story not up to the latter's death, but merely to his incipient old age, the account of his declining years forming the prelude to the history of Solomon in I Kings.他們給以色列歷史上的最後幾天的時間,法官,塞繆爾正在考慮他們的最後通過的統治的頭兩個國王掃羅和大衛,並繼續的故事沒有達到後者的死亡,但只是他的早期老年,他的賬戶下降幾年形成的前奏的歷史,在所羅門王。

First Book of Samuel:第一本書的塞繆爾:

This book consists of three main sections, to which the following headings may respectively be prefixed: (1) Eli and Samuel, ch. i.-vii.; (2) Samuel and Saul, viii.-xv.; and (3) Saul and David, xvi.-xxxi.這本書包括三個主要部分,其中下面的標題可能分別前綴: ( 1 )禮和Samuel ,甲烷。一至七。 ; ( 2 )塞繆爾和掃羅, viii.-xv. ;和( 3 )掃羅和大衛, xvi. -三十一。 In detail the contents are as follows:詳細內容如下:

(1) Eli and Samuel: Samuel's Younger Days and the Story of Eli: Birth of Samuel and his dedication to Yhwh (i.); Hannah's song (ii. 1-10); Samuel's service in the sanctuary (ii. 11-iv. 1). The Story of the Ark: Loss of the Ark and its dire consequences (iv.); the Ark retained by the Philistines (v.); return of the Ark (vi. 1-18); the Ark at Beth-shemesh and Kirjath-jearim (vi. 19-vii. 1). Samuel as Judge: The people's sorrow (vii. 2-6); defeat of the Philistines (vii. 7-12); Samuel judges Israel (vii. 12-17). ( 1 )禮和Samuel :塞繆爾的年輕天,故事禮:誕生塞繆爾和他的獻身精神Yhwh (一) ;漢娜的歌(白介素1月10日) ;塞繆爾的服務聖殿(白介素11 - ㈣ 。 1 ) 。的故事方舟:喪失方舟及其可怕的後果( iv. ) ;方舟保留非利士人(五) ;返回方舟( vi. 1月18日) ;方舟在貝絲,謝梅什和Kirjath - jearim ( vi. 19七。 1 ) 。塞繆爾法官:人民的悲痛( vii. 2月6日) ;擊敗非利士人( vii. 7月12日) ;塞繆爾法官以色列( vii. 12 -17 ) 。

(2) Samuel and Saul: Israel Clamors for a King: The desire of the people (viii. 1-5); Samuel consults Yhwh (viii. 6-9); Samuel admonishes the people (viii. 10-18); their persistence (viii. 19-22). Saul Anointed as King: Details of Saul's pedigree and character (ix. 1-2); his adventure with his father's asses and his visit to the seer (ix. 3-14); meeting of Samuel and Saul (ix. 15-21); meal set before Saul (ix. 22-24); Saul anointed by Samuel (ix. 25-x. 8); Saul's home-coming (x. 9-16). Saul's Election to the Kingship: The election by lot (x. 17-25a); dismissal of the people (x. 25a-27a). Saul Assumes the Kingship. ( 2 )塞繆爾和索爾:以色列叫囂的國王:人民意願的( viii. 1月5日) ;塞繆爾協商Yhwh ( viii. 6月9日) ;塞繆爾admonishes人民( viii. 10月18日) ;其持續( viii. 19-22段) 。掃羅受膏者國王:詳情掃羅的血統和特點( ix. 1-2 ) ;他的冒險與他父親的評估和他的訪問先知( ix. 3月14日) ;會議塞繆爾和索爾( ix. 15-21 ) ;餐擺在索爾( ix. 22日至24日) ;掃羅受膏者的塞繆爾( ix. 25 - X低。 8 ) ;掃羅的家庭未來(十, 9月16日) 。掃羅的當選為王權:選舉很多(十17 - 25A條) ;解僱的人(十第25A - 27A條) 。掃羅假設王權。

The Peril of Jabesh-gilead; Saul's Valor and Its Reward-the Crown: Siege of Jabesh-gilead; outrageous conditions of peace (xi. 1-3); messengers for relief at Gibeah; Saul, stirred by the spirit, calls Israel to arms (xi. 4-8); Saul relieves the city (xi. 9-11); his kingship acknowledged and confirmed (xi. 12-15). Samuel Relinquishes His Judgeship: Samuel's challenge to prove malfeasance in office against himself (xii. 1-6); his pleading with the people in a retrospect of Israel's history (xii. 7-15); he calls down thunder and rain upon the people, who are thereby compelled to request his intercession for them as sinners; he exhorts them to fear Yhwh (xii. 16-25).危險的Jabesh -吉利德;掃羅的勇氣及其懸賞官方:圍攻Jabesh -吉利德;無恥和平的條件下( xi. 1-3 ) ;送信的救濟在Gibeah ;掃羅,引起的精神,呼籲以色列武器( xi. 4月8日) ;掃羅免除城市( xi. 9月11日) ;他的王位的承認和確認( xi. 12月15日) 。塞繆爾放棄他的法官:塞繆爾的挑戰,證明瀆職辦公室對自己(十二。 1月6日) ;其狀同人民群眾在回顧以色列的歷史( xii. 7月15日) ;他呼籲下跌打雷和下雨的人,誰的要求,從而迫使他和他們的罪人,他勸告他們擔心Yhwh ( xii. 16日至25日) 。

War Against the Philistines: Saul begins his reign(xiii. 1); war breaks out; the people in distress hide for their lives (xiii. 2-7a); Saul's failure; his rejection at Gilgal (xiii. 7b-15); Philistines in possession of the mountains of Ephraim (xiii. 16-18, 23); the people of Israel are unarmed, the Philistines having forbidden work at the smithies (xiii. 19-22); Jonathan's great feat of arms (xiv. 1-15); battle with the Philistines (xiv. 16-24); Saul's curse on the man that should eat, and Jonathan's violation of the prohibition (xiv. 25-30); Saul prevents the people from eating blood (xiv. 31-35); discovery of Jonathan's transgression; his rescue by the people (xiv. 36-45); brief exposition of Saul's wars; names of his sons and daughters; and other details (xiv. 46-52). War Against the Amalekites; Saul's Rejection: Command to Saul to destroy Amalek (xv. 1-3); the war; Saul disobeys by sparing Agag and the flocks (xv. 4-9); Samuel's censure and menace for this disobedience (xv. 10-23); Saul, repentant, pleads for mercy (xv. 24-31); death of Agag (xv. 32-33); Samuel's complete separation from Saul (xv. 34-35).戰爭的非利士人:索爾開始他的統治( xiii. 1 ) ;戰爭爆發;人民在危難隱藏他們的生命( xiii. 2 - 7A條) ;掃羅的失敗,他拒絕在Gilgal ( xiii. 7B條, 15條) ;非利士人擁有的山區埃弗拉伊姆( xiii. 16日至18日, 23 ) ;以色列人民都是手無寸鐵的,有禁止的非利士人的工作,史密斯( xiii. 19日至22日) ;喬納森的偉大壯舉武器( xiv. 1 -15 ) ;戰與非利士人( xiv. 16日至24日) ;掃羅的詛咒的人,應該吃的,和喬納森的違反了禁止( xiv. 25-30 ) ;掃羅可防止人吃血( xiv. 31 -35 ) ;發現喬納森的侵;他營救的人( xiv. 36-45 ) ;簡要闡述了掃羅的戰爭;名字,他的兩個兒子和女兒;及其他細節( xiv. 46-52 ) 。戰爭的亞瑪力人;掃羅的排斥反應:命令掃羅摧毀亞瑪力( xv. 1-3 ) ;戰爭;掃羅不服從的節約Agag和家禽( xv. 4月9日) ;塞繆爾的指責和威脅,這不服從( xv. 10月23日) ;掃羅,懺悔,懇求憐憫( xv. 24-31 ) ;死亡Agag ( xv. 32-33 ) ;塞繆爾完全脫離掃羅( xv. 34-35段) 。

(3) Saul and David: David's Family and Qualifications: Selection and consecration of David, the son of Jesse, after the rejection of his brothers (xvi. 1-13); David, as a cunning player on the harp, is brought to Saul to drive away the evil spirit from the king (xvi. 14-23); David's valor; his victory over Goliath (xvii. 1-54); David becomes Jonathan's friend and a general of Saul (xvii. 55-xviii. 5). ( 3 )掃羅和大衛:大衛的家人和資格:選擇與奉獻大衛的兒子傑西,在拒絕他的兄弟( xvi. 1月13日) ;大衛,作為一個狡猾球員的豎琴,提請掃羅,趕走邪靈從國王( xvi. 14日至23日) ;大衛的英勇;他戰勝巨人( xvii. 1-54 ) ;大衛成為喬納森的朋友和一般的索爾( xvii. 55 - 18 。 5 ) 。

Saul's Jealousy of David.掃羅的嫉妒大衛。

David Distrusted by Saul; His Flight: Saul's jealousy; the women's song, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands"; the king hurls his spear at David; the latter is relieved of the duty of attending on Saul; David is loved by all Israel and Judah; Saul attempts to lure David to his death at the hands of the Philistines by the promise of his elder daughter, Merab, in marriage; David weds Michal, the king's younger daughter, in spite of the dangerous conditions Saul imposes for the marriage (xviii. 6-30); Jonathan's intercession leads to a reconciliation between Saul and David; futile attempt by Saul to assassinate David; the latter, aided by a ruse of Michal, flees (xix. 1-17); David with Saul at Ramah; Saul repeatedly attempts to seize him, but is foiled (xix. 18-24); David and Jonathan (xx.); David at Nob with Ahimelech the priest; he eats the Showbread, feigns madness before Achish (King of Gath), takes refuge in the cave of Adullam, and goes to Mizpah of Moab; he returns to Judah upon the advice of the prophet Gad; Saul's revenge against Ahimelech, who is killed under his orders by Doeg (xxi.-xxii.).大衛信任掃羅;他的飛行:掃羅的嫉妒;婦女的歌曲, “索爾已經殺害了數千人,和David他一萬” ;國王hurls他在大衛矛,後者是免除責任的掃羅出席;大衛是愛的所有以色列和猶太;掃羅企圖引誘大衛他的死亡之手的非利士人的許諾,他哥哥的女兒,梅拉布,在婚姻;大衛別米哈烏,國王的小女兒,儘管有危險的條件下掃羅實行的婚姻( xviii. 6月30日) ;喬納森的干預導致之間的和解掃羅和大衛;徒勞的企圖暗殺掃羅大衛;後者,得益於詭計的米哈烏,逃離( xix. 1月17日)大衛與掃羅在Ramah ;掃羅一再試圖抓住他,但挫敗( xix. 18-24 ) ;大衛和喬納森( xx. ) ;大衛在Nob與Ahimelech牧師,他吃的Showbread ,假裝瘋狂面前Achish (王迦特) ,採取避難的洞穴亞杜蘭,和去米茲帕的莫阿布;他返回猶太的建議,而先知蓋德;掃羅的報復Ahimelech ,誰是殺害他的命令下的Doeg ( xxi. -二十二。 ) 。

