Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Proverbs, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is a grouping of wisdom sayings and longer, connected poems composed from the 10th to the 4th century BC and finally collected about 300 BC.圖書的諺語,在舊約聖經,是一個集團的智慧和更長的說法,連詩組成的第10至公元前4世紀,並最終收集到公元前300年。 The sayings are either statements that provoke further thought or admonitions to behave in particular ways. The longer poems celebrate wisdom, encourage its observance, and personify it as a woman who at God's right hand assisted in creation.格言或者聲明,挑起進一步思想或勸誡的行為以特別的方式。詩歌慶祝的時間越長智慧,鼓勵其遵守和人性作為一個女人誰在上帝的右手協助創造。 Egyptian wisdom is evident in Proverbs, making it possible to date the nucleus of the book to pre exilic times.埃及的智慧體現在諺語,使迄今的核心書籍預先放逐次。 The book as a whole reflects the ideology of enterprising privileged classes and expresses a general confidence in the human capacity to act freely and wisely.這本書反映了作為一個整體的思想進取的特權階層,並表示一般的信心,人的能力,以採取行動自由和明智的。 Self interest and religious devotion are shown to be congruent.自我利益和宗教虔誠的證明是一致的。 Respect for women (31:10 - 31) is encouraged.尊重婦女( 31:10 - 31日)是鼓勵。 The book is conventionally attributed to Solomon as the prototype of Israelite wisdom, but many sages had a hand in composing and collecting the subsections; mentioned specifically are the "men of Hezekiah."這本書是常規歸功於所羅門群島作為原型以色列人的智慧,但許多先賢了手組成,並收集各小節;具體提到是“男人的Hezekiah 。 ”

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Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Bibliography 參考書目
RL Alden, Proverbs (1983); LE Boadt, Introduction to Wisdom Literature, Proverbs (1986); W McKane, Proverbs: A New Approach (1970); RBY Scott, Proverbs (1965) and The Way of Wisdom in the Old Testament (1971).北京奧爾登,諺語( 1983年) ;樂Boadt ,介紹智慧文學,諺語( 1986年) ; W McKane ,諺語:一種新方法( 1970年) ; RBY斯科特,諺語( 1965年)和方式的智慧舊約( 1971年) 。


Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Introduction (1:1-9)導言( 1:1-9 )
  2. Sin and righteousness personified and contrasted (1:10-9:18)黃大仙和正義的人格化和對比( 1:10-9:18 )
  3. Single-verse contrasts of sin and righteousness (10:1-22:16)單詩對比的罪孽和正義( 10:1-22:16 )
  4. Miscellaneous and longer contrasts (22:17-29:27)雜項和更長的對比( 22:17-29:27 )
  5. Righteousness in poems of climax (30:1-31:31)在詩義高潮( 30:1-31:31 )


Pro'verb

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A proverb is a trite maxim; a similitude; a parable.一句諺語是一個老生常談的格言,一個相似,一個寓言。 The Hebrew word thus rendered (mashal) has a wide signification.希伯來詞因而(火炬)具有廣泛的意義。 It comes from a root meaning "to be like," "parable."它來自一個根,意思是“像” , “寓言” 。 Rendered "proverb" in Isa.提供“諺語”在ISA 。 14:4; Hab. 14點04 ; Hab 。 2:6; "dark saying" in Ps. 2點06 ; “黑暗說: ”在PS 。 49:4, Num. 49:4 ,序號。 12:8. 12時08分。 Ahab's defiant words in answer to the insolent demands of Benhadad, "Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off," is a well known instance of a proverbial saying (1 Kings 20:11).亞哈的挑釁的話回答的無禮要求Benhadad , “不要讓他girdeth他利用吹噓自己是他的putteth它關閉, ”是一個眾所周知的實例諺語說(列王紀上20點11分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Proverbs is a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of subjects presented in a poetic form.圖書諺語是一家集道德和哲學格言的範圍廣泛的主題中提出的詩的形式。 This book sets forth the "philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church).這本書闡述了“哲學的現實生活。這是標誌我們認為,聖經並不鄙視常識和自由裁量權。它給我們留下深刻印象的最強行方式的價值,情報和謹慎的態度和良好的教育。該整體實力的希伯來語和神聖權威的書扔在這些家常的真理。它處理,也該完善,歧視,仔細查看了精細的色調,使人類的性質常常被忽視的神學家,但非常必要任何真正的估計,人的生命“ ( Stanley的猶太人教堂) 。 As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material of his own experience.至於這本書的起源, “很可能重新收集和所羅門許多諺語,這源自人類的經驗和年齡在前面的是他在過去的浮動的潮流時,他還闡述了許多新的材料他自己的經驗。

