Book of Ruth路得記

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Ruth is the eighth book of the Old Testament of the Bible.該路得記是第八本書的舊約聖經。 A short story, it tells how Ruth, the Moabite widow of a Bethlehemite, with her mother - in - law Naomi's assistance, married an older kinsman Boaz, thereby preserving her deceased husband's posterity and becoming an ancestor of King David.短篇小說,它講述露絲的Moabite寡婦的Bethlehemite ,與她的母親-中-法納奧米的幫助下,嫁給一個年長親人波阿斯,從而維護她的已故丈夫的後代,並成為一個祖先大衛王。 The plot is artfully constructed and exhibits a pronounced belief in the comprehensive but hidden providence of God that works quietly in ordinary events.陰謀是巧妙地構造和表現出明顯的信念,全面的,但隱藏的普羅維登斯的上帝,工程悄悄地在普通的事件。 The legal customs concerning levirate marriage, redemption of property, and gleaning in the fields are relatively ancient, and the vocabulary and style are consistent with a date between 950 and 750 BC.海關有關的法律娶寡嫂制,贖回的財產,並蒐集領域相對古老,和詞彙和風格是一致的日期之間的950和750年。 The Davidic genealogy is a secondary appendix, written between 500 and 350 BC, which served to increase the importance of the book for postexilic Jews.該Davidic家譜是次要的附錄,寫500至350年,這有助於增加的重要性,這本書的postexilic猶太人。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Norman K Gottwald諾曼K哥特瓦爾德

Bibliography 參考書目
YI Broch, The Book of Ruth (1975); EF Campbell, Ruth (1975); RM Hals, The Theology of the Book of Ruth (1969).易布羅赫,該路得記( 1975年) ;英法坎貝爾,露絲( 1975年) ;室哈爾斯,神學的路得記( 1969年) 。


Ruth露絲

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Ruth, a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father, Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab.露絲,一位朋友,一位Moabitess的妻子Mahlon ,他的父親,以利米勒,已經解決的土地莫阿布。 On the death of Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated.對死亡的利米勒和Mahlon ,納奧米帶著露絲,她的兒媳婦,誰拒絕離開她,伯利恆,老家從利米勒已遷移。 There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth was eventually married.目前她有一個相對豐富,波阿斯,他們露絲終於結婚了。 She became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David.她的母親奧貝德盧的祖父大衛。 Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5).因此露絲,一個詹蒂萊,是產婦祖我們的上帝(太1:5 ) 。 The story of "the gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of transferring property from one person to another, the working of the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families; but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love, the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38: 29; Matt. 1:3) and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'" (Ruth 4:18-22).這個故事的“集錦露絲說明之間的友好關係良好波阿斯和他的收割者,猶太人的土地制度的方法,轉移財產從一人到另一台,工作的馬賽克法律救濟的困境和破壞家庭;但最重要的是,宣判的無私,勇敢的愛,她動搖信賴誰,但所選擇的種族,是一樣Canaanitess添馬艦(將軍38 : 29 ;馬特。 1:3 )和Canaanitess拉哈伯(太1:5 ) ,榮幸地成為ancestress大衛,因此對'偉大大衛的更大的兒子“ (露絲4:18-22 ) 。


The Book of Ruth該路得記

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Ruth was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible.該路得記最初的一部分圖書的法官,但它現在的形式之一, 2004年單獨書籍的希伯來聖經。 The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David.它包含的歷史上是指一個時期也許關於一百二十六年誕生之前大衛。 It gives (1) an account of Naomi's going to Moab with her husband, Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her daughter-in-law; (2) the marriage of Boaz and Ruth; and (3) the birth of Obed, of whom David sprang.它使( 1 )帳戶的納奧米會莫阿布與她的丈夫,以利米勒,和她隨後又返回伯利恆與她的媳婦; ( 2 )結婚波阿斯和露絲;和( 3 )的誕生奧貝德盧,其中大衛興起。 The author of this book was probably Samuel, according to Jewish tradition.的作者,這本書可能是塞繆爾,按照猶太傳統。 "Brief as this book is, and simple as is its story, it is remarkably rich in examples of faith, patience, industry, and kindness, nor less so in indications of the care which God takes of those who put their trust in him." “簡短,這本書,和簡單的是它的故事,這是非常豐富的例子,信念,耐心,工業和善良,也沒有那麼的跡象照顧上帝考慮這些誰把他們的信任。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Ruth路得記

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine of its exquisitely beautiful story.一個原典型著作舊約,這源於它的名字從女主人公的精緻美麗的故事。