David a Freebooter in Philistia: David and the city of Keilah; Saul threatening to besiege him there, David consults Abiathar's ephod and at the oracle's advice departs (xxiii. 1-13); David's adventures while pursued by Saul in the wilderness of Ziph and in the strongholds of En-gedi (xxiii. 14-xxiv. 23); Samuel's death (xxv. 1a); David in the wilderness of Paran; his dealings with Nabal and Abigail (xxv.); his night visit to Saul's camp (xxvi.); his escape into the land of the Philistines, where he finds protection at the hand of Achish at Gath, receiving later Ziklag as a gift; he dwells in the land a year and four months, raiding his neighbors, while duping the king into the belief of his loyalty to him and in his active hostility to the people of Judah (xxvii.).大衛在非利士暴:大衛和城市Keilah ;掃羅威脅圍攻他在那裡,大衛諮詢Abiathar的ephod和甲骨文公司的諮詢背離( xxiii. 1月13日) ;大衛的冒險,而追求的掃羅在曠野的Ziph和在據點的恩蓋迪( xxiii. 14 - 24 。 23 ) ;塞繆爾死亡( xxv. 1A )款;大衛在野外的巴拉;他打交道納巴爾和阿比蓋爾( xxv. ) ;他晚上訪問掃羅的營(二十六。 ) ;他逃避到土地的非利士人,他認為保護的手Achish在迦特,接收後Ziklag作為禮物,他居住在土地一年4個月,執法人員在他的鄰居,而欺騙了國王把他的信仰和忠誠,他在他的積極敵視人民的猶太( xxvii. ) 。

Closing Days of Saul's Reign.最後幾天掃羅的執政。

Saul's End: War breaks out between Achish and Philistia, and Saul of Israel (xxviii. 1-2); Saul and the witch of En-dor (xxviii. 3-25); Achish, upon the complaint of his chieftains, who distrust David, dismisses him to Ziklag (xxix.); David's expedition against the Amalekites, who, during his absence, had raided Ziklag and set it on fire, taking large booty and carrying off among the women David's wives.掃羅的終結:戰爭爆發之間Achish和非利士,以色列和索爾( xxviii. 1-2 ) ;掃羅和女巫的恩多爾( xxviii. 3月25日) ; Achish ,申訴時他的頭領,誰不信任大衛,駁回他Ziklag ( xxix. ) ;大衛的遠征對亞瑪力人,誰,在他離港期間,曾搜查Ziklag並設置消防,採取大戰利品和執行之間的婦女從大衛的妻子。 Consulting the ephod, David pursues the marauders.諮詢ephod ,大衛奉行亂兵。 Meeting on the way an Egyptian slave abandoned by the Amalekites, David is led by him to where the enemies are feasting.會議就如何埃及奴隸遺棄的亞瑪力人,大衛是由他的敵人是盛宴。 He fights them till sundown, slaying or capturing all save 400, and recovering his own; David's ordinance concerning the division of the spoils; his gifts to the elders of Judah (xxx.); the last battle of Saul; death of his sons Jonathan, Abinadab, and Melchi-shua; Saul, after the refusal of his armor-bearer to kill him, dies by falling upon his own sword; his body and those of his sons are stripped; Saul's head is cut off, to be sent as a trophy into the cities of Philistia; his body is fastened to the wall of Beth-shan, whence it is recovered by the men of Jabesh-gilead, who burn it, together with the remains of his sons, at Jabesh, and later bury the bones under a tamarisk-tree (xxxi.).他打架他們到日落,殺害或捕獲所有保存400 ,和恢復自己;大衛條例有關司的戰利品,他的禮物長老猶太( xxx. ) ;最後戰役掃羅;死亡兒子喬納森, Abinadab ,並Melchi -舒阿;掃羅拒絕後,他的裝甲旗手要殺死他,死亡的下降後,他自己的劍,他的身體和他的兒子被剝奪;掃羅的頭部被切斷,將發送獎杯納入城市非利士;他的身體固定在牆上的貝絲山,何處是收回的男子Jabesh , Gilead的,誰燒,連同他的兒子仍然在Jabesh ,後來埋葬根據骨骼檉樹( xxxi. ) 。

Second Book of Samuel:第二本書的塞繆爾:

This book likewise readily lends itself to a division into three main parts: (1) David as king (i.-viii.); (2) David and his crown princes (ix.-xx.); and (3) complementary appendixes consisting of various historical glosses (xxi.-xxiv.).這本書同樣容易適合於建立分為三個主要部分: ( 1 )大衛國王(一至八。 ) ; ( 2 )大衛和他的王儲( ix.-xx. )和( 3 )互補性附錄組成不同的歷史粉飾( xxi. - 24 。 ) 。 The details are as follows:詳情如下:

(1) David as King: David Learns of Saul's Death: Arrival of the messenger (i. 1-5); he reports that he had slain Saul at the latter's own request (i. 6-10); David mourns for Saul and Jonathan (i. 11-12); he directs that the messenger, "the son of a stranger, an Amalekite," be surreptitiously killed (i. 13-16). The Lament ("Ḳinah") of David for Saul and Jonathan: Superscription, with note that the lamentation is written in the Book of Jashar (i. 17-18); the lamentation (i. 19-27). ( 1 )大衛國王:大衛獲悉掃羅之死:到達信使(一1-5 ) ;他的報告,他已被殺害掃羅在後者的自己的要求(一, 6月10日) ;大衛為掃羅和哀悼喬納森(一, 11月12日) ;他指示的使者“的兒子,一個陌生人,一個Amalekite , ”是秘密殺害(一13-16 ) 。的悲歌( “ Ḳinah ” )的大衛為掃羅和Jonathan : Superscription ,並指出,悲嘆寫這本書的Jashar (一17-18 ) ;的悲嘆(一19-27 ) 。

David in Hebron.大衛在希伯倫。

David Reigns in Hebron; War Against Abner, Ishbosheth's (Esh-baal's) Captain: Upon Yhwh's advice, David goes up to Hebron with his two wives, his men, and their households; he is anointed king by the men of Judah (ii. 1-4); he sends a message of approval to the men of Jabesh-gilead for having buried Saul (ii. 5-7); Abner is loyal to Saul's son Ish-bosheth or Esh-baal (ii. 8-11); Abner meets Joab, David's captain, by the pool of Gibeon, where twelve young men on each side engage in a trial by combat, all twenty-four falling; Abner is defeated in the battle which ensues (ii. 12-19); Abner is pursued, but slays Asahel, his pursuer, after vainly imploring him to desist (ii. 20-23); Joab, after parleying with Abner, blows the trumpet as a signal for the pursuit to cease (ii. 24-32).大衛時期在希布倫;戰爭阿布納, Ishbosheth的( Esh -巴爾的)船長:經Yhwh的意見,大衛上升到希布倫和他的兩個妻子,他的部下,他們的家庭,他是國王的受膏者的猶太男子(白介素1月4日) ;他發出了一個信息的批准男子Jabesh -吉利德了埋葬掃羅(白介素5月7日) ;阿布納忠於掃羅的兒子人Ish - bosheth或Esh -巴爾(白介素8月11日) ;阿布納符合喬阿布,大衛的船長,由池基遍,其中12男青年每邊進行審判的打擊,所有2004年下降;阿布納打敗的戰鬥隨之(白介素12月19日) ;阿布納追求,但slays Asahel ,他的追求,在徒勞地懇求他停止(白介素20日至23日) ;喬阿布,後parleying與阿布納,吹小號的一個信號,為追求停止(白介素24-32 ) 。

The Extermination of Saul's House: War between the house of Saul and that of David (iii. 1, 6a); enumeration of David's sons (iii. 2-5); relations betweenAbner and Ish-bosheth disturbed by suspicions on the latter's part (iii. 7-11); Abner makes treasonable overtures to David, inducing him to demand his wife Michal from Ish-bosheth, who takes her away from her second husband, Paltiel, and sends her to David (iii. 12-16); Abner urges the elders of Israel to go over to David; he himself pays a visit to him and promises to deliver over to him all Israel (iii. 17-21); Abner is treacherously slain by Joab (iii. 22-30); David mourns for Abner; he refuses to eat until sunset, which pleases the people (iii. 31-39); Ish-bosheth is assassinated; and his head is taken to David, who, however, causes the assassins to be killed (iv. 1-3, 5-12; verse 4 is a gloss giving an account of the escape of Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, when five years old, and of his fall from the arms of a nurse, which resulted in his lameness).滅絕掃羅之家:戰爭之間的眾議院掃羅和大衛( iii. 1 6A條) ;列舉大衛的兒子( iii. 2-5 ) ;關係betweenAbner和人Ish - bosheth不安懷疑後者的組成部分(三。 7月11日) ;阿布納使大衛叛逆姿態,引誘他,要求他的妻子米歇爾從人Ish - bosheth ,誰需要她遠離她的第二任丈夫, Paltiel ,並寄給她大衛( iii. 12月16日) ;阿布納敦促以色列長老去大衛;他自己支付前往探視,並承諾提供給他的所有以色列( iii. 17-21 ) ;押尼珥是背信棄義殺害的喬阿布( iii. 22-30 ) ;大衛表示哀悼的阿布納;他拒絕吃,直到日落,而高興的人( iii. 31-39 ) ;人Ish - bosheth是暗殺和他的頭是採取大衛,誰,但是,導致刺客被殺害(四。 1月3日, 5月12日;詩4是一種光澤授予帳戶逃跑的Mephibosheth ,喬納森的兒子, 5歲時,和他掉下來的武器的一名護士,導致他跛行) 。

David and Jerusalem: David is made king over all Israel (v. 1-3); his age and length of reign (v. 4, 5); he takes Jerusalem from the Jebusites; comment on David's growing power (v. 6-10); Hiram of Tyre sends materials and workmen and builds David a house (v. 11-12); David increases his harem; names of his sons born in Jerusalem (v. 13-16); war with the Philistines leading to their defeat (v. 17-25).大衛和耶路撒冷:大衛是國王所有以色列(五1-3 ) ;他的年齡和長度的統治(五,四,五) ;他從耶路撒冷的耶布斯人;評論大衛不斷增長的電力(五6 - 10 ) ;西貢提爾傳送材料和工人,並建立一所房子大衛(五, 11月12日) ;大衛增加他的后宮;名字,他的兩個兒子出生在耶路撒冷(五13-16 ) ;戰爭與非利士人導致其失敗(五17-25 ) 。

The Ark Brought to Jerusalem.方舟帶來耶路撒冷。

Removal of the Ark: The Ark is brought on a new cart out of the house of Abinadab, David and the Israelites playing before it on all sorts of instruments; its arrival at the thrashing-floor of Nachon; Uzzah, to save the Ark from falling when the oxen stumbled, puts forth his hand, for which act he is smitten dead (vi. 1-8); David, afraid to remove the Ark to Jerusalem, carries it aside to the house of Obed-edom, the Gittite, where it remains for three months (vi. 9-12); hearing that Obed-edom has prospered in consequence, David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, offering sacrifices along the way; David dances before the Ark, which causes Michal to despise him; the Ark is set in the midst of a tent, David offering "'olot" and "shelamim" before Yhwh, and the people receiving a share of the sacrificial meal; Michal's censure of David; her reproof and punishment (vi. 13-23).去除方舟:是的方舟帶來了一個新的車出屋子的Abinadab ,大衛和以色列人的發揮收到各種文書;其到達大勝地板的Nachon ; Uzzah ,為了節省方舟從當牛屬於偶然,提出了他的手,而他的行為是一見鍾情死亡( vi. 1月8日) ;大衛,恐怕刪除約櫃到耶路撒冷,進行擱置向眾議院奧貝德盧,益登,該Gittite ,它仍然是3個月( vi. 9月12日) ;聽到奧貝德盧,益登科技的繁榮進步,因此,大衛帶來方舟耶路撒冷,祭祀一路上;大衛舞蹈前方舟,造成米哈烏瞧不起他;方舟是處於一個帳篷,大衛提供“奧洛特”和“ shelamim ”之前Yhwh ,人民得到的份額祭祀餐;米哈烏的指責大衛;她的責備和懲罰( vi. 13-23 ) 。

