Book of Psalms, Psalter圖書的詩篇, Psalter

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Psalms, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is the largest collection of Hebrew religious poetry; it consists of 150 pieces divided into 5 sections.圖書的詩篇,在舊約聖經,是最大的希伯來宗教詩歌;它包括150件分為5個部分。 Originally spoken or sung in various worship settings, the psalms were composed individually from the 10th through the 4th century BC and compiled in their present form by at least 200 BC. Tradition assigns the psalms to King David, but the titles to particular psalms also name Moses, Solomon, Ethan, Asaph, and the sons of Korah as authors. The psalms are numbered differently in various versions of the Bible.最初發表的口頭或成各種禮拜設置,人員組成的詩篇單獨從第十通過公元前4世紀和彙編其現有的形式,至少200年。傳統分配詩篇,以大衛王,但遊戲也特別詩篇名稱摩西,所羅門群島,伊桑, Asaph ,和兒子Korah作為作者。 屈指可數的詩篇中有不同的各種版本的聖經。

Like all Hebrew poetry, the psalms are written in parallel lines that balance word masses, images, and thoughts and have the effect of nuancing and emphasizing the sense through a skilled mixture of repetition and variation.像所有希伯來詩歌,寫的詩篇是平行線平衡單詞群眾,圖片和思想和具有nuancing的意義,並強調通過熟練的混合物重複和變異。 The thought in parallel lines may be repeated, contrasted, or extended and qualified.思想在平行線可能會重複,對比,或擴大和合格。 The same literary devices appear also in Canaanite religious poetry from Ugarit in Syria.相同的文學設備也出現在迦南宗教詩歌從烏加里特在敘利亞。 It is evident that Israel took over these forms and styles along with the Canaanite language.很顯然,以色列採取這些形式和風格與迦南人的語言。 Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian influences are also seen in the psalms.巴比倫,亞述人,和埃及的影響也出現在詩篇。

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Many psalms can be classified into major literary types:許多詩篇可分為主要文學類型: Many stock themes and terms, such as the contrast between pious and ungodly and between wise and foolish, indicate that the psalm form opened up to didactic and reflective piety based on wisdom and the Law. Additional psalms appear in the historical and prophetic books of the Old Testament, further emphasizing that the Book of Psalms is a selective collection from a far larger body of literary materials.許多股票的主題和術語,如對比虔誠和ungodly和明智和愚蠢之間,表明詩篇形式開放教學和反思的基礎上虔誠的智慧和法律。附加詩篇出現在歷史和預言書舊約,進一步強調這本書的詩篇是一種選擇性的收集大得多機構的文獻資料。

Norman K Gottwald諾曼K哥特瓦爾德

Bibliography 參考書目
AL Ash, Psalms (1980); ME Chase, The Psalms for the Common Reader (1962); L Dunlop, Patterns of Prayer in the Psalms (1982); HH Guthrie, Israel's Sacred Songs (1984); R Knox, The Psalms (1947); HJ Kraus, Theology of the Psalms (1986); WM Kroll, Psalms (1987); SO Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel's Worship (1962); WOE Oesterley, The Psalms (1939); SL Terrien, The Psalms and Their Meaning for Today (1952); C Westerman, The Psalms (1980).鋁灰,詩篇( 1980年) ; ME的追逐中,該詩篇共同閱讀器( 1962年) ; L鄧祿普,模式祈禱在詩篇( 1982年) ;螺桿菌格思裡,以色列的神聖之歌( 1984年) ; R諾克斯的詩篇( 1947年) ;黃建忠克勞斯,神學的詩篇( 1986年) ;西醫Kroll公司,詩篇( 1987年) ,所以Mowinckel的詩篇在以色列的宗教( 1962年) ; WOE Oesterley的詩篇( 1939年) ; Sl的Terrien ,和他們的詩篇含義今日( 1952年) ; ç韋斯特曼的詩篇( 1980年) 。


Book of Psalms圖書的詩篇

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Psalms 1-41詩篇1-41
  2. Psalms 42-72詩篇42-72
  3. Psalms 73-89詩篇73-89
  4. Psalms 90-106詩篇90-106
  5. Psalms 107-150詩篇107-150


Psalms詩篇

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The psalms are the production of various authors.該詩篇是生產各種作者。 "Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." “只有部分的圖書的詩篇索賠大衛其提出者。其他啟發詩人一代接一代說現在是現在另一個貢獻的神聖收集,因此在普羅維登斯的智慧更完全反映了每個階段的人類情感和情況比其它可能。 “ But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book.但它是專為大衛和他的同時代人,我們必須這樣做珍貴圖書。 In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David.在“標題”的詩篇,其中的真實性,沒有足夠的理由懷疑, 73個是認定大衛。 Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David. Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung after his manner or in his choir.彼得和約翰(使徒4時25分)還賦予他的第二詩篇,這是一個48是無名氏。大約三分之二的整個收集已為其大衛。詩篇39 , 62 ,和77的問題以Jeduthun ,擬成後,他的方式,或在他的合唱團。

Psalms 50 and 73-83 are addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in the worship of God.詩篇50和73-83是給Asaph ,因為他的主人合唱團,將星在崇拜上帝。 The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20: 19), were intrusted with the arranging and singing of Ps.在“兒子Korah , ”誰形成了一個領先的一部分Kohathite歌手( 2染色體。 20 : 19 ) ,是intrusted的安排和唱歌的PS 。 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and 88. 42 , 44-49 , 84 , 85 , 87 ,和88 。 In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, ie, the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews divided the Old Testament.在路加福音24:44改為“詩篇”是指Hagiographa ,即神聖的著作,其中一個節,分為猶太人分為舊約。 (See Bible.) None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection extends over a period of about 1,000 years. (見聖經。 )無詩篇可以證明已在日後的時間比以斯拉和尼希米記,因此,整個收集延伸了一段約1000年。

There are in the New Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter. The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch, into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:,有在新約116直接引用Psalter 。 劃分的Psalter後,類比的摩西五成五本書,每一個機會與doxology或祝福: ,

Ps.聚苯乙烯。 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud includes also Ps. 136 ,一般稱為“偉大的hallel 。 ”但塔爾穆德還包括聚苯乙烯。 120-135. 120-135 。

Ps.聚苯乙烯。 113-118, inclusive, constitute the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon, and on the eight days of the feast of dedication. 113-118 ,包容性,構成“ hallel ”背誦的三個偉大的節日,在新的月球,在八天的節日奉獻。 "

It is presumed that these several collections were made at times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days of Ezra." The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song in the worship of God.假定這幾個集合了在高企的時候,宗教生活:第一,很可能接近結束大衛的生活;第二次是在天門;第三的歌手Jehoshaphat ( 2染色體。 20:19 ) ;第四的男子Hezekiah ( 29 , 30 , 31 ) ;和第五的天以斯拉。 “拼圖儀式沒有規定服務的宋在崇拜上帝。

David first taught the Church to sing the praises of the Lord.大衛教教會第一次以歌頌上帝。 He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle music and song. Divers names are given to the psalms.他首先引入的幕儀式音樂和歌曲。潛水員名稱給予詩篇。 (1.) Some bear the Hebrew designation shir (Gr. ode, a song). ( 1 。 )一些承擔希伯來語指定希爾( Gr.頌歌,一首歌曲) 。 Thirteen have this title. 13個有此標題。 It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain.這意味著流動的講話,因為它是在一條直線或定期應變。 This title includes secular as well as sacred song.此標題包括世俗以及神聖的歌曲。 (2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) mitsmor (Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. ( 2 。 ) 58個詩篇承擔指定( Heb. ) mitsmor ( Gr. psalmos的詩篇) ,一個抒情賦,或一首歌譜曲;一個神聖的歌曲伴隨著樂器。 (3.) Ps. ( 3 。 )聚苯乙烯。 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.) tehillah (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God. (4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) michtam (qv). 145 ,和許多其他國家,已指定( Heb. ) tehillah ( Gr. hymnos ,一個讚美詩) ,也就是說一首歌的讚譽;一首歌中的突出思想,這是讚美上帝的。 ( 4 。 )六詩篇( 16 , 56-60 )的標題( Heb. ) michtam ( qv ) 。 (5.) Ps. ( 5 。 )聚苯乙烯。 7 and Hab. 7日和Hab 。 3 bear the title (Heb.) shiggaion (qv). 3承擔標題( Heb. ) shiggaion ( qv ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

(We have included Psalms 1 - 37) (我們已列入詩篇1 - 37 )

Their Authors作者

The Book of Psalms has sometimes been classified according to authors.書詩篇有時被按作者。 For example, the titles indicate that seventy-three were written by David; fifty are anonymous; twelve have the name of Asaph, and ten that of Korah, or the sons of Korah; two are associated with Solomon and one each with Moses, Heman and Ethan.例如,標題表明, 73寫的大衛;五零頃匿名;有12名Asaph ,和10的Korah ,或的兒子Korah ;兩個與所羅門各有一個與摩西,曼和伊桑。 A comparison of Acts 4:25 and Hebrews 4:7 shows that Psalms 2 and 95 respectively, were also written by David, though not ascribed to him in the book, and the question arises whether he may not have been the author of a still larger number of the anonymous Psalms.比較法4點25分和4點07分希伯來表明,詩篇2和95分別,也寫的大衛,雖然不是屬於他的書籍,並產生了一個問題他是否可能沒有作者的仍大量的無名氏詩篇。 As some with the name of the sons of Korah were evidently written for them, may he have been their author as well?正如一些名稱的兒子Korah書面顯然對他們來說,可能他已經作者呢? The same query arises about the 72d Psalm, one of the two to which Solomon's name is attached.同一查詢產生的72d詩篇,其中一人是所羅門的名稱附後。 It might be added here that the titles of the Psalms are regarded by many as of equal authority with the text, and hence if we can ascertain what the title means, we may venture to build conclusions upon it.這可能是說這裡的標題詩篇是被許多人看作平等權力的文本,因此,如果我們能夠確定的名稱意味著什麼,我們可能會建立合資公司後,它的結論。

Their Subjects其議題

The book again, has been classified according to subjects. Angus, in his Bible Handbook, has a convenient classification, giving the subject, and in each case the numbers of a few Psalms illustrating it.這本書了,一直按科目。安格斯,在他的聖經手冊,有一個方便的分類,使這一問題,並在每一種情況下的幾個數字說明它詩篇。 For example, there are Psalms of Instruction, like 1, 19, 39.例如,有詩篇的教學,如1 , 19 , 39 。 Praise, 8, 29, 93, 100.好評, 8 , 29 , 93 , 100 。 Thanksgiving, 30, 65, 103, 107, 116.感恩節, 30 , 65 , 103 , 107 , 116 。 Penitence, 6, 32, 38, 51, 143.懺悔, 6 , 32 , 38 , 51 , 143 。 Trust, 3, 27, 31, 46, 56, 62, 86.信託, 3 , 27 , 31 , 46 , 56 , 62 , 86 。 Distress and Sorrow, 4, 13, 55, 64, 88.危難和悲傷, 4 , 13 , 55 , 64 , 88 。 Aspiration, 42, 63, 80, 84, 137. History, 78, 105, 106.願望, 42 , 63 , 80 , 84 , 137 。歷史, 78 , 105 , 106 。 Prophecy (Messianic), 2, 16, 22, 24, 40, 45, 68, 69, 72, 97, 110, 118.預言(救世主) , 2 , 16 , 22 , 24 , 40 , 45 , 68 , 69 , 72 , 97 , 110 , 118 。

Their Books他們的書籍

It may seem strange to speak of the "Books" of the Psalms, but that expresses another kind of classification.這可能似乎很奇怪可言的“圖書”的詩篇,但對另一種分類。 The whole book has been divided into five books, each ending with a similar doxology, as follows: Book I, Psalms 1-41.全書分為五本書,每結束一個類似doxology ,具體情況如下:第一冊,詩篇1-41 。 Book II, Psalms 42-72.第二冊,詩篇42-72 。 Book III, Psalms 73-89.第三部,詩篇73-89 。 Book IV, Psalms 90-106. Book V, Psalms 107-150.第四篇,詩篇90-106 。預訂五,詩篇107-150 。 Notice the close of each of these books for the doxology.請注意密切每個這些書籍的doxology 。 There are those who question the value of this division, however, on the ground, first, that the title of the book itself in the Hebrew, (Sepher Tehillim), is singular rather than plural.誰是這些問題的價值,這種分工,但是,在地面上,首先,圖書的書名本身在希伯來文, ( Sepher Tehillim ) ,是奇異而不是複數。 It is not the "books" but the book of Psalms.這不是“書” ,但書中的詩篇。 Second, the numbers of the Psalms continue unbroken from the beginning to the end of the book.第二,號碼不間斷詩篇繼續從開始到結束的這本書。 Third, there are other doxologies than those especially referred to, eg, Psalms 117 and 134.第三,還有其他doxologies比那些特別提到,如詩篇117和134 。

Their Unity團結

The view of others, therefore, is that the Psalms comprise but one book with an order and unity throughout, the key to which is found in its final application to the millennial age and establishment of the kingdom of God on the earth. According to these, this explains what are known as the imprecatory or cursing Psalms.其他的看法,因此,該詩篇包括但一本書的命令和團結全國,關鍵是發現在其最後申請千年年齡和建立王國的上帝在地球上。根據這些,這說明了什麼是所謂的imprecatory或罵詩篇。 These have puzzled many, but when we consider them as terminating on that period when the era of mercy for the Gentile nations closes, and the time of their judgment begins, it lightens their problem very much. In the same connection we should remember that the author is speaking in the prophetic spirit, and that the enemies are enemies of God whose permanent rejection of Him is implied.這些一直困擾著許多人,但是,當我們把他們視為終止時,對這一時期的時代憐憫的詹蒂萊聯合國關閉,以及在何時開始他們的判斷,它減輕他們所面對的問題非常多。在同一方面,我們應該記住,作者是在講先知的精神,而且敵人的敵人是上帝的永久拒絕他的暗示。

This view, moreover, explains those like the 91st Psalm which promise exemption from such things as pestilence and war. This Psalm was written doubtless on the occasion of Israel's deliverance from Egypt, but its language seems to indicate that it is a type of their greater and permanent deliverance in the time to come.這一觀點,此外,那些喜歡解釋第91詩篇其中承諾免除像瘟疫和戰爭。這無疑詩篇寫在紀念以色列從埃及解脫,但它的語言似乎表明,它是一種更大的和永久解脫的時候。 This is strengthened if we conceive of the preceding Psalm as a picture of Israel to-day.這是加強了,如果我們想像前面的詩篇作為圖片以色列天。 The opinion which sees the key to the Psalms in their millennial application also furnishes an explanation of the frequent references to Christ found in the Psalms.該意見認為,關鍵在其千年詩篇應用也提供了一個解釋,經常提到基督發現詩篇。 Urquhart, who maintains the above view, regards the whole book as formed of a combination of twelve sections.厄克特,誰堅持上述觀點,對於整本書作為建制相結合的12節。

Each of these contains a continuous recurring story of the establishment of God's kingdom on earth, in which Psalms of complaint and pleading on Israel's part are followed by those of jubilation for deliverance.所有這些包含一個連續的經常性的故事,建立神的國度在地球上,其中詩篇投訴和懇求以色列的一部分是其次是歡騰的解脫。 In some of these jubliations the whole earth is seen to join.在其中一些jubliations整個地球被加入。 These twelve sections are indicated to him by the following jubilant Psalms: 10, 18, 24, 30, 48, 68, 76, 85, 100, 118, 136, 150.這12節向他表示了以下喜慶詩篇: 10 , 18 , 24 , 30 , 48 , 68 , 76 , 85 , 100 , 118 , 136 , 150 。 "In the first cycle of ten there is progress from the announcement of judgment (1), and manifestation of Christ (2), through His rejection (3-7), suffering and ascension (8), the waiting and persecution of His people (9), to the consummation of all things (10)." “在第一個週期的10是有進展的宣布判決( 1 ) ,並體現了基督( 2 )通過他的排斥反應( 3-7 ) ,痛苦和阿森松島( 8 ) ,輪候和迫害他的人民( 9 ) ,以完善的一切事物( 10 ) 。 “ This analysis will not commend itself to all, but it is interesting and may lead to further thought.這種分析不會讚揚自己所有,但有趣的是,可能導致進一步的思考。

Psalm 1詩篇1

True happiness is the theme of this Psalm, whose author is unnamed.真正的幸福的主題是這一詩篇,其作者是匿名。 The negative side of true happiness is stated (v. 1), and then the positive (v. 2).的負面影響是說真正的幸福(五1 ) ,然後積極(五2 ) 。 Its reward follows (v. 3). Its nature and value are emphasized by a sharp contrast.其獎勵如下(五3 ) 。其性質和價值,強調了鮮明的對比。 Such a man is godly, his opposite ungodly (v. 4).這樣一個人是神,他的對面ungodly (五4 ) 。 The first is marked by stability, the second by instability (v. 4).第一個特點是穩定,第二是不穩定(五4 ) 。 The first has endless fruitfuless and blessing, the second has nothing and worse than nothing (v. 5), for he can not be acquitted at the judgment day.首先是無休止的fruitfuless和祝福,第二沒有什麼和什麼不如(五5 ) ,因為他不能在判決宣告無罪一天。 The secret of it all is found in Jehovah (v. 6).它的秘訣是在耶和華(五6 ) 。 The Psalm is a summary of the whole book, and is appropriately placed at the beginning as a sort of preface.該詩篇是總結了整本書,並恰當地放在開頭作為一種前言。

Psalm 2詩篇2

Is prophetic and Messianic in one (see introductory lesson). It had a partial fulfilment at the first advent of Christ (Acts 4:25; 13:33), but a complete one is to follow at the second advent, as will be seen in the study of the prophets. The nations will rage and the kings of the earth again set themselves against Jehovah and His Christ under the lead of the Antichrist (vv. 1-3), but they will be regarded with contempt and terrified, by divine judgments (vv. 4, 5).是先知和救世主之一(見介紹經驗教訓) 。它有部分履行在第一次出現基督(使徒4時25分; 13時33分) ,但一個完整的一個是按照第二次到來,這將被視為研究中的先知。各國將憤怒和國王地球再次將自己對基督耶和華和他領導下的敵基督( vv. 1-3 ) ,但他們將被視為蔑視和恐懼,通過神聖的判決( vv. 4 , 5 ) 。 God's purpose will not be altered, which is to establish His Son upon His kingdom in the earth at Jerusalem (v. 6).上帝的目的都不會改變,這是確定他的兒子在他的王國在地球在耶路撒冷(五6 ) 。 The Son Himself speaks at verse seven, the last clause of which refers to His inauguration as Mediatorial King, and does not in any way impugn His Deity.談到自己的兒子在詩七,最後條款,其中提到就任Mediatorial國王,並且不以任何方式抨擊他的神像。 The Gentile nations are to be His in that day (v. 8), and although it will be the millennial day, yet its peace and righteousness will be secured through judgments and by the firmness of its Holy Ruler (v. 9).國家的詹蒂萊是他在這一天(五8 ) ,儘管這將是千年一天,但其和平與正義將通過判斷和堅定性其神聖尺(五9 ) 。 Kings and princes are warned to prepare themselves for its coming (vv. 10-12).國王和王儲的警告,以準備在其未來( vv. 10月12日) 。 "Kiss the Son" means submit to His authority, "lest He be angry and ye perish in the way, for His wrath will soon be kindled" (RV). “吻子”是指提交給他的權力“ ,否則他會生氣和葉亡的方式,他的憤怒很快將點燃” (右) 。

Psalm 3詩篇3

As its title indicates, should be read in connection with 2 Samuel 15.正如其名稱所表明的,應與撒母耳記下15 。 In his distress to whom does David appeal (v. 1)? Not only had men turned their backs upon him but it was charged that God had done so.他在危難的人並不大衛上訴(五1 ) ?不僅男人把他們的支持他,但有人指控說,上帝已經這樣做。 Remember the possible reason for this suspicion in David's sin with Bathsheba, preceding this rebellion of Absalom.記住的可能原因懷疑大衛與拔示巴黃大仙前,這個叛亂押沙龍。 Does David still retain his faith in God's promises notwithstanding (v. 3)?是否大衛仍然保留自己的信仰上帝的承諾儘管(五3 ) ? What is the ground of his confidence (v. 4)?是什麼理由,他的信心(五4 ) ? And its expression (vv. 5, 6)?及其表達( vv. 5 , 6 ) ? What is the nature of his further appeal (v. 7)?的性質是什麼,他還呼籲(五7 ) ? "Cheek-bone" and "teeth" represent his enemies as wild beasts ready to devour him. “頰骨”和“牙齒”是他的敵人是野獸準備吃掉他。 By faith he already sees these enemies overcome, and praises God as his deliverer (v. 8).因信他已經看到這些敵人克服,歌頌上帝,他遞送(五8 ) 。 The word "Selah" at the close of verse two is obscure, and may denote a pause or rest, in the singing, or an emphasis to be laid on the particular sentiment expressed.單詞“ Selah ”結束時,詩二是模糊,並可能指暫停或休息,在唱歌,或將重點放在特定的情感表達。

Psalm 4詩篇4

A cry of distress is this, composed by David, it may have been, on the same occasion as the last.了一聲痛苦的是,組成由David ,它可能已被,在同一場合的最後一次。 He is not trusting in his own righteousness, but God's righteousness (v. 1).他不相信自己的正義,但上帝的義(五1 ) 。 The doctrine of imputed righteousness was apprehended by the spiritually enlightened in Old Testament, as well as in New Testament times.理論估算義被逮捕的精神開明在舊約中,以及在新約時代。 For a further illustration of this in David compare the opening verses of Psalm 32, with Paul's application of them in Romans 4.為進一步說明了這一點大衛比較開放詩句詩篇32點,保羅的應用它們在羅馬4 。 David is encouraged to utter this cry by past mercies, "Thou hast enlarged me," and I trust Thee again.大衛是鼓勵說出這個哭了過去憐憫, “你擴大我, ”我相信你一次。 Verse 2 shows the source of his trouble. His "glory" may refer to his kingly dignity now dishonored by exile.新詩2顯示的來源,他的麻煩。他的“光榮”可能是指他的王道尊嚴現在拒付的流亡生活。 But the schemes of his enemies were "vanity," and brought about by lying "leasing").但計劃的他的敵人是“虛榮” ,並帶來撒謊“租賃” ) 。 His confidence was in the divine purpose towards him (v. 3), and they who are against him are cautioned to repent and turn to the Lord (vv. 4, 5). In the midst of his afflictions he values the divine favor (v. 6), which brings more experimental joy to him than the husbandman knows at harvest time (vv. 7, 8).他的信心是在神聖的目的對他(五3 ) ,他們誰是對他的警告懺悔和轉向主( vv. 4 , 5 ) 。在他的痛苦之中,他的價值觀的神恩(五, 6 ) ,這帶來了更多的喜悅給他的實驗比husbandman知道在收穫季節( vv. 7日, 8日) 。 "To the chief musician on Neginoth," indicates the purpose for which it was set apart as a musical composition "Neginoth" were the stringed instruments used in the Levitical service, and the "chief musician" was the leader of that part of the choir. “向首席音樂家的Neginoth ” ,表明了它的目的是除了作為作曲“ Neginoth ”是弦樂器中使用Levitical服務,和“行政音樂家”的領導人的這一部分的合唱團。

Psalm 5詩篇5

Is a morning prayer (v. 3).是一個早晨祈禱(五3 ) 。 The words, "look up" are rendered "keep watch" in the Revised Version.的話來說, “仰視”渲染“監視”的修訂版。 The psalmist would keep watch on himself, that his life and conduct might be such as to insure the answer to his prayer (v. 4-7).該psalmist將隨時監視自己,他的生活和行為,如可能的答案,以確保他的祈禱(五4-7 ) 。 The need of the prayer is indicated in verse eight.需要指出的祈禱是在詩8 。 The enemies referred to are then described (v. 9), and their judgment committed into God's hands who defends the righteous (vv. 11, 12). "Nehiloth," meants flutes or wind instruments.提到的敵人,然後介紹(五9 ) ,並承諾到他們的判斷上帝的手中誰捍衛正義( vv. 11日, 12日) 。 “ Nehiloth , ” meants笛子或管樂器。

Psalm 6詩篇6

Represents David in deeper distress of soul than we have found him hitherto.代表大衛在更深窘迫的靈魂比我們發現他迄今。 Conviction of sin is upon him.信念的罪孽是他。 Those who have studied 2 Samuel will not need to be reminded of occasions for this experience, though the connection with Bathsheba will first suggest itself.誰研究過這些撒母耳記下不會需要提醒的場合為這方面的經驗,但與拔示巴將首先建議本身。 He feels the justness of the divine rebuke (v. 1), but pleads for mercy (v. 2).他認為是正義的神聖訓斥(五1 ) ,但懇求憐憫(五2 ) 。 The time of spiritual darkness has been long extended (vv. 3, 4). Will it end in death (v. 5)?當時的精神黑暗已久延長( vv. 3 , 4 ) 。會否結束死亡(五5 ) ? He is heartbroken (vv. 6, 7). Enemies are rejoicing in his sorrow, but their glee is short-lived (vv. 7, 8).他傷心欲絕( vv. 6日, 7日) 。敵人喜悅在他的悲痛,但他們的歡樂是短暫的( vv. 7日, 8日) 。 Light breaks, the morning dawn, tears are wiped away, for the Lord hath heard him!輕休息,早上黎明,擦乾眼淚,上帝上帝聽到他! Begone, mine enemies, be ashamed and turn back (vv. 9, 10)!走開,地雷的敵人,而感到羞恥和回頭( vv. 9日, 10日) ! Verse five need not be interpreted as expressing doubt of a future state, but may be simply a contrast between this scene of life and the unseen world of the dead symbolized by the "grave" (Heb. "sheol").新詩五個需要不能被解釋為表示懷疑未來的國家,但也可能僅僅是一個對比這一場面的生活方式和看不見的世界,象徵死亡的“墳墓” ( Heb. “ sheol ” ) 。 "Sheminith" means the "eighth," and perhaps this was a Psalm for the eighth key, or the bass of the stringed instruments. “ Sheminith ”是指“八五” ,或許這是一個詩篇第八屆關鍵,或低音的弦樂器。 Questions 1.問題1 。 Memorize Psalm 1.背誦詩篇1 。 2. What is an appropriate theme for it? 2 。什麼是適當的主題呢? 3. 3 。 State the two-fold application of Psalm 2.國家的2倍的應用詩篇2 。 4. 4 。 Will the millennium represent only peace and cheerful obedience to God and His Son?將千年只代表和平與愉快服從上帝和他的兒子嗎? 5. 5 。 Did you re-read 2 Samuel 15?你重新閱讀撒母耳記下15 ? 6. 6 。 On what ground might God have forsaken David according to Psalm 3?什麼理由可能上帝拋棄大衛據詩篇3 ? 7. 7 。 What may "Selah" mean?有什麼可“ Selah ”是什麼意思? 8. 8 。 What great Gospel doctrine finds illustration in the Psalms of David?什麼偉大的福音學說認為說明的詩篇大衛? 9. 9 。 Define "Neginoth" and "Nehiloth."界定“ Neginoth ”和“ Nehiloth 。 ” 10. What is the Hebrew for "grave"? 10 。什麼是希伯來文的“嚴重” ?

Psalms 7-10詩篇7月10日

The length of our lessons in this book are determined rather arbitrarily by the length of the different Psalms, or the special interest found in them. We have in mind weekly classes wishing to study the whole Bible in a connected way, and yet avoid tediousness in the process. The six Psalms included in the last lesson might easily be read by the class in a week; and on the Lord's Day, the teacher with the assistance of the questions, would have little difficulty in fastening the facts and their application on their minds in a way both interesting and profitable. At the same time the average person, independent of any class preparation, reading a Psalm a day for private meditation, will probably find the brief comments and questions upon it as much as he will be able to assimilate.長度的教訓,我們這本書有決心,而任意的長度不同的詩篇,或特殊利益中找到他們。 我們已經考慮到每週上課希望整個研究聖經的連接方式,但在避免tediousness這一進程。六詩篇包括在過去的教訓可能很容易被理解的階級在一個星期;和對基督日,老師的協助下的問題,不會有什麼困難,緊固的事實和適用其頭腦中的一種方式有趣和盈利能力。 與此同時普通人,獨立的任何類別的準備,閱讀詩篇一天私人冥想,可能會發現的簡短評論和提問後,它多達他將能夠同化。

Psalm 7詩篇7

We commence this new lesson with this Psalm because it offers a point of beginning in the title.我們開始這一新的教訓這一詩篇,因為它提供了一個點開始的主題。 This, however, is rather obscure since it is not clear who may be meant by "Cush."然而,這是相當模糊的,因為它目前還不清楚誰可能是所謂的“ Cush 。 ” The margin of the King James Version identifies him with "Shimei" of 2 Samuel 16:5-14, which story it would be well to peruse again, although there are several incidents in Saul's persecution of David which would fit about as well.的邊緣國王詹姆斯版本確定他與“梅”的撒母耳記下16:5-14 ,它的故事就很好地閱讀了,雖然有幾起掃羅的迫害大衛將約以及適合。 The word "Shiggaion" in the title means "a plaintive song or elegy." David is persecuted (vv. 1, 2), and charged with wrong-doing to one at peace with him (vv. 3, 4).單詞“ Shiggaion ”的標題是指“一個哀怨的歌曲或輓歌。 ”大衛是迫害( vv. 1 , 2 ) ,並被控以錯誤的,這樣一個在和平與他( vv. 3 , 4 ) 。 The charge is so false that he can safely offer the challenge in verse five.這樣的收費是虛假的,他可以放心地提供了挑戰詩5 。 Jehovah is appealed to, and asked to sit in judgment on this matter: "Return, Thou on high" (v. 7).耶和華是呼籲,並要求坐在判斷這個問題: “回歸,你就高” (五7 ) 。 "My righteousness" (vv. 8-10) means his innocence of this particular charge. “我的正義” ( vv. 8月10日)指自己是清白的這個特別費。 A warning is uttered against the wicked (vv. 11-13), whose folly is described in serious wit (vv. 14-16).發出的警告是對邪惡的( vv. 11月13日) ,他的愚蠢中所描述的嚴重機智( vv. 14-16 ) 。 David's experience illustrates these concluding verses more than once.大衛的經驗說明了這些結論的詩句超過一次。

Psalm 8詩篇8

If the whole book of Psalms be considered a mountain range of poetic prophecy, then this is one of the highest peaks. Observe in the margin how frequently it is quoted in the New Testament, and applied to Jesus Christ.如果整本書的詩篇被視為山脈詩預言,那麼這是一個最高的山峰。遵守頻率的差值是引用在新約,並適用於耶穌基督。 Read Hebrews 2:5-9 especially.希伯來書2:5-9尤其是閱讀。 "O LORD, our Lord," gves better sense as "O Jehovah, our Lord." “主啊,我們的上帝, ” gves更好地為“啊,耶和華,我們的上帝。 ” His glory is in the Heavens as we see in verse three, and yet it is "above the heavens," both in kind and in degree.他的榮光是老天爺正如我們所看到的詩3 ,但它是“以上的天” ,無論在種類和程度。 So great is His glory that He uses "the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty." (Compare v. 2 with Matt. 11:25; 21:15, 16, and 1 Cor. 1:27). Verses 4-8 find a partial fulfilment in man as created in the first Adam, but their complete fulfilment is seen only in redeemed and regenerated man in the Second Adam.如此之大是他的榮耀,他卻利用“弱外的世界,以混淆視聽的東西這是強大的。 ” (比較訴2馬特。 11:25 ; 21:15 , 16 ,和1個心病。 1點27分) 。詩篇4-8找到部分履行在男子中創建的第一個亞當,但他們完全履行是只有在贖回和再生男子在第二亞當。 The passage in Hebrews shows this, and particularly alongside of 1 Corinthians 15:22-28.通過在希伯來表明這一點,尤其是一起的哥林多前書15:22-28 。 "Upon Gittith" is "set to the Gittith" (RV), which, some think, means a tune of a joyous character. “經Gittith ”是“設置為Gittith ” (右) ,其中,一些人認為,是指調整的歡樂性質。

Psalm 9詩篇9

Is one of the cursing or imprecatory Psalms which, as stated in the introductory lesson, find their key in the millennial age and the events introductory thereto.是詛咒或imprecatory詩篇,如在介紹經驗教訓,找到他們的關鍵在千禧年齡和活動介紹情況。 It opens with rejoicing (vv. 1, 2).開放與喜悅( vv. 1 , 2 ) 。 This rejoicing is for victory over enemies (v. 3), but they are God's enemies rather than the psalmist's.這種喜悅是戰勝敵人(五3 ) ,但他們是上帝的敵人,而不是psalmist的。 It is His coming (presence) that has overcome them.這是他的未來(存在)已克服這些困難。 Moreover, they are nations rather than individuals. ("Heathen" in verse five, is "nations" in the RV) Their cities are destroyed (v. 6).此外,他們的國家而不是個人。 ( “異教徒”中的詩句五年,是“聯合國”中的病毒)的城市被摧毀(五6 ) 。 At the same time the Lord is seen sitting as King (v. 7, RV), judging the world in righteousness, comforting the oppressed, dwelling in Zion (vv. 9-12).在同一時間被主坐在國王(五7 ,風疹病毒) ,判斷世界正義,安慰壓迫,住在錫安( vv. 9月12日) 。 All these are millennial figures.所有這些都是千年數字。 Israel is lifted from the gates of death (v. 13), and the great tribulation is over.以色列解除蓋茨死亡(五13 ) ,偉大的苦難已經結束。 She is praising God in Zion for the deliverance from the Gentile nations which are sunk in the pit they had digged for her (vv. 13-16).她是在錫安讚頌上帝的解脫從詹蒂萊聯合國是沉沒在場內,他們挖她( vv. 13日至16日) 。 And so on the end of the Psalm.等結束詩篇。 "Muth-labben" may refer like "Gittith" to the name or character of the tune. “穆思- labben ”可能是指像“ Gittith ”的名稱或性質的調整。

Psalm 10詩篇10

Seems allied in thought with that preceding, and the two may have been one, originally.盟軍在思想似乎與前,兩國可能已被一個最初。 The psalmist is not referring to personal experiences, but to those which are more general.該psalmist是不是指個人的經驗,但那些更一般。 It seems as though the poor and oppressed of the nation and the whole world were uttering their complaint through him. Because God seems far away, the wicked are flourishing (vv. 1, 2).這好像是窮人和被壓迫民族和整個世界發出了他們的申訴通過他。因為上帝似乎遠,惡人蓬勃發展( vv. 1 , 2 ) 。 It would not be out of place to conceive of the wicked in this Psalm as personified in the Antichrist at the end of this age, when, as we shall learn later, he will be persecuting Israel as God's witness in the earth.這將不是不合時宜想像惡人在這詩篇作為人格化的基督在本月底的年齡,當,當我們應學習後,他將被迫害以色列作為上帝的證人中的地球。 This is not to say that, in no sense, the Psalm is applicable to an earlier period in the history of that people, but that in its fuller sense, it is for the time to come.這並不是說,在任何意義上說,詩篇是適用於同期歷史中的人們,但在其充分的意義上講,它是今後一個時期。 The wicked one is described as boastful, covetous, proud, atheistic, self-opinionated, bold, deceitful, oppressive, and cunning (vv. 3-11, RV).惡人一個被描述為嘐,鄙吝,自豪,無神論,自我自以為是,大膽,欺騙,壓迫,和狡猾( vv. 3月11日,右) 。 The "poor" means, as is customary in the Psalms, "the poor in spirit," described by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount.在“窮人”的手段,這是習慣的詩篇, “窮人的精神” ,描述了耶穌在登山寶訓。 They are sad and sorrowful sufferers for righteousness' sake, even through they may be rich in this world's goods.他們是令人痛心和悲哀患者正義起見,即使是通過它們可能是在這個世界上豐富的商品。 "Meek" would be a better word to describe them than "poor." “米克”會是一個更好的詞來形容他們是“窮人” 。 The description of the wicked oppressor is followed by the usual appeal to God (vv. 12-15), who is represented as reigning over the millennial earth, punishing the wicked, establishing the meek, and judging the oppressed against "the man of the earth" who, as has been said, may well be taken for the Antichrist.說明惡人壓迫者其次是平常呼籲上帝( vv. 12月15日) ,誰是代表作為執政的千年地球,懲治邪惡,建立溫順,並判斷被壓迫者對“該名男子的地球“是誰,正如人們所說的,很可能採取的反基督。 Questions i.問題一 What is the title or inscription of Psalm 7?什麼是所有權或登記的詩篇7 ? 2. 2 。 What is the meaning of "Shiggaion" and "Gittith"?是什麼意思“ Shiggaion ”和“ Gittith ” ? 3. 3 。 Have you read 1 Corinthians 15:22-28 and Hebrews 2:5-9?你讀過哥林多前書15:22-28和希伯來書2:5-9 ? 4. 4 。 What is the key to the imprecatory Psalms?什麼是關鍵imprecatory詩篇? 5. 5 。 To what period does Psalm 10 seem to apply?什麼時期詩篇10似乎並不適用? 6. 6 。 Who are usually meant by the "poor" in these Psalms?誰是通常指的“窮人”在這些詩篇? 7. 7 。 What title is given to the wicked one in Psalm 10?什麼名稱是給惡人在詩篇10 ?