I. CONTENTS一,目錄

The incidents related in the first part of the Book of Ruth (i-iv, 17) are briefly as follows.事件相關的第一部分路得記(一至四, 17 )簡要介紹如下。 In the time of the judges, a famine arose in the land of Israel, in consequence of which Elimelech with Noemi and their two sons emigrated from Bethlehem of Juda to the land of Moab.在時間上的法官,飢荒發生在以色列土地上,它的後果與諾埃米利米勒和他們的兩個兒子移居從伯利恆的猶大的土地上莫阿布。 After Elimelech's death Mahalon and Chelion, his two sons, married Moabite wives, and not long after died without children.經過利米勒的死亡Mahalon和Chelion ,他的兩個兒子,已婚Moabite妻子,而不是後不久死亡無子女。 Noemi, deprived now of her husband and children, left Moab for Bethlehem.諾埃米,剝奪現在的丈夫和孩子,離開莫阿布伯利恆。 On her journey thither she dissuaded her daughters-in-law from going with her.她的旅程那邊她勸阻她媳婦去她。 One of them, however, named Ruth, accompanied Noemi to Bethlehem.其中之一,然而,命名為露絲,伴隨諾埃米伯利恆。 The barley harvest had just begun and Ruth, to relieve Noemi's and her own poverty, went to glean in the field of Booz, a rich man of the place. She met with the greatest kindness, and following Noemi's advice, she made known to Booz, as the near kinsman of Elimelech, her claim to marriage.大麥收割剛剛開始和露絲,以紓緩諾埃米和她自己的貧窮,去收集領域中的管理顧問,富人的地方。她會見了最大的善意,和下面的諾埃米的意見,她知道博思艾倫作為近親人的利米勒,她要求結婚。 After a nearer kinsman had solemnly renounced his prior right, Booz married Ruth who bore him Obed, the grandfather of David.經過近親人鄭重宣布放棄他的權利之前,博思管理顧問露絲結婚誰承擔他奧貝德盧的祖父大衛。 The second part of the book (iv, 18-22) consists in a brief genealogy which connects the line of David through Booz with Phares, one of the sons of Juda.第二部分的書(四, 18日至22日)包括在一份簡短的家譜連接線,通過管理顧問大衛與Phares ,其中一個兒子猶大。

II.二。 PLACE IN THE CANON在佳能

In the series of the sacred writings of the Old Testament, the short Book of Ruth occupies two different principal places.該系列中的神聖著作舊約,短期路得記佔有兩個不同的主要地方。 The Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the English Versions give it immediately after the Book of Judges.該譯本的拉丁文聖經,和英文版本給它後立即預訂法官。 The Hebrew Bible, on the contrary, reckons it among the Hagiographa or third chief part of the Old Testament.希伯來聖經,相反,認為它是Hagiographa或第三方首席部分舊約。 Of these two places, the latter is most likely the original one.這兩個地方,後者是最有可能原來的1 。 It is attested to by all the data of Jewish tradition, namely, the oldest enumeration of the Hagiographa in the Talmudic treatise "Baba Bathra", all the Hebrew manuscripts whether Spanish or German, the printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, and the testimony of St. Jerome in his Preface to the Book of Daniel, according to which eleven books are included by the Hebrews in the Hagiographa. The presence of the Book of Ruth after that of Judges in the Septuagint, whence it passed into the Vulgate and the English Versions, is easily explained by the systematic arrangement of the historical books of the Old Testament in that ancient Greek Version.這是證明了所有數據的猶太傳統,即最古老的列舉Hagiographa在塔木德論文“巴巴Bathra ” ,所有的希伯來文手稿是否西班牙語或德語,在印刷版的希伯來聖經和證言聖杰羅姆在他的序但以理書,其中包括11本書是由希伯來人在Hagiographa 。的存在路得記之後,法官在七十,何處通過到武加大和英語版本中,很容易解釋的制度安排的歷史書籍舊約在古希臘版本。 As the episode of Ruth is connected with the period of the judges by its opening words "in the days. . .when the judges ruled", its narrative was made to follow the Book of Judges as a sort of complement to it. The same place assigned to it in the lists of St. Melito, Origen, St. Jerome (Prol. Galeatus), is traceable to the arrangement of the inspired writings of the Old Testament in the Septuagint, inasmuch as these lists bespeak in various ways the influence of the nomenclature and grouping of the sacred books in that Version, and consequently should not be regarded as conforming strictly to the arrangement of those books in the Hebrew Canon.隨著節目的露絲是與法官間的開頭語“在未來的日子。 。 。當法官裁定” ,它敘述了按照預訂的法官作為一種補充。同樣地方分配給它的名單中的聖美利托,俄利根,聖杰羅姆( Prol. Galeatus ) ,是可以追溯到的安排啟發著作舊約中譯本,因為這些名單bespeak在各方面的影響的命名和分類的神聖圖書在該版本中,因此不應該被視為符合嚴格的安排下,這些書在希伯來文佳能。 It has indeed been asserted that the Book of Ruth is really a third appendix to the Book of Judges and was, therefore, originally placed in immediate connection with the two narratives which are even now appended to this latter book (Judges 17-18; 19-21); but this view is not probable owing to the differences between these two works with respect to style, tone, subject, etc.它確實已經斷言,路得記確實三分之一附錄圖書的法官和,因此,原先放置在立即與這兩個說明,即使現在附在本後者書(法官17日至18日; 19 -21 ) ;但這種觀點是沒有可能的,因為這兩個之間的差異方面的作品風格,基調,主題等