Plans to Build Temple: Nathan and David; the prophet recalls that no permanent sanctuary has existed during Israel's history, and bids David desist from his plan to build one (vii. 1-12); the prophet promises that David shall have a successor, who will be permitted to carry out his (David's) plans (vii. 13-17); David's prayer of thanks for his own elevation and for the divine promise that his dynasty shall continue to rule (vii. 18-29).計劃建造寺:彌敦道和大衛;先知回憶,沒有永久的避難所在以色列已經存在的歷史,和競標價格大衛停止他的計劃,以建立一個( vii. 1月12日) ;先知承諾,大衛須有一個繼任者,誰將被允許完成他(大衛)計劃( vii. 13日至17日) ;大衛的禱告感謝他自己的海拔和神聖的承諾,他將繼續王朝統治( vii. 18-29 ) 。

Data Concerning David's Reign: David's wars (viii. 1-6); the spoils of gold and silver vessels dedicated to Yhwh (viii. 7-12); other military records (viii. 13-14); David as a just ruler; details of the administration and the names of his chief officers (viii. 15-18).數據大衛王朝:大衛的戰爭( viii. 1月6日) ;漁人的黃金和白銀的船隻,致力於Yhwh ( viii. 7月12日) ;其他軍事記錄( viii. 13日至14日) ;大衛作為一個公正的統治者;細節管理和的名字,他的主要成員( viii. 15-18 ) 。

(2) David and His Crown Princes: The Story of David and Jonathan's Son: Ziba, a servant, upon David's inquiry, reveals the existence and place of sojourn of Mephibosheth (ix. 1-5); David sends for him, receives him graciously, assigns him Ziba for a body-servant, restores to him all of Saul's lands, and accords him a place as a daily guest at the royal table (ix. 6-10a); Ziba, his fifteen sons, and twenty retainers serve Mephibosheth and his son Micha (ix. 10b-13). ( 2 ) David和他的王儲:大衛的故事和喬納森的兒子:奇巴,一個僕人,在大衛的調查,揭示了存在和地點逗留Mephibosheth ( ix. 1-5 ) ;大衛派,他收到他慷慨,賦予他奇巴為一個機構,人員,恢復他的所有薩烏爾的土地,並給予他作為一個每日客戶在皇家表( ix. 6 - 10A條) ;奇巴,他15的兒子,和第二十二家臣服務Mephibosheth和他的兒子米莎( ix. 10B條, 13條) 。

David and Uriah.大衛和尤賴厄。

The Expeditions Against Ammon and Syria: The first campaign; the provocation: Ammon's king having died, David sends a deputation to present his condolence to Hanun, the son and successor; his envoys are grossly insulted, and are sent back with one-half of their beards shaved off, and their clothes cut off in the middle, so that they have to wait at Jericho until they obtain fresh garments and their beards are grown (x. 1-5); the first battle: Ammon hires Syrian mercenaries, against whom David sends Joab and an army of mighty men; with fine strategy Joab and his brother Abishai defeat the enemy (x. 6-14); the second battle: Hadarezer leads the Syrians, against whom David in person takes the field, marching to Helam, where he defeats them (x. 15-19); war against Ammon is renewed, but David remains at Jerusalem; he sins with Bath-sheba, wife of Uriah the Hittite, who is with the army (xi. 1-5); to hide his sin David commands Uriah to return home, but is foiled in his designs (xi. 6-13); Uriah delivers to Joab a letter from David containing an order to place Uriah in the forefront of the battle so that he may be killed; this is done, and Uriah falls (xi. 14-17); Joab sends a report to David (xi. 18-25); David takes Bath-sheba into his house, where she gives birth to the first son born unto him while king; Yhwh is displeased (xi. 26, 27); Nathan's parable: "Thou art the man"; Nathan rebukes the king; David confesses (xii. 1-15); the child sickens; David fasts; death of the child; David, to the surprise of his servants, now eats; his explanation (xii. 16-23); Solomon born of Bathsheba; Nathan gives him the name "Jedidiah" (xii. 24-25); Joab calls upon David to join the army lest all the glory of the victory fall to his (Joab's) name; David captures Rabbah, taking the king's crown for himself, and treating the prisoners most cruelly; end of the war (xii. 26-31).該探險隊對阿蒙和敘利亞:第一運動;挑釁:阿蒙國王去世後,大衛發出派遣提出他的哀悼,嫩的兒子和繼承人,他的特使嚴重侮辱,並送回了一半的其鬍子剃了,衣服切斷在中間,使他們不得不等待,直到他們在傑里科獲得新的服裝和鬍鬚的種植(十1月5日) ;第一次戰役:阿蒙僱用敘利亞僱傭軍,對其中大衛發送喬阿布和軍隊的威武男子與罰款戰略喬阿布和他的兄弟Abishai打敗敵人(十, 6月14日) ;第二次戰役: Hadarezer導致敘利亞人,對他們的人採取大衛領域,進軍Helam ,他在那裡擊敗他們(十15-19 ) ;戰爭阿蒙續期,但大衛依然在耶路撒冷,他的罪過與浴,巴,妻子尤賴厄的赫提特,誰是與軍隊( xi. 1-5 ) ;隱藏他的罪過大衛尤賴厄命令返回家園,但在他的設計挫敗( xi. 6月13日) ;尤賴厄交付喬阿布大衛信載有為了使尤賴厄在戰鬥的前列,使他可殺死;做到這一點,和尤賴厄瀑布( xi. 14-17日) ;喬阿布發出了一份報告,大衛( xi. 18-25 ) ;大衛考慮浴,巴到他的房子,在那裡她生下第一個兒子他出生時給國王; Yhwh是不滿( xi. 26日, 27日) ;彌敦道的比喻: “你是人” ;彌敦道指責國王;大衛承認( xii. 1月15日) ;兒童sickens ;大衛齋戒;死亡兒童;大衛,以令人驚訝的他的僕人,現在吃,他的解釋( xii. 16-23 ) ;所羅門出生的拔示巴;彌敦道給他命名為“ Jedidiah ” ( xii. 24-25日) ;喬阿布呼籲大衛參軍,以免所有的輝煌勝利屬於他(喬阿布)的名稱;大衛捕捉安曼,並考慮國王的王冠為自己,以及對待犯人最殘酷;戰爭結束( xii. 26-31 ) 。

Amnon and Absalom: Amnon, in love with Tamar, the sister of his half-brother Absalom, upon the counsel of his cousin Jonadab feigns sickness and secures his father's consent for Tamar to nurse him; he outrages her, and sends her off with insults (xiii. 1-19); Absalom, seeing her grief, consoles her, takes her to his house and awaits an opportunity to take revenge (xiii. 20-22); two years later Absalom invites the king and his sons to a sheep-shearing feast in Baal-hazor, in which Amnon, after the king's refusal to attend, takes part; at the bidding of Absalom, Amnon is killed at the table (xiii. 23-29a); the king's sons fleeing, David hears that all have been killed; Jonadab reassures him, revealing to him Absalom's plot; Absalom takes refuge with Talmai, King of Geshur, remaining in exile three years (xiii. 29b-38); the king yearns for Absalom; Joab's ruse in sending for a wise woman from Tekoah, who feigns to be a widow and to having had an experience with her two sons similar to that of the king; extracting a promise from David that the avenger of blood shall destroy no more, she invokes the promise in Absalom's case; she confesses to be in leaguewith Joab (xiii. 39-xiv. 20); Absalom is granted complete immunity; Joab is sent to bring him home; Absalom is bidden to stay in his own house without seeing the king (xiv. 21-24); Absalom's beauty; his sons and daughter (xiv. 25-27); Absalom, after living two years in Jerusalem without seeing the king, in order to force an interview with Joab sets fire to the latter's field; Joab meets Absalom, and at his bidding intercedes in his behalf with David; David pardons Absalom (xiv. 28-33).阿姆農和押沙龍:阿姆農,愛添馬艦的姐姐,他的同母異父兄弟押沙龍,根據律師的他的表妹Jonadab假裝生病並確保他的父親的同意添馬艦護士他,他傷害了她,她發出了污辱( xiii. 1月19日) ;押沙龍,看到她的悲傷,遊戲機她,她需要他的房子,並等待一個機會,以採取報復( xiii. 20日至22日) ;兩年後押沙龍請國王和他的兒子給羊剪切節日巴爾- hazor ,其中阿姆農後,國王的拒絕出席,參加;在招標押沙龍,阿姆農是造成總表( xiii. 23 - 29A條) ;國王的兒子逃離,大衛聽說所有的人被殺害; Jonadab放心,他透露他押沙龍的陰謀;押沙龍採取避難Talmai ,國王Geshur ,其餘流亡三年( xiii.第29B - 38 ) ;國王渴望押沙龍;喬阿布的詭計派遣了明智的女人從Tekoah ,誰假裝是一個寡婦,並有過的經驗,她的兩個兒子類似國王;提取承諾從大衛的復仇者血液不得銷毀沒有,她叫許諾在押沙龍的案件她承認是在leaguewith喬阿布( xiii. 39 - 14 。 20 ) ;押沙龍被授予完全豁免;喬阿布發送把他送回家;押沙龍是bidden留在自己的房子沒有看到國王( xiv. 21 - 24 ) ;押沙龍的美麗;他的兒子和女兒( xiv. 25日至27日) ;押沙龍,兩年後,生活在耶路撒冷沒有看到國王,以迫使採訪喬阿布放火燒後者的領域;喬阿布符合押沙龍,和他在他的干預招標代表大衛;大衛赦免押沙龍( xiv. 28-33 ) 。

David and Absalom.大衛和押沙龍。

Absalom's Rebellion: Outbreak of the rebellion at Hebron (xv. 1-12); David has to leave Jerusalem; incidents of the flight; Ittai; Zadok and the Ark; Ahithophel and Hushai; Ziba reveals Mephibosheth's plot against David, and is rewarded; Shimei curses David, who, however, will not have him punished (xv. 13-xvi. 14); Absalom at Jerusalem; Hushai joins him; Ahithophel advises Absalom to seize the harem (in token of his being the ruling sovereign), and asks to be allowed to pursue David; Hushai counsels that Absalom should go out in person at the head of all Israel; Hushai's advice is followed; Hushai sends to Zadok and Abiathar asking them to warn David; Jonathan and Ahimaaz, the messengers, are seen by a lad who betrays them, but they are hidden in a well by a woman, and Absalom can not find them; they warn David, who passes over the Jordan; Ahithophel commits suicide (xvi. 15-xvii. 23); David at Mahanaim; Absalom crosses the Jordan with Amasa as his general; Shobi, Machir, and Barzillai provide beds and food (xvii. 24-29).押沙龍的叛逆:爆發叛亂在希伯倫( xv. 1月12日) ;大衛離開耶路撒冷;事件飛行; Ittai ;扎多克和方舟; Ahithophel和Hushai ;奇巴揭示Mephibosheth的陰謀對大衛,並獎勵;士梅咒罵大衛,誰,但是,不會懲罰他( xv. 13 - 16 。 14 ) ;押沙龍在耶路撒冷; Hushai同他; Ahithophel建議押沙龍抓住后宮(以象徵他是執政的主權) ,以及要求被允許繼續大衛; Hushai律師說,押沙龍應該走出去的人在所有以色列負責; Hushai的意見之後; Hushai發送給扎多克和Abiathar要求他們警告大衛喬納森和Ahimaaz ,使者,被視為一個小伙子誰背叛他們,但他們藏在一個由一名婦女,並押沙龍無法找到他們,他們警告大衛,誰經過約旦; Ahithophel自殺( xvi. 15 - 17 。 23 ) ;大衛在瑪哈念;押沙龍穿越約旦與Amasa他信; Shobi , Machir ,並Barzillai提供床和食品( xvii. 24-29 ) 。