Psalm 11詩篇11

A song of trust.阿宋的信任。 The declaration of verse one, "In the Lord put I my trust," is buttressed by the reason in verse seven, while all between is descriptive of the condition in which David finds himself.詩的宣言之一, “在上帝把我的信任, ”是的支撐理由,詩七,而所有關係是說明性的條件中,大衛發現自己。 Urged to flee from his enemies (v. 1), he shows the futility of the attempt (v. 2).敦促逃離他的敵人(五1 ) ,他證明是徒勞的企圖(五2 ) 。 The moral foundations are being undermined (v. 3), and only Jehovah is able to discriminate and judge (vv. 4-6).的道德基礎正在受到破壞(五3 ) ,只有耶和華是能夠區分和法官( vv. 4月6日) 。

Psalm 12詩篇12日

The evil speaker.邪惡的發言。 The close relation between this and the preceding Psalm is easily discovered.的密切關係這和前面的詩篇很容易發現。 David's enemy is the deceitful flatterer (vv. 1, 2).大衛的敵人是騙人奉承者( vv. 1 , 2 ) 。 But his judgment is of the Lord (vv. 3-5), the sincerity of whose utterances are in contrast with those of the enemy (vv. 6-8).但他的判斷是上帝( vv. 3月5日) ,有誠意的言論是在對比與敵人( vv. 6-8 ) 。

Psalm 13詩篇13

Sorrow.悲哀。 The Lord seems long in coming to His servant's relief from the slanderers in the Psalms preceding (vv. 1, 2).上帝似乎只要在他的僕人來的救濟slanderers前的詩篇( vv. 1 , 2 ) 。 Will He never come (vv. 3, 4)?他將永遠不會( vv. 3 , 4 ) ? Yea, He cometh soon, and faith and hope rejoice (vv. 5, 6).是啊,他來了不久,和信念和希望歡欣鼓舞( vv. 5 , 6 ) 。

Psalm 14詩篇14

The whole world corrupt.整個世界腐敗。 All sinners are fools (v. 1) because they think and act contrary to right reason First, they think wrong ("in his heart," Gen. 6:12), and then soon they act wrong (Prov. 23:7).所有的罪人是傻瓜(五1 ) ,因為他們的思想和行動違反權利的理由首先,他們認為錯誤的( “在他的心中, ”將軍6:12 ) ,然後很快,他們的行為錯誤(省23點07分) 。 This is true of the world generally (vv. 2-4).這是真正的世界一般( vv. 2-4 ) 。 "Eat up My People" is a phrase denoting the "beastly fury" of the Gentile enemies of Israel. “吃我的人民”是一個詞組,意指“野蠻暴怒”的詹蒂萊敵人以色列。 Verses 5 and 6 show their indifference rather than their ignorance of God.詩篇5日和6展示他們的冷漠,而不是他們的無知上帝。 If the closing verse seems to refer to the period of the Babylonian captivity and therefore raises a question as to the Davidic authorship (see title), we should remember that the language is typical of any great evil, and that David may be speaking as in other instances, in the prophetic sense.如果關閉詩句似乎指的是期間的巴比倫囚禁,因此提出了一個問題,作者的Davidic (見標題) ,我們應當記住,語言是典型的任何偉大的罪惡,這可能是大衛在發言其他情況下,在先知意義。 In that case the Psalm takes on a millennial aspect.在這種情況下,採取的詩篇千年方面。

Psalm 15詩篇15

Holiness and its reward.陛下和獎勵。 Here a question is asked, verse one, which finds its answer in the verses following, the whole dialogue being summed up in the last sentence.這裡一個問題是問,一詩,其中找到答案在下面的詩句,整個對話正在總結了最後一句。 To abide in God's tabernacle, etc., is to hold fellowship with God and enjoy the blessings incident thereto.遵守上帝的窩棚等,是舉行獎學金和享受與上帝的祝福事件情況。 These are for the man whose conduct is right, who is truthful, sincere, separate from the ungodly, and uninfluenced by covetousness and bribery.這些都是對人的行為是正確的,誰是真實的,真誠的,獨立於ungodly ,並不受影響的貪婪和賄賂。

Psalm 16詩篇16

Sometimes called "The Psalm of the Resurrection," is one of the great Messianic Psalms (see introductory lesson).有時被稱為“禮讚復活” ,是一個偉大的彌賽亞詩篇(見介紹經驗教訓) 。 While it is interesting to consider David as uttering the prayer, for it is a prayer, how much more so to think of Christ!而有趣的是,考慮大衛作為發出的祈禱,因為它是一個祈禱,多少這樣認為基督! On some mountain side, in the night's darkness, He may have poured out these petitions and praises.在一些山區方面,在黑夜裡的黑暗,他可能已經倒了這些請願書和讚揚。 (For its Messianic application compare verses 8-11 with Acts 2:25-31, and 13:35). (供其應用比較彌賽亞經文8月11日的行為2:25-31 ,和13點35 ) 。 Observe the spirit of confidence (v. 1), loyalty to God (v. 2), love toward the saints (v. 3), separation from the world (v. 4), contentment (vv. 5, 6), obedience (vv. 7, 8), hope (vv. 9, 10), expectation (v. 11).觀察的信任精神(五1 ) ,忠誠於上帝(五2 ) ,愛情對聖人(五3 ) ,分離的世界(五4 ) ,滿意( vv. 5日, 6日) ,服從( vv. 7日, 8日) ,希望( vv. 9日, 10日) ,期望(五11 ) 。 The Revised Version throws light on the text.的修訂版全輕的案文。 "Michtam" means "A Golden Psalm" (see margin) and such it is in its preciousness even above others. “ Michtam ”是指“金詩篇” (見邊)等是其珍貴甚至超過其他國家。

Psalm 17詩篇17

Is a prayer in which vindication is desired.是一個祈禱的證明是理想的。 It makes such great claims that one thinks of it as Messianic also (vv. 1-4), and yet like Psalm 7, the writer may have some specific transaction in mind as to which his hands are clean.它聲稱,這種偉大的人認為它當作救世主也( vv. 1-4 ) ,但像詩篇7 ,作者可能有一些具體的交易過程中考慮到他的手是乾淨的。 Note the testimony to the power of God's word (v. 4).注意證言的權力上帝的詞(五4 ) 。 What is asked is guidance (vv. 5, 6), and preservation (vv. 7, 8).什麼是問是指導( vv. 5 , 6 ) ,並保存( vv. 7日, 8日) 。 The latter is desired from the wicked whose description follows as proud (vv. 9, 10), treacherous (vv. 11, 12), and yet prosperous in worldly things (v. 14).後者則是期望從邪惡的描述如下驕傲( vv. 9日, 10日) ,奸詐( vv. 11日, 12日) ,但在世俗的東西繁榮(五14 ) 。 This prosperity is transient in comparison with his own expectation (v. 15).這是短暫的繁榮相比,自己的期望(五15 ) 。 Have the Revised Version convenient in reading these Psalms, for the interpretation it casts on some obscure passages.有修訂版本方便閱讀這些詩篇,解釋它使人對一些模糊的通道。 Questions 1.問題1 。 What is the leading thought of Psalm 11?什麼是領導思想的詩篇11 ? 2. 2 。 Against what class of enemies are the psalmist's words frequently directed?反對階級敵人是psalmist的話經常指示? 3. 3 。 Why are sinners called "fools"?為什麼罪人稱為“傻瓜” ? 4. 4 。 Which of the Psalms of this lesson are millennial and messianic?其中的詩篇這個教訓是千年和救世主? 5. 5 。 Have you compared the passages in Acts?你比較段落行為? 6. 6 。 What does "Michtam" mean?什麼是“ Michtam ”是什麼意思?

Psalm 18詩篇18

A song of victory.勝利之歌。 It opens with ejaculatory expressions of triumph for deliverance.開放與射精表達勝利解脫。 All nature is described as convulsed when the Almighty presses to the rescue.所有性質被描述為抽搐時全能壓力機救援。 The next division is meditation on the principles involved, the whole closing with a further outburst of triumph and confidence.下一司冥想參與的原則,整個閉幕式以進一步突出的勝利和信心。 2 Samuel 22 is a copy of this ode saving a few variations, and the student is referred to our treatment of it at that place.撒母耳記下22是複製此頌節省一些變化,和學生是指我們的治療,在那個地方。

Psalm 19詩篇19

God's revelation in the world and in the Word.上帝的啟示在世界上和在Word 。 We have a contrast between these two in this Psalm.我們有一個對比這兩個在這詩篇。 In verses one to six there is the general revelation of the heavens, "wordless but extending their sphere over the whole earth," which then specializes to the sun as the chief figure of it all.在5時59詩句有一般啟示天空, “無言的,但其職權範圍內擴大到整個地球” ,然後專門太陽作為主要的數字說明了一切。 But in 7-14, the law is celebrated, whose function is to warn against sin, and by conformity to which only can our thought and conduct become acceptable to God.但在7月14日,是慶祝活動的法律,其職能是警告罪,並符合這不僅可以我們的思想和行為成為可以接受的上帝。 Observe the literary beauty as well as the spiritual teaching in the description of the law, six names, six epithets and six effects.觀察文學美容以及精神教學中的說明法, 6名, 6個綽號和六個效果。 The clearer our apprehension of the law, so the Psalm teaches, the clearer is our view of sin, and the more evident that grace only can cleanse and keep us from it.我們逮捕了更明確的法律,所以詩篇教導,更明確的是我們認為的罪孽,越明顯,不僅可以淨化寬限期和使我們從它。

Psalms 20 and 21詩篇20日和21日

Are coupled in The Modern Reader's Bible, and called "An Antiphonal War Anthem." The first gives the prayers of the king and the people before the battle, and the second the thanksgiving after the victory.耦合現代讀者聖經,和所謂的“一個Antiphonal戰爭國歌。 ”首先給人的祈禱國王和人民面前的戰鬥,第二次的勝利後,感恩節。 As to the first, we hear the people (vv. 1-5), the king (v. 6), and then the people to the end.至於第一次,我們聽到的人( vv. 1月5日) ,國王(五6 ) ,然後人民結束。 As to the second, the king is first (vv. 1-7), and then the people to the end.至於第二,國王首先是( vv. 1-7 ) ,然後人民結束。 While this may be the historical setting of these Psalms, yet we are at liberty to apply their utterances in the spiritual scene to the experiences of believers in the Christian Church.雖然這可能是歷史背景這些詩篇,然而,我們在自由地運用其言論在精神現場的經驗信徒的基督教會。

Psalm 22詩篇22

The Psalm of the Cross. Is this one of the great Messianic Psalms? Christ uttered the first verse on the cross (Matt. 27:46), and there is reason to think the words of the last were also heard. 禮讚十字架。這是一個偉大的彌賽亞詩篇? 基督說出的第一個詩在十字架上(太27:46 ) ,並有理由相信的話,最後還聽到。 "He hath done it" (RV), in the Hebrew, corresponds closely to, "It is finished" (John 19:30). “他這樣做是上帝” (右) ,在希伯來文,相當於密切, “這是完成” (約19:30 ) 。 If this were so, may we suppose that the whole Psalm was the language of the divine sufferer as He bare our sins on the cross?如果是這樣的話,可能我們假定整個詩篇是語言的神聖患者因為他裸露我們的罪在十字架上? There are three strophes, or great poetical divisions, each associated with the phrase, "Far from me."有三個strophes ,或偉大的詩歌部門,各有關的短語, “遠離我。 ” The first covers verses 1 to 10, the second 11 to 18, the third 19 to 31.第一個涵蓋詩句1至10 ,第二次11日至18日,第三次19日至31日。 In the first, we have a cry of distress (vv. 1, 2), an expression of confidence (vv. 3-5), a description of the enemies (vv. 6-8), and a second expression of confidence (vv. 9-10).首先,我們有一個哭的危難( vv. 1 , 2 ) ,表達了信心( vv. 3月5日) ,描述了敵人( vv. 6月8日) ,第二表達信心(弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 9月10日) 。 In the second, we have two descriptions, the surrounding enemies (vv. 11-13), and the sufferer's experiences (vv. 14-18).第二,我們有兩個說明,周圍的敵人( vv. 11月13日) ,以及患者的經驗( vv. 14日至18日) 。 In the third the whole tone is changed to a note of victory (vv. 19-21), a testimony of praise (vv. 22-26), and a prophecy of resurrection glory (vv. 27-31).在第三個整個基調是改變注意的勝利( vv. 19日至21日) ,證明了表揚( vv. 22日至26日) ,並預言復活榮耀( vv. 27-31 ) 。 The Psalm gives a graphic picture of death by crucifixion with circumstances precisely fulfilled at Calvary.的詩篇使圖形圖片受難死亡的情況恰恰與履行在髑髏。 As that form of death penalty was Roman rather than Jewish, we agree with the Scofield Reference Bible that the "proof of inspiration is irrestible."由於這種形式的死刑是羅馬,而不是猶太人,我們同意斯科菲爾德參考聖經說, “證據的靈感是irrestible 。 ” At verse 22 the Psalm breaks from crucifixion to resurrection (compare John 20:17).在詩的詩篇休息, 22日從十字架來復活(比較約翰20:17 ) 。

Psalm 23詩篇23

The Shepherd Psalm is such a favorite with all as to make an attempted exposition almost an offence. 牧人詩篇就是這樣一個最喜愛的一切,使企圖博覽會幾乎犯罪。 Did David compose it as a youth tending his father's sheep?沒有大衛撰寫它作為青年傾向於他父親的羊? If not, it must have been when occupied in reminiscences of those early days.如果不是這樣,它必須是在被佔領的回憶那些初期。 Note the possessive, "my shepherd," and the future, "shall not want."請注意所有格, “我的牧羊人” ,和未來, “不得想。 ” Because the Lord is my Shepherd I am Feeding on the Word, "pastures" Fellowshipping the Spirit, "waters" Being renewed, "restoreth" Surrendered in will, "leadeth" Trusting the promises, "fear no evil" Enjoying security, "a table" Doing service, "runneth over" Possessing hope, "forever."因為主是我的牧人我餵養的Word中, “牧場” Fellowshipping的精神, “水”延長“ , restoreth ”投降將要“ , leadeth ”可信賴的承諾, “不怕邪”享有安全, “一個表“做好服務, ” runneth超過“擁有希望, ”永遠。 “

Psalm 24詩篇24

Is frequently defined as the Ascension Psalm .往往是界定為阿森松詩篇 The Scofield Bible speaks of these last three Psalms, however, 22 23 and 24, as a trilogy.聖經的斯科菲爾德說,這些過去三年詩篇,然而, 22日23日和24日,作為一個三部曲。 In the first, the good Shepherd gives His life for the sheep (John 10:11), in the second, the great Shepherd "brought again from the dead through the blood of the everlasting covenant," tenderly cares for His sheep (Heb. 13:20), and in the last, the chief Shepherd appears as king of glory to own and reward the sheep (I Pet. 5:4).在第一,善牧讓他的生命的羊(約10:11 ) ,在第二,偉大的牧人“提請再次從死亡的血下的永恆的盟約, ”溫柔地關心他的羊群( Heb. 13:20 ) ,並在過去,行政謝潑德似乎國王的榮耀和獎勵,以自己的羊(一寵物。 5時04分) 。 From this point of view the order is: (a), the declaration of title, "The earth is the Lord's" (vv. I, 2); (b), the challenge (vv. 3-6), it is a question of worthiness and no one is worthy but the Lamb (compare Dan. 7:13, 14; Rev. 5:3-10); (c), the king takes the throne (vv. 7-10), (compare Matt. 25: 31). Questions 7.從這一觀點出發的順序是: ( a ) ,該宣言的標題, “地球是上帝” ( vv.一, 2 ) ; ( b )項,所面臨的挑戰( vv. 3月6日) ,這是一個問題的價值,沒有一個是值得,但羔羊(比較丹。七點13分, 14個;牧師5:3-10 ) ; (三) ,國王將王位( vv. 7月10日) , (比較馬特。 25 : 31 ) 。問題7 。 Where have we met earlier with the contents of Psalm 18?凡符合我們早些時候的內容詩篇18 ? I. What theme would you assign to Psalm 19?一,什麼主題將您指定給詩篇19 ? 2. 2 。 Give the names, epithets and effects of the law.現在的名字,綽號和影響的法律。 3. 3 。 What is the historical setting of Psalms 20 and 21?什麼是歷史背景的詩篇第20和第21 ? 4. 4 。 How does John 19:30 suggest the last verse of Psalm 22?如何約翰19:30顯示,去年詩的詩篇22 ? 5. 5 。 Of what is this Psalm a picture?什麼是這一詩篇圖片? 6. 6 。 What proof of inspiration does it contain?什麼證據的靈感它包含? 7. 7 。 By what name has Psalm 24 been called?什麼名字的詩篇24被稱為? 8. 8 。 How may the last three Psalms be classified?如何可以在過去三年詩篇被歸類? 9. 9 。 Amplify this last idea.擴大這最後的主意。 10. 10 。 From this point of view, what is the order of Psalm 24?從這個角度看,什麼是秩序的詩篇24 ? 11. 11 。 What may have been the historical origin of the Psalm last named?什麼可能是歷史淵源的詩篇去年命名?

Psalm 25詩篇25

In the Hebrew this prayer is arranged as an acrostic, ie, the first word of each verse begins with a letter in alphabetical order from A to Z. Hereafter we shall not give as much attention to every Psalm as we have thus far, but trust the reader to do the analyzing after the examples given. The purpose of the Commentary is not so much textual explanation as a stimulus to Bible study in a broader sense, and it is assumed that the reader has been studying the Bible side by side with the Commentary from the beginning. The more difficult Psalms, some of the more familiar and popular, and those distinctively Messianic and millennial may be treated more at length, but others must be passed over.在希伯來文這個祈禱是安排作為acrostic ,即第一個字的每一個詩的一封信開始的按字母順序從A到Z今後我們將不給予足夠的重視,因為我們每一個詩篇迄今為止,但信託讀者分析後做的例子。 的目的評論不是這麼多的文字解釋刺激聖經研究在更廣泛的意義,並假定讀者一直在研究聖經並排的評從一開始。更困難的詩篇,其中一些更熟悉和流行的,而這些獨特彌賽亞和Millennial可視為更長時間,但其他必須越過。 In the present instance the prayer is for defence (vv. 1-3), guidance (vv. 4, 5), forgiveness (vv. 6-11), etc., intermingled with testimony to the divine goodness (vv. 12-15).在目前情況下的祈禱是用於防禦( vv. 1-3 ) ,指導( vv. 4 , 5 ) ,寬恕( vv. 6月11日)等,交織與證明了神的善良( vv. 12 - 15 ) 。

Psalm 26詩篇26

Is another appeal to God on the basis of avowed integrity and innocence of the charges of enemies.是另一個呼籲上帝的基礎上,公開宣布的完整性和無辜的指控敵人。 Note the features of righteous character of which the psalmist speaks, as well as the description of his enemies.注意的特點,正義性質的psalmist講,以及說明他的敵人。 The Modern Reader's Bible names this Psalm, "Searchings of heart before worship."現代讀者聖經詩篇這個名字, “ Searchings禮拜前的心臟。 ”

Psalm 27詩篇27

Is called by the volume named above "An Anthem of Deliverance," and throughout it exhibits confidence, hope and joy, in God's worship, with prayer for help and guidance in danger.所謂的體積上述“國歌的拯救” ,它和整個展覽的信心,希望和歡樂,在神的崇拜,祈禱的幫助和指導的危險。 The secret of the psalmist's confidence is given in verse four as his delight in divine fellowship expressed in worshiping in God's tabernacle.的秘密psalmist的信心是在他的詩四個高興的神聖金表示崇拜的神的帳幕。 God will protect and deliver him (vv. 5, 6).上帝會保護和提供他( vv. 5 , 6 ) 。 He will be more to him than earthly parents (v. 10).他將更多的向他的父母比人間(五10 ) 。 All he craves is guidance (v. 11).所有他渴望是指導(五11 ) 。 He concludes with counsel to others in a like case (vv. 13, 14).他得出的結論與其他律師在案件一樣( vv. 13日, 14日) 。

Psalm 29詩篇29

"The Song of the Thunderstorm," encourages confidence in God by the celebration of His power in His dominion over the natural world. “之歌雷雨” ,鼓勵信心,上帝的褒揚他大權於一身,統治自然世界。 "Discovereth the forests" (v. 9) means "stripping them bare." “ Discovereth的森林” (五, 9 )的意思是“剝奪他們的人。 ” In the midst of this sublimity God's worshipers cry, "Glory!"在這一崇高上帝的信徒哭, “光榮! ” (RV) (右)

Psalm 30詩篇30

States its occasion in the title, the reference being to David's own house or palace (compare Deut. 20:5); 2 Sam. 5:11; 7:2).國家的機會在標題中,提及是大衛自己的房子或宮(比較Deut 。 20時05分) ; 2山姆。 5時11分;七時02分) 。

Psalm 31詩篇31

Is a cry of one in distress, which some have referred to as the period of David's persecution by Saul at Keilah.哭是一個處於困境中,一些人稱為時期大衛的迫害掃羅在Keilah 。 Read 1 Samuel 23:1-15, and then note in the Psalm, verses 4, 8, 10-15, 20-22.閱讀撒母耳記上23:1-15 ,然後記在詩篇,詩句4日, 8日, 10月15日, 20日至22日。

Psalm 32詩篇32

Reads like "David's Spiritual Biography."讀起來就像“大衛的精神傳記。 ” It is thought to have been written after his sin with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11, 12).它被認為是書面的罪後,他與拔示巴( 2山姆。 11日, 12日) 。 He has been brought to repentance for that sin and forgiven (Psalm 51), and now is praising God for that forgiveness, and telling what led up to it.他已提請這一罪惡懺悔和寬恕(詩篇51 ) ,現在是讚美上帝的寬恕,並告訴什麼導致了它。 It opens with a general declaration of his blessedness and why (vv. I, 2). This is followed by his experience before forgiveness and when he was undergoing conviction of sin (vv. 3, 4). Confession brought forgiveness (v. 5).它打開了一般宣言的幸福,為什麼( vv.我, 2 ) 。這是他的經驗之後,前寬恕,當他正在信念的罪孽( vv. 3 , 4 ) 。供認了寬恕(五5 ) 。 Let others act similarly in the same circumstances (v. 6).讓其他人採取同樣行動在同樣的情況下(五6 ) 。 See what God is to him now (v. 7).看看上帝是他現在(五7 ) 。 The Psalm takes the form of a dialogue at this point, and God speaks at verses eight and nine, which should be read in the Revised Version.禮讚需要進行對話的形式在這一點上,和上帝說話的詩句和9個,其中應的修訂版。 The whole concludes with a warning and exhortation (vv. 10, 11).整個最後提出了警告,並告誡( vv. 10日, 11日) 。

Psalm 33詩篇33

Is one of praise.是一種讚美。 It opens with a general chorus (vv. 1-3). This is followed by a semi-chorus (vv. 4-11), a second semi-chorus (vv. 12-19), and a final chorus (vv. 20-22).它打開了一般合唱( vv. 1-3 ) 。隨後半合唱( vv. 4月11日) ,第二個半合唱( vv. 12月19日) ,最後合唱團( vv. 20日-22日) 。 To follow this division suggested by the Modern Reader's Bible, is to obtain a good idea of the several subjects.遵循這一司所建議的現代讀者的聖經,是要取得一個好主意的幾個主題。

Psalm 34詩篇34

Has its occasion indicated in the title which refers to I Samuel 21:13.有機會在標題中指出這是指我塞繆爾21:13 。 The name there is Achish, but some think Abimelech was the general name given the sovereigns of Gath at that time (Gen. 20:2).這個名字有Achish ,但一些人認為Abimelech是一般名稱鑑於君主的迦特在那個時候(將軍20時02分) 。 This is also an acrostic, and from a musical point of view consists of an introduction (vv. I, 2), solos and choruses.這也是一個acrostic ,從音樂的角度來看包括一個導言( vv.一, 2 ) ,獨唱和合唱團。 For one solo, see verses 3-6, and for another 11-14.一個獨奏,見詩3月6日,和11月14日再。

Psalm 35詩篇35

May be read in connection with I Samuel 24, which some regard as its occasion.可閱讀與我塞繆爾24日,一些關於它的時刻。 A comparison of that chapter will throw light on the meaning of several of its expressions.比較這一章將揭示的含義幾個表情。

Psalm 37詩篇37

Is one of the most popular of the Psalms of trust and confidence, whose contents are illustrated in David's personal history.是最受歡迎的詩篇的信任和信心,其內容是說明了大衛的個人歷史。 It is an acrostic, which requires little in the way of explanation to any heart who really knows God through Jesus Christ.這是一個acrostic ,這需要一點在解釋任何心臟誰真正知道神通過耶穌基督。 The theme is the prosperity of the wicked with counsel as to how the child of God should act in regard to it.這次會議的主題是繁榮的邪惡與律師如何上帝的兒童應在這方面。 Questions I. What is an acrostic Psalm?問題一,什麼是acrostic詩篇? 2. 2 。 What earlier Psalm is suggested by the theme of Psalm 26? 3.什麼是較早提出的詩篇主題的詩篇26 ? 3 。 Point out the poetic descriptions of a thunder-storm in Psalm 29.指出詩描述了防雷風暴詩篇29 。 4. 4 。 What experience is Psalm 31 thought to describe? 5.有什麼經驗是詩篇31思想來形容? 5 。 Have you again read 1 Samuel 23:1-15?你再次宣讀撒母耳記上23:1-15 ? 6. 6 。 Give a title of Psalm 32, and a reason for it.讓標題詩篇32 ,和一個原因。 7. 7 。 What idea is conveyed by "semichorus"?什麼想法是傳達“ semichorus ” ? 8. 8 。 Memorize Psalm 37:1-9.背誦詩篇37:1-9 。

(NOTE: Gray's Commentary continues throughout the remaninder of the Psalms) (注意:灰色的評論繼續在整個remaninder的詩篇)


Psalms詩篇

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" (Kethubhim or Hagiographa), ie of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today. In this section of the Hebrew Bible the canonical order of books has varied greatly; whereas in the first and second sections, that is, in the Law and the Prophets, the books have always been in pretty much the same order.該Psalter ,或圖書的詩篇,是第一本書的“書面形式” ( Kethubhim或Hagiographa ) ,即第三部分印刷希伯來聖經的今天。在本節中的希伯來文聖經的規範秩序的書籍有不同極大地;而在第一和第二部分,也就是在律法和先知的書一直在差不多相同的命令。 The Talmudic list (Baba Bathra 14 b) gives Ruth precedence to Psalms.在塔木德清單(巴巴Bathra 14 b )提供露絲優先詩篇。 St. Jerome heads the "Writings" with Psalms, in his "Epistola ad Paulinum" (PL, XXII, 547); with Job in his "Prologus Galeatus" (PL, XXVIII, 555).聖杰羅姆元首的“寫作”的詩篇,在他的“廣告Paulinum書信集” (特等, 22 , 547 ) ;與工作在他的“ Prologus Galeatus ” (特等,二十八, 555 ) 。 Many Masoretic manuscripts, especially Spanish, begin the "Writings" with Paralipomena or Chronicles.許多馬所拉的手稿,特別是西班牙語,開始“創作”與Paralipomena或編年史。 German Masoretic manuscripts have led to the order of book in the Kethubhim of the modern Hebrew Bible.德國馬所拉抄本導致秩序的圖書在Kethubhim現代希伯來語聖經。 The Septuagint puts Psalms first among the Sapiential Books.該譯本首次提出詩篇中Sapiential圖書。 These latter books, in "Cod. Alexandrinus", belong to the third section and follow the Prophets.這些書籍後,在“鱈魚。頸” ,屬於第三部分,並按照先知。 The Clementine Vulgate has Psalms and the Sapiential Books in the second section, and after Job.的克萊門汀武加大了詩篇和Sapiential書的第二部分,並在工作。 This article will treat the name of the Psalter, its contents, the authors of the Psalms, their canonicity, text, versions, poetic form, poetic beauty, theological value, and liturgical use.本文將治療的名稱Psalter ,其內容,作者的詩篇,其正規,文字的版本,詩的形式,詩美,神學的價值,禮儀使用。

I. NAME一,名稱

The Book of Psalms has various names in the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Vulgate texts.書詩篇有各種不同的名字在希伯來文,七十,和拉丁文聖經文本。

A. The Hebrew name is , "praises" (from , "to praise"); or , "book of praises". This latter name was known to Hippolytus, who wrote Hebraioi periegrapsanten biblon Sephra theleim (ed. Lagarde, 188).答:希伯萊名字是“讚美” (從“讚美” ) ;或“本書的讚譽” 。後者的名字是眾所周知的西波呂,誰寫Hebraioi periegrapsanten biblon Sephra theleim (編輯拉嘉德, 188 ) 。 There is some doubt in regard to the authenticity of this fragment.有一些疑問,在關於該片段的真實性。 There can be no doubt, however, in regard to the transliteration Spharthelleim by Origen (PG, XII, 1084); and "sephar tallim, quod interpretatur volumen hymnorum" by St. Jerome (PL, XXVIII, 1124).毫無疑問,但是,在關於轉Spharthelleim的俄利根(前列腺素,十二, 1084年)和“ sephar tallim ,狴interpretatur volumen hymnorum ”聖杰羅姆(特等,二十八, 1124年) 。 The name "praises" does not indicate the contents of all the Psalms.命名為“讚揚”並不表明的內容,所有的詩篇。 Only Ps.只有聚苯乙烯。 cxliv (cxlv) is entitled "praise" (). cxliv ( cxlv )的標題是“讚美” ( ) 。 A synonymous name hallel was, in later Jewish ritual, given to four groups of songs of praise, Pss.阿同義名稱hallel是,在以後的猶太教儀式,向四組讚歌收縮。 civ-cvii, cxi-cxvii, cxxxv-cxxxvi, cxlvi-cl (Vulgate, ciii-cvi, cx-cxvi, cxxxvi-cxxxviii, cxlv-cl). Not only these songs of praise, but the entire collection of psalms made up a manual for temple service -- a service chiefly of praise; hence the name "Praises" was given to the manual itself.持續輸注, cvii , cxi , cxvii , cxxxv , cxxxvi , cxlvi發光(武加大, ciii - CVI的,馬自達CX - cxvi , cxxxvi , cxxxviii , cxlv發光) 。不僅這些讚歌,但整個收集詩篇了手冊寺服務-服務主要是表揚;因而得名“推崇”給予手冊本身。

B. The Septuagint manuscripts of the Book of Psalms read either psalmoi, psalms, or psalterion, psalter. B的譯本手稿的圖書閱讀的詩篇也psalmoi ,詩篇,或psalterion , psalter 。 The word psalmos is a translation of , which occurs in the titles of fifty-seven psalms.這個詞psalmos是一個翻譯,是發生在職稱57聖歌。 Psalmos in classical Greek meant the twang of the strings of a musical instrument; its Hebrew equivalent (from , "to trim") means a poem of "trimmed" and measured form. Psalmos古典希臘意味著抽動的字符串樂器;其希伯來當量(從“削減” )是指一首詩的“修剪”和測量表。 The two words show us that a psalm was a poem of set structure to be sung to the accompaniment of stringed instruments.這兩個詞告訴我們,一個詩篇是一首詩的一套結構來唱的伴奏弦樂器。 The New Testament text uses the names psalmoi (Luke 24:44), biblos psalmon (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20), and Daveid (Hebrews 4:7).新約文本使用的名稱psalmoi (路加福音24:44 ) , biblos psalmon (路加福音20點42分;行為1:20 ) ,並Daveid (希伯來4點07分) 。

C. The Vulgate follows the Greek text and translates psalmi, liber psalmorum. c.在武加大如下希臘文字和翻譯psalmi ,書psalmorum 。

The Syriac Bible in like manner names the collection Mazmore.敘利亞聖經中的名字一樣的方式收集Mazmore 。

II.二。 CONTENTS目錄

The Book of Psalms contains 150 psalms, divided into five books, together with four doxologies and the titles of most of the psalms.書載有150詩篇詩篇,分為五本書,連同四個doxologies和遊戲的大部分詩篇。

A. NUMBER答:序號

The printed Hebrew Bible lists 150 psalms.打印清單150希伯來聖經詩篇。 Fewer are given by some Masoretic manuscripts The older Septuagint manuscripts (Codd. Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus) give 151, but expressly state that the last psalm is not canonical: "This psalm was written by David with his own hand and is outside the number", exothen tou arithmou.更少有一些馬所拉抄本老一輩七十手稿( Codd.西奈抄本, Vaticanus ,和頸)給151 ,但是明確地說,過去不規範的詩篇: “這寫的詩篇是大衛用自己的手,不屬於一些“ , exothen頭arithmou 。 The Vulgate follows the numeration of the Septuagint but omits Ps.的武加大的數字如下的譯本,但略去聚苯乙烯。 cli. cli參數。 The differences in the numerations of the Hebrew and Vulgate texts may be seen in the following scheme:的不同numerations的希伯來文和拉丁文聖經文本中可以看出以下計劃:

Hebrew 1-8 = Septuagint/Vulgate 1-8希伯來語1-8 =七十/武加大1-8

Hebrew 9 = Septuagint/Vulgate 9-10希伯來語9 =七十/武加大9月10日

Hebrew 10-112 = Septuagint/Vulgate 11-113希伯來文10-112 =七十/武加大11-113

Hebrew 113 = Septuagint/Vulgate 114-115希伯來語113 =七十/武加大114-115

Hebrew 114-115 = Septuagint/Vulgate 116希伯來語114-115 =七十/拉丁文聖經116

Hebrew 116-145 = Septuagint/Vulgate 117-146希伯來語116-145 =七十/武加大117-146

Hebrew 146-147 = Septuagint/Vulgate 147希伯來語146-147段=七十/拉丁文聖經147

Hebrew 148-150 = Septuagint/Vulgate 148-150希伯來語148-150 =七十/武加大148-150

In the course of this article, we shall follow the Hebrew numeration and bracket that of the Septuagint and Vulgate.在本文中,我們應遵循希伯來語的計算和支架,在七十和武加大。 Each numeration has its defects; neither is preferable to the other.每個數都有其缺陷;既不是最好的。 The variance between Massorah and Septuagint texts in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists.差異Massorah和七十文本在這數可能不夠由於逐漸忽略了原始詩歌形式的詩篇;這種忽視是經禮儀用途和粗心大意的copyists 。 It is admitted by all that Pss.這是承認所有症狀評分。 ix and x were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate.第九和第十原來單一acrostic詩;他們被錯誤地分隔Massorah ,正確聯合國的譯本和武加大。 On the other hand Ps.另一方面聚苯乙烯。 cxliv (cxlv) is made up of two songs -- verses 1-11 and 12-15. cxliv ( cxlv )是由兩首歌-詩句1月11日和12月15日。 Pss.藻酸雙酯鈉。 xlii and xliii (xli and xlii) are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. xlii, 6, 12; xliii, 5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem. xlii and xliii (xli and xlii) are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. xlii, 6, 12; xliii, 5), to be three strophes的同一首詩。 The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps.希伯來文是正確的計數作為一個聚苯乙烯。 cxvi (cxiv + cxv) and Ps. cxvi ( cxiv + cxv )和聚苯乙烯。 cxlvii (cxlvi + cxlviii). cxlvii ( cxlvi + cxlviii ) 。 Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms.後來禮儀用法似乎已經分手了這些,而不是其他一些詩篇。 Zenner ("Die Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen", II, Freiburg im Br., 1896) ingeniously combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss.真蘭( “模具Chorgesange即時通訊Buche之Psalmen ” ,二,弗賴堡一二。 , 1896年)巧妙地結合到了他認為是原來的合唱詩經:症狀評分。 i, ii, iii, iv; vi + xiii (vi + xii); ix + x (ix); xix, xx, xxi (xx, xxi, xxii); xlvi + xlvii (xlvii + xlviii); lxix + lxx (lxx + lxxi); cxiv + cxv (cxiii); cxlviii, cxlix, cl.一,二,三,四,六+第十三(六+第十二章) ;九+ × (九) ;十九,二十,二十一世紀(二十,二十一,二十二) ;四十六+四十七(四十七+ XLVIII )號決議; lxix + lxx ( lxx + lxxi ) ; cxiv + cxv ( cxiii ) ; cxlviii , cxlix ,氯。 A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss.合唱頌似乎一直是原始形式的PSS 。 xiv + lxx (xiii + lxix).第十四+ lxx (十三+ lxix ) 。 The two strophes and the epode are Ps.這兩個strophes和epode是聚苯乙烯。 xiv; the two antistrophes are Ps.十四;兩個antistrophes是聚苯乙烯。 lxx (cf. Zenner-Wiesmann, "Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext", Munster, 1906, 305). lxx (見真蘭, Wiesmann , “模具Psalmen nach馬克Urtext ” ,明斯特, 1906年, 305 ) 。 It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps.值得注意的是,就打破了原來的模式,每個部分悄悄兩次到Psalter :密碼。 xiv = liii, Ps.十四= liii ,聚苯乙烯。 lxxx = xl, 14-18. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps. lxxx =儀, 14日至18日。其他諸如重複詩篇是聚苯乙烯。 cviii, 2-6 (cvii) = Ps. cviii , 2月6日( cvii ) =聚苯乙烯。 lvii, 8-12 (lvi); Ps.第五十七號, 8月12日( LVI )號決定;聚苯乙烯。 cviii, 7-14 (cvii) = Ps. cviii , 7月14日( cvii ) =聚苯乙烯。 lx, 7-14 (lix); Ps.光照, 7月14日(螺旋) ;聚苯乙烯。 lxxi, 1-3 (lxx) = Ps. lxxi , 1月3日( lxx ) =聚苯乙烯。 xxxi, 2-4 (xxx).三十一, 2月4日(三十) 。 This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes.這一損失的原始形式的一些詩篇是所允許的聖經委員會( 1910年5月1號)已由於禮儀用途,忽視copyists ,或其他原因。

B. DIVISION灣劃分

The Psalter is divided into five books.該Psalter分為五個書籍。 Each book, save the last, ends with a doxology.每一本書,保存過去,最後提出了doxology 。 These liturgical forms differ slightly.這些禮儀形式略有不同。 All agree that the doxologies at the end of the first three books have nothing to do with the original songs to which they have been appended.大家都同意, doxologies結束時的第一個三本書沒有任何與原來的歌曲,他們被附加。 Some consider that the fourth doxology was always a part of Ps.有人認為,在第四doxology總是一部分的PS 。 cvi (cv) (cf. Kirkpatrick, "Psalms", IV and V, p. 6343). CVI平台(簡歷) (參見帕特里克, “詩篇” ,第四和第五,第6343 ) 。 We prefer, with Zenner-Wiesmann (op. cit., 76) to rate it as a doxology pure and simple.我們希望,與真蘭, Wiesmann (同前。 , 76 )以利率作為doxology純粹。 The fifth book has no need of an appended doxology.第五本書已沒有必要的附加doxology 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cl, whether composed as such or not, serves the purpose of a grand doxology which fittingly brings the whole Psalter to its close.服裝,不論是組成這種與否,服務的目的,大doxology其中恰當地將整個Psalter其關閉。

The five books of the Psalter are made up as follows:的五本書的Psalter的組成如下:

Bk.淺灘。 I: Pss.一:症狀評分。 i-xli (i-xl); doxology, Ps.一至四十一(一儀) ; doxology ,聚苯乙烯。 xli, 14.四十一, 14 。

Bk.淺灘。 II: Pss.二:症狀評分。 xlii-lxxii (xli-lxxi); doxology, Ps.四十二, lxxii (四十一- lxxi ) ; doxology ,聚苯乙烯。 lxxii, 18-20. lxxii 18日至20日。

Bk.淺灘。 III: Pss.第三部分:症狀評分。 lxxiii-lxxxix (lxxii-lxxxviii); doxology, Ps. lxxiii - lxxxix ( lxxii - lxxxviii ) ; doxology ,聚苯乙烯。 lxxxix, 53. lxxxix , 53 。

Bk.淺灘。 IV: Pss.四:症狀評分。 xc-cvi (lxxxix-cv); doxology, Ps.坐標- CVI的( lxxxix版) ; doxology ,聚苯乙烯。 cvi, 48. CVI的, 48 。

Bk.淺灘。 V: Pss.五:症狀評分。 cvii-cl (cvi-cl); no doxology. cvii發光( CVI的發光) ;沒有doxology 。

In the Masoretic text, the doxology is immediately followed by an ordinal adjective indicating the number of the succeeding book; not so in the Septuagint and Vulgate.在馬所拉文本, doxology是緊接著有序形容詞說明一些成功預訂;並非如此的譯本和武加大。 This division of the Psalter into five parts belongs to early Jewish tradition.這司Psalter分為五個部分屬於早期猶太傳統。 The Midrash on Ps.在PS的米德拉士。 i tells us that David gave to the Jews five books of psalms to correspond to the five books of the Law given them by Moses. This tradition was accepted by the early Fathers.字母i告訴我們,大衛給猶太人五本書的詩篇,以對應的五本書的法律賦予他們的摩西。這一傳統接受了早期教父。 Hippolytus, in the doubtful fragment already referred to, calls the Psalter and its five books a second Pentateuch (ed. Lagarde, 193).西波呂,在可疑的片段已經提到,所謂的Psalter和五本書的第二個摩西五(編輯拉嘉德, 193 ) 。 St. Jerome defends the division in his important "Prologus Galeatus" (PL, XXVIII, 553) and in Ep.聖杰羅姆捍衛司在其重要的“ Prologus Galeatus ” (特等,二十八, 553 )和內啡肽。 cxl (PL, XXII, 11, 68). Writing to Marcella (PL, XXIII, 431), he says: "In quinque siquidem volumina psalterium apud Hebraeos divisum est".消抗安胎口服液(特等, 22 , 11 , 68 ) 。寫作馬爾切拉(特等,二十三, 431 ) ,他說: “在五siquidem volumina psalterium羧Hebraeos分裂症預測” 。 He, however, contradicts this statement in his letter to Sophronius (PL, XXVIII, 1123): "Nos Hebraeorum auctoritatem secute et maxime apostolorum, qui sempter in Novo Testamento psalmorum librum nominant, unum volumen asserimus".但是,他違背了這一聲明在他的信中向Sophronius (特等,二十八, 1123年) : “酶Hebraeorum auctoritatem secute和馬克西姆宗徒,歸仁sempter在Novo Testamento psalmorum librum nominant ,一心volumen asserimus ” 。

C. TITLES角職稱

In the Hebrew Psalter, all the psalms, save thirty-four, have either simple or rather complex titles.在希伯來文Psalter ,所有的詩篇,保存34 ,要么簡單或相當複雜的冠軍。 The Septuagint and Vulgate supply titles to most of the thirty-four psalms that lack Hebrew titles.該譯本和武加大供應商品大部分34詩篇,缺乏希伯來冠軍。 These latter, called "orphan psalms" by Jewish tradition, are thus distributed in the five books of the Psalter:這些後者,所謂的“孤兒詩篇”的猶太傳統,因此,分佈在5本書的Psalter :

Bk.淺灘。 I has 4 -- Pss.本人有4 -症狀評分。 I, iii, x, xxxiii [i, iii, ix (b), xxxii].第一,三,十,三十三[第一,三,九( b )項,第三十二] 。 Of these, Ps.這些物質。 x is broken from Ps. X是打破由聚苯乙烯。 ix; Ps.九;聚苯乙烯。 xxxiii has a title in the Septuagint and Vulgate.三十三有一個標題中譯本和武加大。

Bk.淺灘。 II has 2 -- Pss.二2 -症狀評分。 xliii, lxxi (xlii, lxx).四十三, lxxi (四十二, lxx ) 。 Of these, Ps.這些物質。 xliii is broken from Ps.第四十三打破由聚苯乙烯。 xlii.四十二。

Bk.淺灘。 III has none.三也沒有。

Bk.淺灘。 IV has 10 -- Pss.四10 -症狀評分。 xci, xciii-xcvii, xcix, xiv-cvi (xc, xcii-xcvi, xcviii, ciii-cv). xci , xciii - xcvii , xcix ,十四- CVI的(坐標, xcii - xcvi , xcviii , ciii版) 。 Of these, all have titles in the Septuagint and Vulgate.這些,都標題七十和武加大。

Bk.淺灘。 V has 18 -- Pss.第五18 -症狀評分。 cvii, cxi-cxix, cxxxv-cxxxvii, cxlvi-cl (cvi, cx-cxviii, cxxxiv, cxlv-cl). cvii , cxi - cxix , cxxxv - cxxxvii , cxlvi發光( CVI的,馬自達CX - cxviii , cxxxiv , cxlv發光) 。 Of these, Ps.這些物質。 cxii has a title in the Vulgate, Ps. cxii擁有所有權的武加大,聚苯乙烯。 cxxxvii in the Septuagint and Vulgate; the quasi-title hallelu yah precedes nine (cxi-cxiii, cxxxv, cxlvi-cl); the Greek equivalent Allelouia precedes seven others (cvii, cxiv, cxvi-cxix, cxxxvi). cxxxvii中譯本和武加大;準標題hallelu閆先九( cxi - cxiii , cxxxv , cxlvi發光) ;希臘相當於其他7 Allelouia之前( cvii , cxiv , cxvi - cxix , cxxxvi ) 。 Only Ps.只有聚苯乙烯。 cxv [cxiii (b)] has no title either in the Hebrew or the Septuagint. cxv [ cxiii ( b )條]沒有所有權或者在希伯來文或七十。

(1) Meaning of Titles ( 1 )標題的含義

These titles tell us one or more of five things about the psalms: (a) the author, or, perhaps, collection; (b) the historical occasion of the song; (c) its poetic characteristics; (d) its musical setting; (e) its liturgical use.這些書名告訴我們一個或一個以上的五樣東西的詩篇: (一)的作者,或者,也許,收集; ( b )在歷史之際,這首歌; ( c )其詩性特徵; (四)它的音樂設置; (五)使用的禮儀。

(a) Titles indicating the author (一)標題說明作者

Bk.淺灘。 I has four anonymous psalms out of the forty-one (Pss. i, ii, x, xxxiii). The other thirty-seven are Davidic.本人有4個無名氏詩篇出41 ( Pss.一,二,第十章,三十三) 。其他三七頃Davidic 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 x is part of ix; Ps. X是部分第九;聚苯乙烯。 xxxiii is Davidic in the Septuagint; and Pss.三十三是Davidic在七十;和症狀評分。 I and ii are prefatory to the entire collection.第一和第二序言到整個集合。 -- Bk. -淺灘。 II has three anonymous psalms out of the thirty-one (Pss. xliii, lxvi, lxxi).二有三無名氏詩篇出31 ( Pss.四十三, lxvi , lxxi ) 。 Of these, eight Pss., xlii-xlix (xli-xlviii) are "of the sons of Korah" (libne qorah); Ps.其中, 8個症狀評分。 ,四十二- xlix (四十一- XLVIII )號決議是“的兒子Korah ” ( libne qorah ) ;聚苯乙烯。 1 is "of Asaph"; Pss. 1 “的Asaph ” ;症狀評分。 li-lxxii "of the Director" (lamenaççeah) and Ps.李lxxii “主任” ( lamenaççeah )和聚苯乙烯。 lxxii "of Solomon". lxxii “所羅門” 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 xliii (xlii) is part of xlii (xli); Pss.第四十三( XLII )號決議是四十二( XLI )號決議;症狀評分。 lxvi and lxvii (lxv and lxvi) and Davidic in the Septuagint and Vulgate. lxvi和lxvii ( lxv和lxvi )和Davidic中譯本和武加大。 -- Bk. -淺灘。 III has one Davidic psalm, lxxxvi (lxxxv); eleven "of Asaph", lxxiii-lxxxiii (lxxii-lxxxii); four "of the sons of Korah", lxxxiv, lxxxv, lxxxvii, lxxxviii (lxxxiii, lxxxiv, lxxxvi, lxxxvii); and one "of Ethan", lxxxix (lxxxviii).三有一Davidic詩篇, lxxxvi ( lxxxv ) ; 11 “的Asaph ” , lxxiii - LXXXIII號( lxxii - lxxxii ) ;四個“的兒子Korah ” , lxxxiv , lxxxv , lxxxvii , lxxxviii ( LXXXIII號, lxxxiv , lxxxvi , lxxxvii ) ;和一個“的伊桑” , lxxxix ( lxxxviii ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 lxxxviii is likewise assigned to Heman the Ezrahite. lxxxviii同樣分配給曼的Ezrahite 。 -- Bk. -淺灘。 IV has two Davidic psalms, ci and ciii (c and cii), and one "of Moses".四有兩個Davidic詩篇,詞和CIII ( C和印度工業聯合會) ,和一個“摩西” 。 Moreover, the Septuagint assigns to David eight others, Pss.此外,七十指派給大衛8人收縮。 xci, xciii-xcvii, xciv, civ (xc, xcii-xcvi, xcviii, ciii). xci , xciii - xcvii ,第九十四,持續輸注(坐標, xcii - xcvi , xcviii , ciii ) 。 The remainder are anonymous.其餘是無名氏。 -- Bk. -淺灘。 V has twenty-seven anonymous psalms out of forty-four.第五07年無名氏詩篇了44 。 Pss.藻酸雙酯鈉。 cviii-cx, cxxii, cxxiv, cxxxi, cxxxiii, cxxxviii-cxlv (cvii-cix, cxxi, cxxiii, cxxx, cxxxii, cxxxvii-cxlv) are Davidic. cviii ,國泰航空, cxxii , cxxiv , cxxxi , cxxxiii , cxxxviii - cxlv ( cvii ,捷達夥伴, cxxi , cxxiii , cxxx , cxxxii , cxxxvii - cxlv )是Davidic 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cxxvii is "of Solomon". cxxvii是“所羅門” 。 The Septuagint and Vulgate assign Ps.該譯本和武加大分配聚苯乙烯。 cxxxvii (cxxxvi) David, Pss. cxxxvii ( cxxxvi )大衛收縮。 cxlvi-cxlviii (cxlv-cxlviii) to Aggeus and Zacharias. Besides these title-names of authors and collections which are clear, there are several such names which are doubtful. cxlvi - cxlviii ( cxlv - cxlviii )以Aggeus和撒迦利亞。除了這些冠軍的名字,作者和收藏這是明確的,有幾個這樣的名稱是值得懷疑的。 -- Lamenaççeah (; Septuagint, eis to telos; Vulg., in finem; Douai, "unto the end"; Aquila, to nikopoio, "for the victor"; St. Jerome, victori; Symmachus, epinikios, "a song of victory"; Theodotion, eis to nikos, "for the victory") now generally interpreted "of the Director". - Lamenaççeah ( ;七十,順向telos ; Vulg 。 ,在finem ;杜埃, “你們的結束” ;雕,以nikopoio “的勝利者” ;聖杰羅姆, victori ; Symmachus , epinikios “ ,這首歌的勝利“ ; Theodotion ,順向尼克斯斯, ”勝利“ ) ,現在一般的解釋”主任“ 。 The Pi'el of the root means, in I Par., xv, 22, "to be leader" over the basses in liturgical service of song (cf. Oxford Hebrew Dictionary, 664). The title "of the Director" is probably analogous to "of David", "of Asaph", etc., and indicates a "Director's Collection" of Psalms.該Pi'el的根本手段,在本人標準桿。 ,十五, 22日, “是領導者”的貝司在禮儀服務的宋(參見牛津希伯來語詞典, 664 ) 。標題“主任”可能是類似的“大衛” , “的Asaph ”等,並表示“主任的收藏”的詩篇。 This collection would seem to have contained 55 of our canonical psalms, whereof 39 were Davidic, 9 Korahite, 5 Asaphic, and 2 anonymous. Al-Yeduthun, in Pss.這收集似乎載有55的典型詩篇,信守39人Davidic , 9 Korahite , 5 Asaphic , 2無名氏。鋁Yeduthun ,在症狀評分。 lxii and lxxvii (lxi and lxxvi), where the preposition al might lead one to interpret Yeduthun as a musical instrument or a tune. lxii和lxxvii ( LXI聯盟和lxxvi ) ,那裡的介詞人可能會導致一個解釋Yeduthun作為樂器或調整。 In the title to Ps.在標題中聚苯乙烯。 xxxix (xxxviii), "of the Director, of Yeduthun, a song of David", Yeduthun is without al and seems to be the Director (Menaççeah) just spoken of. That David had such a director is clear from I Par., xvi, 41.第39屆( XXXVIII )號, “主任,對Yeduthun ,一首歌的大衛” , Yeduthun是沒有人,似乎總幹事( Menaççeah )剛才談到的。大衛有這樣的主任是清楚的從I標準桿。 ,十六, 41 。

(b) Titles indicating the historical occasion of the song (二)標題說明歷史之際,這首歌

Thirteen Davidic psalms have such titles. 13 Davidic詩篇有這樣的冠軍。 Pss.藻酸雙酯鈉。 vii, xviii, xxxiv, lii, liv, lvi, lvii, lix, cxlii (vii, xvii, xxxiii, li, liii, lv, lvi, lviii, cxli) are referred to the time of David's persecution by Saul; Ps.七,十八,三十四,崇禮,麗芙,左室,第五十七,螺旋, cxlii (七,十七,三十三,李鵬, liii ,呂,左室, lviii , cxli )被稱為當時的大衛的迫害掃羅;聚苯乙烯。 lx (lix) to that of the victories in Mesopotamia and Syria; Ps.勒克斯(螺旋)這一勝利在美索不達米亞和敘利亞;聚苯乙烯。 li(l) to his sin; Pss.李( 1 )他的罪過;症狀評分。 iii and lxiii (lxii) to his flight from Absalom.三和lxiii ( lxii )他的飛行押沙龍。

(c) Titles indicating poetic characteristics of the psalm (三)標題說明詩性特徵的詩篇

Mizmor (; Septuagint, psalmos; Vulg., psalmus; a psalm), a technical word not used outside the titles of the Psalter; meaning a song set to stringed accompaniment. Mizmor ( ;七十, psalmos ; Vulg 。 , psalmus一個詩篇) ,一個字不用於技術以外的標題Psalter ;意義的歌曲設置為弦樂器伴奏。 There are 57 psalms, most of them Davidic, with the title Mizmor.有57詩篇,其中大多數是Davidic ,職稱Mizmor 。

Shir (; Septuagint, ode; Vulg., Canticum; a song), a generic term used 30 times in the titles (12 times together with Mizmor), and often in the text of the Psalms and of other books.希爾( ;七十,頌; Vulg 。 , Canticum ;一首歌) ,一個通用術語,用於30次在冠軍( 12次連同Mizmor ) ,而且往往是在文本中的詩篇和其他書籍。 In the Psalms (xlii, 9; lxix, 31; xxviii, 7) the song is generally sacred; elsewhere it is a lyric lay (Genesis 31:27; Isaiah 30:29), a love poem (Cant., i, 1.1), or a bacchanalian ballad (Isaiah 24:9; Ecclesiastes 7:5).在詩篇(四十二, 9 ; lxix , 31 ;二十八, 7 )這首歌通常是神聖的;其他地方它是一個抒情奠定(創31:27 ;以賽亞書30:29 ) ,一個愛情詩( Cant. ,我1.1 ) ,或發酒瘋的歌謠(以賽亞書24:9 ;傳道書七時05分) 。

Maskil (; Septuagint, synedeos, or eis synesin; Vulgate intellectus or ad intellectum), an obscure form found in the titles of 13 psalms (xxxii, xlii, xliv, xlv, lii, lv, lxxiv, lxxviii, lxxxviii, lxxxix, cxliv). Maskil ( ;七十, synedeos ,或順synesin ;武加大intellectus或廣告intellectum ) ,一個不起眼的表格中發現的標題13詩篇(三十二,四十二,四十四,第四十五,崇禮,呂, lxxiv , lxxviii , lxxxviii , lxxxix , cxliv ) 。 (a) Gesenius and others explain "a didactic poem", from Hiph'il of (cf. Psalm 32:8; 1 Chronicles 28:19); but only Pss. (一) Gesenius和其他人解釋“的說教詩” ,從Hiph'il的(參見詩篇32:8 ;歷代誌上28:19 ) ;但只有症狀評分。 xxxii and lxxviii are didactic Maskilim.三十二和lxxviii是說教Maskilim 。 (b) Ewald, Riehm and others suggest "a skilful artistic song", from other uses of the cognate verb (cf. 2 Chronicles 30:22; Psalm 47:7); Kirkpatrick things "a cunning psalm" will do. (二)埃瓦爾德, Riehm和其他建議“巧妙的藝術歌曲” ,從其他用途的同源動詞(見歷代誌下30:22 ;詩篇47:7 ) ;帕特里克事情“一個狡猾的詩篇”將這樣做。 It is difficult to see that the Maskil is either more artistic or more cunning than the Mizmor.很難看到Maskil或者更多的藝術或更狡猾比Mizmor 。 (c) Delitzch and others interpret "a contemplative poem"; Briggs, "a meditation". (三) Delitzch和其他人解釋“一個沉思的詩” ;布里格斯, “冥想” 。 This interpretation is warranted by the usage of the cognate verb (cf. Isaiah 41:20; Job 34:27), and is the only one that suits all Maskilim.這種解釋是必要的使用同源動詞(參見以賽亞書41:20 ;就業34:27 ) ,並且是唯一一個適合所有Maskilim 。

Tephillah (); Septuagint, proseuche; Vulg., oratio; a prayer), the title to five psalms, xvii, lxxxvi, xc, cii, cxlii (xvi, lxxv, lxxxix, ci, cxli). Tephillah ( ) ;七十, proseuche ; Vulg 。 , oratio ;祈禱) ,標題為5詩篇,十七, lxxxvi ,坐標,印度工業聯合會, cxlii (十六, lxxv , lxxxix ,詞, cxli ) 。 The same word occurs in the conclusion to Bk.同一個詞出現在最後,淺灘。 II (cf. Ps. lxxii, 20), "The prayers of David son of Yishai have been ended".二(參見聚苯乙烯。 lxxii , 20 ) , “大衛的禱告兒子伊沙伊已經結束” 。 Here the Septuagint hymnoi (Vulgate, laudes) points to a better reading, , "praise".在這裡,七十hymnoi (武加大, laudes )點,更好地閱讀, “讚美” 。

Tehillah (; Septuagint, ainesis; Vulg., laudatio; "a song of praise"), is the title only of Psalm 145. Tehillah ( ;七十, ainesis ; Vulg 。 , laudatio ; “ ,這首歌讚美” ) ,題目是唯一的詩篇145 。

Mikhtam (; Septuagint, stelographia or eis stelographian; Vulg., tituli inscriptio or in tituli inscriptionem), an obscure term in the title of six psalms, xvi, lvi-lx (xv, lv-lix), always to "of David". Mikhtam ( ;七十, stelographia或順stelographian ; Vulg 。 , tituli inscriptio或tituli inscriptionem ) ,長期在一個不起眼的標題6詩篇,十六,左室-勒克斯(十五,呂,柳) ,始終以“大衛” 。 Briggs ("Psalms", I, lx; New York, 1906) with the Rabbis derives this title from , "gold".布里格斯( “詩篇” ,我勒克斯;紐約, 1906年)的拉比源於此標題從“金獎” 。 The Mikhtamim are golden songs, "artistic in form and choice in contents". Shiggayon (; Septuagint merely psalmos; Vulg., psalmus; Aquila, agnonma; Symmachus and Theodotion, hyper agnoias; St. Jerome, ignoratio or pro ignoratione), occurs only in the title to Ps. Mikhtamim是金色的歌曲, “藝術在形式和內容的選擇” 。 Shiggayon ( ;七十只是psalmos ; Vulg 。 , psalmus ;雕, agnonma ; Symmachus和Theodotion ,超agnoias ;聖杰羅姆, ignoratio或親ignoratione ) ,發生僅在標題中到PS 。 vii.七。 The root of the word means "to wander", "to reel", hence, according to Ewald, Delitzch, and others, the title means a wild dithyrambic ode with a reeling, wandering rhythm.的根詞的意思是“流浪” , “以轆” ,因此,根據埃瓦爾德, Delitzch ,和其他的標題是指野生dithyrambic模式與繅絲,遊蕩的節奏。

(d) Titles indicating the musical setting of a psalm (a specially obscure set) (四)標題說明設置的音樂詩篇(特別模糊集)

Eight titles may indicate the melody of the psalm by citing the opening words of some well-known song:八套可能表明旋律的詩篇援引的開頭語,一些知名的歌曲:

Nehiloth (; Septuagint and Theodotion, hyper tes kleronomouses; Aquila, apo klerodosion; Symmachus, hyper klerouchion; St. Jerome, super haereditatibus; Vulg., pro ea quae haereditatem consequitur), occurs only in Ps. Nehiloth ( ;七十和Theodotion ,超檢驗kleronomouses ;雕,載脂蛋白klerodosion ; Symmachus ,超klerouchion ;聖杰羅姆,超級haereditatibus ; Vulg 。 ,有利於電子藝界quae haereditatem consequitur ) ,只發生在PS 。 v. The ancient versions rightly derive the title from , "to inherit"; Baethgen ("Die Psalmen", 3rd ed., 1904, p. xxxv) thinks Nehiloth was the first word of some ancient song; most critics translate "with wind instruments" wrong assuming that Nehiloth means flutes (, cf. Is. xxx, 29).五,古代的版本中得到正確的標題從“繼承” ; Baethgen ( “模具Psalmen ” ,第3版。 , 1904年,第XXXV )號決議認為Nehiloth的第一個字是一些古老的歌曲,大多數批評者把“風文書“錯誤假設Nehiloth手段笛子( ,比照。是。三十, 29 ) 。

Al-tashheth [; Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus, peri aphtharsias, except Ps.鋁tashheth [ ;七十,雕, Symmachus ,圍aphtharsias ,除聚苯乙烯。 lxxv, Symmachus, peri aphtharsias; St. Jerome, ut non disperdas (David humilem et simplicem); Vulg., ne disperdas or ne corrumpas], in Pss. lxxv , Symmachus ,圍aphtharsias ;聖杰羅姆, UT斯達康非disperdas (大衛humilem等simplicem ) ; Vulg 。腎上腺素disperdas或去甲腎上腺素corrumpas ] ,在症狀評分。 lvii-lix, lxxv (lvi-lviii, lxxiv), meaning "destroy not", may be the beginning of a vintage song referred to in Is., lxv, 8.第五十七-螺旋, lxxv (左室- lviii , lxxiv ) ,意思是“不破壞” ,可能是進入了一個古老的歌曲提到的是。 , lxv , 8 。 Symmachus gives, in title to Ps. Symmachus提供,標題到PS 。 lvii, peri tou me diaphtheires; and in this wise suggests that originally preceded . Al-Muth-Labben (; Septuagint, hyper ton kyphion tou yiou; Vulg., pro occultis filii, "concerning the secret sins of the son"; Aquila, hyper akmes tou hiou, "of the youth of the son"; Theodotion, hyper akmes tou hyiou, "concerning the maturity of the son") in Ps.第五十七,圍頭箱diaphtheires ;並在這明智的建議,原來之前。鋁穆思- Labben ( ;七十,超噸kyphion頭yiou ; Vulg 。 ,專業occultis filii , “關於秘密罪的兒子” ;雕,超akmes頭hiou , “青年的兒子” ; Theodotion ,超akmes頭hyiou , “關於成熟的兒子” )在PS 。 ix, probably means "set to the tune 'Death Whitens'".九,可能意味著“設置為調整的死神Whitens ' ” 。

Al-ayyeleth hasshahar (; Septuagint, hyper tes antilepseos tes heothines; Vulg., pro susceptione matutina, "for the morning offering"; Aquila, hyper tes elaphou tes orthines; Symmachus, hyper tes boetheias tes orthines, "the help of the morning"; St. Jerome, pro cervo matutino), in Ps.鋁ayyeleth hasshahar ( ;七十,超檢驗antilepseos工商業污水附加費heothines ; Vulg 。 ,專業susceptione matutina “ ,今天上午提供的” ;雕,超檢驗elaphou工商業污水附加費orthines ; Symmachus ,超檢驗boetheias試驗orthines “的幫助下,今天上午“ ;聖杰羅姆,專業切爾沃matutino ) ,在PS 。 xxii (xxi, very likely means "set to the tune 'The Hind of the Morning'". Al Shoshannim in Pss. xlv and lxix (xliv and lxviii), Shushan-eduth in Ps. lx (lix), Shoshannim-eduth in Ps. lxxx (lxxix) seem to refer to the opening of the same song, "Lilies" or "Lilies of testimony". The preposition is al or el. The Septuagint translates the consonants hyper ton Alloiothesomenon; Vulg., pro iis qui commutabuntur, "for those who shall be changed". Al Yonath elem rehoqim, in Ps. lvi (lv) means "set to 'The dove of the distant terebinth'", or, according to the vowels of Massorah, "set to 'The silent dove of them that are afar'". The Septuagint renders it hyper tou laou tou apo ton hagion memakrymmenou; Vulg., pro populo qui a sanctis longe factus est, "for the folk that are afar from the sanctuary". Baethgen (op. cit., p. xli) explains that the Septuagint understands Israel to be the dove; reads elim for elem, and interprets the word to mean gods or sanctuary. 'Al Mahalath (Ps. liii), Mahalath leannoth (Ps. lxxxviii) is transliterated by the Septuagint Maeleth; by Vulg., pro Maeleth. Aquila renders epi choreia, "for the dance"; the same idea is conveyed by Symmachus, Theodotion, Quinta, and St. Jerome (pro choro). The word 'Al is proof that the following words indicate some well-known song to the melody of which Pss. liii and lxxxviii (lii and lxxxvii) were sung. 22 ( 21 ,很可能是指“規定的調整'的欣德上午' 。 ”基地Shoshannim的症狀評分。第四十五和lxix (四十四和lxviii ) ,蜀山, eduth在PS 。勒克斯(螺旋) , Shoshannim - eduth在聚苯乙烯。 lxxx ( lxxix )似乎是指開放的同一首歌, “百合花”或“百合花的證詞” 。介詞是人或薩爾瓦多。該譯本翻譯輔音超噸Alloiothesomenon ; Vulg 。 ,親者歸仁commutabuntur , “對於那些誰應改變” 。鋁Yonath元素rehoqim ,在PS 。左室( LV )號的意思是“將'鴿遠處篤耨香松節油” ,或者,根據元音的Massorah “ ,設置為'的沉默的鴿子他們是遠方來' “ 。在七十使其超頭拉烏頭載脂蛋白噸hagion memakrymmenou ; Vulg 。 ,專業populo秒1 sanctis longe factus預測, ”為民間的泰勒阿費爾從避難所“ 。 Baethgen (同。前。 ,第XLI )號決議的解釋,七十理解以色列是鴿子;內容埃利姆的元素,並解釋詞的意思或庇護神。 '基地Mahalath ( Ps. LIII )號, Mahalath leannoth ( Ps. lxxxviii )音譯是由七十Maeleth ;由Vulg 。 ,專業Maeleth 。雕使計劃免疫choreia “的舞蹈” ;同樣的想法轉達Symmachus , Theodotion ,金塔,和聖杰羅姆(專業紹羅) 。一詞基地這證明,以下的話表明了一些廣為人知的歌曲的旋律,其中症狀評分。 liii和lxxxviii (呂和lxxxvii )傳唱。

'Al-Haggittith, in titles to Pss. '基地Haggittith ,在遊戲症狀評分。 viii, lxxxi, lxxxiv (vii, lxxx, lxxxiii).八, lxxxi , lxxxiv (七, lxxx , LXXXIII號) 。 The Septuagint and Symmachus, hyper ton lenon; Vulg., and St. Jerome, pro torcularibus, "for the wine-presses".在七十和Symmachus ,超噸列農; Vulg 。 ,和聖杰羅姆,專業torcularibus “的葡萄酒壓力機” 。 They read gittoth, pl.他們在閱讀gittoth ,特等。 of gath.的迦特。 The title may mean that these psalms were to be sung to some vintage-melody.的標題可能意味著這些詩篇要唱一些經典的旋律。 The Masoretic title may mean a Gittite instrument (Targ., "the harp brought by David from Gath"), or a Gittite melody.的馬所拉標題可能意味著Gittite文書( Targ. “所帶來的豎琴大衛從迦特” ) ,或Gittite旋律。 Aquila and Theodotion follow the reading of Masorah and, in Ps.阿奎拉和Theodotion後續閱讀Masorah ,並在PS 。 viii, translate the title hyper tes getthitidos; yet this same reading is said by Bellarmine ("Explanatio in Psalmos", Paris, 1889), I, 43) to be meaningless.八,翻譯標題超檢驗getthitidos ;然而,這同樣是說,讀貝拉明( “ Explanatio在Psalmos ” ,巴黎, 1889年) ,我, 43歲)將毫無意義。