III.三。 PURPOSE目的

As the precise object of the Book of Ruth is not expressly given either in the book itself or in authentic tradition, scholars are greatly at variance concerning it.由於精確的目標路得記沒有明確給出無論是在這本書本身,還是在真實的傳統,學者們極大差異有關它。 According to many, who lay special stress on the genealogy of David in the second part of the book, the chief aim of the author is to throw light upon the origin of David, the great King of Israel and royal ancestor of the Messias.根據許多,誰奠定特別強調家譜大衛在第二部分的圖書,行政目的,作者是把光的起源大衛,偉大的國王和王室的祖先以色列的弭賽亞。 Had this, however, been the main purpose of the writer, it seems that he should have given it greater prominence in his work.在此,不過,其主要目的是作家,似乎他應該賦予它更加突出了他的工作。 Besides, the genealogy at the close of the book is but loosely connected with the preceding contents, so it is not improbably an appendix added to that book by a later hand.此外,家譜結束時,這本書是鬆散的,但與前面的內容,因此它不是improbably的附錄增添了這本書以後手。 According to others, the principal aim of the author was to narrate how, in opposition to Deut., xxiii, 3, which forbids the reception of Moabites into Yahweh's assembly, the Moabitess Ruth was incorporated with Yahweh's people, and eventually became the ancestress of the founder of the Hebrew monarchy.根據其他國家,主要目的是講述作者如何在反對Deut 。 , 23 , 3 ,禁止接待莫亞比特人到耶和華的大會上,被納入Moabitess露絲與耶和華的人,並最終成為ancestress的的創始人希伯來語君主制。 But this second opinion is hardly more probable than the foregoing.但是,這第二種意見是很難更有可能比前。 Had the Book of Ruth been written in such full and distinct view of the Deuteronomic prohibition as is affirmed by the second opinion, it is most likely that its author would have placed a direct reference to that legislative enactment on Noemi's lips when she endeavoured to dissuade her daughters-in-law from accompanying her to Juda, or particularly when she received from Ruth the protestation that henceforth Noemi's God would be her God.有路得記寫這種充分和明確的看法, Deuteronomic禁止作為申明的是第二種意見,這是最有可能的,其作者將放置直接提及立法頒布的諾埃米的嘴唇時,她盡力勸阻她的媳婦陪同她猶大,或特別是當她收到來自露絲的斷言,今後諾埃米的神將她的上帝。 Several recent scholars have regarded this short book as a kind of protest against Nehemias's and Esdras's efforts to suppress intermarriage with women of foreign birth.最近的一些學者認為這短暫的圖書作為一種抗議Nehemias和埃斯德拉斯努力制止通婚婦女外國出生。 But this is plainly an inference not from the contents of the book, but from an assumed late date for its composition, an inference therefore no less uncertain than that date itself. Others finally, and indeed with greater probability, have maintained that the author's chief purpose was to tell an edifying story as an example to his own age and an interesting sketch of the past, effecting this by recording the exemplary conduct of his various personages who act as simple, kindly, God-fearing people ought to act in Israel.但是,這顯然是一個推理不是來自這本書的內容,而是從一個假定晚的組成,因此推理不超過該日期不確定本身。其他最後,實際上有更大的概率,一直保持著,作者的首席目的是告訴一個啟發性的故事為例,他自己的年齡和一個有趣的素描的過去,實現這一記錄的模範行為的各種人士誰充當簡單,和藹,虔誠的人都應該採取行動,在以色列。