The Battle and Absalom's Death: David not allowed to go into battle; he gives orders to deal gently with Absalom; the battle in the forest of Ephraim; Absalom is defeated; he is caught by his hair in the boughs of an oak while his mule passes from under him; Joab, learning of this, takes three darts and thrusts them into Absalom's heart; this ends the pursuit (xviii. 1-16); glosses concerning Absalom's monument and grave (xviii. 17-18); Joab sends the Cushite to the king; Ahimaaz, after having been refused by Joab, is allowed to follow the Cushite, whom he outruns; Ahimaaz informs the king of the victory; David inquires after Absalom, and receives from Ahimaaz an evasive answer; the Cushite arriving, David learns of his son's fate; David's lamentation (xviii. 19-33); the people mourn, the soldiers entering the city as though they had been defeated; Joab forces David to show himself to the people (xix. 1-9); David returns at the solicitation of the people and the priests; Shimei supplicates for pardon; Mephibosheth, whose appearance shows grief, pleads that his servant deceived him; Ziba and he are told to divide the land; Barzillai invited to live at court; he declines, pleading old age, and begging that Chimham may take his place; jealousy between Judah and Israel (xix. 10-44).戰役和押沙龍之死:大衛不允許進入戰鬥;他給訂單處理輕輕與押沙龍;戰鬥在森林中的埃弗拉伊姆;押沙龍被打敗,他是受他的頭髮在樹枝的橡樹,而他的騾子通行證從他;喬阿布,學習到這一點,需要3飛鏢和重點成押沙龍的心;這一目標的追求( xviii. 1月16日) ;粉飾有關押沙龍的紀念碑和嚴重( xviii. 17-18日) ;喬阿布發送Cushite國王; Ahimaaz後,被拒絕的喬阿布,允許按照Cushite ,他outruns ; Ahimaaz通知國王的勝利;大衛詢問後押沙龍,並得到了迴避回答Ahimaaz的Cushite到達,大衛得知他兒子的命運;大衛的悲嘆( xviii. 19-33 ) ;人民表示哀悼,士兵進入城市就像被打敗;喬阿布部隊大衛展示自己的人( xix. 1月9日) ;大衛回報在徵求人民和神職人員;士梅supplicates的赦免; Mephibosheth ,其外觀顯示悲痛,懇求,他的僕人欺騙他;奇巴,他被告知劃分土地; Barzillai邀請住在法院,他拒絕,懇求老,和乞討的Chimham可能需要他的位置;嫉妒和以色列之間的猶太( xix. 10-44 ) 。

Sheba's Uprising and Amasa's Violent Death: Sheba instigates a rebellion on the part of Israel (xx. 1-2); David's return to Jerusalem; treatment of his concubines (xx. 3); Amasa, bidden to call the Judeans together, exceeds the prescribed limit of three days; Abishai given command to pursue Sheba; at the great stone in Gibeon, Amasa meets them; Joab in full equipment salutes him, and thrusts a sword into his bowels, killing him; kindness of a young man to the dying Amasa (xx. 4-13); Sheba besieged in Abel; the wise woman's parley with Joab to save the city; Joab asks that Sheba be delivered up, and the woman promises that his head shall be thrown to Joab over the wall; she induces the people to kill Sheba, and his head is cast out to Joab; the siege is raised (xx. 14-22); repetition of viii.巴起義和Amasa的暴力致死:巴煽動叛亂,對以色列的一部分( xx. 1-2 ) ;大衛返回耶路撒冷;治療他的小妾( xx. 3 ) ; Amasa , bidden致電Judeans在一起,超過了訂明限制的三天; Abishai給予命令進行什巴;在偉大的石頭在基遍, Amasa滿足他們;喬阿布充分設備讚揚他,並重點劍到他的腸子,把他打死;善良的一名年輕男子的死亡Amasa ( xx. 4月13日) ;巴圍困在阿貝爾;明智的女人的會談與喬阿布保存城市;喬阿布要求巴交付了,女人的承諾,他的頭部應拋出來喬阿布牆;她誘導的人要殺死巴,他的頭部是鑄了喬阿布;圍困提高( xx. 14-22 ) ;重複八。 16-18 (xx. 23-26). 16-18 ( xx. 23日至26日) 。

(3) Complementary Appendixes: Famine and the extermination of Saul's house (xxi. 1-14); the four giants and their capture (xxi. 15-22); David's song of triumph (xxii.); his last words (xxiii. 1-7); his thirty-three "mighty men" (xxiii. 8-39); census (xxiv. 1-9), plague (xxiv. 10-17), and erection of the altar (xxiv. 18-25). Complex Documentary Sources. ( 3 )補充附錄:飢荒和滅絕掃羅的房子( xxi. 1月14日) ;四巨頭和他們的捕獲( xxi. 15-22 ) ;大衛的勝利之歌( xxii. ) ;留下的最後一句話( xxiii. 1月7日) ;他的33 “強大的男子” ( xxiii. 8-39 ) ;普查( xxiv. 1月9日) ,鼠疫( xxiv. 10月17日) ,和安裝的祭壇( xxiv. 18-25 ) 。複雜文件來源。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Rabbinical tradition assigns to Samuel the prophet the authorship of ch.猶太教的傳統賦予塞繆爾先知作者的CH 。 i.-xxiv.一,二十四。 (his own biography up to his death), while, on the strength of I Chron. (他自己的傳記了他的死亡) ,而上的力量,我專欄。 xxix.二十九。 29, it credits Gad and Nathan with having written the remainder of the book (I and II forming one book in the Jewish canon; BB 14b, 15a; see Biblical Data, above). 29日,它學分與蓋德及彌敦道有書面的剩餘書(一和二成一本書在猶太佳能; BB心跳第14B , 15A條;見聖經數據段) 。 In so far as tradition recognizes that the books of Samuel are not by one author, it accords with the conclusions of the critical schools.只要認識到,傳統的圖書的塞繆爾不是一個作者,它符合的結論,關鍵的學校。 It is, however, needless to add that modern scholars reject the theory of the joint authorship of Samuel, Gad, and Nathan.然而,不用補充說,現代學者拒絕理論的聯合作者塞繆爾,蓋德,與彌敦道。 As preserved in the canon, the books of Samuel are clearly not the work of men contemporary with the events chronicled.作為保存在佳能,帳簿塞繆爾顯然是不工作的男人當代的事件記錄。 Behind these documents lie various and conflicting traditions which, in keeping with the method of early Hebrew historiography, the compiler has to a certain extent incorporated in his work without making any attempt to harmonize discrepancies.這些文件謊言背後的各種矛盾和傳統,在符合的方法,早期希伯來史學,編譯器已經在一定程度上納入了他的工作沒有做任何努力,以協調不一致的地方。 Thus, in recording how Saul was chosen king, the first book in ch.因此,在錄音如何掃羅被選為國王,第一本書,在CH 。 ix., x.九。 ,十 1-16, xi. 1月16日,十一。 1-11, 15, xiii., and xiv. 1月11日, 15日,十三。 ,和十四。 1-46 proceeds on the theory that Yhwh had appointed a king over the people in order to liberate them from the yoke of the Philistines, commanding the seer to anoint young Saul, who had come to him while seeking his father's asses (ix. 15 et seq.). 1-46收益的理論Yhwh國王任命了一個以上的人以解放他們的枷鎖的非利士人,指揮先知視作年輕掃羅,誰到了他在尋求他父親的評估( ix. 15起。 ) 。 In the war against the Ammonites, Saul proves himself a hero and is chosen king by the people (xi.), after which he leads them against the Philistines (xiii. et seq.).對在戰爭中的菊石,掃羅證明自己是英雄,是選擇國王的人( xi. ) ,此後,他導致他們對非利士人( xiii.起。 ) 。 It is for this war that he enlists young David's services (xiv. 52).正是由於這場戰爭,他enlists年輕的大衛的服務( xiv. 52 ) 。 An altogether different sequence of events and ideas is unfolded in vii.一個完全不同的事件序列和思想展開七。 2 et seq., viii., x. 2起。 ,八。 ,十 17-24a, xii., and xv. Samuel the judge is remembered as having finally and conclusively driven off the Philistines. 17 - 24A條,第十二章。 ,和十五。塞繆爾法官記住了最後和決定性的非利士人趕走。 Ungrateful Israel, in order to be like the other peoples, compels Samuel in his old age to yield to their clamor for a king; and Yhwh, though greatly incensed, at last gives His consent (viii., x. 17 et seq.).忘恩負義以色列,才能像其他國家的人民,迫使塞繆爾晚年屈服於他們的鼓譟為國王和Yhwh ,但極大地激怒了,最後讓他的同意( viii. ,十, 17起。 ) 。 With due solemnity Samuel relinquishes the office which he has administered so faithfully, but reserves for himself the post of censor and counselor, and interceder with Yhwh (xii.).與莊嚴辦公室塞繆爾放棄他經管如此忠實,但保留自己的職位檢查員和輔導員,並interceder與Yhwh ( xii. ) 。 At the first test Saul is discovered to be disobedient and is rejected by Yhwh (xv.).在第一次測試發現掃羅要聽話,並拒絕了Yhwh ( xv. ) 。

In the story of David a similar duplication and divergence are easily established.在大衛的故事類似的重複和分歧很容易建立起來。 In xvi.在十六。 14-23 David is called to Saul's court to dispel the king's evilmoods by playing on the harp. 14-23大衛要求掃羅的法院,以消除國王的evilmoods發揮的豎琴。 He is a young but tried warrior, and is at once appointed armor-bearer to the monarch.他是一個年輕的,但嘗試的戰士,並在任命之後裝甲旗手的君主。 In ch.在CH 。 xvii.十七。 David is a lad who, up to the time when the story opens, tended his father's flock.大衛是誰的孩子,到時候打開的故事,往往他父親的羊群。 He is not inured to war and kills Goliath with a stone from his shepherd's sling.他不習慣於戰爭和殺死哥利亞的石頭從他的牧羊人的吊索。 This feat of valor attracts to him the attention of Saul, who has him trained subsequently for a warrior's career.這英勇壯舉吸引他注意的掃羅,誰訓練了他後來的武士的職業生涯。 Analysis with reference to both the content and the religious conception thereby disclosed, and also to stylistic and linguistic peculiarities, makes it apparent that the books of Samuel in their present form are a compilation from various written and oral sources, their last editor being post-Deuteronomic.分析提及的內容和宗教觀念,從而披露,同時也文體和語言特點,使它成為明顯的是,圖書的塞繆爾在其目前的形式是一個彙編來自各種書面和口頭的來源,他們正在最後編輯後Deuteronomic 。