One title probably means the kind of musical instrument to be used.標題可能意味著一個什麼樣的樂器使用。 Neginoth (; Septuagint, en psalmois, in Ps. iv, en hymnois elsewhere; Vulg., in carminibus; Symmachus, dia psalterion; St. Jerome, in psalmis) occurs in Pss. Neginoth ( ;七十,恩psalmois ,在PS 。四,恩hymnois其他地方; Vulg 。 ,在carminibus ; Symmachus ,直徑psalterion ;聖杰羅姆,在psalmis )發生在症狀評分。 iv, vi, liv, lxvii, lxxvi (iv, vi, liii, liv, lxvi, lxxv).四,六,麗芙, lxvii , lxxvi (四,六, liii ,麗芙, lxvi , lxxv ) 。 The root of the word means "to play on stringed instruments" (1 Samuel 16:16-18, 23).的根詞的意思是“上發揮弦樂器” (撒母耳記上16:16-18 , 23 ) 。 The title probably means that these psalms were to be accompanied in cantilation exclusively "with stringed instruments".的標題可能意味著這些詩篇是伴隨在cantilation完全“與弦樂器” 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 lxi (lx) has Al Neginath in its title, and was perhaps to be sung with one stringed instrument only. LXI聯盟( LX )號決議已經鋁Neginath在其標題,並可能將星之一弦樂器只。

Two titles seem to refer to pitch.兩個世界冠軍似乎是指間距。 Al-Alamoth (Psalm 46), "set to maidens", ie, to be sung with a soprano or falsetto voice.鋁Alamoth (詩篇46 ) , “設置為宮女” ,即是宋代的女高音或假的聲音。 The Septuagint renders hyper ton kryphion; Vulg., pro occultis, "for the hidden"; Symmachus, hyper ton aionion, "for the everlasting"; Aquila, epi neanioteton; St. Jerome, pro juventutibus, "for youth".在七十使超噸kryphion ; Vulg 。 ,專業occultis “的隱藏” ; Symmachus ,超噸aionion “的永恆的” ;雕,計劃免疫neanioteton ;聖杰羅姆,專業juventutibus , “青年” 。

Al-Hassheminith (Pss. vi and xii), "set to the eighth"; Septuagint, hyper tes ogdoes; Vulg., pro octava.鋁Hassheminith ( Pss.第六和第十二章) , “設置為第八屆” ;七十,超檢驗ogdoes ; Vulg 。 ,專業octava 。 It has been conjectured that "the eighth" means an octave lower, the lower or bass register, in contrast with the upper or soprano register.據推測, “ 8 ”是指八度較低,低或貝司登記,與上部或女高音登記。 In I Pr., xv, 20-21, Levites are assigned some "with psalteries set to 'Alamoth'" (the upper register), others "with harps set to Sheminith" (the lower register).在I镨。 ,十五, 20日至21日,利指派一些“與psalteries設置為' Alamoth ” (上登記) ,其他“豎琴設置為Sheminith ” (下登記) 。

(e) Titles indicating the liturgical use of a psalm (五)標題說明禮儀使用詩篇

Hamma'aloth, in title of Pss. Hamma'aloth ,標題中的PSS 。 cxx-cxxxiv (cxix-cxxxiii); Septuagint, ode ton anabathmon; St. Jerome, canticum graduum, "the song of the steps". cxx - cxxxiv ( cxix - cxxxiii ) ;七十,頌噸anabathmon ;聖杰羅姆, canticum graduum , “這首歌的步驟” 。 The word is used in Ex., xx, 26 to denote the steps leading up from the women's to the men's court of the Temple plot.這個詞用在惠。 ,第XX號, 26指的步驟從婦女的男子法院寺陰謀。 There were fifteen such steps.有15個這樣的步驟。 Some Jewish commentators and Fathers of the Church have taken it that, on each of the fifteen steps, one of these fifteen Gradual Psalms was chanted.一些猶太評論家和父親教會採取它認為,在每一個15步驟,其中的15漸進詩篇是高喊。 Such a theory does not fit in with the content of these psalms; they are not temple-psalms. Another theory, proposed by Gesenius, Delitzsch, and others, refers "the steps" to the stair-like parallelism of the Gradual Psalms.這種理論不適合的內容,這些詩篇;他們不是寺-詩篇。另一種理論,提出Gesenius ,德里,和其他人,是指“步驟”的階梯式並行的漸進詩篇。 This stair-like parallelism is not found in all the Gradual Psalms; nor is it distinctive of any of them.這種階梯式並行並不存在於所有的漸進詩篇;也不是獨特的任何人。 A third theory is the most probable.第三個理論是最有可能的。 Aquila and Symmachus read eis tas anabaseis, "for the goings up"; Theodotion has asma to nanabaseon.阿奎拉和Symmachus閱讀順塔斯anabaseis “的事了” ; Theodotion已阿斯馬賈以nanabaseon 。 These are a Pilgrim Psalter, a collection of pilgrim-songs of those "going up to Jerusalem for the festivals" (1 Samuel 1:3).這些朝聖Psalter ,收集了朝聖者,歌曲的人“走到耶路撒冷的節日” (撒母耳記上1:3 ) 。 Issias tells us the pilgrims went up singing (xxx, 29). Issias告訴我們朝聖上升唱(三十, 29 ) 。 The psalms in question would be well suited for pilgrim-song.詩篇中的問題,將可適合朝聖松。 The phrase "to go up" to Jerusalem (anabainein) seems to refer specially to the pilgrim goings-up (Mark 10:33; Luke 2:42, etc.).短語“上升”到耶路撒冷( anabainein )似乎是指專門向朝聖者來往行動(馬克10:33 ;路加福音2點42分,等等) 。 This theory is now commonly received.這個理論現在普遍接受。 A less likely explanation is that the Gradual Psalms were sung by those "going up" from the Babylonian exile (Ezra 7:9).一個不太可能的解釋是,漸進詩篇傳唱這些“走出去”的從巴比倫放逐(以斯拉七時09分) 。

Other liturgical titles are: "For the thank-offering", in Ps.其他禮儀標題是: “為了感謝提供” ,在PS 。 c (xcix); "To bring remembrance", in Pss.的c ( xcix ) ; “將紀念” ,在症狀評分。 xxxviii and lxx (xxxvii and lxix); "To teach", in Ps.三十八和lxx (三十七和lxix ) ; “教” ,在PS 。 xl (xxxix); "For the last day or the Feast of Tabernacles", in the Septuagint of Ps.儀( XXXIX )號, “最後一天,或住棚節” ,在七十的PS 。 xxix (xxviii), exodiou skenes; Vulg., in consummatione tabernaculi.第29屆( XXVIII )號決議, exodiou skenes ; Vulg 。 ,在consummatione tabernaculi 。 Psalm xxx (xxix) is entitled "A Song at the Dedication of the House".詩篇三十( XXIX )號決議的標題是“ ,這首歌的奉獻精神之家” 。 The psalm may have been used at the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple, the Encaenia (John 10:22).禮讚可能被用來在節日的獻身精神,廟, Encaenia (約10點22分) 。 This feast was instituted by Judas Machabeus (1 Maccabees 4:59) to commemorate the rededication of the temple after its desecration by Antiochus.這是所設立的節日猶大Machabeus ( 1馬加比4時59分) ,以紀念重新廟宇後褻瀆安提阿哥。 Its title shows us that Ps.其標題表明,聚苯乙烯。 xcii (xci) was to be sung on the Sabbath. xcii ( xci )是來唱的安息日。 The Septuagint entitles Ps.在七十有權聚苯乙烯。 xxiv (xxiii) tes mias sabbaton, "for the first day of the week"; Ps. 24 ( 23 )試驗mias sabbaton “的第一天,週” ;聚苯乙烯。 xlviii (xlvii) deutera sabbatou, "for the second day of the week"; Ps.四十八( XLVII )號deutera sabbatou , “第二個星期” ;聚苯乙烯。 xciv (xciii), tetradi sabbaton, "for the fourth day of the week"; Ps.第九十四卷( xciii ) , tetradi sabbaton , “第四星期” ;聚苯乙烯。 xciii (xcii) eis ten hemeran, "for the day before the Sabbath". xciii ( xcii )的EIS 10 hemeran “的前一天,安息日” 。 The Old Latin entitles Ps.老拉美有權聚苯乙烯。 lxxxi (lxxx) quinta sabbati, "the fifth day of the week". The Mishna (Tamid, VII, 13) assigns the same psalms for the daily Temple service and tells us that Ps. lxxxi ( lxxx )金塔sabbati “的第五天週” 。該米示拿( Tamid ,七, 13 )同樣的詩篇指派的日常寺服務和告訴我們,聚苯乙烯。 lxxxii (lxxxi) was for the morning sacrifice of the third day (cf. James Wm. Thirtle, "The Titles of the Psalms, Their Nature and Meaning Explained", New York, 1905). lxxxii ( lxxxi )是上午犧牲的第三天(參見詹姆斯導熱。 Thirtle “的標題詩篇,其性質和意義解釋說: ” ,紐約, 1905年) 。

(2) Value of the Titles ( 2 )價值的圖書

Many of the critics have branded these titles as spurious and rejected them as not pertaining to Holy Writ; such critics are de Wette, Cheyne, Olshausen, and Vogel.許多批評者品牌這些圖書的雜散和拒絕他們不屬於聖經;這種批評是日Wette ,陳, Olshausen ,和Vogel 。 More recent critical Protestant scholars, such as Briggs, Baethgen, Kirkpatrick, and Fullerton, have followed up the lines of Ewald, Delitzsch, Gesenius, and Koster, and have made much of the titles, so as thereby to learn more and more about the authors, collections, occasions, musical settings, and liturgical purposes of the Psalms.最近的關鍵新教的學者,如布里格斯, Baethgen ,帕特里克和富勒頓,跟進的思路埃瓦爾德,德里, Gesenius和科斯特,並已經取得了很大的標題,以便從而了解更多有關作者,收藏,場合,音樂設置,禮儀宗旨的詩篇。

Catholic scholars, while not insisting that the author of the Psalms superscribed the titles thereof, have always considered these titles as an integral part of Holy Writ.天主教學者,而不是堅持的作者詩篇superscribed的圖書時,一向認為這些書籍的一個組成部分聖經。 St. Thomas (in Ps. vi) assigns the titles to Esdras: "Sciendum est quod tituli ab Esdra facti sunt partim secundum ea quae tune agebantur, et partim secundum ea quae contigerunt."聖托馬斯(在PS 。六)指定的圖書,以埃斯德拉斯: “ Sciendum市盈率狴tituli抗體Esdra事實必須遵守partim孔型電子藝界quae調整agebantur ,等partim孔型電子藝界quae contigerunt 。 ” So comprehensive a statement of the case is scarcely to the point; most modern scholars give to the titles a more varied history.因此,全面的陳述案件很少的點;最現代的學者提供的標題更加多樣的歷史。 Almost all, however, are at one in considering as canonical these at times obscured directions.幾乎所有的,但是,在一個作為典型在考慮這些,有時模糊的方向。 In this unanimity Catholics carry out Jewish tradition.在這一致天主教徒進行猶太傳統。 Pre-Masoretic tradition preserved the titles as Scripture, but lost much of the liturgical and musical meaning, very likely because of changes in the liturgical cantilation of the Psalms.前馬所拉的傳統保留節目聖經,但失去了很多的禮儀和音樂的意義,很可能是因為變化的禮儀cantilation的詩篇。 Masoretic tradition has kept carefully whatsoever of the titles it received.馬所拉傳統一直保持審慎的圖書無論收到。 It makes the titles to be part of Sacred Scripture, preserving their consonants, vowel-points, and accents with the very same care which is given to the rest of the Jewish Canon.這使遊戲的一部分聖經,維護他們的聲母,韻母,點,口音與同樣關心這是考慮到其他地方的猶太人佳能。 The Fathers give to the titles that respect and authority which they give to the rest of Scripture.父親給這方面的書籍和權威,他們給其他聖經。 True, the obscurity of the titles often leads the Fathers to mystical and highly fanciful interpretations.誠然,默默無聞的標題往往導致了父親的神秘和高度幻想的解釋。 St. John Chrysostom ("De Compunctione", II, 4; PG, XLVII, 415) interprets hyper tes ogdoes, "for the eighth day", "the day of rest", "the day of eternity".聖約翰金口( “者Compunctione ” ,二, 4 ;指引,四十七, 415 )超檢驗ogdoes解釋“的第8天” , “一天的休息” , “永恆的一天” 。 St. Ambrose (In Lucam, V, 6) sees in this title the same mystical number which he notes in the Eight Beatitudes of St. Matthew, in the eighth day as a fulfilment of our hope, and in eight as a sum of all virtues: "pro octava enim multi inscribuntur psalmi".聖安布羅斯(在Lucam ,五,六)認為此標題相同的神秘號碼,他注意到在八福聖馬修在8天的履行我們的希望,並在8個作為總和美德: “親octava enim多inscribuntur psalmi ” 。 In this matter of mystical interpretations of the titles, St. Augustine is in advance of the generally literal and matter-of-fact Sts.在這個問題上的神秘解釋的冠軍,聖奧古斯丁是事先普遍字面和問題的事實街。 Ambrose and John Chrysostom.劉漢銓和John金口。 Yet when treating the worth and the genuiness of the titles, no Father is more decided and pointed than is the great Bishop of Hippo.然而,當治療的價值和genuiness的冠軍,沒有父親的決定,並指出更比偉大的主教河馬。 To him the titles are inspired Scripture. Commenting on the title to Ps.他的頭銜是啟發聖經。評論的標題到PS 。 li, "of David, when Nathan the Prophet came to him, what time he had gone into Bethsabee", St. Augustine (PL, XXXVI, 586) says it is an inspired as is the story of David's fall, told in the Second Book of Kings (xi, 1-6); "Utraque Scriptura canonica est, utrique sine ulla dubitatione a Christianis fides adhibenda est".李, “大衛,當彌敦道先知來到他,什麼時候他進入Bethsabee ” ,聖奧古斯丁(特等, 36 , 586 )說,這是一個鼓舞作為的故事,大衛的秋天,對在第二圖書國王(十一, 1月6日) ; “ Utraque聖經卡諾尼卡預測, utrique正弦波烏拉dubitatione 1 Christianis信心adhibenda預測” 。 Some recent Catholic scholars who are of St. Augustine's mind in this matter are: Cornely, "Specialis Introduction in libros VT", II, 85; Zschokke, "Hist. Sacr. VT", 206; Thalhofer, "Erklärung der Psalmen", 7th ed., 1904, 8; Patrizi, "Cento Salmi", Rome, 1875, 32; Danko, "Historia VT", 276; Hoberg, "Die Psalmen der Vulgata", 1892, p.最近一些學者誰是天主教的聖奧古斯丁的心靈在這件事是: Cornely , “中特別介紹libros佛蒙特州” ,二85 ; Zschokke , “組織胺。聖。佛蒙特州” , 206 ; Thalhofer , “ Erklärung之Psalmen ”第七版。 , 1904年, 8 ;柏德, “琴薩爾米” ,羅馬, 1875年, 32歲;照剛, “歷史的VT ” , 276 ;霍貝格, “模具Psalmen之Vulgata ” , 1892年,第 xii.十二。 Only a very few Catholic scholars have denied that the titles are an integral art of Holy Writ.只有極少數天主教學者否認了這一說法的標題是其不可分割的藝術聖地令狀。 Gigot, in "Special Introductions to the Old Testament" (New York, 1906), II, 75, cites with approval this denial by Lesêtre, "Le Livre des Psaumes" (Paris, 1883), p.吉戈特,在“特別介紹舊約” (紐約, 1906年) ,二, 75 ,瀕危物種公約的批准這一拒絕Lesêtre , “樂書之Psaumes ” (巴黎, 1883年) ,第 1. 1 。 Barry, in "Tradition of Scripture" (New York, 1906), 102, says: "It is plausible to maintain that inscriptions to which the Massorah, LXX, and Vulgate bear witness cannot be rejected. But to look on them, under all circumstances, as portions of Scripture would be to strain the Tridentine Decrees".巴里,在“傳統的聖經” (紐約, 1906年) , 102 ,說: “這是合理的,以保持這一題詞的Massorah , LXX ,和拉丁文聖經見證不能拒絕。而是要尋找他們,在所有情況下,作為部分的聖經將是緊張Tridentine法令“ 。 Because of the danger that, without grave reason, these time-honoured parts of the Bible may be rated as extra-canonical, the Biblical Commission has recently (1 May, 1910) laid special stress on the value of the titles.由於危險,如果沒有嚴重的原因,這些歷史悠久的部分聖經可評為課外典型,聖經委員會最近( 1910年5月1號)規定特別強調的價值冠軍。 From the agreement we have noted between the titles of Massorah and those of the Septuagint, Vulgate, Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, St.的協議,我們已經注意到的標題之間Massorah和那些七十,武加大,雕, Symmachus , Theodotion ,聖 Jerome, etc., the Commission has decided that the titles are older than the Septuagint and have come down to us, if not from the authors of the Psalms, at least from ancient Jewish tradition, and that, on this account, they may not be called into doubt, unless there be some serious reason against their genuineness.杰羅姆等,委員會已決定,標題是在七十歲以上並已下降到我們,如果不是從作者的詩篇,至少從古老的猶太傳統,並認為,在這個帳戶,他們可能不會被稱為令人懷疑,除非有一些嚴重的原因是對他們的真實性。 Indeed, the very disagreements which we have noted led us to the same conclusion.的確,我們有分歧,這使我們注意到了同樣的結論。 By the time the Septuagint was written, the titles must have been exceedingly old; for the tradition of their vocalization was already very much obscured.當譯本撰寫,標題必須已經非常舊的傳統的叫聲已經非常模糊了。

III.三。 AUTHORS OF THE PSALMS作者PSALMS

A. WITNESS OF TRADITION答:昭傳統

(1) Jewish tradition is uncertain as to the authors of the Psalms. ( 1 )猶太人的傳統是不確定的,以作者的詩篇。 Baba Bathra (14 f) mentions ten; Pesachim (10) attributes all the Psalms to David.巴巴Bathra ( 14架F )提到10 ; Pesachim ( 10 )屬性所有詩篇大衛。

(2) Christian tradition is alike uncertain. ( 2 )基督教傳統是同樣不確定。 St. Ambrose, "In Ps. xliii and xlvii" (PL, XIV, 923), makes David to be the sole author.聖安布羅斯, “在PS 。四十三和四十七” (特等,十四, 923 ) ,使大衛是唯一的作者。 St. Augustine, in "De Civitate Dei", XVII, 14 (PL, XLI, 547), thinks that all the Psalms are Davidic and that the names of Aggeus and Zacharias were superscribed by the poet in prophetic spirit.聖奧古斯丁在“上帝之城者” , 17 , 14 (特等,四十一, 547 )認為,所有的詩篇是Davidic和的名字Aggeus和撒迦利亞的superscribed的詩人預言精神。 St. Philastrius, Haer.聖Philastrius , Haer 。 130 (PL, XII, 1259), brands the opposite opinion as heretical. 130 (特等,十二, 1259年) ,品牌相反意見視為異端。 On the other hand, plurality of authorship was defended by Origen, "In Ps."另一方面,多元化的作者是捍衛奧利, “在PS 。 ” (PG, XII, 1066); St. Hilary, "In Ps. Procem. 2) (PL, IX, 233); Eusebius, "In Ps. (中央社,十二, 1066年) ;聖希拉里, “在PS 。 Procem 。 2 ) (特等,九, 233 ) ;優西比烏, ”在PS 。 Procem. Procem 。 In Pss.在症狀評分。 41, 72" (PG, XXIII, 74, 368); and many others. St. Jerome, "Ad Cyprianum, Epist. 41 , 72 “級( PG ,二十三, 74 , 368 ) ;以及其他許多人。聖杰羅姆, ”廣告Cyprianum , Epist 。 140, 4 (PL, XXII, 1169), says that "they err who deem all the psalms are David's and not the work of those whose names are superscribed". 140 , 4 (特等,二十二, 1169年) ,說, “他們錯誤誰認為所有的詩篇是大衛的和沒有工作的那些名稱superscribed ” 。

(3) This disagreement, in matter of authorship of the Psalms, is carried from the Fathers to the theologians. ( 3 )這一分歧,在著作權問題的詩篇,是從父親的神學。 Davidic authorship is defended by St. Thomas, the converted Jew Archbishop Paul of Burgos, Bellarmine, Salmeron, S, Mariana; multiple authorship is defended by Nicholas of Lyra, Cajetan, Sixtus Senensis, Bonfrere, and Menochio.作者是Davidic辯護聖托馬斯,轉換猶大主教保羅布爾戈斯,貝拉明,薩爾梅龍,硫,馬里亞納;多個作者是尼古拉斯的辯護天琴座, Cajetan ,西斯篤Senensis ,邦弗雷雷和Menochio 。

(4) The Church has come to no decision in this matter. ( 4 )教會已經沒有決定在這個問題上。 The Council of Trent (Sess. IV, 8 April, 1546), in its decrees on Sacred Scripture, includes "Psalterium Davidicum, 150 Psalmorum" among the Canonical Books.安理會的遄達( Sess.四, 1546年4月8日) ,在其法令聖經,包括“ Psalterium Davidicum , 150 Psalmorum ”的典型圖書。 This phrase does not define Davidic authorship any more than the number 150, but only designates the book, which is defined to be canonical (cf. Pallavicino, "Istoria del Concilio di Trento", l. VI, 1591. Naples, 1853, I, 376).這句話並不界定任何Davidic作者人數超過150 ,但只有指定的圖書,它的定義是典型(見帕拉維奇諾, “史刪除和解迪特倫托” ,湖六, 1591年。那不勒斯, 1853年,我, 376 ) 。 In the preliminary vota, fifteen Fathers were for the name "Psalmi David"; six for "Psalterium Davidicum"; nine for "Libri Psalmorum"; two for "Libri 150 Psalmorum"; sixteen for the name adopted, "Psalterium Davidicum 150 Psalmorum"; and two had no concern which of these names was chosen (cf. Theiner, "Acta Authentica Councilii Tridentini", I, 72 sq.).在初步Vota先生, 15父親的名字“ Psalmi大衛” ;六項“ Psalterium Davidicum ” ;九項“利布里Psalmorum ” ;兩個“利布里150 Psalmorum ” ; 16名稱通過“ Psalterium Davidicum 150 Psalmorum ” ;和兩個沒有關注這些名稱被選為(參見Theiner , “獸類Authentica的Councilii Tridentini ” ,我, 72平方米) 。 From the various vota it is clear that the Council had no intention whatsoever of defining Davidic authorship.從各種Vota先生很清楚,安理會不打算界定Davidic作者。

(5) The recent Decree of the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) decides the following points: ( 5 )最近法令聖經委員會( 10年5月1日)決定以下幾點:

Neither the wording of the decrees of the councils nor the opinions of certain Fathers have such weight as to determine that David is sole author of the whole Psalter.無論是措辭法令議會的意見,也不一定父親有這樣的重量,以確定這是唯一的作者大衛整個Psalter 。

It cannot be prudently denied that David is the chief author of the songs of the Psalter.不能否認,大衛謹慎的主要作者的歌曲的Psalter 。

Especially can it not be denied that David is the author of those psalms which, either in the Old or in the New Testament, are clearly cited under the name of David, for instance ii, xvi, xviii, xxxii, lxix, cx (ii, xv, xvii, xxxi, lxviii, cix).特別是能不能否認大衛是作者這些詩篇其中,無論是在舊的或在新約,明確列舉的名義大衛,例如二,十六,十八,三十二, lxix ,國泰航空(二,十五,十七,三十一, lxviii ,捷達夥伴) 。

B. WITNESS OF OLD TESTAMENT灣見證舊約

In the above decision the Biblical Commission has followed not only Jewish and Christian tradition, but Jewish and Christian Scripture as well.在上述決定的聖經委員會其次不僅猶太教和基督教的傳統,但猶太教和基督教聖經以及。 The Old Testament witness to the authorship of the Psalms is chiefly the titles.舊約見證作者的詩篇主要是冠軍頭銜。 These seem to attribute various psalms, especially of Books I-III, to David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, Solomon, Moses, and others.這些似乎屬性各種詩篇,特別是圖書一至三,大衛, Asaph ,兒子Korah ,所羅門群島,摩西,和其他人。

(1) David ( 1 )大衛

The titles of seventy-three psalms in the Masoretic Text and of many more in the Septuagint seem to single out David as author: cf.標題73詩篇中的馬所拉文本和更多的譯本似乎挑出大衛作為作者:比照。 Pss.藻酸雙酯鈉。 iii-xli (iii-xl), ie all of Bk.三,四十一(三儀) ,即所有的淺灘。 I save only x and xxxiii; Pss.保存只有X和三十三;症狀評分。 li-lxx (l-lxix), except lxvi and lxvii, in Bk.李lxx ( L型lxix ) ,除lxvi和lxvii ,在淺灘。 II; Ps.二;聚苯乙烯。 lxxxvi (lxxxv) of Bk. lxxxvi ( lxxxv )的淺灘。 III; Ps.三;聚苯乙烯。 ciii (cii) in Bk. ciii聯合會( CII )在淺灘。 IV; Pss. cviii-cx, cxxii, cxxiv, cxxxi, cxxxiii, cxxxv-cxlv (cvii-cix, cxxi, cxxiii, cxxx, cxxxiv-cxliv) of Bk.四;症狀評分。 cviii ,國泰航空, cxxii , cxxiv , cxxxi , cxxxiii , cxxxv - cxlv ( cvii ,捷達夥伴, cxxi , cxxiii , cxxx , cxxxiv - cxliv )的淺灘。 V. The Hebrew title is .五,標題是希伯來文。 It is now generally held that, in this Hebrew, the preposition le has the force of a genitive, and that the Septuagint tou David "of David", is a better translation than the Vulgate ipsi David, "unto David himself".現在人們普遍認為,在這個希伯來語,介詞樂有力量的所有格,而七十頭大衛“大衛” ,是一個更好的翻譯比武加大ipsi大衛, “大衛你們自己。 ” Does this preposition mean authorship?這是否意味著介詞作者? No in every title; else both David and the Director are the authors of Ps.沒有在每一個標題;其他兩個大衛和主任作者的PS 。 xix (xviii), and all the sons of Korah, together with the Director, are joint authors of the psalms attributed to them. 19 (十八) ,和所有的兒子Korah ,連同主任,是聯合作者詩篇歸功於他們。 In the case of such composite titles as "of the Director, a psalm of David" (Ps. xix), or "of the Director, of the sons of Korah, a psalm" (Ps. xlviii), we probably have indications not of authorship but of various collections of psalms -- the collections entitled "David", "the Director", "the sons of Korah".在這種複合材料標題為“的主任,一名大衛詩篇” ( Ps.十九) ,或“主任,對兒子的Korah的詩篇” ( Ps. XLVIII )號決議,我們可能有跡象表明不作者但各種收藏詩篇-收藏題為“大衛” , “主任” , “兒子Korah ” 。 Just as the New Testament, the Council of Trent, and many Fathers of the Church speak of "David", "the Psalter of David", "the Psalms of David", not in truth to infer that all the psalms are David's, but because he was the psalmist par excellence, so the titles of many psalms assign them not so much to their authors as to their collectors or to the chief author of the collection to which they pertain.正如新約全書,安理會的遄達,和許多父親教會講“大衛” , “大衛的Psalter ” , “大衛的詩篇” ,而不是事實推斷,所有的詩篇是大衛的,但因為他是psalmist出色,所以冠軍的許多詩篇指派他們不要這麼多的作者,以他們的收藏家或向行政長官作者收集它們涉及。 On the other hand, some of the longer titles go to show that "of David" may means authorship.另一方面,一些較長的冠軍去證明, “大衛”可能是指作者。 Take an instance: "Of the Director, to the tune 'Destroy not', of David, a chosen piece (Mikhtam), when he fled from the face of Saul into the cave" (Ps. lvii).採取的一個實例: “主任,對調整'毀不' ,大衛,選定一塊( Mikhtam ) ,當他逃離面對薩烏爾到洞穴” ( Ps. LVII )號決議。 The historical occasion of the Davidic composition of the song, the lyric quality of the song, its inclusion in the early collection "of David" and later in the Director's hymnbook, the tune to which the psalm was either written by David or set by the Director -- all these things seem to be indicated by the very composite title under consideration.歷史之際, Davidic組成的歌曲,抒情的歌曲的質量,將其列入及早收集“大衛” ,後來又在總的hymnbook的調整該詩篇是書面的大衛或所規定的主任-所有這些事情似乎表明的非常複合標題進行審議。 Of a sort with the Davidic titles is the ending subscribed to the first two books of the Psalms: "Amen, Amen; ended are the phrases of David, son of Yishai" (Ps. lxxii, 20).一類與Davidic標題是結束訂閱了兩本書第一次的詩篇: “阿門,阿門;結束的詞組大衛的兒子,伊沙伊” ( Ps. lxxii , 20 ) 。 This subscription is more ancient than the Septuagint; it would be altogether out of place were not David the chief author of the psalms of the two books whereto it is appended. Further Old-Testament evidence of Davidic authorship of the Psalms, as suggested by the Biblical Commission's recent Decree, are David's natural poetic talent, shown in his song and dirges of 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles, together with the fact that it was he who instituted the solemn levitical cantilation of psalms in the presence of the Ark of the Covenant (1 Chronicles 16:23-25).這是更古老的認購比七十,那將是完全不合時宜的,沒有行政長官大衛的詩篇作者的兩本書是附在whereto 。進一步舊全書證據Davidic著作權的詩篇,所建議的聖經委員會最近的法令,是大衛的自然詩人才,在他的歌曲和dirges的撒母耳記下和歷代誌上,連同事實上,這是誰提起他的莊嚴levitical cantilation的詩篇中存在的約櫃(歷代誌上16:23-25 ) 。 The songs and dirges attributed to David are significantly alike to the Davidic psalms in spirit and style and wording.歌曲和dirges歸於大衛顯著同樣的Davidic詩篇的精神和作風和措辭。 Let us examine the opening line of 2 Samuel 22:讓我們來看看開幕線撒母耳記下22 :

"And David spoke to Jahweh the words of this song in the day that Jahweh saved him from the grasp of his foes and out of the hands of Saul, and he said: 2. Jahweh is my Cliff, my Fortress, my Way of Escape, 3. My God, my Rock to Whom I betake me, My Shield, the Horn of my salvation, my Tower. My Refuge, my Saviour, from wrong dost Thou save me. 4. Shouting praise, I cry to Jahweh, And from my foe I get salvation". “和David交談Jahweh的話,這首歌中的一天, Jahweh挽救了他的把握,他的敵人和手中的索爾,他說: 2 。 Jahweh是我的懸崖,我的堡壘,我的後手, 3 。哎呀,我的搖滾我向他們betake ,我的盾牌,非洲之角我得救,我的大樓。我的避難所,我的救主,從錯誤的斯特你救我。 4 。吶喊讚揚,我哭到Jahweh ,並從我的敵人我得到救贖“ 。

The two songs are clearly identical, the slight differences being probably due in the main to different liturgical redactions of the Psalter.在兩首歌顯然是相同的,略有不同的是可能是由於在不同的禮儀主要刪節的Psalter 。 In the end the writer of 2 Samuel gives "the last words of David" (xxiii, 1) -- to wit, a short psalm in the Davidic style wherein David speaks of himself as "Israel's sweet singer of songs", "egregius psaltes Israel" (2 Samuel 23:2).最後的作者撒母耳記下使“最後的話大衛” ( 23 , 1 ) -即,在很短的詩篇,其中Davidic風格大衛談到了自己是“以色列的甜歌手的歌曲” , “ egregius psaltes以色列“ (撒母耳記下23點02分) 。 In like manner the Chronicler (1 Chronicles 16:8-36) quotes as Davidic a song made up of Ps.同樣的記錄者(歷代誌上16:8-36 )報價Davidic了一首歌的PS 。 cv, 1-13, Ps.簡歷, 1月13日,聚苯乙烯。 xcvi, and a small portion of Ps. xcvi ,和一小部分的PS 。 cvi. CVI的。 Finally, the Prophet Amos addresses the Samarians: "Ye that sing to the sound of the psaltery; they have thought themselves to have instruments of music like David" (vi, 5).最後,先知阿摩司處理Samarians : “葉說,唱歌的聲音psaltery ;他們認為自己有工具的音樂像大衛” (六, 5 ) 。 The poetic power of David stands out as a characteristic of the Shepherd King.詩意的力量大衛突出的一個特點牧人國王。 His elegiac plaints at the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:19-27) reveal some power, but not that of the Davidic psalms.他的輓歌抱怨的逝世掃羅和Jonathan (撒母耳記下1:19-27 )揭示某些權力,但不是由Davidic詩篇。 The above reasons for Davidic authorship are impugned by many who insist on the late redaction of 2 Samuel 21-24 and upon the discrepancies between the passages we have paralleled.由於上述原因的Davidic著作權受到非難許多誰堅持後期編輯撒母耳記下21-24和各通道之間的差異,我們平行。 The question of late redaction of the Davidic songs in 2 Samuel is not within our scope; nor does such late redaction destroy the force of our appeal to the Old Testament, since that appeal is to the Word of God.的問題,後期編輯的Davidic歌曲撒母耳記下不在我們的範圍,也沒有這樣的後期編輯摧毀的力量,我們呼籲舊約,因為這一呼籲是天主的聖言。 In regard to the discrepancies, we have already said that they are explainable by the admission that our Psalter is the result of various liturgical redactions, and does not present all the psalms in the precise form in which they proceeded from their original writers.關於差異,我們已經說過,他們是可以解釋的接納,我們的Psalter是由於各種禮儀刪節,並沒有提出所有的詩篇中的具體形式,他們在從原來的作家。

(2) Asaph ( 2 ) Asaph

Asaph is accredited, by the titles, with twelve psalms, l, lxxiii-lxxxiii (xlix, lxxii-lxxxii). Asaph認可,由標題,與12詩篇,升, lxxiii - LXXXIII號( xlix , lxxii - lxxxii ) 。 These psalms are all national in character and pertain to widely-separated periods of Jewish history.這些詩篇是所有國家的性質和涉及廣泛分隔時期猶太人的歷史。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 lxxxiii (lxxxii), although assigned by Briggs ("Psalms", New York, 1906, p. lxvii) to the early Persian period, seems to have been written at the time of the havoc wrought by the Assyrian invasion of Tiglath-pileser III in 737 BC Ps. LXXXIII號( lxxxii ) ,儘管分配的布里格斯( “詩篇” ,紐約, 1906年,第lxvii )早日波斯時期,似乎已經被寫入時所造成的嚴重破壞亞述入侵Tiglath - pileser三在公元前737聚苯乙烯。 lxxiv (lxxiii) was probably written, as Briggs surmises, during the Babylonian Exile, after 586 BC Asaph was a Levite, the son of Barachias (1 Chronicles 6:39), and one of the three chiefs of the Levitical choir (1 Chronicles 15:17). lxxiv ( lxxiii )可能是書面的,作為布里格斯推測,在巴比倫放逐後, 586公元前Asaph是一個利未人的兒子, Barachias (歷代誌上6時39分) ,其中三個酋長的Levitical合唱團(歷代誌上十五點17分) 。 The "sons of Asaph" were set aside "to prophesy with harps and with psalteries and with cymbals" (1 Chronicles 25:1).在“兒子Asaph ”被擱置“的預言與豎琴和psalteries和鈸” (歷代誌上25:1 ) 。 It is probable that members of this family composed the psalms which later were collected into an Asaph psalter.很可能這個家庭的成員組成的詩篇後來收集到Asaph psalter 。 The features of these Asaph psalms are uniform: frequent allusions to the history of Israel with a didactic purpose; sublimity and vehemence of style; vivid description; an exalted conception of the deity.的特點,這些Asaph詩篇是統一的:頻繁暗示以色列歷史上的教學目的;崇高和強烈的風格,生動的描述;崇高的神的概念。