Towards the close of the book, indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.) This book is usually divided into three parts: (1.) Consisting of ch.直到接近這本書,事實上,保存一些所羅門自己的說法似乎已經從他的嘴唇在以後的生活和所收集的其他手' (阿諾特的法律從天堂等) ,這本書是通常分為三部分組成: ( 1 。 )組成的CH 。 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest good. (2.) Consisting of ch. 1月9日,其中包含一個展覽的智慧作為最高良好。 ( 2 。 )組成的CH 。 10-24. 10月24日。 (3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29). These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur" (ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31). ( 3 。 )含諺語所羅門“該男子的Hezekiah ,猶太國王,收集” (章25-29 ) 。其次是兩個補充, ( 1 ) “的話Agur ” (章30 )和( 2 ) “的話國王Lemuel ” (章31條) 。 Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1 Kings 4:32).所羅門據說書面3000諺語,並載於這本書可能會選擇從這些(列王紀上4點32分) 。 In the New Testament there are thirty-five direct quotations from this book or allusions to it.在新約有35直接引自這本書或暗示它。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

That Solomon was the principle author of Proverbs is indicated by chapters 1:1, and 25:1, compared with 1 Kings 4:29-32.這是所羅門群島的原則諺語是作者所指出的章節1:1和25:1 ,而列王紀上4:29-32 。 The last two chapters were the work of other authors to whom reference is made.最後兩章的工作,其他作者的人提及。 See also chapters 25-29.又見章25-29 。

Their Character它們的性質
In Solomon's day there was a class of leaders in the eastern nations known as "teachers of wisdom," of which he was the most conspicuous; a supposition which gives countenance to the thought that the address, "My son," is not that of a father to a child, but a teacher to a pupil.在所羅門的一天有一類的領導人在東部聯合國稱為“教師的智慧, ”他是最突出的;假定這使面容思想的地址, “我的兒子, ”是不是一位父親給孩子,但老師給學生。 Most of the proverbs seem based merely on considerations of worldy prudence, which was quite like Solomon; but considering the Holy Spirit as the real author, we must believe that faith is the underlying motive productive of the conduct to which the reader is exhorted.大多數諺語似乎僅僅由於考慮worldy謹慎,這是非常喜歡所羅門群島;但考慮到聖靈作為真正的作者,我們必須相信,誠信是生產力的基本動機的行為而讀者告誡。

Indeed, this is expressed in 1:7; 5:21; 15:11; 23: 17-19; 26:10.事實上,這是體現在1:7 ; 5時21分; 15點11分; 23 : 17日至19日; 26:10 。 Luther called Proverbs "a book of good works"; Coleridge, "the best statesman's manual"; Dean Stanley, "the philosophy of practical life."路德所謂諺語“一書的優秀作品” ;科爾里奇, “最好的政治家手冊” ;院長赤柱, “哲學的現實生活。 ” Angus says, "It is for practical ethics what the psalms are for devotion;" Bridges says "that while other Scriptures show us the glory of our high calling this instructs us minutely how to walk in it."安格斯說, “這是什麼實際道德的詩篇是奉獻; ”橋說: “說,雖然其他聖經告訴我們的光榮,我們的高要求這一指示我們仔細如何走在這。 ” Oetinger says, "The proverbs exhibit Jesus with unusual clearness."厄廷格說, “諺語展示耶穌不尋常清晰。 ” In the millennial kingdom doubtless it will constitute, with a portion of the Levitical ordinances and the Sermon on the Mount, the basis of the laws governing its citizens.在千禧王國無疑將構成一個部分Levitical條例和寶訓山,根據法律規定其公民。