IV.四。 HISTORICAL CHARACTER歷史人物

The charming Book of Ruth is no mere "idyll" or "poetical fiction".迷人的路得記並非僅僅是“田園詩”或“詩化小說” 。 It is plain that the Jews of old regarded its contents as historical, since they included its narrative in the Septuagint within the prophetic histories (Josue- Kings). The fact that Josephus in framing his account of the Jewish Antiquities utilizes the data of the Book of Ruth in exactly the same manner as he does those of the historical books of the Old Testament shows that this inspired writing was then considered as no mere fiction.顯然,這是猶太人的舊認為其內容為歷史,因為它們包括其敘事的七十的預言歷史(若蘇埃國王) 。事實上,約瑟夫在制定自己的帳戶猶太古物利用數據的圖書露絲在完全一樣的方式,他並不這些歷史書籍舊約表明,這靈感寫作當時視為並非僅僅是小說。 Again, the mention by St. Matthew of several personages of the episode of Ruth (Booz, Ruth, Obed), among the actual ancestors of Christ (Matthew 1:5), points in the same direction.同樣,提到的聖馬太若干人士的插曲露絲(顧問,露絲,奧貝德盧) ,在實際的祖先是耶穌(馬太1:5 ) ,分在同一個方向。 Intrinsic data agree with these testimonies of ancient tradition.固有的數據同意這些證詞的古老傳統。 The book records the intermarriage of an Israelite with a Moabitess, which shows that its narrative does not belong to the region of the poetical.這本書記錄了一個以色列人通婚的Moabitess ,這表明它的敘述不屬於該地區的詩意。 The historical character of the work is also confirmed by the friendly intercourse between David and the King of Moab which is described in 1 Samuel 22:3-4; by the writer's distinct reference to a Jewish custom as obsolete (Ruth 4:7), etc.歷史性質的工作也證實了大衛之間的友好交往和國王的莫阿布其中中所描述撒母耳記上22:3-4 ;的作家的獨特提到一個猶太習俗過時(露絲4時07分) ,等

In view of this concordant, extrinsic and intrinsic, evidence, little importance is attached by scholars generally to the grounds which certain critics have put forth to disprove the historical character of the Book of Ruth.鑑於這種和諧,外在和內在的,證據,很少重視學者普遍的理由其中某些批評者提出駁斥歷史性質路得記。 It is rightly felt, for instance, that the symbolical meaning of the names of several persons in the narrative (Noemi, Mahalon, Chelion) is not a conclusive argument that they have been fictitiously accommodated to the characters in the episode, and more than the similar symbolical meaning of the proper names of well known and full historical personages mentioned in Israel's annals (Saul, David, Samuel, etc.).這是正確的感覺,例如,在象徵意義的名字,幾個人的敘述(諾埃米, Mahalon , Chelion )不是一個決定性的論點,他們被安置到fictitiously中的字符集,超過了類似的象徵意義上的專有名詞的眾所周知的,充分的歷史中提到的以色列人士的史冊(掃羅,大衛,薩穆埃爾等) 。 It is rightly felt likewise that the striking appropriateness of the words put on the lips of certain personages to the general purpose of edification apparent in the Book of Ruth does not necessarily disprove the historical character of the work, since this is also noticeable in other books of Holy Writ which are undoubtedly historical.這是正確的感覺同樣驚人適宜的話放在嘴唇的某些人士的一般宗旨的熏陶顯然在路得記不一定反駁的歷史性質的工作,因為這也是明顯的其他書籍聖城令狀這無疑是歷史。 Finally, it is readily seen that however great the contrast may appear between the general tone of simplicity, repose, purity, etc., of the characters delineated in the episode of Ruth, and the opposite features of the figures which are drawn in the Book of Judges, both writings describe actual events in one and the same period of Jewish history; for all we know, the beautiful scenes of domestic life connected in the Book of Ruth with the period of the judges may have truly occurred during the long intervals of peace which are repeatedly mentioned in the Book of Judges.最後,它很容易看到,但是巨大的反差之間可能出現的總的調子簡單,養神,純度等,劃定的字符集在露絲,並相反特徵的數字得出的圖書法官,既著作描述實際發生的事件是同一個時期猶太人的歷史;我們都知道,美麗的家庭生活場景的連接在路得記時期的法官可能有真正的長期過程中發生間隔和平是一再提到這本書的法官。