(3) The Sons of Korah ( 3 )的兒子Korah

The Sons of Korah are named in the titles of eleven psalms -- xlii-xlix, lxxxiv, lxxxv, lxxxvii, lxxxviii (xli-xlviii, lxxxiii, lxxxiv, lxxxvi, lxxxvii).的兒子Korah被命名為標題的11詩篇-四十二- xlix , lxxxiv , lxxxv , lxxxvii , lxxxviii (四十一,四十八,第LXXXIII號, lxxxiv , lxxxvi , lxxxvii ) 。 The Korahim were a family of temple singers (2 Chronicles 20:19).該Korahim是一家寺廟歌手(歷代誌下20:19 ) 。 It can scarcely be that each psalm of this group was jointly composed by all the sons of Korah; each was rather composed by some member of the guild of Korah; or, perhaps, all were gathered from the various sources into one liturgical hymnal by the guild of the sons of Korah.這簡直是每一個詩篇本組聯合組成的所有的兒子Korah ;每一個相當一些成員國組成的協會Korah ;或者,也許,大家都收集到的各種來源之一的禮儀hymnal公會的兒子Korah 。 At all events, there is a oneness of style to these hymns which is indicative of oneness of Levitical spirit.總之,有一個一體式這些讚美詩這表明一體Levitical精神。 The features of the Korahite psalms are; a great love for the Holy City; a yearning for the public worship of Israel; a supreme trust in Jahweh; and a poetic form which is simple, elegant, artistic, and well-balanced.的特點是Korahite詩篇;一個偉大的愛聖城;渴望公眾崇拜以色列最高法院的信任Jahweh ;和詩意的形式很簡單,優雅,藝術,和平衡的。 From their Messianic ideas and historical allusions, these psalms seem to have been composed between the days of Isaias and the return from exile.從他們的彌賽亞思想和歷史典故,這些詩篇似乎已經組成之間的天伊薩亞和歸還從流亡。

(4) Moses ( 4 )摩西

Moses is in the title of Ps.摩西是在標題中的PS 。 xc (lxxxix).坐標( lxxxix ) 。 St. Augustine (PL, XXXVII, 1141) does not admit Mosaic authorship; St. Jerome (PL, XXII, 1167) does.聖奧古斯丁(特等,三十七, 1141年)不承認花葉著作權;聖杰羅姆(特等,二十二, 1167年)沒有。 The author imitates the songs of Moses in Deut., xxxii and xxxiii; this imitation may be the reason of the title.作者模仿歌曲摩西在Deut 。 ,三十二和三十三;這可能是仿製的原因標題。

(5) Solomon ( 5 )所羅門群島

Solomon is in the titles to Pss.所羅門群島是在遊戲症狀評分。 lxxii and cxxvii (lxxi and cxxvi), probably for a similar reason. lxxii和cxxvii ( lxxi和cxxvi ) ,可能是一個類似的理由。

(6) Ethan ( 6 )葛特曼

Ethan, in the title of Psalm 89, should probably be Idithun.伊桑,標題中的詩篇89 ,也許應該Idithun 。 The Psalter of Idithun, of Yeduthun, contained also Psalms 39, 62 and 77.該Psalter的Idithun ,對Yeduthun ,還載有詩篇39 , 62和77 。

C. WITNESS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT角見證新約

To Catholics, believing as they do fully in the Divinity of Christ and inerrancy of Holy Writ, New Testament citations render Pss.天主教徒認為,他們這樣做完全在基督的神和無誤的聖經,新約全書引用使症狀評分。 ii, xvi, xxxii, xxxv, lxix, cix, cx (ii, xv, xxxi, xxxiv, lxviii, cviii, cix) Davidic without the shadow of a doubt.二,十六,三十二,三十五, lxix ,捷達夥伴,國泰航空(二,十五,三十一,三十四, lxviii , cviii ,捷達夥伴) Davidic沒有毫無疑問。 When the Pharisees said that the Christ was the Son of David, Jesus put them the question: "How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying: The Lord said to my Lord" (cf. Matthew 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44; Psalm 110:1).當法利說,基督是大衛之子,耶穌把他們的問題: “那麼如何doth大衛精神叫他主,他說:上帝說,我的上帝” (見馬太22:43-45 ;馬克12:36-37 ;路加福音20:42-44 ;詩篇110:1 ) 。 There can be here no question of the name of a collection "of David". Nor is there question of a collection when St. Peter, on the first Pentecost in Jerusalem, says: "For David ascended not into heaven; but he himself said: The Lord said to my Lord etc."人們可以在這裡毫無疑問的集合名稱“大衛” 。也沒有問題的集合時,聖彼得大教堂,在第一次降臨在耶路撒冷說: “大衛登上沒有進入天堂,但他自己說:上帝說,我主等“ (Acts 2:34). (使徒2時34分) 。 Davidic authorship is meant by Peter, when he cites Pss. Davidic作者指的是彼得,當他列舉症狀評分。 lxix (lxviii), 26, cix (cviii), 8, and ii, 1-2 as "from the mouth of David" (Acts 1:16; 4:25). lxix ( lxviii ) , 26歲,捷達夥伴( cviii ) , 8 ,和二, 1月2日為“從口大衛” (使徒行1:16 ; 4點25分) 。 And when the chief Apostle has quoted Ps.當首席使徒引述聚苯乙烯。 xvi (xv), 8-11, as the words of David, he explains how these words were intended by the dead patriarch as a prophecy of centuries to come (Acts 2:25-32).十六( XV )號決議, 8月11日,因為大衛的話,他解釋說這些話的目的是通過死亡主教作為預言百年(使徒2:25-32 ) 。 St. Paul's testimony is conclusive, when he (Romans 4:6; 11:9) assigns to David parts of Pss.聖保祿證詞是決定性的,當他(羅馬書4點06 ; 11點09 )分配給大衛零件的PSS 。 xxxii, xxxv, and lxix ( xxxi, xxxiv, lxviii).三十二,第三十五和lxix (三十一,三十四, lxviii ) 。 A non-Catholic might object that St. Paul refers to a collection called "David", especially as such a collection seems clearly meant by "in David", en Daveid of Heb., iv, 7.非天主教會對象聖保祿指收集所謂的“大衛” ,尤其是這樣一個集合似乎顯然是指由“大衛” ,恩Daveid的希伯來。 ,四, 7 。 We answer, that this is an evasion: had St. Paul meant a collection, he would have dictated en Daveid in the letter to the Romans.我們的答案,這是一種逃避:在聖保羅意味著收集,他將決定在途中Daveid寫信給羅馬。

D. The Critics incline to do away with all question of Davidic authorship. Briggs says: "It is evident from the internal character of these psalms, with a few possible exceptions, that David could not have written them" (Psalms, p. lxi). 4批評傾斜要取消所有問題Davidic作者。布里格斯說: “這是明顯的內部性質,這些詩篇,也有一些可能的例外情況,大衛無法書面他們” (詩篇,第LXI聯盟) 。 Ewald allows that this internal evidence shows David to have written Pss. iii, iv, vii, xi, xv, xviii, first part of xix, xxiv, xxix, xxxii, ci (iii, iv, vii, xi, xiv, xvii, xxiii, xxviii, xxxi, c).埃瓦爾德允許這種內部證據表明大衛寫症狀評分。三,四,七,十一,十五,十八,第一部分的十九,二十四,二十九,三十二,詞(三,四,七,十一,十四,十七,二十三,二十八,三十一,三) 。

IV.四。 CANONICITY正規

Christian canon基督教佳能

A. The Christian Canon of the Psalms presents no difficulty; all Christians admit into their canon the 150 psalms of the Canon of Trent; all reject Ps.答:基督教佳能的詩篇提出任何困難;所有基督徒承認其佳能150詩篇的佳能的遄;所有拒絕聚苯乙烯。 cli of the Septuagint, probably a Machabean addition to the canon.氣候的譯本,可能是一個Machabean除了佳能。

Jewish canon猶太佳能

B. The Jewish Canon presents a vexing problem. B的猶太人佳能提出了一個令人煩惱的問題。 How has the Psalter been evolved? The traditional Jewish opinion, generally defended by Catholic scholars, is that not only the Jewish Canon of the Psalms but the entire Palestinian Canon of the Old Testament was practically closed during the time of Esdras (see CANON).如何把Psalter已演變?傳統的猶太人認為,一般捍衛天主教學者,不僅是猶太人佳能的詩篇,但整個巴勒斯坦佳能舊約幾乎期間關閉時間埃斯德拉斯(見佳能) 。 This traditional opinion is probable; for the arguments in its favour, cf.這種傳統的看法是可能的;的論點了贊成票,比照。 Cornely, "Introductio Generalis in NT Libros", I (Paris, 1894), 42. Cornely , “引一般在新台幣Libros ” ,我(巴黎, 1894年) , 42 。

(1) The Critical View ( 1 )持批評態度

These arguments are not all admitted by the critics.這些論點並非所有承認的批評。 Says Driver: "For the opinion that the Canon of the Old Testament was closed by Ezra, or his associates, there is no foundation in antiquity whatever" ("Introducton to the Literature of the Old Testament", New York, 1892, p. x).司機說: “對於認為佳能舊約以斯拉被關閉的,或他的同夥,也沒有什麼基礎,在古代” ( “ Introducton文獻舊約” ,紐約, 1892年,第十) 。 In regard to the Psalms Wellhausen says: "Since the Psalter is the hymn-book of the congregation of the Second Temple, the question is not whether it contains any post-exilic psalms, but whether it contains any pre-exilic psalms" (Bleek's "Introduction", ed. 1876, 507).關於詩篇豪森說: “自從Psalter是讚美詩書的聚集第二聖殿,問題不在於它是否包含任何後放逐詩篇,而是它是否包含任何預先放逐詩篇” ( Bleek的“導言” ,教育署。 1876年, 507 ) 。 Hitzig ("Begriff der Kritik", 1831) deems that Books III-V are entirely Machabean (168-135 BC).希齊格( “概念之批判” , 1831年)認為,圖書III - V族是完全Machabean ( 168-135年) 。 Olshausen ("Die Psalmen", 1853) brings some of these psalms down to the Hasmonaean dynasty, and the reign of John Hyrcanus (135-105 BC). Olshausen ( “模具Psalmen ” , 1853年)將其中一些詩篇到Hasmonaean王朝,和在位約翰Hyrcanus ( 135-105年) 。 Duhm ("Die Psalmen", 1899, p. xxi) allows very few pre-Machabean psalms, and assigns Pss. Duhm ( “模具Psalmen ” , 1899年,第XXI )號決議允許極少數預先Machabean詩篇,並指派症狀評分。 ii, xx, xxi, lxi, lxiii, lxxii, lxxxiv (b),cxxxii [ii, xix, lx, lxii, lxxi, lxxxiii (b), cxxxi] to the reigns of Aristobulus I (105-104 BC) and his brother Alexander Jannaus (104-79 BC); so that the Canon of the Psalter was not closed till 70 BC (p. xxiii).二,第二十條,第二十一, LXI聯盟, lxiii , lxxii , lxxxiv ( b )項, cxxxii [二,十九,光照, lxii , lxxi , LXXXIII號( b )項, cxxxi ]的統治的阿里斯托布魯斯口( 105-104年)和他的弟弟亞歷山大Jannaus (公元前104-79 ) ;使佳能的Psalter不是暫時封閉直至70年(第23 ) 。 Such extreme views are not due to arguments of worth.這種極端的觀點是不是因為論點價值。 So long as one refuses to accept the force of the traditional argument in favour of the Esdras Canon, one must at all events admit that the Jewish Canon of the Psalms was undoubtedly closed before the date of the Septuagint translation.只要一個拒絕接受部隊的傳統論點贊成埃斯德拉斯佳能,必須在所有事件承認猶太佳能的詩篇無疑是封閉的日期前的譯本翻譯。 This date is 285 BC, if we accept the authority of the Letter of Aristeas (see SEPTUAGINT); or, at the very latest 132 BC, the period at which Ben Sirach wrote, in the prologue to Ecclesiasticus, that "the law itself and the prophets and the rest of the books [ie the Hagiograha, of which were the Psalms] had been translated into Greek".這一日期是285年,如果我們接受權威的信Aristeas (見七十) ; ,或至遲在公元前132 ,在這期間本Sirach寫道,在序幕Ecclesiasticus ,即“法律本身和先知和其他書籍[即Hagiograha ,其中的詩篇]已經被翻譯成希臘語“ 。 This is the opinion of Briggs (p. xii), who sets the final redaction of the Psalter in the middle of the second century BC這是輿論的布里格斯(第12 ) ,誰規定了最後編輯的Psalter中間的公元前二世紀

The gradual evolution of the Book of Psalms is now quite generally taken by the critics as a matter of course.漸進式的圖書的詩篇現在很普遍採取的批評理所當然。 Their application of the principles of higher criticism does not result in any uniformity of opinion in regard to the various strata of the Psalter.其適用的原則,較高的批評不會造成任何統一的意見,考慮到不同階層Psalter 。 We shall present these strata as they are indicated by Prof.我們將介紹這些階層,他們是靠教授 Briggs, probably the least rash of those who have lately published what are called "critical editions" of the Psalms.布里格斯,可能至少有皮疹的這些誰最近發表所謂“關鍵版”的詩篇。 His method of criticism is the usual one; by a rather subjective standard of internal evidence, he carves up some psalms, patches up others, throws out portions of others, and "edits" all. He assigns seven psalms to the early Hebrew monarchy; seven to the middle monarchy; thirteen to the late monarchy; thirteen to the time of exile; thirty-three to the early Persian period; sixteen to the middle Persian period (the times of Nehemias); eleven to the late Persian period; "the great royal advent psalm" (Psalms 93, 96-100) together with eight others to the early Greek period (beginning with Alexander's conquest); forty-two to the late Greek period, and to the Machabean period Pss.他的方法的批評是正常的;由一個相當主觀的標準的內部證據,他雕刻了一些詩篇,補丁了別人,拋出部分其他人,和“編輯”所有。他指派7詩篇早日希伯來君主制; 7中東君主制; 13已故的君主; 13的時間流亡; 33早日波斯時期; 16到中東波斯灣期間(時代Nehemias ) ; 11已故波斯時期; “的偉大的皇家到來詩篇“ (詩篇93 , 96-100 )連同其他8早日希臘時期(從亞歷山大的征服) ; 42已故希臘期間,和Machabean期症狀評分。 xxxiii, cii (b), cix (b), cxviii, cxxxix (c), cxxix of the Pilgrim Psalter and cxlvii, cxlix of the Hallels. Of these psalms and portions of psalms, according to Briggs, thirty-one are "psalms apart", that is, never were incorporated into a Psalter before the present canonical redaction was issued.三十三,印度工業聯合會( b )項,捷達夥伴( b )項, cxviii , CXXXIX號( c )項, cxxix的涅斯皮Psalter和cxlvii , cxlix的Hallels 。在這些詩篇和部分詩篇,根據布里格斯,三十一頃“詩篇除了“ ,也就是說,沒有被納入Psalter在本規範的編輯印發。 The rest were edited in two or more of the twelve Psalters which mark the evolution of the Book of Psalms.其餘的編輯在兩個或兩個以上的12 Psalters標誌著演變的圖書的詩篇。 The earliest collection of psalms was made up of seven Mikhtamim, "golden pieces", of the middle Persian period.最早收集的詩篇是由7 Mikhtamim , “黃金塊” ,在中東波斯灣時期。 In the late Persian period thirteen Maskilim were put together as a collection of meditations.在已故的波斯時期13 Maskilim提出了作為一個收集沉思。 At the same time, seventy-two psalms were edited, as a prayer-book for use in the synagogue, under the name of "David"; of these thirteen have in their titles references to David's life, and are thought to have formed a previous collection by themselves.與此同時, 72詩篇編輯,作為一個祈禱書使用的猶太教堂,名為“大衛” ,其中13已在其標題提到大衛的生活,被認為已經形成了以前收集的本身。 In the early Greek period in Palestine, eleven psalms were gathered into the minor psalter entitled the "Sons of Korah".早在希臘時期在巴勒斯坦, 11詩篇聚集到未成年人psalter題為“兒子的Korah ” 。

About the same time in Babylonia, twelve psalms were made into a Psalter entitled "Asaph".大約在同一時間的東風,提出了12詩篇成Psalter題為“ Asaph ” 。 Not long thereafter, in the same period, the exilic Ps. lxxxviii, together with two orphan Pss.不久,在同一時期,放逐聚苯乙烯。 lxxxviii ,連同兩名孤兒症狀評分。 lxvi and lxvii, were edited along with selections from "David," "Sons of Korah", and "Asaph", for public worship of song in the synagogue; the name of this psalter was "Mizmorim". lxvi和lxvii ,編輯以及選編“大衛” “ Korah子”和“ Asaph ” ,供公眾崇拜宋在猶太教堂;的名字這psalter是“ Mizmorim 。 ” A major psalter, the Elohist, Pss.一個主要psalter的Elohist收縮。 xlii-lxxxiii (xli-lxxxii), is supposed to have been made up, in Babylonia, during the middle Greek period, of selections from "David", "Korah", "Asaph" and "Mizmorim"; the name is due to the use of Elohim and avoidance of Jahweh in these psalms.四十二,第LXXXIII號(四十一- lxxxii ) ,理應取得了起來,在巴比倫,希臘在中東期間,在選擇從“大衛” , “ Korah ” , “ Asaph ”和“ Mizmorim ”的名稱是由於使用耶洛因和避免Jahweh在這些詩篇。 About the same time, in Palestine, a prayer-book was made up of 54 from "Mizmorim, 16 psalms from "David", 4 from "Korah", and 1 from "Asaph"; this major psalter bore the name of the "Director". The Hallels, or Alleluiatic songs of praise, were made up into a psalter for temple service in the Greek period. These psalms have halleluyah (Praise ye Yah) either at the beginning (Pss. cxi, cxii), or at the close (Pss. civ, cv, cxv, cxvii), or at both the beginning and close (Pss. cvi, cxiii, cxxxv, cxlvi-cl). The Septuagint gives Allelouia also the beginning of Pss. cv, cvii, cxiv, cxvi, cxix, cxxxvi. Briggs includes as Hallels all these except cxviii and cxix, "the former being a triumphal Machabean song, the latter the great alphabetic praise of the law". A like minor psalter of the Greek period was the "Pilgrim Psalter" (Pss. cxx-cxxxiv), a collection of "Songs of Pilgrimage", the "Songs of Ascents", or "Gradual Psalms", which the pilgrims chanted while going up to Jerusalem for the three great feasts.大約在同一時間,在巴勒斯坦,祈禱書是由54個來自“ Mizmorim , 16詩篇從”大衛“ , 4 ,由” Korah “ ,和1個由” Asaph “ ,這主要psalter承擔的名稱”主任“ 。該Hallels ,或Alleluiatic讚歌,是由成psalter為廟服務在希臘時期。這些詩篇有halleluyah (讚美葉焰)或者在開始( Pss. cxi , cxii ) ,或在關閉( Pss.持續輸注,簡歷, cxv , cxvii ) ,或在開始和結束( Pss. CVI的, cxiii , cxxxv , cxlvi發光) 。 Allelouia的譯本也給年初的PSS 。簡歷, cvii , cxiv , cxvi , cxix , cxxxvi 。布里格斯包括所有這些作為Hallels除外cxviii和cxix , “前一個凱旋Machabean宋,後者字母讚美偉大的法律。 ”未成年人psalter類似的希臘時期的“朝聖者Psalter “ ( Pss. cxx - cxxxiv ) ,收集了”朝聖之歌“中, ”登頂之歌“ ,或”漸進詩篇“ ,這是朝聖者的呼喊,而上升到耶路撒冷的三個偉大的節日。

(2) The Catholic View ( 2 )天主教查看

So extensive an application of divisive criticism to the Psalter does not meet the approval of Catholic exegetes.如此廣泛的應用分裂批評的Psalter不符合批准的天主教exegetes 。 Successive redaction of the Psalms they readily admit, provided the doctrine of the inspiration of Holy Writ be not impugned.歷屆編輯的詩篇,他們輕易承認,提供了理論的啟示聖經不是指責。 The doctrine of inspiration has regard to the Psalms as they now stand in the canon, and does not impede a Catholic from admitting various redactions of the Psalter previous to our present redaction; in fact, even uninspired liturgical redaction of the inspired Psalms would not be contrary to what the Church teaches in the matter of inspiration, so long as the redactor had preserved intact and absolutely unaltered the inspired meaning of the Sacred Text.理論的啟發了關於詩篇,因為它們現在的佳能,並不妨礙承認天主教從各種刪節的Psalter以往以我們目前的編輯;事實上,即使平庸禮儀編輯的靈感詩篇不會相反的是教會的教導在這件事的啟發,只要redactor已保存完整,絕對不變的啟發意義的神聖文字。 The Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) will not allow that our present redaction contains many Machabean psalms; nor will Drive, Delitzsch, Perowne, Renan, and many other critical scholars.聖經委員會( 1910年5月1號)將不允許,我們目前的編輯包含許多Machabean詩篇,也將推動,德里,掃,雷南,以及其他許多重要的學者。 "Had so many psalms dated from this age, it is difficult not to think that they would have borne more prominent marks of it in their diction and style" (Driver, "Introduction to their Literature of the Old Testament", New York, 1892, 365). “有如此多的詩篇日期從這個年齡段,很難不去想,他們將承擔更加突出的標誌,在其用詞和風格” (驅動器“ ,介紹他們的文學舊約” ,紐約, 1892年, 365 ) 。 Pss.藻酸雙酯鈉。 xliv, lxxiv, lxxix, and lxxxiii, which Delitzsch and Perowne on historical grounds admit to be Machabean, occasion to Davison (Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", IV, 152) "unquestionable difficulties arising from their place in the second and third books".四十四, lxxiv , lxxix ,並LXXXIII號,其中德里和掃歷史理由承認自己是Machabean ,機會戴維森(黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經” ,四, 152 ) “毫無疑問的引起的困難自己的位置在第二和第三本書。 “ There are no certain proofs that these or any psalms are Machabean.沒有一定的證據證明這些或任何詩篇是Machabean 。 The Biblical Commission does not, on this account, deny any of the psalms are Machabean; it leaves that question still open.聖經委員會沒有在此帳戶,拒絕任何的詩篇是Machabean ;它留下的問題仍然開放。 In the matter of redaction, it allows that "for liturgical or musical or other unknown reasons, psalms may have been split up or joined together" in course of time; and that "there are other psalms, like the Miserere mei, Deus [Ps. li], which, in order that they might be better fitted to the historical circumstances and the solemnities of the Jewish people, were slightly re-edited and changed by the omission or addition of a verse or two, so long as the inspiration of the entire text remains intact". That is the important thing; the doctrine of the inspiration of Holy Writ must not suffer in the least.在這個問題上的編輯,它可以讓說, “禮儀或音樂或其他原因不明,可能已被詩篇拆分或合併”過程中的時間;以及“還有其他的詩篇,如求主憐憫美,天主[絲氨酸。李] ,其中,以便它們能夠更好地擬合的歷史條件下和solemnities猶太人民,略重新編輯和修改,遺漏或增加一個或兩個詩句,只要啟示整個案文保持不變。 “這是最重要的事情;理論的啟示聖經不能忍受痛苦最少。 How, then, is the doctrine of the inspiration of the entire text kept intact?那麼,是理論的啟示整個案文保持不變? Were the previous redactors inspired?以前編纂的啟發? Nothing has been determined by any authority of the Church in these matters.一切都還沒有確定任何權威,教會在這些問題上。 We incline to the opinion that God inspired the meanings of the Psalms as originally written, and in like manner inspired every redactor who gathered and edited these songs of Israel until the last inspired redactor set them together in their present form.我們傾向於認為,上帝的啟發意義的詩篇原先書面,而在同樣的方式激勵每個redactor誰收集和編輯這些歌曲的以色列,直到最後啟發redactor一套在一起的現有形式。

V. TEXT五,文字

The Psalms were originally written in Hebrew letters, such as we see only on coins and in a few lapidary inscriptions; the text has come down to us in square Aramaic letters.最初的詩篇寫的希伯來字母,如我們看到只有硬幣和幾個寶石銘文;文本已下降到我們在方阿拉姆字母。 Only the versions give us any idea of the pre-Masoretic text. Thus far no pre-Masoretic manuscript of the Psalms has been discovered.唯一的版本,給我們任何想法前馬所拉文本。到目前為止沒有預先馬所拉的詩篇手稿被發現。 The Masoretic text has been preserved in more than 3400 manuscripts, of which none is earlier than the ninth century and only nine or ten are earlier than the twelfth (see MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE).的馬所拉文本已保存在超過3400的手稿,其中沒有一個是早於九世紀,只有9或10早於第十二屆(見手稿聖經) 。 These Masoretic manuscripts represent two slightly variant families of one tradition -- the texts of Ben Asher and of Ben Naftali.這些馬所拉抄本的兩個略有不同的家庭的一個傳統-文本本阿舍爾和本納夫塔利。 Their variations are of little moment in the interpretation of the Psalms.他們沒有什麼變化的時刻,解釋詩篇。 The study of the rhythmic structure of the Psalms, together with the variations between Massorah and the versions, have made it clear that our Hebrew text is far from perfect, and that its points are often wrong.這項研究的韻律結構的詩篇,以及之間的差異Massorah和版本,已經清楚地表明我們的希伯來文是遠遠不夠完善,它的點往往是錯誤的。 The efforts of critics to perfect the text are at times due to no more than a shrewd surmise. The metrical mould is chosen; then the psalm is forcibly adapted to it.批評者的努力,以完美的案文有時由於不超過一個精明的猜測。測量模具選擇;然後強行詩篇是適應它。 It were better to leave the text in its imperfect condition than to render it worse by guess-work.這是更好地讓文字在其不完善的條件,而不是使它更糟糕的猜測工作。 The decree of the Biblical Commission is aimed at those to whom the imperfections in the Masoretic Text are an occasion, though no excuse, for countless conjectural emendations, at times wild and fanciful, which nowadays pass current as critical exegesis of the Psalms.該法令的聖經委員會的目的是那些人的不完善的馬所拉文本是一個機會,但沒有任何藉口,為無數猜測emendations ,有時野生和幻想,而現在通過當前的關鍵訓詁學的詩篇。

VI.六。 VERSIONS

A. GREEK答:希臘

The chief version of the Psalms is the Septuagint.首席版本的詩篇是七十。 It is preserved to us in Cod. U, Brit.這是保留給我們的鱈魚。美,英。 Mus.小家鼠。 Pap.子宮頸。 37, seventh century, containing Pss. 37 ,七世紀,含有症狀評分。 x-xxxiii; Leipzig Pap., fourth century, containing Pss.的X三十三;萊比錫子宮頸。 ,四世紀,含有症狀評分。 xxix-liv; , Cod.第29屆,麗芙; ,鱈魚。 Sinaiticus, fourth century, complete; B. Cod.西奈抄本,四世紀,完整;灣鱈魚。 Vaticanus, fourth century, complete, except, Pss. Vaticanus ,四世紀,完整的,除了收縮。 cv, 27-cxxxvii, 6; A, Cod.簡歷, 27 cxxxvii , 6 ;甲,鱈魚。 Alexandrinus, fifth century, complete except Pss.頸,五世紀,完成除症狀評分。 xlix, 19-lxxvi, 10; I, Cod. xlix , 19 lxxvi , 10 ,我,鱈魚。 Bodleianus, ninth century, complete; and in many other later manuscripts The Septuagint Version is of great value in the exegesis of the Psalms. Bodleianus ,九世紀,完成;和其他許多後來的譯本手稿版本具有重要價值的訓詁學的詩篇。 It provides pre-Masoretic readings which are clearly preferable to those of the Massoretes.它提供了預馬所拉的讀數顯然最好是Massoretes 。 It brings us back to a text at least of the second century BC In spite of a seeming servility to words and to Hebrew constructions, a servility that probably existed in the Alexandrian Greek of the Jews of the period, the Septuagint translator of psalms shows an excellent knowledge of Hebrew, and fears not to depart from the letter and to give the meaning of his original.它使我們回到一個文本,至少在公元前二世紀儘管似乎奴性的話和希伯來語的建築,一個奴性,可能存在於亞歷山大希臘的猶太人的時期,譯本翻譯的詩篇顯示精通希伯來語,並擔心沒有偏離信給他原來的意義。 The second-century AD Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion are extant in only a few fragments; these fragments are witnesses to a text pretty much the same as our Masoretic.第二世紀的希臘版本的雕, Symmachus ,並Theodotion是現存的只有少數幾個片段,這些片段證人文字幾乎相同,我們的馬所拉。

B. LATIN灣拉丁

About the middle of the second century the Septuagint Psalter was translated into Latin.對中東的第二個世紀的七十Psalter被翻譯成拉丁文。 Of this Old Latin, or Itala, Version we have only a few manuscripts and the citations by the early Latin Fathers.這個老拉丁美洲,或伊泰萊,版本,我們只有少數的手稿和引文的早期拉丁教父。 At the request of Pope St. Damasus I, AD 383, St. Jerome revised the Itala and brought it back closer to the Septuagint.的請求,教宗聖達瑪斯一世,公元383 ,聖杰羅姆訂正伊泰萊和把它回到接近七十。 His revision was soon so distorted that he complained, "plus antiquum errorem quam novam emendationem valere" (PL, XXIX, 117).他的修訂,以便盡快扭曲,他抱怨說: “加antiquum errorem華富novam emendationem valere ” (特等,第29 , 117 ) 。 This is St. Jerome's "Roman Psalter"; it is used in the recitation of the Office in St. Peter's, Rome, and in the Missal.這是聖杰羅姆的“羅馬Psalter ” ,它是用來背誦辦公室在聖彼得,羅馬,並在彌撒。 The corruption of his first translation led St.腐敗的首次翻譯導致街 Jerome to undertake an entirely new translation of the Hexapla edition of the Septuagint.杰羅姆進行一個全新的翻譯Hexapla版的譯本。 He worked with great care, in Bethlehem, some time before AD 392.他工作非常認真,在伯利恆,一段時間才能公元392 。 He indicated by asterisks the parts of the Hebrew text which had been omitted by the Septuagint and were borrowed by him from Theodotion; he marked with the obelus () the parts of the Septuagint which were not in the Hebrew. These critical marks came in course of time to be utterly neglected.他表示,由星號部分的案文,希伯來文漏掉了由七十,並借用他Theodotion ;他的短劍號標記( )的部分七十並未在希伯來文。這些重要的標誌是在課程時間是完全被忽視。 This translation is the "Gallican Psalter"; it is part of the Vulgate.這種翻譯是“高盧聖Psalter ” ;它是拉丁文聖經。 A third Latin translation of the Psalms, made from the Hebrew Text, with Origen's Hexapla and the other ancient versions in view, was completed by St. Jerome about the end of the fourth century at Bethlehem.第三個拉美翻譯的詩篇,從希伯萊文字,奧利的Hexapla和其他古老的版本認為,完成了聖杰羅姆的終結四世紀在伯利恆。 This version is of great worth in the study of the Psalter.此版本是非常值得研究的Psalter 。 Dr. Briggs says: "Where it differs from H. and G., its evidence is especially valuable as giving the opinion of the best Biblical scholar of ancient times as to the original text, based on the use of a wealth of critical material vastly greater than that in the possession of any other critic, earlier or later" (p. xxxii).博士布里格斯說: “如果它不同於閣下和G. ,其證據是特別有價值的意見,給予最好的聖經學者,以遠古時代的原始案文的基礎上,使用了大量的關鍵材料大大大於所擁有的任何其他評論家,之前或之後“ (第三十二) 。

OTHER VERSIONS其他版本

For other translations, see VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE; RHYMED BIBLES.至於其他的翻譯,見版本的聖經; RHYMED BIBLES 。

VII.七。 POETIC FORM詩意表

A. PARALLELISM答:並行

Parallelism (qv) is the principle of balance which is admitted by all to be the most characteristic and essential feature of the poetic form of the Psalms. By synonymous, synthetic, antithetic, emblematic, stair-like, or introverted parallelism, thought is balanced with thought, line with line, couplet with couplet, strophe with antistrophe, in the lyric upbuilding of the poetic picture or imprecation or exhortation.並行( qv )是平衡的原則是承認一切是最有特點和基本特徵的詩歌形式的詩篇。通過同義詞,合成,對立的,象徵性,階梯式,或內向並行,認為是平衡的與思想,符合線,對聯與對聯, strophe與antistrophe ,在抒情的詩意upbuilding圖片或詛咒或告誡。

B. METRE灣METRE

Is there metre in the Psalms?有米的詩篇? The Jews of the first century AD thought so. Flavius Josephus speaks of the hexameters of Moses (Antiq., II, xvi, 4; IV, viii, 44) and the trimeters and tetrameters and manifold meters of the odes and hymns of David (Antiq., VII, xii, 3).猶太人在公元一世紀這樣想。弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫談到hexameters摩西( Antiq. ,二,十六, 4 ;四,八, 44歲)和trimeters和tetrameters和多方面米的頌歌和讚美詩大衛( Antiq 。 ,七,十二, 3 ) 。 Philo says that Moses had learned the "theory of rhythm and harmony" (De vita Mosis, I, 5).菲羅說,摩西得知論“節奏與和諧” (者維Mosis ,我, 5 ) 。 Early Christian writers voice the same opinion.早期基督教作家的聲音相同的意見。 Origen (d. 254) says the Psalms are in trimeters and tetrameters (In Ps. cxviii; cf. Card. Pitra, "Analecta Sacra", II, 341); and Eusebius (d. 340), in his "De Praeparatione evangelica", XI, 5 (PG, XXI, 852), speaks of the same metres of David.奧利( 4 254 )說,詩篇在trimeters和tetrameters (在PS 。 cxviii ;比照。卡。羅弗“ Analecta薩克拉” ,二, 341 ) ;和優西比烏( 4 340 ) ,在他的“德Praeparatione evangelica “十一, 5級( PG , 21 , 852 ) ,談到了同為大衛。 St. Jerome (420), in "Praef. ad Eusebii chronicon" (PL, XXVII, 36), finds iambics, Alcaics, and Sapphics in the psalter; and, writing to Paula (PL, XXII, 442), he explains that the acrostic Pss.聖杰羅姆( 420 ) ,在“ Praef 。廣告Eusebii chronicon ” (特等,二十七, 36歲) ,認為iambics , Alcaics ,並Sapphics在psalter ; ,並書面向保(特等, 22 , 442 ) ,他解釋說,在acrostic症狀評分。 cxi and cxii (cx and cxi) are made up of iambic trimeters, whereas the acrostic Pss. cxi和cxii ( CX和cxi )是由抑揚格trimeters ,而acrostic症狀評分。 cxix and cxlv (cxviii and cxliv) are iambic tetrameters. cxix和cxlv ( cxviii和cxliv )是抑揚格tetrameters 。 Modern exegetes do not agree in this matter.現代exegetes不同意在這一問題上。 For a time many would admit no metre at all in the Psalms.一時間許多人都承認,沒有米,在所有的詩篇。 Davison (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", sv) writes: "though metre is not discernible in the Psalms, it does not follow that rhythm is excluded".戴維森( Hast. , “快譯通。聖經” ,希沃特)寫道: “雖然米是不辨的詩篇,但這並不意味著節奏被排除。 ” This rhythm, however, "defies analysis and systematization".這種節奏,但是, “蔑視分析和系統化” 。 Driver ("Introd. to Lit. of OT", New York, 1892, 339) admits in Hebrew poetry "no metre in the strict sense of the term".司機( “ Introd 。至25,823 。對催產素” ,紐約, 1892年, 339 )承認,在希伯來詩歌“無米的嚴格意義上的”一詞。 Exegetes who find metre in the Psalms are of four schools, according as they explain Hebrew metre by quantity, by the number of syllables, by accent, or by both quantity and accent.誰找到Exegetes米的詩篇有4所學校,根據他們解釋希伯來米的數量,由音節數,由口音,或數量和口音。