Oldest Literary Strata.最古老的文學階層。

Undoubtedly, the oldest literary documents are David's elegies (on the death of Saul and Jonathan, II Sam. i. 18 et seq.; on Abner, a fragment, II Sam. iii. 33-34).毫無疑問,最古老的文獻是大衛的哀歌(關於死亡掃羅和喬納森,二山姆。島18起。 ;對阿布納,一個片段,二三。三。 33-34 ) 。 Next in age are those portions which are assigned to the "Jerusalem" cycle of stories.下一步是在年齡的部分是分配給“耶路撒冷”的惡性循環的故事。 This cycle takes its name from the fact that the scene of the happenings it purports to describe is always Jerusalem.這個週期的名字的原因是,現場的事件,其目的在描述總是耶路撒冷。 It gives a history of David and his house, and is probably the work of a Judean writing shortly after Solomon (II Sam. v. 3-16, vi. 9-20).它使歷史的大衛和他的房子,而且大概是工作的朱迪亞寫作後不久,所羅門群島(二三。五, 3月16日,六。 9月20日) 。 To the ninth century, and to a Judean, or perhaps a Benjamite, author, are credited the fragments of Saul's (I Sam. ix. 1-x. 16, xi., xiii., xiv.) and David's histories (I Sam. xvi. 14-23; xviii. 6-11, 20, 27; xx. 1-3, 11, 18-39; xxiii.-xxv.; xxvii.-xxxi.; II Sam. i.-iv.; v. 1, 2, 17-25; xxi. 15-22; xxiii. 8-39).到9世紀,並在朱迪亞,或者一個Benjamite ,作者,都記入碎片掃羅的(我薩姆。九。 1 - X低。 16 ,十一。 ,十三。 ,十四。 )和大衛的歷史(一山姆。十六。 14-23 ;十八。 6月11日, 20日, 27日;二十。 1月3日, 11 , 18-39 ; xxiii. -二十五。 ; xxvii. -三十一。 ;二山姆。 i.-iv. ;五, 1 , 2 , 17-25 ;二十一。 15-22 ;二十三。 8-39 ) 。

Story of the Ark.故事阿肯色州

The story of the Ark (I Sam. iv. 1-vii. 1) displays a character of its own; it interrupts the story of Samuel begun in the preceding chapters; the punishment of Eli and his sons, which, according to ch.的故事方舟(一三。四。 1至七。 1 )顯示了自己的特點,它中斷塞繆爾的故事開始的前幾章;懲罰禮和他的兒子,而根據總。 iii., might be expected to be the central event, is treated as a mere incident, the whole of Israel being involved in the catastrophe.三。可能會預計將成為中央的事件,被視為單純的事件,整個以色列被捲入災難。 Moreover, the fate of the Ark does not emphasize the misfortune of Israel nearly as much as it does the triumph of Elohim, and the episode seems to have been written to bring the latter idea into bold relief.此外,命運的方舟並不強調不幸以色列幾乎不相上下它的勝利耶洛因,以及這一事件似乎已經書面使後者大膽的想法變成救濟。 In this account the Ark is regarded as a tribal or national palladium, not as a mere case for the tablets of the Decalogue.此帳戶中的方舟被視為一個部落或國家鈀,而不是僅僅作為案例片的十誡。 This part exhibits the coloring of a situation in which a resident of the Northern Kingdom, before the cruder conceptions of the Deity had given way to higher ones, would most likely be interested.這部分展品的著色的情況是,居住在英國北部之前, cruder概念神已經讓位於更高,很可能會感興趣的。 For this reason it has been held to be a fragment from a history of sanctuaries of northern origin.為此,它被認為是一塊碎片的歷史,原產地保護區的北部。

The remaining portions of the book reflect the views of prophetism. The histories of Saul and Samuel are rewritten from a very rigid, prophetic point of view (I Sam. i.-iii.; viii.; x. 17-24; xv. [perhaps]; xvii. 1-xviii. 5 [for the most part], 12-19, 28-30; xix. [most]; xxi. 2-10; xxii.; xxvi.; II Sam. i. 6-10, 13-16).的其餘部分圖書的意見prophetism 。歷史的掃羅和Samuel是重寫從非常僵硬,先知的角度來看(我薩姆。一至三。八。 ;十17-24 ;十五。 [也許] ;十七。 1 - 18 。 5 [在大多數情況下] , 12月19日, 28日至30日;十九。 [最] ;二十一。 2-10 ;二十二。 ;二十六。 ;二山姆。島6 -10 , 13-16 ) 。 Ch.總。 xv. seems to be planned to connect the older Saul story with this newer prophetic reconstruction.十五。似乎是計劃連接舊掃羅故事這一新的預言重建。 It presupposes the details of the former (xv. 1, 17 [Saul's anointment] refers to x. 1; the phraseology of xv. 19 recalls xiv. 32), but the prophetic reconstruction of this chapter appears not to have been known when the old Saul story was incorporated.它的前提的細節前( xv. 1 , 17 [掃羅的塗油]指十1 ;的措辭十五。 19回顧十四。 32 ) ,但預言重建本章似乎沒有已知時老掃羅的故事被納入。 Otherwise there would have been no occasion for the elaborate justification of Samuel's right to counsel and command Saul.否則就沒有機會來闡述理由塞繆爾的權利,律師和指揮索爾。 Still, the point of view is similar to that of the prophetic reconstruction.然而,觀點是相似的預言重建。 Samuel is the king's superior.塞繆爾是國王的優越。 He is not the seer, but the prophet, of the type of Amos and Hosea.他不是預言家,但先知,什麼類型的Amos和何西阿。 The story emphasizes the teaching that obedience is more precious than sacrifice (comp. Jer. vii. 21-26).故事強調教學服從更寶貴的犧牲( comp.哲。七。 21-26 ) 。

Supposed Time of Redaction.假定時間Redaction 。

These various components were probably gathered into one compilation shortly before the Exile.這些各組成部分可能聚集成一個彙編前不久流亡。 The redactor (Rd) traces of whose hand are found mainly in I Sam.該redactor (路)的痕跡,其手被發現主要是在我三。 ii.二。 27-36, vii. 27-36 ,七。 2b-16, xii., and II Sam. vii., is held to have been under Deuteronomic influences, and thus to have been antecedent to the redactor whose views reflect those of the Priestly Code and through whose hands all of the historical books passed, though in Samuel there are few indications of his revisions, among them the glosses in I Sam.第2B - 16 ,十二。 ,和二山姆。七。 ,是已經舉行下Deuteronomic影響,因此,已先行向redactor的意見反映了祭司碼,並通過他們手中的所有歷史書籍通過,但在塞繆爾很少有跡象表明,他的修改,其中包括掩蓋在我薩姆。 ii.二。 22b and the introduction of the Levites in I Sam. 22B款,並推出了利在我薩姆。 vi.六。 15 and II Sam. 15日和二山姆。 xv.十五。 24. Additions in loose connection are noticeable that can not be classified; for instance, I Sam. 24 。添置鬆散連接的明顯無法歸類,例如,我薩姆。 xix.十九。 18-24 and xx. 18-24和xx 。 They break the sequence of the narrative and introduce several contradictions.他們打破序列的說明和介紹一些矛盾。 Ch. xix.總。十九。 18-24 is an attempt to explain a proverbial idiom ("Saul among the prophets"), and, as such, is a double to I Sam. 18-24是企圖解釋諺語成語( “掃羅的先知” ) ,因此,是一種雙重的I山姆。 x. 11. 11 。 According to ch.根據總。 xv.十五。 35, Samuel never saw Saul again, but here Saul appears before him. 35 ,塞繆爾從未見過再次掃羅,但在這裡出現在他面前索爾。 Ch.總。 xx., an account David's flight, is similar to xix. 1-7.二十。 ,一個帳戶大衛的飛行,類似於十九。 1-7 。 Among such additions, gleaned from popular traditions or merely literary embellishments, are reckoned I Sam.在這些增補,收集民間傳統或僅僅是文學修飾,估計我是薩姆。 xxi.二十一。 11-16 and II Sam. ii. 11月16日和第二三。二。 13-16, viii., xxi.-xxiv. 13-16日,八。 , xxi. - 24 。 The song of Hannah (I Sam. ii. 1 et seq.), the psalm in II Sam.這首歌的漢娜(一三。二。 1起。 ) ,在二的詩篇薩姆。 xxii., and David's "last words" (II Sam. xxiii. 1 et seq.) are very late.二十二。 ,和大衛的“最後的話” (二山姆。二十三。 1起。 )是非常晚。 These additions may have been made at various periods, but they antedate the final redaction as a part of the second larger division of the canon.這些增加可能是在不同時期,但他們的最後編輯antedate的一部分第二大司佳能。

Historically, the prophetic reconstruction is entitled to the least confidence.從歷史上看,預言重建有權不信任。 So strongly is the "Tendenz" impressed upon the narratives of this group that some recent critics have come to the conclusion that they do not represent an originally independent source, but are due to the literary activity of the Deuteronomic redactor.如此強烈的“ Tendenz ”留下深刻印象的敘述後,本組最近的一些批評者們得出的結論是,他們並不代表原先獨立的消息來源,但由於文學活動的Deuteronomic redactor 。 Being more naively primitive, the Saul and David histories reflect actual occurrences, colored, however, by the desire to exalt the national heroes.更天真原始,掃羅和大衛的歷史反映實際情況,顏色,然而,是希望發揚民族英雄。 The Jerusalem cycle intends to glorify David's dynasty as the legitimate royal family of all Israel.耶路撒冷週期打算美化大衛王朝的合法王室所有以色列。

The Masoretic text is highly corrupt; that underlying the Septuagint version is more nearly correct.的馬所拉文本高度腐敗;潛在的七十版本更接近正確的。 The literalism of the Greek has enabled scholars in many instances to reconstruct a text much nearer the original than is the extant Hebrew.該拘泥於字句希臘,使學者在許多情況下,重建一個文本非常接近原始比現存的希伯來文。 Unfortunately, the Greek text of the Septuagint itself requires careful editing.不幸的是,希文譯本本身需要進行認真的編輯。 In many passages the Septuagint shows interpolations based on the Masorah, so that it presents duplicate versions, while in others the original independent Greek has been replaced by the translated Hebrew of the Masoretic text.在許多段落的七十顯示插值的基礎上Masorah ,因此,它提出了重複的版本,而在另一些原來獨立希臘已取代翻譯希伯來語的馬所拉文本。 The various Septuagint codices are not of equal value for purposes of textual criticism.各七十codices不具有同等價值為目的的考證。 The "Codex Vaticanus B" is the most important for the books ofSamuel while the Alexandrinus, itself shows too many emendations of the Greek after the extant Hebrew to be of much aid.該“法典Vaticanus乙”是最重要的書籍ofSamuel而頸,本身就表明太多emendations希臘後,將現有的希伯來文的許多援助。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米爾灣赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Textual criticism: Friedrich Böttcher, Neue Exegetisch-Kritische Aehrenlese zum AT 1863, vol.考證:弗里德里希Böttcher ,新Exegetisch -批判Aehrenlese zum在1863年,第二卷。 i.; Julius Wellhausen, Der Text der Bücher Samuelis, 1871; SR Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Samuel, 1890; R.一;朱利豪森,德國明鏡文字Bücher Samuelis , 1871年;簡驅動,債券在希伯萊文字的圖書的塞繆爾, 1890年;河 Kittel, Textkritische Erläuterungen (appendix to E. Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments, 1896); Karl Budde, in SBOT; A.基特爾, Textkritische Erläuterungen (附錄至E. Kautzsch ,模具神聖Schrift萬老聖經, 1896年) ;卡爾布德,在SBOT ;答: Mes, Die Bibel des Josephus, 1895; H. MES系統,模具聖經之約瑟夫, 1895年閣下; Oort, Texti Hebraici Emendationes, 1900. Commentaries: Otto Thenius, Die Bücher Samuels, 1898; August Klostermann, Die Bücher Samuelis und der Könige, 1887; HP Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, 1899; Karl Budde, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel, 1890; idem, Die Bücher Samuel (in KHC); Bleek, Einleitung, 1878; Guthe, Kurzes Bibelwörterbuch, 1903.EGH奧爾特, Texti Hebraici Emendationes , 1900 。評:奧托Thenius ,模具Bücher塞穆爾斯, 1898 ; 8月Klostermann ,模具Bücher Samuelis與之節, 1887年;惠普史密斯,一個關鍵和訓詁評塞繆爾帳簿, 1899年;卡爾布德,模具Bücher里希特和薩穆埃爾, 1890年;同上,模具Bücher塞繆爾(在KHC ) ; Bleek導論, 1878年; Guthe , Kurzes Bibelwörterbuch , 1903.EGH