V. AUTHOR AND DATE OF COMPOSITION五,作者和日期組成

The Book of Ruth is anonymous, for the name which it bears as its title has never been regarded otherwise than that of the chief actor in the events recorded.該路得記是匿名的,它的名稱應當作為其所有權從來沒有被認為比其他的主要演員的事件記錄。 In an ancient Beraitha to the Talmudic treatise "Baba Bathra" (Babylonian Talmud, c. i), it is definitely stated that "Samuel wrote his book, Judges, and Ruth"; but this ascription of Ruth to Samuel is groundless and hence almost universally rejected at the present day.一個古老的猶太法典Beraitha論文“巴巴Bathra ” (巴比倫塔木德角一) ,這絕對是指出: “塞繆爾寫他的書,法官和露絲” ,但這一歸屬露絲塞繆爾是沒有根據的,因此幾乎普遍拒絕在眼前。 The name of the author of the book of Ruth is unknown, and so is also the precise date of its composition.的名稱一書的作者露絲是未知的,所以還的確切日期的組成。 The work, however, was most likely written before the Babylonian exile.這項工作,然而,最有可能的書面前巴比倫放逐。 On the one hand, there is nothing in its contents that would compel one to bring down its origin to a later date; and, on the other hand, the comparative purity of its style stamps it as a pre-exilic composition.一方面,沒有任何的內容,迫使一個推翻其原產地為日後;和,另一方面,相對純度風格郵票作為前放逐組成。 The numerous critics who hold a different view overrate the importance of its isolated Aramaisms which are best accounted for by the use of a spoken patois plainly independent of the actual developments of literary Hebrew.眾多批評誰持有不同的看法overrate的重要性,其孤立Aramaisms這是最好的佔了使用方言口語明顯獨立於實際發展的文學希伯來語。 They also make too much of the place occupied by the Book of Ruth among the Hagiographa, for, as can be easily realized, the admission of a writing into this third division of the Hebrew Canon is not necessarily contemporary with its origin.他們還太多的地方所佔領路得記的Hagiographa , ,因為可以很容易地實現,接納書面這個丙級希伯來佳能不一定是當代其原產地。 But, while the internal data supplied by the Book of Ruth thus point to its pre-exilic origin, they remain indecisive with regard to the precise date to which its composition should be referred, as clearly appears from the conflicting inferences which have been drawn from them by recent Catholic scholars.但是,儘管內部提供的數據路得記從而指向前放逐出身,他們猶豫不決方面的確切日期是其組成應提交,顯然出現了相互矛盾的推論已經從他們最近的天主教學者。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息作者弗朗西斯大腸桿菌吉戈特。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯M巴雷特。 Dedicated to Ruth Peterson The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.致力於露絲彼得森的天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Commentaries.--Catholic: CLAIR (Paris, 1878); VON HUMMELAUER (Paris, 1888); FILLION (Paris, 1889); VIGOUROUX (Paris, 1901); CRAMPONI.評.--天主教:克萊爾(巴黎, 1878年) ;馮HUMMELAUER (巴黎, 1888年) ;菲利安(巴黎, 1889年) ; VIGOUROUX (巴黎, 1901年) ; CRAMPONI 。 Protestant: WRIGHT (London, 1864); KEIL (Leipzig, 1874): BERTHEAU (Leipzig, 1883); OETTLE (Nordlingen, 1889); BERTHOLET (Freiburg, 1898); NOWACK (Goettingen, 1902).新教:賴特(倫敦, 1864年) ;的Keil (萊比錫, 1874年) : BERTHEAU (萊比錫, 1883年) ; OETTLE (諾德林根, 1889年) ; BERTHOLET (弗賴堡, 1898 ) ; NOWACK (哥廷根大學, 1902年) 。


Book of Ruth路得記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Date of Composition.日期組成。