(1) Defenders of the Latin and Greek metrical standard of quantity as applied to Hebrew poetry are Francis Gomarus, in "Davidis lyra", II (Lyons, 1637), 313; Mark Meibom, in "Davidis psalmi X" (Amsterdam, 1690) and in two other works, who claim to have learned his system of Hebrew metre by Divine revelation; William Jones, "Poeseos Asiaticae commentariorum" (Leipzig, 1777), who tried to force Hebrew words into Arabic metres. ( 1 )辯護人的拉丁和希臘韻律標準的數量適用於希伯來詩歌是弗朗西斯Gomarus ,在“ Davidis利拉” ,第二章(里昂, 1637年) , 313 ;馬克Meibom ,在“ Davidis psalmi × ” (阿姆斯特丹, 1690年) ,並在另外兩個作品,誰索賠已經學到了系統的希伯來語米的天啟;威廉瓊斯, “ Poeseos Asiaticae commentariorum ” (萊比錫, 1777年) ,誰試圖強行希伯來話譯成阿拉伯文米。

(2) The number of syllables was taken as the standard of metre by Hare, "Psalmorum liber in versiculos metrice divisus" (London, 1736); he made all feet dissyllabic, the metre trochaic in a line of an even number of syllables, iambic in a line of an odd number of syllables. ( 2 )音節數是為標準的米的野兔, “ Psalmorum書在versiculos metrice divisus ” (倫敦, 1736年) ;他所有英尺dissyllabic ,米揚抑格的行甚至一些音節,抑揚格在一排奇數音節。 The Masoretic system was rejected, the Syriac put in its stead.馬所拉系統的拒絕,敘利亞將取而代之。 The opinion found chief defence in the writings of the learned Innsbruck Professor Gustav; and in Bickell's "Metrices biblicae" (Innsbruck, 1879), "Suplementum ad Metr. Bibl."認為首席辯護發現的著作中的經驗教訓因斯布魯克教授古斯塔夫;和Bickell的“ Metrices biblicae ” (因斯布魯克, 1879年) , “ Suplementum廣告Metr 。 Bibl 。 ” (Innsbruck), "Carimina veteris testamenti metrice" (1882), "Dichtungen der Hebraer" (1882-84). (因斯布魯克) , “ Carimina veteris testamenti metrice ” ( 1882年) , “ Dichtungen之Hebraer ” ( 1882年至1884年) 。 Gerard Gietmann, SJ, "De re mentrica Hebraeorum" (Freiburg im Br., 1880); A. Rohling, "Das Solomonische Spruchbuch" (Mainz, 1879); H. Lesetre, "Le livre des psaumes" (Paris, 1883); J. Knabenbauer, SJ, in "Job" (Paris, 1885), p.杰拉德Gietmann ,律政司司長, “者重新mentrica Hebraeorum ” (弗賴堡一二。 , 1880年) ;答: Rohling , “達斯Solomonische Spruchbuch ” (美茵茨, 1879年) ;閣下Lesetre , “樂書之psaumes ” (巴黎, 1883年) ;學者Knabenbauer ,律政司司長,在“工作” (巴黎, 1885年) ,第 18; F. Vigouroux, "Manuel biblique", II, 203, have all followed in Bickell's footsteps more or less closely. 18 ;樓Vigouroux , “曼努埃爾biblique ” ,二, 203 ,都遵循Bickell的腳步或多或少密切。 Against this system some patent facts.對這個系統的一些專利的事實。 The quantity of a word is made to vary arbitrarily.量的一個詞是任意更改。 Hebrew is treated as Syriac, a late dialect of Aramaic -- which it is not; in fact, even early Syriac poetry did not measure its lines by the number of syllables.希伯來被視為敘利亞,晚方言阿拉姆-它不是,事實上,就算是早期的敘利亞文詩歌沒有衡量其行的音節數。 Lastly the Massorah noted metrical structure by accents; at least soph pasuk and athnah indicate comlete lines or two hemistichs.最後, Massorah指出韻律結構的口音,至少soph pasuk和athnah表明comlete線或兩個hemistichs 。

(3) Accent is the determining principle of Hebrew metre according to CA Anton, "Conjectura de metro Hebraeorum" (Leipzig, 1770), "Vindiciae disput. de metr. Hebr." ( 3 )款的Accent是確定原則,希伯來語米根據加州安東, “ Conjectura日地鐵Hebraeorum ” (萊比錫, 1770年) , “ Vindiciae disput 。日metr 。 Hebr 。 ” (Leipzig, 1771), "Specimen editionis psalmorum" (Vitebsk, 1780); Leutwein, "Versuch einer richtigen Theorie von der biblischen Verkunst" (1775); Ernst Meier, "Die Form der hebraischen Poesie nachgewiesen" (Tübingen, 1853); Julius Ley, "Die Metrischen Formen der hebraischen Poesie" (Leipzig, 1886); "Ueber die Alliteration im Hebraischen" in "Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. Morgenlandisch. Ges.", XX, 180; JK Zenner, SJ, "Die Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1896), and in many contributions to "Zeitsch. fur kathol. Theol.", 1891, 690; 1895, 373; 1896, 168, 369, 378, 571, 754; Hontheim, SJ, in "Zeitsch. fur kathol. Theol.", 1897, 338, 560, 738; 1898, 172, 404, 749; 1899, 167; Dr. CA Briggs, in "The Book of Psalms", in "International Critical Commentary" (New York, 1906), p. (萊比錫, 1771年) , “標本editionis psalmorum ” (維捷布斯克, 1780年) ; Leutwein , “ Versuch領袖richtigen理論馮德biblischen Verkunst ” ( 1775年) ;恩斯特德梅爾, “晶片形式之hebraischen詩nachgewiesen ” (圖賓根, 1853年) ;朱利葉斯法“ ,模具Metrischen Formen之hebraischen詩” (萊比錫, 1886年) , “論死亡韻即時Hebraischen ”中的“ Zeitsch 。 4德語。 Morgenlandisch 。水電站。 ”第XX號, 180 ; JK真蘭,律政司司長, “模具Chorgesange即時通訊Buche之Psalmen “ (弗賴堡一二。 , 1896年) ,並在許多貢獻” Zeitsch 。毛皮kathol 。 Theol 。 “ , 1891年, 690 ; 1895年, 373 ; 1896年, 168 , 369 , 378 , 571 , 754 ; Hontheim ,律政司司長,在“ Zeitsch 。毛皮kathol 。 Theol 。 ” , 1897年, 338 , 560 , 738 ; 1898年, 172 , 404 , 749 ; 1899年, 167個博士加利福尼亞布里格斯,在“這本書的詩篇” ,在“國際的評論“ (紐約, 1906年) ,第 xxxix, and in many other publications therein enumerated; Francis Brown, "Measures of Hebrew Poetry: in "Journal of Biblical Literature", IX, 91; CH Toy, "Proverbs" in "Internat.三十九,而且在許多其他出版物其中列舉;弗朗西斯布朗的措施“的希伯來詩歌:在”聖經文學雜誌“ ,第九章, 91 ;甲烷玩具, ”諺語“在” Internat 。 Crit.危重。 Comm." (1899); WR Harper, "Amos and Hosea" in "Internat.商業。 “ ( 1899年) ;水利哈珀, ” Amos和何西阿“中的” Internat 。 Crit.危重。 Comm." (1905); Cheyne, "Psalms" (New York), 1892; Duhm, "Die Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1899), p. xxx. This theory is the best working hypothesis together with the all-essential principle of parallelism; it does far less violence to the Masoretic Text than either of the foregoing theories. It does not force the Masoretic syllables into grooves that are Latin, Greek, Arabic, or Aramaic. It is independent of the shifting of accent; and postulates just one thing, a fixed and harmonious number of accents to the line, regardless of the number of syllables therein. This theory of a tonic and not a syllabic metre has this, too, in its favour that accent is the determining principle in ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, and Assyrian poetry.商業。 “ ( 1905年) ;進益, ”詩篇“ (紐約) , 1892 ; Duhm , ”模具Psalmen “ (弗賴堡一二。 , 1899 ) ,第三十。這一理論是最好的工作假設與全基本平行原則;它遠遠低於暴力的馬所拉文本比上述理論。它不強制音節成槽馬所拉的拉丁文,希臘文,阿拉伯文,或阿拉姆。它是獨立的轉移口音;和假設一件事,一個固定的,和諧的一些口音的界線,無論有一些音節。這一理論的補藥,而不是一個音節米的,這也有利於自己的口音是確定的原則古埃及,巴比倫和亞述人的詩歌。

(4) Of recent years the pendulum of Hebrew metrical theories has swung back upon quantity; the syllabic must not be utterly neglected. ( 4 )最近幾年裡,擺的希伯來語韻律理論已再次退回後,數量;的音節不能完全忽視。 Hubert Grimme, in "Grundzuge der Hebraischen Akzent und Volkallehre", Freiburg, 1896, and "Psalmenprobleme" (1902), builds up the metre chiefly upon the tonic principle, at the same time taking into account the morae or pauses due to quantity. Schlogl, "De re metrica veterum Hebraeorum" (Vienna, 1899), defends Grimme's theory.休伯特Grimme ,在“ Grundzuge之Hebraischen Akzent與Volkallehre ” ,弗賴堡, 1896年,和“ Psalmenprobleme ” ( 1902年) ,建立了主要的米後補的原則,同時考慮到morae或暫停由於數量。 Schlogl “者重新metrica veterum Hebraeorum ” (維也納, 1899 ) ,捍衛Grimme的理論。 Sievers, "Metrische Studien" (1901), also takes in the unaccented syllables for metrical consideration; so does Baethgen, "Die Psalmen" (Gottingen, 1904), p. Sievers , “ Metrische Studien ” ( 1901 ) ,還考慮在重音音節的韻律審議;如此Baethgen , “模具Psalmen ” (哥廷根大學, 1904年) ,第 xxvii.二十七。

C. OTHER CHARACTERISTICS C.其他特徵

Alliteration and assonance are frequent.韻韻和頻繁。 Acrostic or alphabetic psalms are ix-x, xxv, xxxiv, xxxvii, cxi, cxii, cxix, cxlv (ix, xxiv, xxxiii, xxxvi, cx, cxi, cxviii, cxliv). Acrostic或字母詩篇是九至十,二十五,三十四,三十七, cxi , cxii , cxix , cxlv (九,二十四,三十三,三十六,國泰航空, cxi , cxviii , cxliv ) 。 The letters of the alphabet begin successive lines, couplets, or strophes.該字母開始連續線,楹聯,或strophes 。 In Ps.在PS 。 cxix (cxviii) the same letter begins eight successive lines in each of the twenty-two alphabetic strophes. cxix ( cxviii )同一封信開始連續八線在每一個22字母strophes 。 In Pss.在症狀評分。 xiii, xxix, lxii, cxlviii, and cl (xii, xxviii, lxi, cxlvii, and cxlix) the same word or words are repeated many times.十三,第29屆, lxii , cxlviii ,和Cl (十二,二十八, LXI聯盟, cxlvii ,並cxlix )相同的字或詞,重複多次。 Rhymes, by repetition of the same suffix, are in Pss.童謠,由重複同樣的後綴,在症狀評分。 ii, xiii, xxvii, xxx, liv, lv, cxlii, etc. (ii, xii, xxvi, xxix, liii, liv, cxli, etc.); these rhymes occur at the ends of lines and in caesural pauses.二,第十三條,二十七,三十,麗芙,呂, cxlii等(二,十二,二十六,二十九, liii ,麗芙, cxli等) ;這些兒歌發生在兩端線和在caesural停頓。 Lines were grouped into strophes and antistrophes, commonly in pairs and triplets, rarely in greater multiples; at times an independent strophe, like the epode of the Greek chorus, was used between one or more strophes and the corresponding antistrophes.線路分為strophes和antistrophes ,通常在對和三胞胎,很少在更大的倍數;有時一個獨立strophe ,如epode希臘合唱,之間用一個或多個strophes和相應的antistrophes 。 The word Selah () almost invariably marks the end of a strophe. The meaning of this word and its purpose is still a moot question.這個詞Selah ( )幾乎總是標誌著一個strophe 。意義這個詞,其目的仍然是一個模擬的問題。 We think it was originally (from , "to throw"), and meant "a throwing down", "a prostration".我們認為這是原(從“把” ) ,並意味著“一個扔了” , “一虛脫” 。 During the antiphonal cantilation of the Psalms, the priests blew their trumpets to mark the end of a strophe, and at the signal the two choirs or the people or both choirs and people prostrated themselves (cf. Haupt, "Expository Times", May, 1911).在antiphonal cantilation的詩篇,炸毀他們的祭司喇叭標誌著結束了strophe ,並在信號或兩個合唱團的人或兩個合唱團和人民prostrated本身(見豪普特, “說明性時報” , 5月, 1911年) 。 The principle of parallelism determined these stophic arrangements of the lines.平行原則確定這些stophic安排的線路。 Koster, in "die Psalmen nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung" (1837), distinguishes various kinds of parallelism in lines and half-lines, synonymous, antithetical, synthetic, identical, introverted.科斯特,在“死亡Psalmen nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung ” ( 1837年) ,區分各種並行線和半年線,同義詞,對立的,合成的,相同的,內向。 Zenner, SJ, in his "Chorgesange im Buche der Psalmen" (Freiburg im Br., 1896) has very cleverly arranged many of the psalms as choral odes, chanted by two or three choirs.真蘭,律政司司長,在他的“ Chorgesange即時通訊Buche之Psalmen ” (弗賴堡一二。 , 1896年)已經非常巧妙安排許多詩篇作為合唱詩經,高喊由兩個或三個合唱團。 Hermann Wiesmann, SJ, in "Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext" (Munster, 1906), has applied the metrical principles of Zenner, and revised and published the latter's translations and studies of the Psalms.赫爾曼Wiesmann ,律政司司長,在“模具Psalmen nach馬克Urtext ” (明斯特, 1906年) ,也採用了韻律原則真蘭,並修訂和出版了後者的翻譯和研究的詩篇。 This work takes too great liberty with the Sacred Text, and has lately (1911) been put on the Index.這項工作也非常自由的神聖文字和最近( 1911年)被列入索引。

VIII.八。 POETIC BEAUTY詩美

The extravagant words of Lamartine in "Voyage en Orient" are classic: "Lisez de l'Horace ou du Pindare apres un Psaume! Pour moi, je ne le peux plus".奢侈的話拉馬丁在“航行途中東方”是典型的: “法國賀拉斯Lisez歐鬥平達雷apres聯合國Psaume !倒入語言,我不樂peux加” 。 One wonders whether Lamartine ever read a psalm in the original.人們想知道是否拉馬丁以往宣讀了詩篇在原來的。 To criticise the Psalms as literature is very difficult.批評詩篇文學是非常困難的。 Their text has reached us with many losses in the matter of poetic form.其文字達到了我們許多的損失在這個問題上的詩歌形式。 The authors varied much in style.作者在許多不同的風格。 Their literary beauty should not be judged by comparison with the poetry of Horace and Pindar.文學美不應判斷比較詩賀拉斯和品達。 It is with the hymns of ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Assyria that we should compare the songs of Israel.這是與讚美詩古埃及,巴比倫和亞述,我們應該比較歌曲以色列。 Those ancient hymns are crude and rude by the side of the Psalms.這些古老的讚美詩是原油和粗魯的一方的詩篇。 Even the imprecatory Pss.即使是imprecatory症狀評分。 xviii, xxxv, lii, lix, lxix, cix, cxxxvii (xvii, xxxiv, li, lviii, lxviii, cviii, cxxxvi), those national anthems so full of love of Israel and almost startling in their hatred of the foes of Jahweh and of Israel, if read from the viewpoint of the writers, are sublime, vivid, glowing, enthusiastic, though exaggerated, poetic outbursts, instances of a "higher seriousness and a higher truthfulness", such as Aristotle never would have found ina song of Babylonia or of Sumeria.十八,三十五,呂,柳, lxix ,捷達夥伴, cxxxvii (十七,三十四,李鵬, lviii , lxviii , cviii , cxxxvi ) ,國歌,使這些充滿愛心的以色列,幾乎驚人的仇恨敵人Jahweh和以色列,如果讀取的觀點作家,是崇高的,生動的,光輝,熱情,雖然有些誇張,富有詩意的爆發,情況是“更高的嚴肅性和較高的真實性” ,如亞里士多德永遠會發現那首歌的東風或Sumeria 。 Whether their tones are those of praise or blame, of sorrow or of joy, of humiliation or of exaltation, of deep meditation or of didactic dogmatism, ever and everywhere the writers of the Psalms are dignified and grand, true to the ideals of Jahweh's chosen folk, spiritual and devotional.不論其色調是讚美或指責,悲傷或快樂,屈辱或提升,深冥想或說教教條主義,都和世界各地的作家的詩篇是尊嚴和大,真正的理想Jahweh的選擇民俗,精神和信仰。 The range of thought is immense.範圍認為是巨大的。 It takes in Jahweh, His temple, cult, priests, creation; man, friend and foe; beasts, birds; all nature, animate and inanimate.它在Jahweh ,他的廟,邪教,神父,創造的人,朋友和敵人;野獸,鳥類;所有性質,動畫和生命。 The range of emotions is complete; every emotion of man that is pure and noble has been set to words in the Psalms. As an instance of poetic beauty, we subjoin the famous Ps.各種情緒已經完成;每一個情緒的人,純粹是和崇高已設定為關鍵詞的詩篇。作為一個實例詩意美,我們加上著名的聚苯乙烯。 xxiii (xxii), translated from the Hebrew. 23 ( 22 ) ,翻譯的希伯來文。 The poet first speaks in his own person, then in the guise of the sheep.詩人首先談到他自己的人,然後為幌子的綿羊。 The repetition of the first couplet as an envoi is suggested by Zenner and many commentators, to complete the envelope-form of the poem, or the introverted parallelism of the strophic structure:重複第一對聯作為envoi是真蘭和建議,許多評論家,完成信封形式的詩,或內向並行的strophic結構:

The Poet:詩人:

1. 1 。 Jahweh is my Shepherd; Jahweh是我的牧人;

I have no want,我沒有想,

The Sheep:羊:

2. 2 。 In pastures of tender grass he setteth me;在牧場的招標基層他setteth箱;

Unto still waters he leadeth me;你們仍然水域他leadeth我;

3. 3 。 He turneth me back again;他turneth我回來了;

He guideth me along right paths for his他guideth我沿著正確的道路

Own name's sake.自己的名字的緣故。

4. 4 。 Yea, though I walk through the vale of是啊,雖然我走過萊迪奧

The shadow of death,死亡的陰影下,

I fear no harm;我擔心沒有壞處;

For thou art with me;為祢我;

Thy bludgeon and they staff, they stay me.你的脅迫和他們的工作人員,他們留我。

5. 5 。 Thou settest food before me,你在我面前settest食品,

In the presence of my foes;當著我的敵人;

Thou has anointed my head with oil;你是我的腦袋已經受膏者油;

My trough runneth over.我的槽runneth結束。

The Poet:詩人:

6. 6 。 Ah, goodness and mercy have followed me啊,善良和憐憫也跟著我

All the days of my life,所有的日子裡我的生活,

I will go back to the house of Jahweh我將回到眾議院Jahweh

Even for the length of my days.即使我的長度天。

Jahweh is my Shepherd; Jahweh是我的牧人;

I have no want!我不想要!

IX.九。 THEOLOGICAL VALUE神學價值

The theological ideas of the Psalms are comprehensive; the existence and attributes of God, the soul's yearning for immortality, the economy of grace and the virtues, death, judgement, heaven, hell, hope of resurrection and of glory, fear of punishment -- all the main dogmatic truths of Israel's faith appear again and again in her Psalter.神學思想的詩篇是全面的;的存在和屬性的上帝,靈魂的渴望永生,經濟的寬限期和美德,死亡判決,天堂,地獄,希望復活和榮耀,恐懼的懲罰-所有主要的教條真理以色列的信仰出現一次又一次地在她的Psalter 。 These truths are set down not in dogmatic form, but now in the simple and childlike lyric yearning of the ingenuous soul, again in the loftiest and most vehement outbursts of which man's nature is capable. The Psalms are at once most human and most superhuman; they sink to the lowest depths of the human heart and soar to the topmost heights of Divine contemplation.這些真理的規定,不是在教條的形式,但現在的簡單和天真的抒情渴望稚氣的靈魂,又在最崇高的和最強烈的爆發而人的本質是能力。的詩篇是一次最大多數人的超人;他們匯來的最低深度的人類心臟,並快速的最高度的神聖沉思。 So very human are the imprecatory psalms as to make some to wonder how they can have been inspired of God.非常人是imprecatory詩篇,使一些人不知道他們如何能夠受到啟發的上帝。 Surely Jahweh cannot have inspired the singer who prayed:當然Jahweh不能啟發歌手誰祈禱:

"As for them that plan my soul to destroy, Down to the depths of the earth shall they go; To the grasp of the sword shall they be delivered; A prey to the jackals shall they become". “至於他們計劃摧毀我的靈魂,到地球深處的應他們去;如果把握劍不得交付;阿獵物的豺應成為” 。 -- Psalm 83:10-11 (82:10-11) -詩篇83:10-11 ( 82:10-11 )

Such an objection is based upon a misunderstanding.這種反對是基於一種誤解。 The perfection of the counsels of Christ is one thing, the aim of the good Levite is quite another thing.完善律師基督是一回事,其目的是良好的利未人則完全是另一回事的事情。 The ideals of the Sermon on the Mount are of higher spirituality than are the ideals of the imprecatory psalm.理想的寶訓山是高靈性比的理想imprecatory詩篇。 Yet the ideals of the imprecatory psalm are not bad -- nay, are good, are Divine in their origin and authority.然而,理想的imprecatory詩篇不壞-不,是好的,是神在其原產地和權威。 The imprecatory psalms are national anthems; they express a nation's wrath, not an individual's.該imprecatory詩篇是國歌;他們表示,一個民族的憤怒,而不是個人的。 Humility and meekness and forgiveness of foe are virtues in an individual; not necessarily so of a nation; by no means so of the Chosen Nation of Jahweh, the people who knew by revelation that Jahweh willed they should be a great nation and should put out their enemies from the land which he gave them. Their great national love for their own people postulated a great national love for Jahweh.謙卑和溫順和寬恕的敵人是在一個人的美德;未必是一個民族;絕非如此所選國家的Jahweh ,誰知道的人的啟示是Jahweh意志,他們應該是一個偉大的國家,應撲滅他們的敵人的土地,他給了他們。他們的偉大的民族熱愛自己的人民假定一個偉大國家的愛Jahweh 。 The love for Jahweh postulated a hatred of the foes of Jahweh, and, in the theocratic economy of the Jewish folk, the foes of Jahweh were the foes of Israel.的愛情Jahweh假定的仇恨的敵人Jahweh ,並在神經濟猶太民歌,敵人Jahweh了敵人以色列。 If we bear this national purpose in mind, and forget not that all poetry, and especially Semitic poetry, is highly coloured and exaggerated, we shall not be shocked at the lack of mercy in the writers of the imprecatory psalms.如果我們考慮到這一點的國家的目的,並沒有忘記,所有的詩,尤其是猶太人的詩歌,是非常有色和誇大,我們不應感到震驚的是,缺乏慈悲的作家imprecatory詩篇。

The chief theological ideas of the Psalms are those that have regard to the Incarnation.首席神學思想的詩篇是那些關於體現。 Are there Messianic psalms?有彌賽亞詩篇? Unaided by the authentic interpreting power of the Church and neglectful of the consensus of the Fathers, Protestants have quite generally come to look upon the Psalms as non-Messianic either in literal or in typical meaning; the older Messianic interpretation is discarded as worn-out and threadbare.外援的真實解釋權力的教會和疏忽的共識的父親,新教徒已相當普遍來看待詩篇非彌賽亞無論在字面上或典型意義;老彌賽亞解釋被丟棄的破舊和俗套。 Delitzsch admits only Ps.德里承認只有聚苯乙烯。 cx (cix) to be Messianic in its literal meaning.國泰航空(捷達夥伴)是彌賽亞在其字面意義。 Cheyne denies both literal and typical Messianic meaning to the Psalms ("Origin of Ps.", 339).陳均否認彌賽亞字面和典型意義的詩篇( “原產地的PS 。 ” , 339 ) 。 Davison (Hast., loc. cit.) says, "it may well be that the Psalter contains hardly a single instance of direct Messianic prophecy".戴維森( Hast. ,同上。前。 )說, “很可能是很難的Psalter包含單一的直接彌賽亞的預言” 。 Catholics have ever held that some of the Psalms are Messianic in meaning, either literal or typical.天主教徒們都認為,一些詩篇是彌賽亞的意思,無論是文字或典型。 (Cf. articles INCARNATION; JESUS CHRIST; MESSIAS.) The New Testament clearly refers certain psalms to the Messias. (參見文章INCARNATION ;耶穌基督弭賽亞。 )新約顯然是指某些詩篇的弭賽亞。 The Fathers are unanimous in interpreting many psalms as prophecies of the coming, kingdom, priesthood, passion, death, and resurrection of the Messias.一致的父親在解釋許多詩篇作為預言未來,英國,司鐸,激情,死亡和復活的弭賽亞。 The coming of the Messias is predicted in Pss.的到來,預計在弭賽亞症狀評分。 xviii, l, lxviii, xcvi-xcviii (xvii, xlix, lxvii, xcv-xcvii).十八,升, lxviii , xcvi - xcviii (十七, xlix , lxvii , xcv , xcvii ) 。 St. Paul (Ephesians 4:8) interprets of Christ's ascent into heaven the words of Ps.聖保羅(以弗所書4點08 )解釋基督上升到天堂的話,聚苯乙烯。 lxviii, 18, description of Jahweh's ascent after conquering the world. lxviii , 18歲,說明Jahweh的崛起後,征服世界。 The kingdom of the Messias is predicted in Pss.王國弭賽亞預計在症狀評分。 ii, xviii, xx, xxi, xlv, lxi, lxxii, lxxxix, cx, cxxxii (ii, xvii, xix, xx, xliv, lx, lxxi, lxxxviii, cix, cxxxi); the priesthood in Ps.二,十八,二十,二十一,第四十五, LXI聯盟, lxxii , lxxxix ,國泰航空, cxxxii (二,十七,十九,二十,四十四,光照, lxxi , lxxxviii ,捷達夥伴, cxxxi ) ;鐸在PS 。 cx.國泰航空。 The passion and death of the Messias are clear in the sufferings of the Servant of Jahweh of Pss.的熱情和死亡弭賽亞是明確的苦難中的公僕Jahweh的PSS 。 xxii, xl, lxix (xxi, xxxix, lxviii).二十二,儀lxix ( 21 ,第39屆, lxviii ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 xxii was used in part, perhaps entirely, by Christ on the Cross; the Psalmist describes as his own the emotions and sufferings of the Messias.二十二中所使用的一部分,也許完全,基督在十字架上; Psalmist描述的是他自己的感情和痛苦的弭賽亞。 Hence it is that the Biblical Commission (1 May, 1910) rejects the opinion of those who do away with the Messianic and prophetic character of the Psalms and refer only to the future lot of the Chosen People those words which are prophecies concerning Christ.因此,該聖經委員會( 1910年5月1日)反對意見的人誰取消彌賽亞和預言性質的詩篇和僅指未來很多選民這些話是預言關於基督。 Cf.比照。 Maas, "Christ in Type and Prophecy" (New York, 1893).馬斯, “基督的類型和預言” (紐約, 1893年) 。

X. LITURGICAL USE十,禮儀使用

A. Jewish liturgy答:猶太禮儀

The use of the Psalms in Jewish liturgy has been spoken of.使用詩篇在猶太禮儀已談到。 Cf.比照。 also articles SYNAGOGUE; TEMPLE.文章還猶太教;寺。 -- -

B. Christian liturgy灣基督教禮儀

Christian liturgical use of the Psalter dates from the time of Christ and His Apostles.基督教禮儀使用Psalter日期從時間基督和他的使徒。 He recited the Hallels at the last Passover, Pss.他背誦Hallels在最後逾越節收縮。 cxiii-cxiv before the Last Supper, Pss. cxiii - cxiv前的最後的晚餐收縮。 cxv-cxviii thereafter; Ps. cxv - cxviii其後;聚苯乙烯。 xxii was His dying words; authoritative citations of other psalms appear in His discourses and those of His Apostles (cf. Luke 20:42; 24:44; Acts 1:20). 22是他臨終的話;權威性引文其他詩篇出現在他的話語和他的使徒(見路加福音20時42分; 24:44 ;行為1:20 ) 。 The Apostles used the Psalms in worship (cf. Acts 16:25; James 5:14; 1 Corinthians 14:26).使徒用詩篇的崇拜(見行為16:25 ;詹姆斯5時14分;哥林多前書14時26分) 。 The earliest liturgical service was taken from the Psalter.最早的禮儀服務是從Psalter 。 St. Paul represents the Ephesian Christians, to all seeming, psalmodizing, one choir answering the other; "Speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and psalmodizing [psallontes] in your hearts to the Lord, giving thanks [eucharistountes] always for all things" (Ephesians 5:19).聖保祿代表以弗所基督教徒,所有表面, psalmodizing ,一個合唱團的其他回答, “在談到對彼此的詩篇和讚美詩和精神的歌曲,歌唱及psalmodizing [ psallontes ]在你的心中的上帝,讓感謝[ eucharistountes ]總是對所有的事情“ (以弗所書5點19分) 。 Probably the Eucharistic agape is referred to.也許是聖阿加佩稱為。 A like reference is in Col., iii, 16.同樣是在參考上校,三, 16 。 St. Basil (PG, XXXII, 764) speaks of this psalmodizing in two choirs -- antipsallein allelois.聖巴茲爾(前列腺素,三十二, 764 )談到這個psalmodizing在兩個合唱團- antipsallein allelois 。 The custom of psalmody, or antiphonal singing, is said to have been introduced into the Church of Antioch by St. Ignatius (Socrates, "Hist. Eccl.", VI, viii).自定義的psalmody ,或antiphonal唱歌,據說已經引入安提阿教會的聖依納爵(蘇格拉底, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ” ,六,八) 。 From Syria, this custom of the Synagogue would seem to have passed over to Palestine and Egypt, to Asia Minor, Constantinople, and the West.來自敘利亞,這一習俗的猶太教堂,似乎已交給巴勒斯坦和埃及,到小亞細亞,君士坦丁堡,與西方國家。 St. Ambrose was the first to inaugurate in the West the chanting of the Psalms by two choirs (cf. Batiffol, "Histoire du breviaire romain", 1893).聖安布羅斯是第一個在西方發起的誦經的詩篇兩個合唱團(參見Batiffol , “史杜breviaire羅曼” , 1893年) 。 In the Proprium de tempore of the Roman Rite, all the Psalms are chanted at least once a week, some twice and oftener.在臨時Proprium日的羅馬禮,所有的詩篇都高喊每週至少一次,兩次,常常一些。 In Matins and Lauds, according to the Vulgate's numeration, are Pss.在晨禱並讚揚,根據拉丁文聖經的計算,是症狀評分。 i-cx, excepting a few that are fixed for Prime and other hours; in Vespers are Pss.一國泰航空,除少數有固定的總理和其他分;在晚禱的症狀評分。 cxi-cxlvii, excepting a few fixed for other hours. cxi - cxlvii ,除少數固定的其他小時。 The great alphabetic praise of the Law, Ps.偉大的字母讚揚法,聚苯乙烯。 cxviii, is distributed between Prime, Terce, Sext, and None. cxviii ,是總理之間分配, Terce , Sext ,沒有。 The Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Dominicans, who have their own rite, all chant the Psalter once a week; the Jesuits follow the Roman ritual.在本篤會,方濟各, Carmelites ,和多米尼加人,誰都有自己的儀式,所有唱Psalter一次;耶穌按照羅馬儀式。

In the Latin Rite, Pss.在拉丁美洲麗收縮。 vi, xxxi, xxxvii, l, ci, cxxix, cxlii (Douai) have long been recited, in the above order, as prayers of sorrow for sin; they are lyric cries of the sorrowing soul and have hence been called the "Penitential Psalms". Their recitation during Lent was ordered by Innocent III (1198-1216).六,三十一,三十七, L時,詞, cxxix , cxlii (杜埃)長期以來一直背誦,在上述命令,因為祈禱的悲痛罪;他們抒情呼聲sorrowing靈魂,並因此被稱為“ Penitential詩篇“ 。他們背誦四旬期期間被勒令無辜三( 1198年至1216年) 。 Pius V (1566-72) established the custom, now no longer of general obligation, whereby these psalms became a part of the Friday ferial Office of Lent.皮尤斯五( 1566年至1572年)設立了習慣,現在已不再普遍義務,即這些詩篇成為部分星期五ferial辦公室四旬期。

The Ambrosian Rite, still used in Milan cathedral, distributes the Psalms over two weeks.安布羅西安聖儀式的,還有用在米蘭大教堂,分配詩篇了兩個多星期。 The Oriental Rites in union with Rome (Melchite, Maronite, Syriac, Chaldean, Coptic, Æthiopic, etc.), together with the heretical Oriental Churches, all keep up the recitation of the Psalter as their Divine Office.東方禮在聯盟與羅馬( Melchite ,馬龍,敘利亞,加爾丁,科普特, Æthiopic等) ,連同邪教東方教會,所有保持背誦的Psalter其神聖的辦公室。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯M巴雷特。 Dedicated to the memory of Rev. AJ Maas, SJ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.為紀念牧師歐塞爾馬斯,律政司司長的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The bibliography of the Psalms is naturally enormous and can be given only in small part.的書目詩篇自然是巨大的,可以只在小部分。