Samuel塞繆爾

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The Call of Samuel.塞繆爾的呼喚。

Samuel as Judge.塞繆爾法官。

Samuel and Saul.塞繆爾和索爾。

Samuel and David.塞繆爾和戴維。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Sources of Biography.來源傳記。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Probably Shaped Under Influence of Deuteronomy.可能形影響下申命記。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, of Ramathaim-zophim, in the hill-country of Ephraim (I Sam. i. 1).塞繆爾的兒子Elkanah和漢娜的Ramathaim - zophim ,在山國的埃弗拉伊姆(一山姆。一1 ) 。 He was born while Eli was judge.他出生而禮是法官。 Devoted to Yhwh in fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had long been childless, he was taken to Shiloh by Hannah as soon as he was weaned, to serve Yhwh during his lifetime (i. 11, 22-23, 28).專門Yhwh在履行承諾方面所取得的母親,誰一直沒有孩子,他被帶到希洛的漢娜盡快他斷奶,服務Yhwh在他的一生(一11日, 22日至23日, 28日) 。

The Call of Samuel.塞繆爾的呼喚。

The sons of Eli being sons of Belial, wicked and avaricious, Samuel ministered before Yhwh in their stead, being even as a lad girded with a linen ephod (ii. 12 et seq., 22 et seq.).禮的兒子被兒子惡魔,邪惡和貪婪,塞繆爾事奉之前Yhwh代之而起的,而即使是作為孩子girded亞麻ephod (白介素12起。 , 22起。 ) 。 His mother, on her yearly visits, brought him a robe.他的母親,她每年的訪問,帶來了他的長袍。 As he grew up Samuel won ever-increasing favor with Yhwh and with men (ii. 26).當他長大的塞繆爾贏得越來越多討好Yhwh和男子(白介素26 ) 。 How he was called by Yhwh is related as follows: Eli, old and dim of vision, had lain down to sleep, as had Samuel, in the Temple of Yhwh, wherein was the Ark. Then Yhwh called "Samuel!"他是如何要求的Yhwh有關情況如下:禮,舊的和暗淡的視野,減少了其它睡覺一樣,薩穆埃爾,在廟的Yhwh ,其中是阿肯色州然後Yhwh所謂“塞繆爾! ” Answering, "Here am I," Samuel, thinking Eli had summoned him, ran to him explaining that he had come in obedience to his call.回答, “我在這裡, ”塞繆爾,思維禮召見了他,跑到他解釋說,他來服從他的呼籲。 Eli, however, sent him back to his couch.禮,不過,送他回到他的沙發上。 Three times in succession Samuel heard the summons and reported to Eli, by whom he was sent back to sleep.三次繼承塞繆爾聽取了傳票,並上報禮,是誰,他被遣送回睡覺。 This repetition finally aroused Eli's comprehension; he knew that Yhwh was calling the lad.這終於引起重複禮的理解;他知道Yhwh呼籲法援署。 Therefore he advised him to lie down again, and, if called once more, to say, "Speak, for Thy servant heareth." Samuel did as he had been bidden.因此,他勸他躺下了,如果再次呼籲,說, “說吧,為你的僕人heareth 。 ”塞繆爾沒有因為他已bidden 。 Yhwh then revealed to him His purpose to exterminate the house of Eli.耶和華然後透露給了他的目的是消滅眾議院禮。

Samuel hesitated to inform Eli concerning the vision, but next morning, at Eli's solicitation, Samuel related what he had heard (iii. 1-18).塞繆爾禮毫不猶豫地通知有關的遠見,但第二天早上,在禮的邀約,塞繆爾有關他曾聽說( iii. 1月18日) 。 Yhwh was with Samuel, and let none of His words "fall to the ground."耶和華是塞繆爾,讓沒有他的話: “倒在地上。 ” All Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba recognized him as appointed to be a prophet of Yhwh; and Samuel continued to receive at Shiloh revelations which he imparted to all Israel (iii. 19-21).所有以色列從丹啤酒,謝巴赫承認他的任命是一個先知Yhwh ;和Samuel繼續收到在希洛揭露他傳授給所有以色列( iii. 19-21 ) 。

Samuel as Judge.塞繆爾法官。

During the war with the Philistines the Ark was taken by the enemy. After its mere presence among the Philistines had brought suffering upon them, it was returned and taken to Kirjath-jearim.在戰爭期間與非利士人方舟採取了敵人。後,僅僅是存在的非利士人帶來了痛苦,那是返回和採取Kirjath - jearim 。 While it was there Samuel spoke to the children of Israel, calling upon them to return to Yhwh and put away strange gods, that they might be delivered out of the hands of the Philistines (vii. 2 et seq.).雖然有塞繆爾以兒童以色列,呼籲他們返回Yhwh並提出了奇怪的神,他們可能提供了手中的非利士人( vii. 2起。 ) 。 The test came at Mizpah, where, at Samuel's call, all Israel had gathered, under the promise that he would pray to Yhwh for them, and where they fasted, confessed, and were judged by him (vii. 5-6). Before the Philistines attacked, Samuel took a sucking lamb and offered it for a whole burnt offering, calling unto Yhwh for help; and as the Philistines drew up in battle array Yhwh "thundered with a great thunder" upon them, "and they were smitten beforeIsrael."該測試是在米茲帕,凡在塞繆爾的呼籲,所有以色列聚集,根據承諾,他將祈禱Yhwh他們,在那裡禁食,坦白,並判斷他( vii. 5-6 ) 。之前在非利士人攻擊,塞繆爾了吸吮羊肉,並提供它的一個整體燔祭,呼籲你們Yhwh幫助;的非利士人,並制定了在陣Yhwh “一聲巨大的雷聲與”他們“ ,他們是一見鍾情beforeIsrael 。 “ As a memorial of the victory Samuel set up a stone between Mizpah and Shen, calling it "Ebenezer" (= "hitherto hath the Lord helped us"). This crushing defeat kept the Philistines in check all the days of Samuel (vii. 7-14).作為紀念的勝利塞繆爾設立了一個石頭之間米茲帕沉,稱這是“心光” ( = “迄今上帝上帝幫助我們” ) 。這種慘敗使非利士人在檢查所有的日子塞繆爾( vii. 7 -14 ) 。

In his capacity as judge Samuel went each year in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and Mizpah, but he dwelt at Ramah, where he built an altar (vii. 15 et seq.).身份法官塞繆爾了每年電路貝絲,薩爾瓦多,和Gilgal ,並米茲帕,但他住在Ramah ,他在那裡建立了一個祭壇( vii. 15起。 ) 。 When he had grown old, and was ready to surrender his duties to his sons, neither Joel, the first-born, nor Abijah, the second, proved worthy; they "turned aside after lucre, and took bribes" (viii. 1-3).當他長大歲,並願意交出他的職責,他的兒子,無論是喬爾,第一出生的,也不Abijah ,第二,證明值得他們“一邊打開後lucre ,並採取賄賂” ( viii. 1 - 3 ) 。 This induced the elders to go to Ramah and request Samuel to give them a king, as all the other nations had kings.這引起長老去塞繆爾Ramah ,並要求給他們的國王,因為所有其他國家的國王。 Samuel was much vexed, but upon praying to Yhwh and receiving the divine direction to yield, he acquiesced, after delivering a powerful address describing the despotism they were calling upon themselves and their descendants; this address, however, did not turn the people from their purpose (viii. 3 et seq.).塞繆爾很多煩惱,但在祈禱Yhwh和接受神聖的方向產生,他默許,後處理提供了一種強大的專制描述他們呼籲他們自己和他們的後代;這個地址,但是,並沒有把人從他們目的( viii. 3起。 ) 。 In this crisis Samuel met Saul, who had come to consult him, the seer, concerning some lost asses.在這場危機中塞繆爾會見了掃羅,誰已經到了協商,他的預言家,就失去了一些評估。 Yhwh had already apprised him of Saul's coming, and had ordered him to anoint his visitor king. When Saul inquired of him the way to the seer's house, Samuel revealed his identity to the Benjamite, and bade him go with him to the sacrificial meal at the "high place," to which about thirty persons had been invited.耶和華已經了解他的掃羅的未來,並命令他視作自己的訪客國王。當掃羅詢問的方式對他的預言家的房子,塞繆爾表露身份的Benjamite ,並叫他跟他一起去的犧牲餐“高的地方” ,其中約30人已被邀請。 He showed great honor to Saul, who was surprised and unable to reconcile these marks of deference with his own humble origin and station.他表現出極大的榮譽,掃羅,誰感到驚訝和無法調和這些標誌尊重自己的微薄起源和火車站。 The next morning Samuel anointed him, giving him "signs" which, having come to pass, would show that God was with him, and directing him to proceed to Gilgal and await his (Samuel's) appearance there (ix., x. 1-9).第二天早晨,塞繆爾受膏者他,讓他“標誌”的,有來傳球,將表明,上帝是他的,並指示他著手Gilgal和等待他(塞繆爾)的外觀有( ix. ,十1 - 9 ) 。

Samuel and Saul.塞繆爾和索爾。

In preparation for the installation of Saul, Samuel called the people together at Mizpah, where the private anointment of Saul was confirmed by his selection by lot (x. 17-24).在準備安裝掃羅,塞繆爾呼籲人民一起米茲帕,私營塗油的掃羅證實了他的選擇很多(十17-24 ) 。 Samuel is reported also to have taken active part in the coronation of Saul at Gilgal (xi. 12-15).塞繆爾報告也已採取積極參加加冕掃羅在Gilgal ( xi. 12月15日) 。 He profited by the opportunity to rehearse before the people his own life and secure their acknowledgment of his probity. After a solemn admonition to the people to be loyal to Yhwh, Samuel, as a sign that the demand for a king was fundamentally wicked, called forth thunder and rain, which so impressed the people that they implored him to intercede with Yhwh for them, "that we die not."他獲利的機會,排練之前,人們結束自己的生命,確保其承認他的正直。經過莊嚴告誡人民忠於Yhwh ,薩穆埃爾,作為一個跡象,表明需求國王基本上是邪惡的,所謂的提出雷電和大雨,這使人們留下了深刻印象,他們懇求他說情與Yhwh對於他們來說, “我們不會死。 ” Samuel turned the occasion into a solemn lesson as to what the penalties for disobedience would be (xii.).塞繆爾把一個莊嚴的時刻到的教訓,以何種處罰將是對不服從( xii. ) 。