Bewer's Theory of Interpolations. Bewer理論的插值。

The Book of Ruth, which is poetically idyllic in character, although the narrative is in the form of prose, contains an episode from the period of the Judges.該路得記,這是詩意田園詩般的性質,但敘事的形式是散文,包含一個插曲時期的法官。 For this reason it is placed in the Septuagint after the Book of Judges; and this order is followed in the Vulgate and in the English translations.為此,它被放置在七十書後,法官和本命令其次是在武加大和英語翻譯。 In the Hebrew Bible, however, Ruth is found in the "Ketubim," or third part of the canon, where it stands next after the Song of Solomon, being the second of the Five Megillot.在希伯來文聖經,但是,露絲被發現在該“ Ketubim ” ,或第三部分佳能,它旁邊後雅歌,目前的第二個五年Megillot 。 In Spanish manuscripts and in one Bible of 1009 Ruth comes first (Buhl, "Canon of the Old Testament," i., § 10; see Bible Canon).在西班牙手稿和在一個聖經的1009年第一露絲(布爾, “佳能舊約, ”一,第10條;見聖經佳能) 。 This position, as will be noted more fully below, probably accords better with the date of the book; for it was written so long after the date of which its story treats that many of the customs to which it refers had become antiquated.這一立場,因為將更加充分地注意到以下,可能更符合協定的日期,書籍;為它寫這麼久的日期後,其故事對待,許多習俗,它是指已經成為過時的。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The book takes its name from one of its characters, who, with her mother-in-law, Naomi, shares the honor of being its heroine.這本書的名字來自它的一個特點,誰,她的婆婆,納奧米,股票的榮譽是其主人公。 The story is as follows: Elimelech, a man of Bethlehem-judah, with his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, went in time of famine and sojourned in the land of Moab.故事如下:利米勒,一名男子在伯利恆,猶大,與他的妻子,納奧米,和他的兩個兒子, Mahlon和Chilion ,他在時間上的飢荒和旅居在土地莫阿布。 There Elimelech died, and the two sons married, Mahlon taking Ruth as his wife, and Chilion taking Ophra-both women of Moab, where both sons likewise died.有利米勒死亡,兩個兒子結婚,露絲Mahlon考慮作為他的妻子和Chilion考慮Ophra ,婦女的莫阿布,在兩個兒子同樣死亡。 In due time Naomi heard that the famine in Judah had passed, and determined to return thither.在適當的時候納奧米聽說飢荒猶太已經過去了,並決心返回對岸。 Ruth, in spite of the dissuasion of Naomi, accompanied her mother-in-law to Bethlehem, and cast in her lot with the people of Judah.露絲,儘管勸阻的納奧米,陪同她的婆婆伯利恆,並在她的許多演員與猶太人民。 The two women arrived in Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest.這兩名婦女在伯利恆開始大麥的收成。 Naturally they were in a state of dire poverty.當然他們是在一國的貧困。 Elimelech had had an inheritance of land among his brethren, but, unless a Go'el, could be found, Naomi would be compelled to sell it (in Ruth iv. 3 should be pointed = "is going to sell"; comp. "Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." xix. 145).利米勒有一個繼承土地是他的兄弟,但是,除非Go'el ,可以發現,納奧米將被迫賣掉它(在露絲四。 3應當指出= “正在出售” ;補償。 “ 10:00 。季刊。 Semit 。郎。 “十九。 145 ) 。 Elimelech had a prosperous relative in Bethlehem whose name was Boaz, and who, like others, was engaged in the harvest.利米勒了一個繁榮的相對在伯利恆的名字是波阿斯,誰與其他國家一樣,正在收穫。 Naomi sent Ruth to glean in his fields, and, after he had spoken kindly to her and shown her some favors, she, still acting upon the advice of her mother-in-law, approached Boaz at night and put herself in his power.納奧米發送露絲以收集在他的領域,並在他向她親切交談,並顯示出她的一些主張,她仍採取行動的建議下,她的婆婆,走近波阿斯在夜間把自己在他的權力。 Boaz was attracted to her, but informed her that there was a kinsman nearer than he who had the first right to redeem the estate of Elimelech, and that it would be necessary for this kinsman to renounce his right before he (Boaz) could proceed in the matter.波阿斯被吸引到她,但告訴她說,有一個親戚誰比他更接近了第一個贖回權的遺產利米勒,並認為有必要對這個親人放棄權利,他(波阿斯)可以在這件事。 Accordingly he called this kinsman to the gate of the city before the elders, and told him of the condition of the wife and daughter-in-law of Elimelech, and of his (the kinsman's) right to redeem the estate and to marry Ruth.因此,他呼籲本親人門口的城市之前,老人,並告訴他的狀況的妻子和兒媳的利米勒,以及他(的親人的)權利贖回恏及結婚露絲。 The kinsman declared that he did not desire to do so, and drew off his shoe in token that he had renounced his rights in favor of Boaz.宣布的親人,他不希望這樣做,並提請脫下鞋子在令牌,他放棄自己的權利主張波阿斯。 Boaz thereupon bought the estate from Naomi, married Ruth, and became by her the father of Obed, who in due time became the father of Jesse, the father of King David.ECGAB波阿斯隨即購買了房地產從納奧米,已婚露絲,並成為她的父親奧貝德盧,誰在適當的時候成為傑西的父親,父親王David.ECGAB

-Critical View:臨界查看:

It should be noted that in the narrative of the Book of Ruth there are several points which are not quite clear.應當指出的是,在說明路得記有幾點不是很清楚。 In certain parts, as i.某些地區,作為一 12-14, the action seems to presuppose the existence of the levirate law (comp. Gen. xxxviii. and Deut. xxv. 5 et seq.), while in other parts, as iv. 12月14日,行動似乎以存在的寡嫂法( comp.將軍三十八。和Deut 。二十五。 5起。 ) ,而在其他地區,因為四。 3 et seq., the redemption of Elimelech's estate for his widow seems to be the chief point in the discussion. This seems to presuppose the extension to wives of the law concerning the inheritance of daughters (Num. xxxvi.). 3起。 ,贖回利米勒的遺產,他的遺孀似乎首席指向了討論。這似乎預示延長妻子的法律有關繼承的女兒( Num.三十六。 ) 。 Again, from the general course of the narrative one receives the impression that Boaz is the Go'el; but in iv.再次,從一般的敘述過程中的一個得到的印象是,波阿斯是Go'el ;但在第四。 13 et seq. 13起。 the go'el seems to be Obed (comp. Nowack, "Handkommentar zum Alten Testament," p. 199, sv "Richter," "Ruth," etc.; Bertholet, in "KHC" ad loc.).在go'el似乎奧貝德盧( comp. Nowack , “老Handkommentar zum全書” ,第199頁,希沃特“裡” , “露”等; Bertholet ,在“ KHC ”廣告同上。 ) 。 Finally, if the levirate law had been really fulfilled, Obed should have been counted the son of Mahlon, the son of Elimelech, whereas he is really called (iv. 21) the son of Boaz.最後,如果娶寡嫂法已經真正實現,奧貝德盧應計的兒子Mahlon ,利米勒的兒子,而他確實是所謂的( iv. 21 )的兒子波阿斯。

Bewer (in "Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." xix. 143 et seq.) points out that four steps in the development of the levirate are met with in the Old Testament: (1) the go'el need not be a brother, but may be any kinsman of the deceased, as in Gen. xxxviii.; (2) he must be a brother (although this form is not actually found, it is necessarily presupposed by the following); (3) only such brothers as have lived with the deceased are required to perform the duties of the levirate (comp. Deut. xxv. 5 et seq.); and (4) no man is allowed to take his brother's wife (Lev. xx. 21). Bewer (在“時。季刊。 Semit 。郎。 ”十九。 143起。 )指出, 4個步驟的發展,娶寡嫂遇到舊約中: ( 1 ) go'el不必兄弟,但可以是任何親人的死者,在將軍三十八。 ; ( 2 ) ,他必須有一個哥哥(雖然這種形式是沒有實際發現,它一定是先決以下) ; ( 3 )只有這樣的兄弟作為生活與死者都必須履行的寡嫂( comp. Deut 。二十五。 5起。 )和( 4 )任何人不得採取他的兄弟的妻子( Lev.二十。 21 ) 。 According to this classification, the form of levirate in the Book of Ruth is the oldest of all, but here is encountered the difficulty that the described form of purchase of the estate of Naomi does not at all accord with any form of levirate, but with the law of Lev.根據這一分類,娶寡嫂制的形式在路得記是歷史最悠久的一切,但在這裡遇到的困難所描述的形式購買房地產的納奧米並不在所有符合任何形式的寡嫂,但法律列夫。 xxv.二十五。 25 (Holiness Code, cited hereafter as H). 25 (聖潔碼,列舉以下簡稱高) 。 Bewer therefore concludes that the levirate idea is not an original part of the Book of Ruth, but that the work was first composed on the basis of Lev. Bewer因此得出結論,娶寡嫂的想法是不是原來的一部分路得記,但這項工作首次組成的基礎上列夫。 xxv.二十五。 25, and that it was afterward interpolated to some extent to ingraft upon it the levirate idea. 25 ,這是後插在某種程度上灌輸給它娶寡嫂制的想法。 The phenomena of the book, however, may quite plausibly be explained in another way, as will be pointed out below.這種現象的書籍,但是,可能相當令人信服的解釋以另一種方式,如將指出如下。