Greek Fathers: ORIGEN, Selecta in Psalmos in PG, XII.希臘教父:奧利, Selecta在Psalmos中前列腺素,十二。 1043; IDEM, Homiliae in Psalmos in PG, XII, 1319; IDEM, Originis Hexaplorum quae supersunt, ed. 1043年;同上, Homiliae在Psalmos的指引,十二, 1319年;同上, Originis Hexaplorum quae supersunt ,教育署。 FIELD; EUSEBIUS, Comm.場;優西比烏,商業。 in Psalmos in PG, XXIII, 65; XXIV, 9; ST.在Psalmos的指引,二十三, 65條;第24 ,第9條;秘。 ATHANASIUS, Epist. Ad Marcellinum in PG, XXVII, 11; IDEM, Exegeses in Psalmos in PG, XXVII, 55; IDEM, De Titulis Psalmorum in PG, XXVII, 645; ST. ATHANASIUS , Epist 。廣告Marcellinum的指引,二十七,第11條;同上, Exegeses在Psalmos的指引,二十七, 55 ;同上,者Titulis Psalmorum的指引,二十七, 645 ;秘。 BASIL, Homiliae in Pss.羅勒, Homiliae在症狀評分。 in PG, XXIX, 209; ST.在前列腺素,第29 , 209 ;秘。 DIDYMUS OF ALEXANDRIA in PG, XXIX, 1155; ST. DIDYMUS亞歷山大素,第29屆, 1155年,意法半導體。 GREGORY OF NYSSA in PG, XLIV, 431, 608; ST.貴格利的NYSSA中前列腺素,四十四, 431 , 608 ;秘。 JOHN CHRYSOSTOM in PG, LV, 35, 527; ST. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA in PG, LXIX, 699; THEODORETUS in PG, LXXX, 857. Latin Fathers: ST.約翰金口的指引,呂, 35 , 527 ;秘。西里爾亞歷山大指引, LXIX , 699 ; THEODORETUS中前列腺素, LXXX , 857 。拉丁教父:聖。 AMBROSE, Enarrationes in XII Psalmos in PL, XIV, 921; ST. JEROME, Liber Psalmorum juxta hebraicam veritatem in PL, XXVIII, 1123; IDEM, Excerpta de Psalterio (Maredsous, 1895); IDEM, Epistolae in PL, XXII, 433, 441, 837; IDEM, Breviarium in Psalmos in PL, XXVI, 821; ST.劉漢銓, Enarrationes在第十二Psalmos在特等, 14 , 921 ;秘。 JEROME ,書Psalmorum旁hebraicam veritatem在特等,二十八, 1123年;同上,文摘日Psalterio ( Maredsous , 1895年) ;同上, Epistolae在特等, 22 , 433 , 441 , 837 ;同上, Breviarium在Psalmos的特等,二十六, 821 ;秘。 AUGUSTINE, Enarrationes in Pss.奧古斯丁Enarrationes在症狀評分。 in PL, XXXVII, 67; IDEM, Expositio in Pss.在特等,三十七, 67 ;同上, Expositio在症狀評分。 C-CL in PL, LI, 277; CASSIODORIUS in PL, LXX, 9.架C -發光的特等,李, 277 ; CASSIODORIUS在特等, LXX , 9 。

Commentators of the Middle Ages: BEDE, PETER LOMBARD, ST.評論家中世紀: BEDE ,彼得隆巴德,意。 THOMAS, ST. BONAVENTURE and others of the Middle Ages depend chiefly upon the Fathers for their interpretations.托馬斯,意法半導體。 BONAVENTURE和其他中世紀時,主要取決於其父親的解釋。 NICHOLAS OF LYRA, in his Postilla, and the converted Jew, PAUL, ARCHBISHOP OF BURGOS, in his Additions to the Postilla, gives us much of rabbinic interpretation.尼古拉的LYRA ,在他的Postilla和轉換猶太人,保羅大主教布爾戈斯,他添置的Postilla ,使我們許多拉比解釋。

Moderns: BELLARMINE, Explanatio in Psalmos (1611), was by far the best commentator on the Psalms till recent times, as he used scientific methods in textual criticism; SCHEGG, Die Psalmen (Munich, 1845); ROHLING (1871); THALHOFER (Ratisbon, 1904); WOLTER, Psallite Sapienter (Freiburg im Br., 1904); BICKELL, Der Psalter (1884); VAN STEENKISTE (1870); PATRIZI, Cento Salmi tradotti e commentati (1875); MINOCHI, I Salmi tradotti del Testo Ebreo (1895); LE HIR, Les Psaumes traduits de l'hebreu en latin avec la Vulgate en regard (Paris, 1876); LESETRE (Paris, 1883); FILLION, Les Psaumes commentes selon la Vulgate et l'Hebreu (Paris, 1893); CRAMPTON (1889); PANNIER (1908); ZENNER-WIESMANN, Die Psalmen nach dem Urtext (Munster, 1906); NIGLUTSCH (Trent, 1905); EATON, Sing ye to the Lord (London, 1909); HOBERG, Die Psalmen nach der Vulgata (Freiburg, 1892); M'SWINEY, Psalms and Canticles (St. Louis, 1901).現代人: BELLARMINE , Explanatio在Psalmos ( 1611年) ,是迄今最好的評論員的詩篇直到最近,他用科學方法在考據學; SCHEGG ,模具Psalmen (慕尼黑, 1845年) ; ROHLING ( 1871年) ; THALHOFER ( Ratisbon , 1904年) ;沃爾特, Psallite Sapienter (弗賴堡一二。 , 1904年) ; BICKELL ,明鏡Psalter ( 1884年) ;加值型網路STEENKISTE ( 1870年) ;柏德,琴薩爾米tradotti é commentati ( 1875年) ; MINOCHI ,我薩爾米tradotti刪除睾酮Ebreo ( 1895年) ;樂HIR ,法國Psaumes traduits法國hebreu恩拉丁美洲秒方面香格里拉武加大恩(巴黎, 1876年) ; LESETRE (巴黎, 1883年) ;菲利安,法國Psaumes commentes selon香格里拉武加大等歐萊雅Hebreu (巴黎, 1893年) ;克蘭普頓( 1889年) ;潘尼爾( 1908年) ;真蘭, WIESMANN ,模具Psalmen nach馬克Urtext (明斯特, 1906年) ; NIGLUTSCH (特倫特, 1905年) ;伊頓星葉主(倫敦, 1909年) ;霍貝格,模具Psalmen nach之Vulgata (弗賴堡, 1892年) ; M'SWINEY ,詩篇和Canticles (聖路易斯, 1901年) 。

Protestants: the commentaries of DE WETTE (1811-56); HITZIG (1863-65); OLSHAUSEN (1853); HUPFELD (1855-88); EWALD (1839-66); DELITZSCH (1895); DUHM (Freiburg im Br., 1899); BAETHGEN (Gottingen, 1904); CHEYNE (New York, 1892); International Critical Commentary, ed.新教徒:評注的De WETTE ( 1811年至1856年) ;希齊格( 1863年至1865年) ; OLSHAUSEN ( 1853年) ;霍普菲( 1855年至1888年) ; EWALD ( 1839年至1866年) ;德里( 1895年) ; DUHM (弗賴堡一二。 , 1899 ) ; BAETHGEN (哥廷根大學, 1904年) ;進益(紐約, 1892年) ;國際的評論,教育署。 BRIGGS (New York, 1907), the best of non-Catholic commentators on the Psalms; KIRKPATRICK in Cambridge Bible (1893-95). BRIGGS (紐約, 1907年) ,最好的非天主教評論家的詩篇; KIRKPATRICK劍橋聖經( 1893年至1895年) 。


Psalms詩篇

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Hymns of Praise:讚美詩的讚美:

Elegies:輓歌:

Didactic Psalms:培訓詩篇:

Literary Form.文學形式。

Religious and Ethical Content.宗教和道德的內容。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Composition of the Psalter.組成Psalter 。

Liturgical Songs.禮儀歌曲。

Hymn-Book of Second Temple.讚美詩圖書的第二聖殿。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Didactic Psalms.培訓詩篇。

The "Lamed Auctoris."該“ Lamed Auctoris 。 ”

Date of Psalter.日期Psalter 。

Reflection of History.反思歷史。

Reflex of Politics.反射性的政治。

Pilgrim Songs.涅斯皮歌曲。

Musical Accompaniment.音樂伴奏。

Name derived from the Greek ψαλμός (plural ψαλμοί), which signifies primarily playing on a stringed instrument, and secondarily the composition played or the song accompanied on such an instrument.名稱源自希臘ψαλμός (複數ψαλμοί ) ,這標誌著主要發揮的弦樂器,其次組成的歌曲播放或陪同就這樣一項文書。 In the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus) ψαλτήριον is used, which denotes a large stringed instrument, also a collection of songs intended to be sung to the accompaniment of strings (harp).在七十(法典頸) ψαλτήριον使用,這意味著大量弦樂器,也有收集的歌曲擬成的伴奏字符串(豎琴) 。 These terms are employed to translate the Hebrew "mizmor" and "tehillim."這些條款受聘,將希伯來文“ mizmor ”和“ tehillim 。 ” The exact derivation and meaning of the former are uncertain.確切的推導和意義,前者是不確定的。 It would seem that, etymologically denoting "paragraph," it owes its signification of "psalm," "song," or "hymn" to the circumstance that it is found prefixed to the superscriptions of a number of psalms.看來, etymologically表明“段, ”它欠其意義“詩篇” , “宋”或“讚美詩”的情況下,它被發現的前綴superscriptions一些詩篇。 The word "tehillim" is a plural, not occurring in Biblical Hebrew, from the singular "tehillah" = "song of praise."單詞“ tehillim ”是一個複數形式,而不是發生在聖經的希伯來語,從奇異“ tehillah ” = “讚美之歌。 ” It is thus a fitting title for the collection of songs found in the "Ketubim" or Hagiographa (the third main division of the Hebrew canon), and more fully described as "Sefer Tehillim," or the "Book of Psalms."因此,一個合適的標題收集的歌曲中找到“ Ketubim ”或Hagiographa (第三主要司希伯來語佳能) ,和更充分地描述為“ Sefer Tehillim , ”或“預訂的詩篇。 ” "Tehillim" is also contracted to "tillim" (Aramaic, "tillin"). : “ Tehillim : ”還承包“ tillim : ” (阿拉姆語, “ tillin : ” ) 。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

In the printed Hebrew Bible the Book of Psalms is the first of the Ketubim; but it did not always occupy this position, having formerly been preceded by Ruth.在印刷的圖書希伯來聖經的詩篇是第一個Ketubim ;但它並不總是佔據這個位置,在原之前,露絲。 (BB 14b; Tos. to. BB lc). ( BB心跳14B條; Tos 。對。 BB心跳信用證) 。 Jerome, however ("Prologus Galeatus"), has another order, in which Job is first and the Psalms second, while Sephardic manuscripts assign to Chronicles the first and to the Psalms the second place (comp. 'Ab. Zarah 19a).杰羅姆,但( “ Prologus Galeatus ” ) ,還有一個命令,在其中工作的詩篇第一和第二,而分配給Sephardic手稿記述了第一和第二位詩篇( comp. '抗體。 Zarah 19A條) 。 The Book of Psalms is one of the three poetic books denoted as (EMaT = Job [Iyyob], Proverbs [Mishle], and Psalms [Tehillim]) and having an accentuation (see Accents in Hebrew) of their own.書詩篇是三個字母作為詩歌書籍( EMaT =就業[ Iyyob ] ,諺語[ Mishle ] ,和詩篇[ Tehillim ] ) ,並在一個重讀(見口音希伯來文)自己。

The Sefer Tehillim consists of 150 psalms divided into five books, as follows: book i.該Sefer Tehillim由150個詩篇分為五本書,內容如下:一本書 = Ps. =聚苯乙烯。 i.-xli.一,四十一。 ii.二。 = Ps. =聚苯乙烯。 xlii.-lxxii.; iii. xlii. - lxxii 。 ;三。 = Ps. lxxiii.-lxxxix.; iv. =聚苯乙烯。 lxxiii. - lxxxix 。 ;四。 = Ps. =聚苯乙烯。 xc.-cvi.; v. = Ps. xc. - CVI的。 ;訴=聚苯乙烯。 cvii.-cl., the divisions between these books being indicated by doxologies (Ps. xli. 14 [AV 13]; lxxii. 19 [18-19]; lxxxix. 53 [52]; cvi. 48). The conclusion of book ii. cvii.-cl. ,之間的分歧正在這些書籍所指出doxologies ( Ps.四十一。 14 [影音13 ] ; lxxii 。 19 [ 18-19 ] ; lxxxix 。 53 [ 52 ] ; CVI的。 48 ) 。締結第二冊。 is still further marked by the gloss = "The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended."仍然是進一步顯著的光澤= “的禱告大衛的兒子傑西,是結束了。 ” Of the 150 psalms 100 are ascribed, in their superscriptions, to various authors by name: one, Ps. 150詩篇100歸因,在其superscriptions ,各作者的名字: 1 ,聚苯乙烯。 xc., to Moses; seventy-three to David; two, lxxii.坐標。 ,摩西; 73大衛;二, lxxii 。 and cxxvii., to Solomon; twelve, 1.和cxxvii 。 ,索羅門; 12 , 1 。 and lxxiii.和lxxiii 。 to lxxxiii., to Asaph; one, lxxxviii., to Heman; one, lxxxix., to Ethan; ten to the sons of Korah (eleven if lxxxviii., attributed also to Heman, is assigned to them).以LXXXIII號。 ,以Asaph ;之一, lxxxviii 。 ,以曼;之一, lxxxix 。 ,以葛特曼; 10的兒子Korah ( 11如果lxxxviii 。歸結還曼,是分配給他們) 。 In the Septuagint ten more psalms are credited to David.在七十多詩篇10記為大衛。 Sixteen psalms have other (mostly musical) headings. 16詩篇有其他(主要是音樂)標題。 According to their contents, the Psalms may be grouped as follows: (1) hymns of praise, (2) elegies, and (3) didactic psalms.根據他們的內容,詩篇可歸納如下: ( 1 )讚美詩讚美, ( 2 )哀歌,和( 3 )教學詩篇。

Hymns of Praise:讚美詩的讚美:

These glorify God, His power, and His loving-kindness manifested in nature or shown to Israel, or they celebrate the Torah, Zion, and the Davidic kingdom.這些榮耀上帝,他的權力,他的仁愛表現在性質或證明以色列,或者他們慶祝律法,錫安,和Davidic英國。 In this group are comprised the psalms of gratitude, expressing thankfulness for help extended and refuge found in times of danger and distress.在這組組成的詩篇感謝,並表示感謝幫助延長和避難的時候發現的危險和痛苦。 The group embraces about one-third of the Psalter.該組包含大約有三分之一的Psalter 。

Elegies:輓歌:

These lend voice to feelings of grief at the spread of iniquity, the triumph of the wicked, the sufferings of the just, the "humble," or the "poor," and the abandonment of Israel.這些貸款的聲音感情的悲痛的蔓延不公正的勝利惡人,痛苦的公正, “謙虛”或“窮人” ,並放棄以色列。 In this category are comprehended the psalms of supplication, the burden of which is fervent prayer for the amelioration of conditions, the restoration of Israel to grace, and the repentance of sinners.在這個類別中的詩篇是理解的祈求,負擔是熱切地祈禱改善的條件下,恢復對以色列的寬限期,並悔改的罪人。 The line of demarcation between elegy and supplication is not sharply drawn. Lamentation often concludes with petition; and prayer, in turn, ends in lamentation.分界線之間的輓歌和祈求不是急劇得出。悲嘆往往最後請願;和祈禱,進而結束悲嘆。 Perhaps some of this group ought to be considered as forming a distinct category by themselves, and to be designated as psalms of repentance or penitential hymns; for their key-note is open confession of sin and transgression prompted by ardent repentance, preluding the yearning for forgiveness.也許有些本集團應視為構成一個獨特的類別本身,以及被指定為詩篇的懺悔或悔罪的讚美詩;的關鍵注意的是開放的招供的罪孽和侵提示殷切悔改, preluding的渴望寬恕。 These aredistinct from the other elegies in so far as they are inspired by consciousness of guilt and not by the gnawing sense of unmerited affliction.這些aredistinct其他輓歌只要感到鼓舞意識有罪而不是痛苦感覺過份的痛苦。

Didactic Psalms:培訓詩篇:

These, of quieter mood, give advice concerning righteous conduct and speech, and caution against improper behavior and attitude.這些,在安靜的氣氛,提供諮詢有關正義行為和言論,並告誡不要不當行為和態度。 Of the same general character, though aimed at a specific class or set of persons, are the imprecatory psalms, in which, often in strong language, shortcomings are censured and their consequences expatiated upon, or their perpetrators are bitterly denounced. Most of the 150 psalms may, without straining the context and content of their language, be assigned to one or another of these three (or, with their subdivisions, seven) groups.相同的一般性質,但以特定類或一組人,是imprecatory詩篇,其中,往往是在強大的語言,缺點是譴責,並闡述其後果時,或其肇事者是強烈譴責。多數150詩篇,可無須緊張的背景和內容,他們的語言,被分配到一個或另一個,這三個(或其下屬7 )群體。 Some scholars would add another class, viz., that of the king-psalms, eg, Ps. ii., xviii., xx., xxi., xlv., lxi., lxxii., and others.一些學者將添加另一個階級,即。 ,即國王,詩篇,如聚苯乙烯。二。 ,十八。 ,二十。 ,二十一。 ,第四十五。 , LXI聯盟。 , lxxii 。等等。 Though in these king-psalms there is always allusion to a king, they as a rule will be found to be either hymns of praise, gratitude, or supplication, or didactic songs.雖然在這些特大詩篇總是有針對的國王,他們通常會發現,無論讚美詩讚美,感激,或祈求,或說教的歌曲。 Another principle of grouping is concerned with the character of the speaker.另一個原則分組關注的是性質的發言。 Is it the nation that pours out its feelings, or is it an individual who unburdens his soul?是它的民族,注入了感情,還是個人誰unburdens他的靈魂? Thus the axis of cleavage runs between national and individual psalms.因此,軸運行卵裂國家和個人之間的詩篇。

Literary Form.文學形式。

In form the Psalms exhibit in a high degree of perfection charm of language and wealth of metaphor as well as rhythm of thought, ie, all of the variety of parallelism.在形式的詩篇展覽高度完美的魅力語言和豐富的比喻以及節奏的思路,即所有的各種並行。 The prevailing scheme is the couplet of two corresponding lines.當前的計劃是對聯的兩個相應的線路。 The triplet and quatrain occur also, though not frequently.在三重和四行也發生,但不是經常。 For the discussion of a more regular metrical system in the Psalms than this parallelism reference is made to J. Ley ("Die Metrischen Formen der Hebräischen Poesie," 1866; "Grundzüge des Rhythmus der Hebräischen Poesic," 1875), Bickell ("Carmina VT Metrice," 1882; and in "ZDMG" 1891-94), Grimme ("Abriss der Biblisch-Hebräischen Metrik," ib. 1896-97), and Ed.為討論更經常測量系統中的詩篇比這個並行提到學者法( “模具Metrischen Formen之Hebräischen詩” , 1866年; “ Grundzüge萬Rhythmus之Hebräischen Poesic ” , 1875年) , Bickell ( “卡爾米納佛蒙特州Metrice , “ 1882年;並在” ZDMG “ 1891年至1894年) , Grimme ( ” Abriss之Biblisch - Hebräischen Metrik , “國際文憑。 1896年至1897年) ,和Ed 。 Sievers ("Studien zur Hebräischen Metrik," Leipsic, 1901; see also "Theologische Rundschau," 1905, viii. 41 et seq.). Sievers ( “ Studien楚Hebräischen Metrik , ” Leipsic , 1901年;又見“神評論報” , 1905年,八。 41起。 ) 。 The refrain may be said to constitute one of the salient verbal features of some of the psalms (comp. Ps. xlii. 5, 11; xliii. 5; xlvi. 7, 11; lxxx. 3, 7, 19; cvii. 8, 15, 21, 31; cxxxvi., every half-verse of which consists of "and his goodness endureth forever").在不可以說構成一個突出特點,一些口頭上的詩篇( comp.聚苯乙烯。四十二。 5日, 11日;四十三。 5 ;四十六。 7日, 11日; lxxx 。 3日, 7日, 19日; cvii 。 8 , 15 , 21 , 31 ; cxxxvi 。 ,每半年詩,其中包括“和他的善良忍耐永遠” ) 。 Several of the psalms are acrostic or alphabetic in their arrangement, the succession of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet occurring in various positions-the beginning of every verse, every hemistich, or every couplet; in the last-mentioned case the letters may occur in pairs, ie, in each couplet the two lines may begin with the same letter.一些詩篇是acrostic或字母在他們的安排,繼承信希伯來字母發生在不同的立場,開始每詩句,每hemistich ,或每對聯;在最後提到的情況下,信中可能會發生對,即在每個對聯兩行可能首先同一封信。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cix.捷達夥伴。 has throughout eight verses beginning with the same letter.在整個8詩句開始同一封信。 Occasionally the scheme is not completely carried out (Ps. ix.-x.), one letter appearing in the place of another (see also Ps. xxv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii.).有時候計劃沒有完全執行( Ps. ix.-x. ) ,信中出現的一個地點的另一(又見聚苯乙烯。二十五。 ,三十七。 , cxi 。 , cxii 。 ) 。

Religious and Ethical Content.宗教和道德的內容。

The religious and ethical content of the Psalms may be summarized as a vivid consciousness of God's all-sustaining, guiding, supreme power.在宗教和道德的詩篇內容可概括為一個生動的意識上帝的所有維持,指導,最高權力。 The verbal terms are often anthropomorphic; the similes, bold (eg, God is seated in the heavens with the earth as His footstool; He causes the heavens to bow down; He scatters the enemies of His people; He spreads a table).口頭用語往往是擬人化的明喻,大膽的(例如,上帝是坐在天空與地球為他腳凳;他原因天上來低頭彎腰;他撒在他的人民的敵人;他差一個表) 。 God's justice and mercy are the dominant notes in the theology of the Psalms.上帝的正義和憐憫是最主要的債券在神學的詩篇。 His loving-kindness is the favorite theme of the psalmists.他的仁愛是最喜愛的主題psalmists 。 God is the Father who loves and pities His children.上帝是父親誰喜歡和pities他的孩子們。 He lifts up the lowly and defeats the arrogant. His kingdom endures for ever.他解除了低和失敗的囂張氣焰。祂的國度忍受永遠。 He is the Holy One.他是羅馬的一個。 The heavens declare His glory: they are His handiwork.天宣布他光榮:他們是他的手藝。 The religious interpretation of nature is the intention of many of these hymns of praise (notably Ps. viii., xix., xxix., lxv., xciii., civ.).宗教性質的解釋的意圖是許多讚美詩讚美(特別是聚苯乙烯。八。 ,十九。 ,第29屆。 , lxv 。 , xciii 。 ,持續輸注。 ) 。 Man's frailty, and withal his strength, his exceptional position in the sweep of creation, are other favorite themes.人的脆弱,並withal自己的力量,他的特殊地位,橫掃創造,其他喜歡的主題。 Sin and sinners are central to some psalms, but even so is the well-assured confidence of the God-fearing.黃大仙和罪人是中央的一些詩篇,但即使這樣是良好的保證信心敬畏上帝。 Repentance is the path-pointer to the forgiving God.懺悔是路徑指向原諒上帝。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 1., for instance, rings with an Isaianic protest against sacrificial ritualism. 1 。 ,例如,戒指與Isaianic抗議犧牲形式主義。 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit. Often the nation is made to speak; yet the "I" in the Psalms is not always national.上帝的犧牲是一個破碎的精神。往往是國家發言;然而, “我”的詩篇並不總是國家。 Individualization of religion is not beyond the horizon.個性化的宗教是沒有超出視野。 Nor is it true that the national spirit alone finds expression and that the perfect man pictured is always and necessarily conceived of as a son of Israel.它也不是真正的民族精神,僅表現,而且完美的人想像總是和一定設想作為一個兒子以色列。 The universalistic note is as often struck.的普遍性說明是經常發生。 The imprecations of such psalms as cix.在這些詩篇imprecations的捷達夥伴。 are not demonstrations of the vindictiveness of narrow nationalism.沒有示威的報復的狹隘的民族主義。 Read in the light of the times when they were written (see Psalms, Critical View), these fanatical utterances must be understood as directed against Israelites-not non-Jews.閱讀鑑於時候,他們的書面(見詩篇,批評的看法) ,這些狂熱的言論必須被理解為針對以色列人,不是非猶太人。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 xv.十五。 is the proclamation of an ethical religion that disregards limitations of birth or blood. Again, the "poor" and the "meek" or "humble," so often mentioned-"poverty" or humility being found even among God's attributes (xviii. 35)-are Israelites, the "servants of Yhwh," whose sufferings have evoked Deutero-Isaiah's description (Isa. liii:). The "return of Israel" and the establishment of God's reign of justice contemporaneously with Israel's restoration are focal in the eschatology of the Psalms, treated as a whole.就是宣布一種道德的宗教,無視限制出生或血液。同樣, “窮人”和“溫柔”或“謙虛” ,所以經常提到的, “貧窮”或謙遜被發現即使是上帝的屬性( xviii. 35 ) ,是猶太人的“公僕Yhwh , ”他們的痛苦引起Deutero -以賽亞的說明( Isa. liii : ) 。 “返回以色列的”和建立上帝的統治的正義contemporaneously與以色列恢復是重點中的末世論的詩篇,被視為一個整體。 But perhaps this method of regarding the Psalms as virtually reflecting identical views must be abandoned, the reasons for which are detailed in Psalms, Critical View.但也許此方法的有關詩篇幾乎反映了相同的看法必須放棄,原因是其中有詳細的詩篇,持批評態度。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The richest in content and the most precious of the three large Ketubim (Ber. 57a), the Sefer Tehillim is regarded as a second Pentateuch, whose virtual composer was David, often likened to Moses (Midr. Teh. ch. i.).豐富的內容和最寶貴的3個大型Ketubim ( Ber. 57A章)中, Sefer Tehillim被視為第二個摩西五,其虛擬作曲家大衛,常常比喻為摩西( Midr.的。總。一) 。 "Moses gave [Israel] the five books of the Torah, and to correspond with them [] David gave them the Sefer Tehillim, in which also there are five books" (ib.). “摩西了[以色列]的五本書的律法,並符合他們[ ]大衛給他們Sefer Tehillim ,其中也有五本書” ( ib. ) 。 Its sacred character as distinct from such books as the "Sifre Homerns" (works of Hermes, not Homer) is explicitly emphasized (Midr. Teh. lc; Yalḳ. ii. 613, 678).其神聖性質有別於這類書籍作為“ Sifre Homerns ” (作品赫耳墨斯,而不是荷馬)明確強調( Midr.的。立法會; Yalḳ 。二。 613 , 678 ) 。 The Psalms are essentially "songs and laudations" ().基本上的詩篇“歌曲和laudations ” ( ) 。 According to Rab, the proper designation for the book would be "Halleluyah" (Midr. Teh. lc), because that term comprehends both the Divine Name and its glorification, and for this reason is held to be the best of the ten words for praise occurring in the Psalms.據饒,適當指定為這本書將是“ Halleluyah ” ( Midr.的。立法會) ,因為這個詞理解的神聖名稱及其美化,為此舉行是最好的十個字讚美中發生的詩篇。 These ten words, corresponding in number to the ten men who had a part in composing the Psalms, are: "berakah" (benediction); Hallel; "tefillah" (prayer); "shir" (song); "mizmor" (psalm); "neginah" (melody); "nazeaḥ" (to play on an instrument); "ashre" (happy, blessed); "hodot" (thanks); "halleluyah" (ib.).這十個字,相應數量的10名誰了參與撰寫的詩篇,是: “ berakah ” (祝福) ; Hallel ; “ tefillah ” (祈禱) , “獅” (宋) ; “ mizmor ” (詩篇) ; “ neginah ” (旋律) ; “ nazeaḥ ” (發揮的文書) ; “ ashre ” (快樂,幸福) ; “ hodot ” (謝謝) ; “ halleluyah ” ( ib. ) 。

Composition of the Psalter.組成Psalter 。

Ten men had a share in the compilation of this collection, but the chief editor was David (BB 15a; Midr. Teh. i.).十名男子所佔的比重在此收集彙編,但主編是大衛( BB心跳15A條; Midr 。的。一) 。 Of the ten names two variant lists are given, namely: (1) Adam, Moses, Asaph, Heman, Abraham, Jeduthun, Melchizedek, and three sons of Korah; (2) Adam, Moses, Asaph, Heman, Abraham, Jeduthun, David, Solomon, the three sons of Korah counted as one, and Ezra (BB 14b; Cant. R. to verse iv. 4; Eccl. R. to vii. 19; sometimes for Abraham, Ethan ha-Ezraḥi is substituted).的10名兩個名單有變,即: ( 1 )亞當,摩西, Asaph ,曼,亞伯拉罕, Jeduthun ,麥基洗德,和三個兒子的Korah ; ( 2 )亞當,摩西, Asaph ,曼,亞伯拉罕, Jeduthun ,大衛,所羅門,三個兒子Korah算作一個,以斯拉( BB心跳14B條;插件。河以詩四。 4 ; Eccl 。河至第七。 19 ;有時亞伯拉罕,葛特曼河Ezraḥi取代) 。 Adam's psalms are such as refer to cosmogony, creation.亞當的詩篇是如提及宇宙,創造。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 v., xix., xxiv., xcii.五,十九。 ,二十四。 , xcii 。 (Yalḳ. ii. 630) were said to have been written by David, though Adam was worthy to have composed them. ( Yalḳ.二。 630 )據說被寫的大衛,但亞當值得他們已經組成。

The division into five books known to the Rabbis corresponded with that observed in modern editions.該司分為五個書籍已知的拉比與觀測相符的現代版。 The order of the Psalms was identical with that of modern recensions; but the Rabbis suspected that it was not altogether correct.順序相同的詩篇與現代recensions ;但拉比懷疑這是不是完全正確的。 Rabbi Joshua ben Levi is reported to have desired to make alterations (Midr. Teh. xxxvii.). Moses was credited with the authorship of eleven psalms, xc.-c.拉比約書亞本列維是有希望的報告,使改建( Midr.的。三十七。 ) 。摩西貸記與著作權11詩篇, xc.-c. (ib. xc.). ( ib.坐標。 ) 。 They were excluded from the Torah because they were not composed in the prophetic spirit (ib.).他們被排除在律法,因為他們沒有組成的預言精神( ib. ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 xxx. xxx域名。 ("at the dedication of the house") was ascribed to David as well as to Ezra (ib. xxx.). Twenty-two times is "ashre" found in the Psalms; and this recalls the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet (ib. i.). ( “在奉獻的房子” ) ,是歸因於大衛以及以斯拉( ib.三十) 。 。 22倍是“ ashre ”發現的詩篇;和回顧2002年的希伯來字母字母( ib.島) 。 "Barki nafshi" occurs five times in Ps. “ Barki nafshi ”出現5次在PS 。 ciii., recalling the analogy with the Pentateuch (ib. ciii.). ciii 。 ,回顧類比與摩西五( ib. ciii 。 ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 xxix.二十九。 names Yhwh eighteen times, in analogy with the eighteen benedictions of the Shemoneh 'Esreh (ib. xxix.).名稱Yhwh 18倍,在類比與18 benedictions的Shemoneh ' Esreh ( ib.二十九。 ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cxxxvi. cxxxvi 。 is called "Hallel ha-Gadol" (Pes. 118a), to which, according to some, the songs "of degrees" also belong.被稱為“ Hallel公頃,加多” ( Pes. 118a ) ,其中,根據一些,歌曲“度”也屬於這種情況。 The ordinary "Hallel" was composed of Ps.普通“ Hallel ”組成的PS 。 cxiii-cxviii. cxiii - cxviii 。 (Pes. 117a). The Masorah divides the book into nineteen "sedarim," the eleventh of these beginning with Ps. ( Pes. 117a ) 。劃分的Masorah到19本書“ sedarim , ”第十一屆這些從聚苯乙烯。 lxxviii. lxxviii 。 38(see Masoretic note at end of printed text). 38 (見馬所拉注意到月底印刷文本) 。

One Palestinian authority, R. Joshua b.一個巴勒斯坦權力機構,河約書亞灣 Levi, counts only 147 psalms (Yer. Shah. 15).列維數只有147詩篇( Yer.沙阿。 15 ) 。 According to Grätz ("Psalem," p. 9), this variance was due to the effort to equalize the number of psalms with that of the Pentateuchal pericopes according to the triennial cycle.據格拉茨( “ Psalem , ”第9頁) ,這一差異的原因是為了平衡與一些詩篇,在Pentateuchal pericopes根據三年週期。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 i. and ii.一和二。 were counted as one in Babylon (Ber. 9b, 10a; as in the LXX.).被視為一個在巴比倫( Ber. 9B條, 10A條;在LXX 。 ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 x. 15 belonged to ix. 15屬於九。 (Meg. 17b). ( Meg. 17B條) 。 The concluding verse of Ps.結論詩句的PS 。 xix.十九。 was added to Ps.添加到PS 。 xviii.十八。 (Ber. 9b); xlii. ( Ber. 9B條) ;四十二。 and xliii.和四十三。 were counted as one (see Fürst, "Kanon," p. 71).被視為一個(見弗斯特, “雪之少女” ,第71頁) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 lxxviii. lxxviii 。 was divided into two parts comprising verses 1 to 37 and 38 to 72 respectively (Ḳid. 30a).分為兩個部分組成的詩句1至37和38至72分別為( Ḳid. 30A的) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cxiv. cxiv 。 and cxv.和cxv 。 were united (see Ḳimḥi, commentary on Ps. cxiv.), and cxviii, was divided into two.被聯合國(見Ḳimḥi ,評注在PS 。 cxiv 。 )和cxviii ,被分為兩個。 Psalms whose authors were not known, or the occasion for whose composition was not indicated, were described as "orphans" (; 'Ab. Zarah 24b).詩篇的作者不詳,或場合,其組成也沒有說明,被稱為“孤兒” ( ; '抗體。 Zarah 24b ) 。