At Gilgal a break with Saul came because, in the absence of Samuel, the king had offered the burnt offering.在Gilgal打破掃羅是因為,在沒有薩穆埃爾,國王提出的燔祭。 Samuel announced then and there that Saul's dynasty was not to be permitted to continue on the throne (xiii. 8-14).塞繆爾宣布然後和那裡掃羅的時期並沒有被允許繼續王位( xiii. 8月14日) 。 Nevertheless, Samuel sent Saul to accomplish the extermination of Amalek (xv.).然而,塞繆爾發出掃羅完成滅絕亞瑪力( xv. ) 。 Again Saul proved refractory, sparing Agag, the Amalekite king, and the flocks, and everything that was valuable.索爾再次證明難治,節約Agag ,國王的Amalekite和家禽,以及一切是有價值的。 Thereupon the word of Yhwh came unto Samuel, announcing Saul's deposition from the throne.於是,這個詞的Yhwh來到你們塞繆爾,宣布掃羅的沉積王位。 Meeting Saul, Samuel declared his rejection and with his own hand slew Agag (xv.).會議掃羅,塞繆爾宣布他拒絕和他自己的手擺Agag ( xv. ) 。 This led to the final separation of Samuel and Saul (xv. 34-35).這就導致了最後的分離塞繆爾和索爾( xv. 34-35段) 。 Mourning for Saul, Samuel was bidden by Yhwh to go to Jesse, the Beth-lehemite, one of whose sons was chosen to be king instead of Saul (xvi. 4).莫寧的掃羅,塞繆爾bidden的Yhwh去傑西的貝絲, lehemite之一,其兒子被選定為國王而不是索爾( xvi. 4 ) 。 Fearing lest Saul might detect the intention, Samuel resorted to strategy, pretending to have gone to Beth-lehem in order to sacrifice.由於擔心可能會發現,以免掃羅的意圖,塞繆爾訴諸戰略,假裝去了貝絲, lehem為了犧牲。 At the sacrificial feast, after having passed in review the sons of Jesse, and having found that none of those present was chosen by Yhwh, Samuel commanded that the youngest, David, who was away watching the sheep, should be sent for.在祭祀盛宴後,通過審查的兒子傑西,並沒有發現,在場的人被選為由Yhwh ,塞繆爾說,年輕的指揮,大衛,誰不在看羊,應送交的。 As soon as David appeared Yhwh commanded Samuel to anoint him, after which Samuel returned to Ramah (xvi. 5-13).一旦出現Yhwh指揮大衛塞繆爾視作他,之後返回Ramah塞繆爾( xvi. 5月13日) 。

Samuel and David.塞繆爾和戴維。

Nothing further is told of Samuel until David's flight to him at Ramah, when he accompanied his fugitive friend to Naioth.沒有進一步的塞繆爾說,直到大衛的飛行對他Ramah ,當他陪同他的朋友Naioth逃犯。 There, through Samuel's intervention, Saul's messengers, as did later Saul himself, turned prophets "before Samuel" (xix. 18 et seq.).因此,通過塞繆爾的干預,掃羅的使者一樣,後來掃羅自己,把先知“之前塞繆爾” ( xix. 18起。 ) 。 The end of Samuel is told in a very brief note: "And Samuel died, and all Israel gathered themselves together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah" (xxv. 1, Hebr.).年底塞繆爾說是在一個非常簡短的說明: “和Samuel死亡,所有以色列自己收集在一起,哀嘆他,埋葬了他在他的家在Ramah ” ( xxv. 1 , Hebr 。 ) 。 But after his death, Saul, through the witch of En-dor, called Samuel from his grave, only to hear from him a prediction of his impending doom (xxviii. 3 et seq.).但在他死後,掃羅,通過巫婆的恩多爾,要求塞繆爾由他的墳墓,只聽到他預測他即將滅亡( xxviii. 3起。 ) 。

In I Chron.在I專欄。 xxvi.二十六。 28 Samuel the seer is mentioned as having dedicated gifts to the Sanctuary. 28塞繆爾提到的預言家是具有專門的禮物聖殿。 He is again represented in I Chron.他再次代表我專欄。 xi.十一。 3 as having, in Yhwh's name, announced the elevation of David to the throne. 3有,在Yhwh的姓名,宣布海拔大衛王位。 He is furthermore credited with having ordained the "porters in the gates" (I Chron. ix. 22).他還讚揚了祝聖的“搬運工在蓋茨” (我專欄。九。 22 ) 。

In the Biblical account Samuel appears as both the last of the Judges and the first of the Prophets, as the founder of the kingdom and as the legitimate offerer of sacrifices at the altars (I Sam. vii. 9 et seq., ix. 22 et seq., x. 8, xi. 15, xvi. 1 et seq.).在聖經帳戶塞繆爾似乎都在過去的法官和第一的先知,作為王國的創始人和合法的發貨犧牲在祭壇(一三。七。 9起。 ,第九章。 22起。 ,十8日,十一。 15 ,十六。 1起。 ) 。 In fact, Chronicles (I Chron. vi. 28) makes him out to be of Levitical descent.事實上,歷代記(一專欄。六。 28日)使他成為了Levitical後裔。 According to I Sam.據我薩姆。 ix.九。 9, the prophets preceding Samuel were called seers, while it would appear that he was the first to be known as "nabi," or "prophet." 9 ,塞繆爾先知前被稱為預言家,而這樣看來,他是第一個被稱為“彩蝶” ,或者“先知” 。 He was the man of God (ix. 7-8), and was believed by the people to be able to reveal the whereabouts of lost animals.他是上帝的人( ix. 7-8 ) ,並相信人民能夠揭示的下落,失去了的動物。 In his days there were "schools of prophets," or, more properly," bands of prophets."他在天有“學校的先知” ,或更正確, “帶的先知。 ” From the fact that these bands are mentioned in connection with Gibeah (I Sam. x. 5, 10), Jericho (II Kings ii. 5), Ramah (I Sam. xix. 18 et seq.), Beth-el (II Kings ii. 3), and Gilgal (II Kings iv. 38)-places focal in the career of Samuel-the conclusion seems well assured that it was Samuel who called them into being.從事實,即這些樂隊中提到與Gibeah (一三。十, 5 , 10 ) ,傑里科(二王二。 5 ) , Ramah (一山姆。十九。 18起。 ) ,貝斯,薩爾瓦多(二王二。 3 ) ,和Gilgal (二國王四。 38 ) ,地方協調的職業生涯的塞繆爾的結論似乎也放心,這是塞繆爾誰被稱為成。 In the Acts of the Apostles (xiii. 20) Samuel occurs as the last of the Judges and the first true prophet in Israel (Acts iii. 24, xiii. 20; Heb. xi. 32), while a gloss in Chronicles (II Chron. xxxv. 18) connects his time with one of the most memorable celebrations of Passover.在使徒行傳( xiii. 20 )塞繆爾發生在去年的法官和第一座真正意義上的先知在以色列(使徒三。 24日,十三。 20 ;希伯來。十一。 32 ) ,而光澤的編年史(二專欄。三十五。 18 )連接的時間與他的一個最難忘的慶祝逾越節。 The Old Testament furnishes no chronological data concerning his life.舊約提供的數據沒有時間他的生命。 If Josephus ("Ant." vi. 13, § 5) is to be believed, Samuel had officiated twelve years as judge before Saul's coronation.如果約瑟夫( “螞蟻。 ”六。 13 , § 5 )要相信,塞繆爾已正式十二年前索爾法官的加冕典禮。 The year 1095 BC is commonly accepted as that of Saul's accession to the throne.這一年是公元前1095年所共同接受的掃羅加入王位。 EGH歐洲加沙醫院

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Samuel was a Levite (Lev. R. xxii. 6) of the family of Korah (Num. R. xviii. 17), and was also a Nazarite (Naz. 66a).塞繆爾是列維特( Lev.河二十二。 6 )家庭的Korah ( Num.河十八。 17 ) ,並還Nazarite ( Naz. 66a ) 。 As a child he was extremely delicate (Ḥag. 6a), but highly developed intellectually. Thus, when he was weaned and brought by his mother to Shiloh, he noticed that the priests were most careful that the sacrificial victims should be slain by one of their number.作為一個孩子,他是極其微妙的( Ḥag. 6A )款,但高度發達的智力。因此,當他所帶來的斷奶和他的母親到希洛,他注意到,這些神父最認真的犧牲品應該被殺的一個他們的人數。 Samuel, however, declared to the priests that even a layman might offer sacrifice, whereupon he was taken before Eli, who asked him the grounds of his statement.塞繆爾然而,宣布向神職人員,即使是外行人可能提供的犧牲,於是他被帶到面前禮,誰問他的理由,他的發言。 Samuel answered: "It is not written that the priest shall slay the victim, but only that he shall bring the blood" (Lev. i. 5; comp. Zeb. 32a).塞繆爾說: “這不是寫的牧師應殺死受害者,而只是說他須把血液” ( Lev.一5 ;補償。瑞伯。 32A條) 。 Eli acknowledged the validity of his argument, but declared that Samuel merited the penalty of death for giving legal decisions in the presence of a master; and it was only the entreaty of Samuel's mother which saved the child (Ber. 31b).禮承認的有效性,他的論點,但宣布,塞繆爾值得死刑給有關法律問題的決定中存在的主人,只是在懇求的塞繆爾的母親拯救兒童( Ber. 31b ) 。 When God revealed Himself to Samuel for the first time and called his name, he cautiously answered only "Speak" (I Sam. iii. 10) and not, as Eli commanded him, "Speak, O God" (Shab. 113b).當上帝他能夠塞繆爾首次,並呼籲他的名字,他只謹慎地回答: “說話” (我薩姆。三。 10 ) ,而不是禮指揮他, “說吧,上帝啊” ( Shab. 113b ) 。

Samuel was very rich.塞繆爾非常豐富。 On his annual journeys as judge to various cities (comp. I Sam. vii. 16-17) he was accompanied by his entire household, and would accept hospitality from no one (Ber. 10b; Ned. 38a).在他的年度旅行作為法官,各城市( comp.我三。七。 16-17日) ,他是伴隨著他的整個家庭,並會接受來自任何人熱情好客( Ber. 10B條;內。 38A條) 。 While Moses commanded the people to come to him that he might declare the Law to them (comp. Ex. xviii. 14-16), Samuel visited all the cities of the land to spare the people weary journeys to him; and while Samuel was considered equal to Moses and to Aaron (Ber. 31b; Ta'an. 5b), he was favored above Moses in one respect; for the latter was obliged to go to the Tabernacle to receive a revelation from God, whereas God Himself came to Samuel to reveal His will to him (Ex. R. xvi. 4).雖然摩西指揮人來給他,他可能宣布該法對他們( comp.惠。十八。 14-16日) ,塞繆爾訪問所有城市的土地,以避免人們厭倦行程,他和同時塞繆爾視為等於摩西和亞倫( Ber. 31b ; Ta'an 。 5B號) ,他是主張上述摩西在一個方面;後者不得不去幕得到啟示的上帝,而上帝來塞繆爾透露他將他的(例如,河十六。 4 ) 。 For ten years Samuel judged Israel; but in the tenth the people asked for a king. 10年塞繆爾判斷以色列,但在第十屆人民要求國王。 Samuel anointed Saul; and when the latter was rejected by God, Samuel grieved bitterly and aged prematurely (Ta'an. 5b).塞繆爾受膏者掃羅;和當後者拒絕了上帝,塞繆爾痛苦和悲傷歲過早( Ta'an 。 5B號) 。 Cruel though he was in hewing Agag to pieces, yet this was a righteous punishment for the Amalekite, who had been equally barbarous to the children of Israel (Lam. R. iii. 43).殘忍雖然他在hewing Agag成碎片,但是這是一個正義的懲罰Amalekite ,誰野蠻了同樣的兒童以色列( Lam.河三。 43 ) 。