Date of Composition.日期組成。

According to Bewer the Book of Ruth is later than H., ie, it is post-exilic.據Bewer的路得記晚於閣下,即它是後放逐。 This view of the date is for other reasons held by many scholars (eg, Kuenen, "Historische Bücher des Alten Testaments," i., part 2, p. 195; Cornill, "Einleitung," p. 241; Nowack, lc; Bertholet, lc; and Kautzsch, "Literature of the Old Testament," p. 129).這種觀點的日期是其他原因持有的許多學者(如Kuenen , “歷史Bücher萬老聖經” ,一,第2部分,第195頁; Cornill , “導論” ,第241頁; Nowack ,立法會; Bertholet ,立法會和Kautzsch , “文學舊約” ,第129頁) 。 The days of the Judges are referred to as a time far past (i. 1), and even the law of Deut.幾天法官被稱為迄今為止過去的時間(一1 ) ,甚至是法律Deut 。 xxv.二十五。 5 et seq. 5起。 is referred to as a custom now obsolete (comp. Ruth iv.7); the language of the book contains several Aramaisms(eg, , i. 4; , i. 13; and , iv. 7); the interest in the genealogy of David (iv. 20 et seq.) is thought to indicate a date when David had become the ideal of the nation; and the evident interest of the author in the marriage of an Israelite with a Moabitess-an interest in sharp contrast to the law of Deut. xxiii.被稱為自定義現在已經過時( comp.露絲四.7 ) ;的語言,這本書載有若干Aramaisms (例如,一4 ; ,一13 ,以及四。 7 ) ;的興趣家譜大衛( iv. 20起。 )被認為表明何時大衛已成為理想的國家;和明顯的利益,作者在婚姻中的以色列人的Moabitess ,有興趣形成了鮮明的對比的法律Deut 。二十三。 3 et seq. 3起。 as well as the procedure of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix., x., and Neh. xiii. 23 et seq.)-indicates that the author of Ruth was a contemporary of Ezra and Nehemiah and wrote the book to show that their opposition to foreign marriages was contrary to ancient and most honorable precedent.以及程序的以斯拉和尼希米記(以斯拉九。 ,十,並Neh 。十三。 23起。 )表明作者露絲是一種當代的以斯拉和尼希米記和寫這本書,表明他們反對外國婚姻是違反古老和最可敬的先例。

Although Driver ("Introduction," p. 427) urges that the general beauty and purity of style of Ruth indicate a pre-exilic date, holding that the Davidic genealogy at the end is probably a later addition, the post-exilic origin of Ruth seems to be confirmed by its position among the "Ketubim," in the third part of the canon. The view which makes it a tract against the marriage policy of Ezra and Nehemiah seems most probable.雖然司機( “導言” ,第427頁)敦促一般美麗和純潔的作風露絲表明預先放逐日期,認為Davidic家譜結束時,可能是後來此外,後放逐起源露絲似乎證實了它的立場是“ Ketubim , ”在第三部分佳能。認為這使它成為道對婚姻政策以斯拉和尼希米記似乎最有可能的。

Bewer's Theory of Interpolations. Bewer理論的插值。

Bewer (lc xx. 205 et seq.) holds that the work was written at that time and for that purpose, and that in its original form, without any reference to the levirate, it was a more effective weapon in the controversy than it is now. Bewer (立法會二十。 205起。 )認為,工作是寫在那個時候,並為此目的,並在其原來的形式,沒有任何提及寡嫂,這是一個更有效的武器,而不是爭論現在。 His view is that some friend of Ezra added the levirate interpolations in order to make it appear that the foreign marriage of Boaz was not a precedent for ordinary people, as the levirate compelled him to act thus. If the book was written at the date supposed, it is clear from the law of H (Lev. xx. 21) that the levirate had passed away.他的觀點是,一些朋友埃茲拉說,娶寡嫂插值,以使其顯示,外國婚姻的波阿斯不是一個先例,普通百姓,因為娶寡嫂迫使他採取行動,因此。如果這本書是寫在日期假定,很明顯從法律的H ( Lev.二十。 21 ) ,該娶寡嫂去世。 It is too much, therefore, to expect an absolutely clear and accurate account of its workings.這是太多,因此,期望絕對清楚和準確到其運作。 That the writer should mingle its provisions with those of Lev. ,作者應混雜其規定與列夫。 xxv., which refer to the redemption of the estates of the poor, would at this date be very natural.二十五。 ,其中提到贖回屋的窮人,將在這個日期是非常自然的。 Confusion, too, as to who the go'el actually was would also be natural.混亂,也對誰是真正的go'el也將是自然的。 Bewer's theory of interpolations seems, accordingly, unnecessary. Bewer理論的插值看來,因此,沒有必要的。 Cheyne's view ("Encyc. Bibl." sv) that Elimelech was a Jerahmeelite, and that he went to sojourn in the land of Miṣṣur, is one of the curiosities of his Jerahmeel-Miṣṣur theory.陳的觀點( “ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ”希沃特)的利米勒是Jerahmeelite ,他去了滯留在土地Miṣṣur ,是好奇,他Jerahmeel - Miṣṣur理論。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, George A. Barton執行委員會的編委會,喬治巴頓

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

In addition to the works cited in the article, Bleek, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, ed.此外,工程中所引用的文章, Bleek導論之老聖經中,教育署。 Wellhausen, 1893; König, Einleitung, 1893; Strack, Einleitung, 4th ed., 1895; Oettli, Ruth, in Kurzgefasster Kommentar, 1889.ECGAB威爾浩生, 1893年;柯尼格導論, 1893年;施特拉克導論,第4版。 , 1895年;歐特列,露絲,在Kurzgefasster Kommentar , 1889.ECGAB


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在