Liturgical Songs.禮儀歌曲。

According to Talmudic tradition, psalms were sung by the Levites immediately after the daily libation of wine; and every liturgical psalm was sung in three parts (Suk. iv. 5).根據猶太法典的傳統,詩篇傳唱的利後立即每日奠葡萄酒;和每禮儀詩篇是成三個部分( Suk.四。 5 ) 。 During the intervals between the parts the sons of Aaron blew three different blasts on the trumpet (Tamid vii. 3).在間隔部分的兒子亞倫三種不同的爆炸襲擊的小號( Tamid七。 3 ) 。 The daily psalms are named in the order in which they were recited: on Sunday, xxiv.; Monday, xlviii.; Tuesday, lxxxii.; Wednesday, xciv.; Thursday, lxxxi.; Friday, xciii.; and Sabbath, xcii.每日詩篇命名的先後順序,他們背誦:週日,二十四。星期一,四十八。 ;星期二, lxxxii 。 ;星期三,第九十四。 ;星期四, lxxxi 。 ;星期五, xciii 。 ;和安息日, xcii 。 (Tamid lc). ( Tamid立法會) 。 This selection shows that it was made at a time when Israel was threatened with disaster (see Rashi on Suk. 55a).這一選擇表明,它是在的時候,以色列的威脅與災害(見Rashi對錫。第55A ) 。 The fifteen "Songs of Degrees" were sung by the Levites at the Feast of Tabernacles, at the festive drawing of water. 15 “詩經度”傳唱的利在住棚節,在節日圖紙的水。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 cxxxv. cxxxv 。 and cxxxvi.和cxxxvi 。 were recited antiphonally by the officiating liturgist and the people.是背誦antiphonally由主liturgist和人民。 As New-Year psalms, lxxxi.隨著新一年詩篇, lxxxi 。 and the concluding verses of xxix.和結論詩句二十九。 were used (RH 30b).用(相對濕度30B條) 。 Those designated for the semiholy days of Sukkot are enumerated in Suk. 55a.這些指定的semiholy天的住棚節列舉了淑。第55A 。 Massek. Massek 。 Soferim xviii. Soferim十八。 2 names those assigned for Passover. 2名那些分配逾越節。 At New Moon a certain psalm (number not given in the Talmud) was sung in the Temple (Suk. 55a); Soferim names Ps.在新的月球一定詩篇(人數不考慮在塔爾穆德)是宋在廟( Suk.第55A ) ; Soferim名稱聚苯乙烯。 cv.簡歷。 with the concluding verses of civ.與結論詩句持續輸注。 For Ḥanukkah Ps.對於光明聚苯乙烯。 xxx. xxx域名。 is reserved (Soferim xviii. 2). From Soṭah ix.保留( Soferim十八。 2 ) 。從Soṭah九。 10 (see Tosefta ad loc.) it is apparent that at one time Ps. 10 (見Tosefta廣告同上。 )很明顯,在同一時間聚苯乙烯。 xliv.四十四。 constituted a part of the Temple morning liturgy, while xxx.構成部分寺上午禮儀,而三十。 was sung during the offering of the First-Fruits.是在宋提供的第一水果。 The same psalm, as well as iii.同樣的詩篇,以及三。 and xci., was sung to the accompaniment of musical instruments on the occasion of the enlargement of Jerusalem (Shebu. 14a).和xci 。 ,是宋代的伴奏樂器上的講話擴大耶路撒冷( Shebu. 14A條) 。

Hymn-Book of Second Temple.讚美詩圖書的第二聖殿。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The Book of Psalms may be said to be the hymn-book of the congregation of Israel during the existence of the Second Temple, though not every psalm in the collection is of a character to which this designation may apply.書詩篇可說是讚美詩書的聚集在以色列的存在,第二聖殿,但並不是每一個詩篇中的集合是一個性質的指定,可申請。 By earlier critics advancing this view of the nature of the Psalms it was held that they were hymns sung in the Temple either by the Levites or by the people.早期的批評推進這一觀點的性質詩篇有人認為,他們唱讚美詩廟無論是利或由人民。 Later scholars have modified this opinion in view of the circumstance that the participation of the people in the Temple ritual was very slight and also because the contents of many of the psalms are such that their recitation at sacrificial functions is not very probable (eg, Ps. xl. and l., which have a certain anti-sacrificial tendency).後來學者們的意見修改了此觀點的情況下參加的人在廟儀式是非常輕微,還因為其內容的許多詩篇是如此,他們的朗誦在不犧牲功能很可能(例如,絲氨酸。儀。與湖,具有一定的反犧牲趨勢) 。 While B.雖然灣 Jacob (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1897, xvii.) insists that the Psalter is a hymn-book for the congregation assisting at or participating in the sacrificial rite, and as such must contain also liturgical songs intended for individuals who had to bring offerings on certain occasions, others maintain that, while a number of the hymns undoubtedly were of sacerdotal import and, consequently, were intended to be sung in the Temple, many were written for intonation at prayer in the synagogue.雅各布(在體育場的“雜誌” , 1897年,十七。 )堅持認為, Psalter是讚美詩書為眾協助或參與祭天,因此必須包含禮儀歌曲也為個人誰曾使產品在某些情況下,其他人堅持認為,雖然一些人的讚美詩無疑的sacerdotal進口,因此,擬成在聖殿,許多人寫的語調在祈禱中的猶太教堂。 In this connection the determination of the reference in the so-called "I" psalms is of importance. The discovery of the Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) has caused Nöldeke (Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1900, xx.), on the strength of the observation that in Ecclus.在這方面的決心中提到了所謂的“我”詩篇是重要的。這項發現的希伯來文Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach )已造成Nöldeke (體育場的“雜誌” , 1900年,二十。 )的力量的觀察,在Ecclus 。 (Sirach) li. ( Sirach )李。 2-29 the "I" refersto Ben Sira, to urge that the "I" psalms must similarly be construed as individual confessions. 2月29日的“我” refersto本特希拉,敦促“我”詩篇必須同樣被視為個人的口供。 The traditional view was that David, the reputed author of most of these "I" psalms, was in them unbosoming his own feelings and relating his own experiences.傳統的看法是,大衛,著名作家大多數這些“我”詩篇,是在他們unbosoming自己的感情和有關他自己的經驗。 It is more probable, however, that, while the "I" in some instances may have its individual significance, on the whole this personal pronoun has reference to the "congregation of Israel" or to a circle or set of congregants at prayer, the "pious," the "meek," the "righteous." The metrical reconstruction of the Psalms (see Baethgen, "Commentar," 3d ed.) promises to throw light on this problem, as the assumption is well grounded that hymns written for or used on public liturgical occasions had a typical metrical scheme of their own (comp. "Theologische Rundschau," viii., Feb., 1905).它更有可能,但認為,儘管“我”在某些情況下可能有其個人的意義,對整個這個人稱代詞已提及“聚集以色列”或一個圓圈或一套教徒在祈禱,在“虔誠”的“溫柔”和“正義” 。測量重建詩篇(見Baethgen , “ Commentar ”的3D版。 )承諾把對這個問題,因為良好的基礎假設是書面的讚美詩或使用公共禮儀場合有一個典型的測量計劃,其自身( comp. “神評論報, ”八。 , 2月, 1905年) 。 At all events, some of the psalms must have served at private devotion (eg, Ps. cxli.), as, indeed, the custom of hymn-singing at night-time by some of the pious is alluded to (ib. lix., xcii., cxix., cxlix.).在所有的事件,一些詩篇必須有送達私人奉獻(如聚苯乙烯。 cxli 。 ) ,因為實際上,自定義的讚美詩,歌唱在夜間的一些虔誠是提到( ib.螺旋。 , xcii 。 , cxix 。 , cxlix 。 ) 。

Didactic Psalms.培訓詩篇。

On the other hand, many of the didactic psalms remind one of the general type of gnomic anthologies.另一方面,許多教學詩篇提醒一個一般類型的gnomic選集。 It seems more likely that these were recited, not sung, and were learned by heart for ethical instruction and guidance.似乎更有可能,這些是背誦,不唱,並從中學到了心臟道德的指示和指導。 That the "alphabetical" psalms were not intended originally for liturgical uses may be inferred at least from Ps.說, “字母”詩篇並不打算最初的禮儀用途,可以推斷,至少從聚苯乙烯。 cxi. cxi 。 Most of this class reflect the study-room of the scholar, and lack entirely the spontaneity of the worshipful spirit. There are good reasons for regarding Ps.大多數這一類反映了學習室的學者,以及缺乏完全的自發性的worshipful精神。有很好的理由對聚苯乙烯。 i.字母i. as a prologue, prefaced to the whole collection by its latest editors, who were not priests (Sadducees), but scribes (Pharisees) interested in the rise and establishment of synagogal worship as against the sacerdotal liturgy of the Temple.作為一個序幕,開頭到整個收集了其最新的編輯,誰不祭司(撒都該人) ,但文士(法利)感興趣的崛起和建立synagogal崇拜作為對sacerdotal禮儀聖殿。 If so regarded, Ps.如果是這樣認為,聚苯乙烯。 i.字母i. reveals the intention of the editors to provide in this collection a book of instruction as well as a manual of prayer.表明的意圖,編輯,提供在此收集了一本書的指示,以及一本手冊的祈禱。

The existing Psalter is a compilation of various collections made at various times.現有的Psalter彙編了各種藏品在各種次。 The division into several parts was not in every case altogether due to a desire to imitate the structure of the Pentateuch.該司分成幾個部分並不完全在每一種情況下,由於希望模仿的結構摩西五。 Books i.圖書島 (Ps. i.-lxi.), ii. ( Ps.島- LXI聯盟。 )二。 (Ps. lxii.-lxxii.), and iii. (Ps. lxxiii.-lxxxix.) are marked as separate collections by doxologies, a fact which points to their separate compilation. ( Ps. lxii. - lxxii 。 )和三。 ( Ps. lxxiii. - lxxxix 。 )被標記為單獨的集合doxologies ,這點,他們分別彙編。 The doxology which now divides books iv.現在的doxology分為書籍四。 and v. after Ps.和訴後聚苯乙烯。 cvi. CVI的。 has the appearance of being the beginning of another psalm (comp. I. Chron. xvi., where it occurs at the close of the interpolation verses 8 to 36).已經出現了正在開始另一詩篇( comp.一專欄。十六。 ,它發生在結束時插值詩句8至36 ) 。 It is impossible to determine the date at which these older collections may have been put together.這是無法確定的日期,這些老年人可能已經收集整理。 Book i., containing "David" psalms (originally without Ps. i. and ii.), may have been the first to be compiled.此書一,載有“大衛”詩篇(原來沒有聚苯乙烯。一和二。 ) ,可能是第一個被編譯。 In books ii.在書籍二。 and iii.及iii 。 (Ps. lxii-lxxxix.) several older and smaller compilations seem to be represented, and that, too, in some disorder. ( Ps. lxii - lxxxix 。 )一些老年人和小彙編似乎代表,這也是在某些障礙。 The (a) "David" hymns (ὐμνοι = ; ib. li-lxxii.) are clearly distinct from the (b) songs of the sons of Korah (xlii.-xlix.), (c) "Asaph" songs (l., lxxiii.-lxxxiii.), and (d) later supplements of promiscuous psalms (lxxxiv.-lxxxix.).在(一) “大衛”讚美詩( ὐμνοι = ;國際文憑。李lxxii 。 )顯然有別於(二)歌曲的兒子Korah ( xlii. - xlix 。 ) , (三) “ Asaph ”首歌曲(升。 , lxxiii. - LXXXIII號。 )和( d )後來補充的混雜詩篇( lxxxiv. - lxxxix 。 ) 。 It is noteworthy that in the "David" hymns duplicates of psalms are found, incorporated also in book i.值得注意的是,在“大衛”讚美詩重複詩篇被發現,也包含在本書一 (Ps. liii. = xiv.; lxx. = xl. 14-18; lxxi. 1-3 = xxxi. 2-4), while lvii. ( Ps. liii 。 =十四。 ; lxx 。 =儀。 14-18 ; lxxi 。 1-3 =三十一。 2-4 ) ,而第五十七。 8 et seq. 8起。 is duplicated in book v.重複書訴 (cviii. 2-6). ( cviii. 2月6日) 。 Another peculiarity of this book is the use of "Elohim" for "Yhwh," except in the supplement (lxxxiv.-lxxxix.). Comparison of the texts of the duplicate psalms, as well as the circumstance that these duplicates occur, indicates the freedom with which such collections were made, and suggests that many collections were in existence, each with variant content.另一個特點,這本書是使用“耶洛因”為“ Yhwh , ”除非是在補充( lxxxiv. - lxxxix 。 ) 。比較文本重複詩篇,以及這種情況下,這些重複的發生,表明了這種自由與收藏了,並表明,許多藏品都存在的,每個變量的內容。 Book iv.第四篇。 is distinct in so far as it contains, with the exception of three psalms (xc. "of Moses"; ci., ciii. "of David"; but in the Septuagint nine more), only anonymous ones.是獨特的,因為它包含,除三個詩篇( xc. “摩西” ;詞。 , ciii 。 “大衛” ,但在七十個以上) ,只有匿名的。 The character of the doxology (see above) suggests that this book was separated from the following only to carry out the analogy with the Pentateuch.性質的doxology (見上文)表明,這本書是分開以下只進行類比與摩西五。 Books iv.圖書四。 and v. are characterized by the absence of "musical" superscriptions and instructions.和訴的特點是缺乏“音樂劇” superscriptions和指示。 In book v. the group comprising cvii.在圖書訴組成cvii 。 to cix.以捷達夥伴。 is easily recognized as not organically connected with that composed of cxx.-cxxxiv.很容易認識到不與有機連接組成cxx. - cxxxiv 。 It is possible that the liturgical character and use of cxiii.可能是禮儀性質和使用cxiii 。 to cxviii.以cxviii 。 (the [Egyptian] "Hallel") had necessitated the redaction of the "Hallel" psalms separately. (在[埃及] “ Hallel ” )不得不編輯的“ Hallel ”詩篇分開。 The "Songs of Degrees" (see below) must have constituted at one time a series by themselves.在“詩經度” (見下文)必須在同一時間構成了一系列本身。 The metrical arrangement is the same in all, with the exception of cxxxii.測量安排都是一樣的,除了cxxxii 。 The rest of book v. is composed of loose "Halleluyah" psalms, into which have been inserted "David" psalms (cxxxviii.-cxlv.) and an old folk-song (cxxxvii.).其餘的五本書組成的鬆散“ Halleluyah ”詩篇,將其插入了“大衛”詩篇( cxxxviii. - cxlv 。 )和一個老民歌( cxxxvii. ) 。

The "Lamed Auctoris."該“ Lamed Auctoris 。 ”

As to who were the compilers of these distinct collections it has been suggested that an inference might be drawn in the case of the psalms marked "to the sons of Korah" or "to Asaph, Heman, Ethan, Jeduthun," respectively.至於誰是這些不同的編譯器集合有人認為,推斷可能的情況下制定的詩篇標誌著“的兒子Korah ”或“ Asaph ,曼,伊桑, Jeduthun ” ,分別。 But the但是, prefixed to the superscription in these cases is plainly not a "lamed auctoris," the names being those of the leaders of the choir-gilds (established, according to Chronicles, by David).前綴的superscription在這些情況下,顯然是不是一個“ lamed auctoris ”的名字被那些領導人的合唱團,吉爾茲(設立,根據編年史,由大衛) 。 The headings in which標題中 occurs merely indicate that the hymns were usually sung by the choristers known as "sons of Korah," etc., or that the psalm constituting a part of the repertoire of the singers so named was to be sung according to a fixed melody introduced by them.發生僅僅表明,通常唱讚美詩的choristers稱為“兒子Korah ”等,或詩篇構成部分曲目的歌手而得名,是來唱按照固定的旋律介紹了他們。 These choir-masters, then, had collected their favorite hymns, and, in consequence, these continued to be named after their collector and to be sung according to the melody introduced by the gild.這些合唱團,美國名人賽,之後,收集了他們所喜愛的讚美詩, ,因此,這些仍然是他們的名字命名的收藏家和來唱根據旋律所介紹的鍍金。 It has also been urged as explaining the terms ("unto David," "unto Moses") that a certain melody was known by that term, or a collection happened to be labeled in that way.它也一直敦促作為解釋的條款( “你們大衛” , “給摩西” ) ,某一個旋律被稱為該來看,或收集正好是標記的方法。 It is, however, manifest that in some instances the superscription admits of no other construction than that it is meant to name the author of the psalm (Moses, for instance, in Ps. xc.), though such expressions as "David song," "Zion song" = "Yhwh song" may very well have come into vogue as designations of sacred as distinguished from profane poems and strains.但是,它表明,在有些情況下, superscription不容其他建築相比,它的目的是名稱的作者詩篇(摩西,例如,在PS 。坐標。 ) ,儘管這種表述為“大衛宋, “ ”錫安歌“ = ” Yhwh歌曲“很可能已經開始流行作為指定的神聖不同於世俗詩和壓力。 Still, one must not forget that these superscriptions are late additions.儘管如此,人們不應忘記,這些superscriptions是已故補充。 The historical value of the note (= "unto David") is not greater than that of others pretending to give the occasion when and the circumstances under which the particular psalm wascomposed.的歷史價值的說明( = “給大衛” )是不大於他人假裝給場合和在何種情況下特別是詩篇wascomposed 。 The variants in these superscriptions in the versions prove them to be late interpolations, reflecting the views of their authors.該變種在這些superscriptions的版本證明他們遲到插值,反映的意見,他們的作者。

Date of Psalter.日期Psalter 。

By tradition David was regarded as the writer of most of the psalms, even the other names occurring in the captions being construed to be those of singers under his direction (David Ḳimḥi, Commentary on Psalms, Preface).傳統大衛被視為作者的大部分詩篇,甚至是其他的名字出現在標題被解釋為是那些歌手在他的領導(大衛Ḳimḥi ,評詩篇,前言) 。 He was held to be also the editor of the Biblical Book of Psalms.他被認為是還編輯聖經書詩篇。 But this ascription of authorship to him is due to the tendency to connect with the name of a dominating personality the chief literary productions of the nation.但是,這歸屬作者對他是因為傾向連接的名稱,行政主導的個性文學作品的民族。 Thus Moses figures as the lawgiver, and the author of the Pentateuch; Solomon, as the "wise" man and, as such, the writer of the Wisdom books; David, as the singer and, in this capacity, as the composer of hymns and as the collector of the Psalms as far as they are not his own compositions.因此摩西數字作為立法者,作者的摩西五;所羅門群島,因為“聰明”的人,因此,作家的智慧書籍;大衛,作為歌手,並在這方面,作為作曲家的讚美詩作為收藏家的詩篇至於他們沒有自己的成分。

When the Book of Psalms first assumed its present form is open to discussion.如果圖書的詩篇首先假定目前的形式是開放的討論。 Certain it is that the New Testament and Josephus presuppose the existence of the Biblical Psalter in the form in which it is found in the canon.肯定的是,新約,約瑟夫以存在的聖經Psalter的形式,其中發現的佳能。 This fact is further corroborated by the date of the so-called "Psalms of Solomon."這一事實進一步證實了日期的所謂“詩篇所羅門。 ” These are assigned to about 68 BC; a fact which indicates that at that period no new psalms could be inserted in the Biblical book, which by this time must have attained permanent and fixed form as the Book of Psalms of David.這些被分配到大約68年;這一事實表明,在此期間沒有新的詩篇中可以插入的聖經書,這個時候,必須有實現永久和固定形式的圖書的詩篇大衛。 It is safest then to assign the final compilation of the Biblical book to the first third of the century immediately preceding the Christian era.這是安全的再轉讓的最後彙編聖經的第一本書的第三個世紀前的公元。

Concerning the date of the two psalms lxxix.關於日期的兩個詩篇lxxix 。 and cxlvi., I Maccabees furnishes a clue.和cxlvi 。 ,我馬加比提供的線索。 In I Mace.在I權杖。 vii.七。 17, Ps. 17 ,聚苯乙烯。 lxxix. lxxix 。 2 is quoted, while cxlvi.二是引用,而cxlvi 。 4 is utilized in I Macc.四是利用我Macc 。 ii.二。 63. 63 。 These psalms then were known to a writer living in the time of the Hasmonean rulers.這些詩篇然後據了解,生活在一個作家的時候, Hasmonean統治者。 He construed Ps.他解釋聚苯乙烯。 lxxix. lxxix 。 as applying to the time of Alcimus.作為申請的時間Alcimus 。 As remarked above, the historical superscriptions are worthless for the purpose of fixing the chronology, even if the concession be made that some of these pretendedly historical notes antedate the final compilation of the Psalter and were taken from the historical romances relating the lives of the nation's heroes, in which, according to prevailing ancient literary custom, poetry was introduced to embellish prose (comp. Ex. xv.; I Sam. ii.), as indeed Ps.正如以上所說,歷史superscriptions是毫無價值的,目的是固定的時間順序,即使作出讓步,其中一些pretendedly的歷史記錄antedate最後彙編Psalter ,並從歷史與愛情生活的國家英雄,其中,根據現行古代文論習俗,詩詞介紹美化散文( comp.惠。十五。我薩姆。二。 ) ,事實上聚苯乙烯。 xviii.十八。 is found also in II Sam.還發現在二山姆。 xxii.二十二。

Reflection of History.反思歷史。

By comparison with what is known of the events of Jewish internal and external history during the last centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple, critical scholars have come to the conclusion that the political and religious circumstances and conflicts of these turbulent times are reflected in by far the greater number of psalms.相比之下與所謂的猶太人的事件的內部和外部的歷史,在過去幾個世紀之前,銷毀第二聖殿,關鍵的學者們得出的結論是,政治和宗教衝突的情況下,這些動盪的時代,反映在由到目前為止,越來越多的詩篇。 Most of the 150 in the Biblical book, if not all of them, are assigned a post-exilic origin.大多數聖經中的150本書,如果不是全部的話,他們被分配後放逐原籍。 Not one among competent contemporaneous scholars seriously defends the Davidic authorship of even a single psalm; and very few of the recent commentators maintain the pre-exilic character of one or the other song in the collection.沒有主管同期之一學者認真捍衛Davidic作者甚至是一個單純的詩篇;很少最近評論員保持前放逐性質一方或另一方宋收集。 Of exilic compositions Ps.組成物質的放逐。 cxxxvii. cxxxvii 。 is perhaps the only specimen.也許是唯一標本。 To the Persian period some psalms might be assigned, notably the "nature" psalms (eg, viii., xix.), as expressive of monotheism's opposition to dualism.波斯時期的一些詩篇可能被分配,尤其是“自然”詩篇(如八。 ,十九。 )作為表達的一神教反對二元。 But there is no proof for this assumption.但沒有證據證明這一假設。 Still a goodly number of psalms must have been composed in pre-Maccabean years.仍然是一個優美的若干詩篇組成必須是前Maccabean歲。 Some psalms presuppose the existence and inviolability of the Temple and the Holy City (for instance, xlvi., xlviii., lxxvi.).一些詩篇以存在和不可侵犯廟聖城(例如,四十六。 ,四十八。 , lxxvi 。 ) 。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 iii., iv., xi., and lxii. might reflect the confidence of pious priests before the Maccabean disturbances.三。四。席。 ,並lxii 。可能反映的信心,虔誠的牧師前Maccabean動亂。

Reflex of Politics.反射性的政治。

But it is obvious that other psalms refer to the trickery and treachery of the house of Tobias (Ps. lxii.).但顯而易見的是,其他詩篇提到弄虛作假和背信棄義的眾議院托比亞斯( Ps. lxii 。 ) 。 The Maccabean revolution-with its heroism on the one hand, its cowardice on the other, its victories, and its defeats-has supplied many a hymn of faith and defiance and joy.該Maccabean革命的英雄主義精神,一方面,其怯懦另一方面,它的勝利,它的失敗,提供了許多讚美的信念和蔑視和喜悅。 The and -the "faithful," the "righteous," the "meek"-find voice to praise God for His help and to denounce the "wicked," the foreign nations that have made common cause with Syria (see lxxiv., lxxxiii., cxviii., and cxlix.).在和的“忠實”和“正義”和“溫柔” ,找到的聲音讚美上帝為他的幫助,並譴責“邪惡的”外國國家,使共同的事業與敘利亞(見lxxiv 。 , LXXXIII號。 , cxviii 。 ,並cxlix 。 ) 。 Ps. xliv.聚苯乙烯。四十四。 and lxxvii., point to events after the death of Judas Maccabeus; Ps.和lxxvii 。 ,指向事件去世後猶大Maccabeus ;聚苯乙烯。 lv.呂。 and others seem to deal with Alcimus.和其他人似乎處理Alcimus 。 The establishment of the Hasmonean dynasty on the throne and the conflicts between Pharisees (nationalists and democrats) and Sadducees (the representatives of aristocratic sacerdotalism) have left their impress on other hymns (Ps. ex. 1-4, "Shim'on" in acrostic).建立了Hasmonean王朝的王位和之間的衝突法利(民族主義者和民主黨)和撒都該人(貴族代表sacerdotalism )離開了他們的印象其他讚美詩( Ps.前。 1月4日, “ Shim'on ”在acrostic ) 。 Some of the psalms are nothing less than the pronunciamentos of the Pharisees (ix., x., xiv., lvi., lviii.). Dates can not be assigned to the greater number of psalms, except in so far as their content betrays their character as Temple or synagogal hymns, as eschatological constructions, or as apocalyptic renderings of ancient history or of mythology.一些詩篇都是低於pronunciamentos的法利( ix. ,十,十四。 ,左室。 , lviii 。 ) 。日期不能被分配到更多的詩篇,但只要其內容的背叛其性質寺或synagogal讚美詩,作為末世論建築,或作為世界末日渲染的古代歷史或神話。

Synagogal liturgy and strictly regulated Temple ceremonial are productions of the Maccabean and post-Maccabean conflicts. Apocalyptic ecstasy, didactic references to past history, and Messianic speculations point to the same centuries, when foreign oppression or internal feuds led the faithful to predict the coming glorious judgment. Synagogal禮儀和嚴格管制廟儀式正在製作的Maccabean和後Maccabean衝突。啟示搖頭丸,教學提及過去的歷史,和彌賽亞猜測指向同一個世紀,當外國壓迫或內部爭鬥導致忠實預測未來的輝煌判斷。 The "royal" or "king" psalms belong to the category of apocalyptic effusions.在“皇家”或“王”詩篇屬於世界末日積液。 It is not necessary to assume that they refer to a ruling king or monarch.這是沒有必要承擔,他們指的是執政的國王或國王。 The Messianic king warring with the "nations"-another apocalyptic incident-is central in these psalms.國王交戰的彌賽亞的“聯合國”事件的另一個啟示,是中央在這些詩篇。 The "'Aniyim" and the "'Anawim" are the "meek" as opposed to the "Gewim" and "'Azim" (which readings must often be adopted for "Goyim" and "'Ammim"), the "proud" and "insolent."在“ ' Aniyim ”和“ ' Anawim ”是“溫柔”而不是“ Gewim ”和“ '齊姆” (即讀數往往必須通過的“ Goyim ”和“ ' Ammim ” )中, “自豪”和“傲慢” 。 The former are the (Pharisaic) pious nationalists battling against the proud (Sadducean) violators of God's law; but in their fidelity they behold the coming of the King of Glory, the Messianic Ruler, whose advent will put to flight and shame Israel's foreign and internal foes.前者的( Pharisaic )虔誠的民族主義鬥爭的驕傲( Sadducean )違反上帝的法律,但在他們的忠誠,他們看見未來國王的榮耀,是彌賽亞的統治者,他的到來將飛行和恥辱以色列的外交和內部的敵人。

Pilgrim Songs.涅斯皮歌曲。

The "Songs of Degrees" are pilgrim songs, which were sung by the participants in the processions at the three pilgrim festivals; all other explanations are fanciful.在“詩經度”是朝聖者的歌曲,這是唱的與會者在遊行在三個朝聖節日,所有其他的解釋是幻想。 David Ḳimḥi in his commentary quotes the usual interpretation that these, songs were sung by the Levites standing on the fifteen stepsbetween the court of the women and that of the Israelites.大衛Ḳimḥi在他的評注引用了通常的解釋,這些,歌曲傳唱的利站在15 stepsbetween法院的婦女和以色列人。 But he also suggests that they refer to the post-exilic redemption, being sung by those that "ascend" from captivity.但他也表明,他們指的是後放逐贖回,正在演唱的那些“升天”獲釋。 In fact, Ḳimḥi often reveals a very clear perception of the psalms of the post-exilic origin.事實上, Ḳimḥi往往揭示了一個非常明確的看法的詩篇後的放逐原籍。

The text is often corrupt.案文往往是腐敗的。 It contains interpolations, marginal glosses transposed into the body of psalms, quotations not in the original, liturgical glosses, notes, and intentional alterations. Consonantal interchanges abound.它包含插值,邊緣掩蓋轉變為身體的詩篇,報價不是在原來的,禮儀粉飾,筆記,和有意改變。 Consonantal交匯處比比皆是。 Many of the psalms are clearly fragmentary torsos; others, as clearly, are composed of two or more disjointed parts drawn from other psalms without connection or coherence (comp. the modern commentaries, especially those of Duhm and Baethgen; also Grätz, "Psalmen," Introduction).許多詩篇顯然是零零碎碎的身體;其他人,因為很顯然,是由兩個或兩個以上的脫節部分來自其他詩篇沒有連接或一致性( comp.現代評注,特別是那些Duhm和Baethgen ;還格拉茨, “ Psalmen , “導言) 。 According to Grätz (lcp 61), such combinations of two psalms in one was caused by the necessities of the liturgical services.據格拉茨(液晶61 ) ,這種組合的兩個詩篇中的一個原因是生活必需品的禮儀服務。 It is not unlikely that some psalms were chanted responsively, part of the Levites singing one verse, and the others answering with the next. In the synagogues the Psalms were chanted antiphonally, the congregation often repeating after every verse chanted by the precentor the first verse of the psalm in question.這不是不可能發生的一些詩篇是負責任的一部分,利唱一詩,其他回答下一個。在猶太教堂的詩篇都高喊antiphonally ,該會經常重複發生後,每一個詩的第一個詩precentor詩篇中的問題。 "Halleluyah" was the word with which the congregation was invited to take part in this chanting. “ Halleluyah ”一詞,是與該教會被邀請參加這一口號。 Hence it originally prefaced the Psalms, not, as in the Masoretic text, coming at the end.因此,最初的詩篇開頭,而不是,因為在馬所拉文本,即將結束時。 At the conclusion of the psalmthe "maḳre" or precentor added a doxology ending with ("and say ye Amen"), whereupon the congregation replied "Amen, Amen" ("Monatsschrift," 1872, p. 481).在完成了psalmthe “ maḳre ”或precentor增加了doxology結束( “說葉阿門” ) ,在這種情況下眾回答說: “阿門,阿門” ( “月刊” , 1872年,第481段) 。 The synagogal psalms, according to this, then, are cv., cvi., cvii., cxi., cxii., cxiii., cxiv., cxvi., and cxvii.該synagogal詩篇,根據這一點,那麼,簡歷。 , CVI的。 , cvii 。 , cxi 。 , cxii 。 , cxiii 。 , cxiv 。 , cxvi 。 ,並cxvii 。 (the shortest of all psalms), cxviii., cxxxv., cxxxvi., cxlvi.-cl. (最短的所有詩篇) , cxviii 。 , cxxxv 。 , cxxxvi 。 , cxlvi.發光。

Musical Accompaniment.音樂伴奏。

Concerning the musical accompaniment less is known.關於音樂伴奏少是眾所周知的。 Boys seem to have been added to the men's chorus ('Ar. 13b).男孩似乎已經被添加到該男子的合唱團( '氬。 13B條) 。 Twelve adult Levites constituted the minimum membership of a chorus; nine of these played on the "kinnor," two on the "nebel," and one on the cymbals (ib. ii. 3-5). 12名成年利的最低成員組成的合唱團,其中有上發揮“ kinnor , ”兩個對“內伯爾” ,一個關於鈸( ib.二。 3-5 ) 。 Singing seems to have been the principal feature of their art, the instruments being used by the singers for their self-accompaniment only.歌唱似乎一直是其主要特徵的藝術,這些文書所使用的歌手他們的自我伴奏只。 The kinnor, according to Josephus, had ten strings and was struck with a plectrum ("Ant." vii. 12, § 3), while the nebel had twelve notes and was played with the fingers.該kinnor ,根據約瑟夫,已經10字符串被用撥子( “螞蟻。 ”七。 12 , § 3 ) ,而內伯爾了12注,並發揮與手指。 This information is not confirmed by what is known of the "lyra" or "kithara" of the Greeks.沒有此信息證實了所謂的“天琴座”或“ kithara ”的希臘人。 Jewish coins display lyres of three strings, and in a single instance one of five strings.猶太硬幣顯示lyres三個字符串,並在一個單一的實例之一五個字符串。 Tosef., 'Ar. ii. Tosef 。 , '氬。二。 gives the kinnor seven strings.給出了kinnor 7字符串。 According to Ps.據聚苯乙烯。 xcii. xcii 。 3, there must have been known a ten-stringed instrument. 3 ,必須已經知道了10弦樂器。 The Jerusalem Talmud agrees with Josephus in assigning the nebel to the class of stringed instruments (Yer. Suk. 55c; 'Ar. 13b).耶路撒冷塔爾穆德同意約瑟夫在分配內伯爾的類弦樂器( Yer.淑。 55c ; '氬。 13B條) 。 But it seems to have had a membranous attachment or diaphragm to heighten the effect of the strings (Yer. Suk. lc).但它似乎已查封或膈肌膜,以提高效果的字符串( Yer.淑。立法會) 。 The nebel and the "alamot" (I Chron. xv. 20; Ps. xlviii.; Ps. ix., corrected reading) are identical (see Grätz, lcp 71).該內伯爾和“ alamot ” (我專欄。十五。 20 ;聚苯乙烯。四十八。 ;聚苯乙烯。九。 ,糾正讀)是相同的(見格拉茨,液晶71 ) 。 The flute, "ḥalil," was played only on holy days ('Ar. ii. 3).長笛, “哈利勒” ,是只打了對宗教節日( '氬。二。 3 ) 。 The Hebrew term for choir-master was "menaẓẓeaḥ."希伯來任期合唱團主是“ menaẓẓeaḥ 。 ” See also Cymbals.又見鈸。

Fifty-seven psalms are designated as ; this is a word denoting "paragraph," hence a new beginning. 57個詩篇被指定為這是一個字,意指“段, ”因此,一個新的開端。 Thirty psalms are designated as (= "song"), probably indicating that the psalm was actually sung in the Temple. 30詩篇被指定為( = “宋” ) ,這可能表明,實際成詩篇中的廟。 Thirteen psalms are labeled , the meaning of which word is doubtful (see Hebrew dictionaries and the commentaries). 13詩篇標記,其中的含義一詞是令人懷疑的(見希伯來語詞典和評注) 。 Six psalms are superscribed -another puzzle-three times with the addition , once (lx.), and in lvi.六詩篇是superscribed ,另一個難題, 3倍的增加,一旦( lx. ) ,並在左室。 with .帶有。 Five psalms are called = "prayer" (xvii., xl., lxxxvi., cii., cxlii.). 5詩篇被稱為= “祈禱” ( xvii. ,儀。 , lxxxvi 。 ,印度工業聯合會。 , cxlii 。 ) 。 Two psalms are marked = "to remember" (xxxviii., lxx.), the meaning of which is not known.兩個詩篇標示= “記住” ( xxxviii. , lxx 。 )的含義是不知道。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 c. is designated by = "for thanksgiving," probably indicating its use in the liturgy as a hymn for the thank-offering. Ps.被指定的= “感恩節” ,表明其可能使用的禮儀作為讚美詩的感謝提供。聚苯乙烯。 clv.倍速。 is marked = "jubilee song or hymn," indicating its content.標記= “銀禧歌曲或讚美詩” ,表示其內容。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 lx.勒克斯。 has , probably a dittogram for = "for David."有,可能是一個dittogram的= “大衛。 ” Ps. lxxxviii.聚苯乙烯。 lxxxviii 。 has the heading , which seems to be also a dittogram of the preceding .的標題,這似乎是一個dittogram前面。 Ps.聚苯乙烯。 vii.七。 has another enigmatical caption (see commentaries).還有一個陰陽怪氣標題(見評論) 。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米爾灣赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

The most modern commentaries are those by Duhm, in KHC; Baethgen (3d ed.), in Nowack's Handcommentar; and Wellhausen, in SBOT Cheyne's translation (1900) and introduction (1891) give the latest literature up to those dates.EGH最現代化的評注是由Duhm ,在KHC ; Baethgen (三維版。 ) ,在Nowack的Handcommentar ;和豪森,在SBOT潮的翻譯( 1900 )和介紹( 1891 )提供最新的文獻了這些dates.EGH


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