Samuel wrote the books of Judges and Ruth, as well as those bearing his own name, although the latter were completed by the seer Gad (BB 14b-15a).塞繆爾寫了書的法官和露絲,以及那些同時他自己的名字,儘管後者已經完成了先知蓋德( BB心跳第14B - 15A條) 。 He died at the age of fifty-two (M. Ḳ. 28a).他去世時年僅52 (先生K表。 28A款) 。 When he was raised from the dead by the witch of Endor at the request of Saul (comp. I Sam. xxviii. 7-19), he was terrified, for he believed that he was summoned to appear before the divine judgmentseat; he therefore took Moses with him to bear witness that he had observed all the precepts of the Torah (Ḥag. 4b).WBJZL當他提出的從死的女巫恩的請求索爾( comp.我薩姆。二十八。 7月19日) ,他被嚇壞了,因為他認為他被傳喚出庭的神聖judgmentseat ;因此,他在摩西與他的見證,他已觀察到所有的戒律的律法( Ḥag. 4B條) 。 WBJZL

Sources of Biography.來源傳記。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The outline of the life of Samuel given in the First Book of Samuel is a compilation from different documents and sources of varying degrees of credibility and age, exhibiting many and not always concordant points of view (see Samuel, Books of-Critical View).綱要的生活塞繆爾中給出的第一本書的塞繆爾彙編從不同的文件和資料來源的不同程度的可信性和年齡,展出許多並非總是一致的觀點(見塞繆爾,圖書的批評的看法) 。 The name "Shemu'el" is interpreted "asked of Yhwh," and, as Ḳimḥi suggests, represents a contraction of , an opinion which Ewald is inclined to accept ("Lehrbuch der Hebräischen Sprache," p. 275, 3). But it is not tenable.命名為“ Shemu'el ”解釋“的要求, Yhwh ” ,並Ḳimḥi建議,代表了收縮,這埃瓦爾德的意見是傾向於接受( “教科書之Hebräischen語言” ,第275 , 3 ) 。但是,這是站不住腳的。 The story of Samuel's birth, indeed, is worked out on the theory of this construction of the name (i. 1 et seq., 17, 20, 27, 28; ii. 20).塞繆爾的故事的誕生,事實上,是制定出的理論建設的這個名稱(一1起。 , 17 , 20 , 27 , 28 ;二。 20 ) 。 But even with this etymology the value of the elements would be "priest of El" (Jastrow, in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xix. 92 et seq.).但是,即使這個詞源的價值要素將是“神父薩爾瓦多” (賈斯特羅,在“季刊。書目。里拉。 ”十九。 92起。 ) 。 Ch.總。 iii.三。 supports the theory that the name implies "heard by El" or "hearer of El."支持這一理論顧名思義“聽到厄爾尼諾”或“聽話的El 。 ” The fact that "alef" and "'ayin" are confounded in this interpretation does not constitute an objection; for assonance and not etymology is the decisive factor in the Biblical name-legends, and of this class are both the first and the second chapter.事實上, “阿勒夫”和“ ' ayin ”的困惑,在這種解釋並不構成反對;的諧音,而不是詞源是決定性因素聖經名字的傳說,以及本級都是第一次和第二章。 The first of the two elements represents the Hebrew term "shem" (= "name"); but in this connection it as often means "son."首先的兩個要素是希伯來文的“大師” ( = “名稱” ) ;但在這方面它常常意味著“兒子。 ” "Shemu'el," or "Samuel," thus signifies "son of God" (see Jastrow, lc). “ Shemu'el ”或“塞繆爾” ,從而標誌著“上帝之子” (見賈斯特羅,立法會) 。

The older strata in the story are more trust worthy historically than are the younger.老年地層中的故事更值得信任的歷史比年輕。 In I Sam.在I山姆。 ix.九。 1-x. 1 - X低。 16 Samuel is a seer and priest at one of the high places; he is scarcely known beyond the immediate neighborhood of Ramah. 16塞繆爾是一個預言家和祭司在一個高的地方,他是很少知道超越眼前的居民區Ramah 。 Saul does not seem to have heard of him; it is his "boy" that tells him all about the seer (ix.).索爾似乎沒有聽說過他,這是他的“男孩” ,告訴他所有的預言家( ix. ) 。 But in his capacity as seer and priest, Samuel undoubtedly was the judge, that is, the oracle, who decided the "ordeals" for his tribe and district.但是,在身份,先知和祭司,塞繆爾無疑是法官,這就是甲骨文,誰決定的“磨難” ,他的部落和地區。 In order to apply to him the title of "judge" in the sense it bore in connection with the heroes of former days-the sense of "liberator of the people"-the story of the gathering at Mizpah is introduced (vii. 2 et seq.).為了適用於他的標題, “法官”的意義上講,它負有與英雄的前幾天的意義“解放者的人”的故事收集在米茲帕介紹( vii. 2等以下。 ) 。 Indeed, the temptation is strong to suspect that originally the name (Saul) was found as the hero of the victory, for which later that of (Samuel) was substituted.事實上,強大的誘惑懷疑原來的名稱(索爾)被發現的英雄的勝利,為後來的(塞繆爾)被替換。 At all events, the story proceeds on the assumption that Samuel had given earnest thought to his people's plight, and therefore was prepared to hail the sturdy Benjamite as the leader in the struggle with the Philistines (ix. 15, 17, 20 et seq.; x. 1 et seq.).總之,這個故事的收益,但前提是給予認真塞繆爾認為他的人民的困境,因此,準備歡呼堅固Benjamite作為領導者的鬥爭中與非利士人( ix. 15日, 17日, 20日起。 ;十1起。 ) 。 His hero was to be the champion of Yhwh and of Yhwh's people, the anointed prince ("nagid"), whose call would rouse the scattered tribes from their lethargy and whose leadership would unite the discordant elements into a powerful unit for offense and defense. Favoring Saul even before the people had recognized in him their predestined leader, Samuel soon had cause to regret the choice. Common to both accounts of the rupture (xiii. 8 et seq. and xv. 10 et seq.) is the disobedience Saul manifested in arrogating to himself Samuel's functions as priest and offerer; the story concerning Agag's exemption from the ban (see Schwally, "Der Heilige Krieg im Alten Israel," p. 30) seems to be the more likely of the two, but in both instances the data show clear traces of having been recast into prophetic-priestly molds.他的英雄是成為冠軍的Yhwh和Yhwh的人民,受膏者王子( “ nagid ” ) ,要求將其喚醒分散部落從昏睡和他的領導將團結不和諧因素轉化為一種強大的單位,進攻和防守。即使在偏袒掃羅人民已經認識到他自己的命中註定的領導者,塞繆爾很快引起了後悔的選擇。共同的帳戶的破裂( xiii. 8起。和十五。 10起。 )是不服從表現掃羅在冒用自己塞繆爾的職能司鐸和發貨;故事關於Agag的豁免禁令(見Schwally , “明鏡神聖戰爭老以色列通訊”第30頁) ,似乎是更可能的兩個,但在這兩種情況數據顯示清晰的痕跡被改寫成先知,祭司鑄模。

Probably Shaped Under Influence of Deuteronomy.可能形影響下申命記。

In fact, the majority of the reports concerning Samuel reflect the post-Deuteronomic, prophetic conception, and therefore, on the theory that before the erection of the central and permanent sanctuary the "altars" and "high places" were legitimate, no offense is manifested at his having, though not a priest, sacrificed at these places, though precisely for this reason the Book of Chronicles lays stress upon his Levitical descent.事實上,大多數的報告反映了關於塞繆爾後Deuteronomic ,先知的概念,因此,對這一理論之前,勃起的中央和永久的避難所了“神壇” , “高的地方”是合法的,沒有任何進攻表現在他的有,但不是一個牧師,犧牲在這些地方,但正是由於這個原因,圖書的編年史注重他Levitical後裔。 In ch.在CH 。 iii.三。 20 Samuel appears as the prophet of Yhwh, known as such from Dan to Beer-sheba. 20塞繆爾顯示先知的Yhwh ,稱為這種由丹啤酒,謝巴赫。 In ch.在CH 。 xix.十九。 18 et seq. 18起。 Samuel is at the head of prophet bands (differing from ix. 1 et seq., where these roving bands of "shouters" ["nebi'im"] appear to be independent of him).塞繆爾是領導先知帶(不同於九。 1起。 ,這些巡迴樂隊的“呼喊” [ “ nebi'im ” ]似乎是獨立於他) 。 Again, ch. vii., viii., and ix.再次,甲烷。七。 ,八。 ,和第九章。 represent him as the theocratic chief of the nation.代表他的神長的國家。 Ch.總。 vii.七。 7 et seq. 7起。 must be held to be pure fiction, unless it is one of the many variants of Saul's victory over the Philistines (comp. xiii. 1 et seq.).必須是純粹的小說,除非它是其中一個變種掃羅戰勝了非利士人( comp.十三。 1起。 ) 。 Nor is there concordance in the conceptions of the rise and nature of the monarchy and the part Samuel played in its founding.也沒有一致的概念的崛起和性質的君主立憲制和部分塞繆爾發揮其創始。 In ix.-x.在ix.-x. 16 Yhwh legitimatizes the nomination of the king, but in ch. 16 Yhwh legitimatizes提名的國王,但在CH 。 viii.八。 the view of Deut.認為Deut 。 xvii.十七。 14 et seq. 14起。 predominates.佔主導地位。 This chapter could not have been written before Hos.本章不可能寫在飯店。 x. 9, and the reign of Solomon and some of his successors. 9 ,和所羅門統治和他的一些接班人。 The fact is, the monarchy developed without the intervention of Samuel.事實是,發達國家的君主制的干預塞繆爾。 Such deeds as those performed at Jabesh caused the people to offer Saul the crown at Gilgal (xi. 1 et seq.), an act which Samuel, who at first may have welcomed the young leader as chief only, expecting him to remain under his tutelage, was compelled to ratify.這種事蹟所造成的完成Jabesh人民提供官方掃羅在Gilgal ( xi. 1起。 ) ,塞繆爾的行為,誰在第一可能歡迎年輕領導人擔任只,預期他會留在他的監護,被迫批准。

The story of David's elevation (xvi. 1-13) presents itself as an offset to that of Saul's (I Sam. x. 17 et seq.), the historical kernel in it being the fact that Samuel, disappointed in Saul, transferred his favor to the rival tribe of Judah, and intrigued to bring about the raising of a counter-king in the young freebooter David.大衛的故事的海拔( xvi. 1月13日)提出了自己當作抵消了掃羅的(我薩姆。十, 17起。 ) ,歷史在它的內核是一個事實,即塞繆爾,失望掃羅,轉讓其有利的競爭對手的猶太部落,和好奇,使提高反國王在年輕的暴大衛。 Ch.總。 xv.十五。 is a prophetic apotheosis of Samuel, which rings with the accents familiar in the appeals of Amos, and which makes Samuel a worthy forerunner of Elijah.是一個先知塞繆爾神化,這戒指熟悉的口音中的呼籲阿莫斯納曼,並使得塞繆爾一個有價值的先導伊萊賈。 The Levitical genealogy of I Chron. vi.該Levitical家譜的I專欄。六。 is not historical.是不是歷史。

Emil G. Hirsch, Wilhelm Bacher, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach埃米爾赫斯基灣,威廉巴切爾,雅各布Zallel勞特巴赫

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: Guthe, Gesch.參考書目: Guthe , Gesch 。 des Volkes Israel, pp.萬國Volkes以色列,頁。 68 et seq., Freiburg, 1899; idem, Bibelwörterbuch, Tübingen and Leipsic, 1903; HP Smith, Old Testament History, p. 68起。 ,弗賴堡, 1899年;同上, Bibelwörterbuch ,蒂賓根大學和Leipsic , 1903 ;惠普史密斯舊約歷史,第 106, New York, 1903.EGH 106 ,紐約, 1903.EGH


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