Their Literary Style他們的文學風格
Provebs is classed with the poetical books of the Bible, but we must content ourselves with a single illustration of the poetic form taken from The Literary Study of the Bible. Provebs是歸類與詩意的書籍,聖經,但我們必須內容自己一個例證詩歌形式,從文學研究的聖經。 In 4:10 we have a poem on The Two Paths.在4點10分,我們一首詩的兩種路徑。 Its strophe and antistrophe consist of ten-line figures, varying between longer and shorter lines; the conclusion is a quatrain.其strophe和antistrophe包括10行數據,不等較長和較短的線路;的結論是四行。 This form is a reflex of the thought of the poem; the strophe describes the path of the just, the antistrophe the path of the wicked; the conclusion then blends the two ideas in a common image, as follows: Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many.這種形式是一個反射的思想,這首詩的strophe描述的路徑,公正, antistrophe的路徑邪惡;締結然後結合這兩個想法,一個共同的形象,具體情況如下:聽啊,我的兒子,並接受我的說法;和多年的你的生活應許多。 I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in paths of uprightness.我教你的方式的智慧,我已導致你在路徑正氣。 When thou goest, thy steps shall not be straitened; And if thou runnest, thou shalt not stumble.當你goest ,你的步驟不得困境,如果你runnest ,你應該不是偶然。 Take fast hold of instruction; Let her not go: Keep her; For she is thy life.採取迅速舉行的指示,讓她不要去:讓她,因為她是你的生活。 Enter not into the path of the wicked, And walk not in the way of evil men.輸入沒有進入的路徑邪惡,步行的方式不是邪惡男子。 Avoid it, Pass not by it; Turn from it, And pass on.避免它,而不是由它通行證;打開它,並傳遞。 For they sleep not except they have done mischief; And their sleep is taken away, unless they cause some to fall.他們除了睡覺,他們沒有這樣做惡作劇,以及他們的睡眠是帶走,除非他們造成一些下降。 For they eat the bread of wickedness.因為他們吃麵包的邪惡。 And drink the wine of violence.喝葡萄酒的暴力。 But the path of the righteous is as the light of dawn, That shineth more and more unto the perfect day.但正義的道路是根據曙光,這shineth越來越多的你們的完美的一天。 The way of the wicked is as darkness; They know not at what they stumble.道路上的黑暗邪惡的是,他們知道他們不是偶然。

Questions問題
1. 1 。 What scriptures point to Solomon as the principal author of this book?什麼經文指向所羅門群島作為主要作者,這本書嗎? 2. 2 。 What scriptures indicate additional authors?什麼經文表明額外的作者? 3. What may have been the origin of the book? 3 。可能是原產地的書嗎? 4. 4 。 Is it, on the whole, a book of creed or conduct?是,就整體而言,一本書的信仰或行為? 5. 5 。 Compare it with the psalms.比較的詩篇。 6. 6 。 Is it likely to have a future application?它有可能對未來的應用程序? If so, when?如果是這樣,是什麼時候? 7. 7 。 What is the literary form of the book?什麼是文學形式的書嗎? 8. 8 。 Where is the poem on "The Two Paths" found?哪裡是詩的“兩步走”發現?

Proverbs Chapters 1-3諺語1-3章

The nature of this book makes divisions of its chapters rather arbitrary, and ours may not always be the best, but it is hoped it may prove useful in some degree.的性質,這本書使各司其章而不是任意的,和我們不一定是最好的,但希望它可能證明是有用的在一定程度上。 The opening of chapter four suggests a new beginning, for which reason we conclude this lesson at the close of chapter three.開幕式第四章提出一個新的開始,所以我們結束這一課結束時,第三章。 It begins with an advertisement (1:1-6), in which mention is made of the author (v. 1), the object of the book (vv. 2, 3), and its great value (vv. 4-6).它始於一個廣告( 1:1-6 ) ,其中提到了作者(五1 ) ,對象的圖書( vv. 2 , 3 ) ,其巨大的價值( vv. 4-6 ) 。 Then follows its theme.接著主題。 "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge" (v. 7), of which the remainder of the lesson is a development or exposition. “敬畏耶和華是知識的開端” (五7 ) ,其中剩餘的教訓是一個發展或博覽會。

"Beginning" is rendered in the margin of the Revised Version "chief part." “開始”中呈現的邊緣的修訂版“首席一部分。 ” "The fear of the Lord" means a right state of heart towards God as opposed to the condition of an unconverted man. “敬畏耶和華”是指一國有權對上帝的心,而不是一個條件未男子。 Put the two ideas together, and we learn that the chief part of all knowledge is to be right with God.把兩個共同的想法,我們了解,行政長官會同所有知識是正確的上帝。

In working out of the thought: 1.在擬定工作的思想: 1 。 The teacher exhorts his "son" or pupil, to avoid vice (1:8-19).老師勸告他的“兒子”或學生,以避免副主席( 1:8-19 ) 。 2. 2 。 He shows the ruinous conduct of the unwise, a warning placed on the lips of wisdom personified (1:20-33).他顯示了毀滅性的不明智行為,警告放在嘴唇的智慧人格化( 1:20-33 ) 。 3. 3 。 This warning is accentuated by contrasting the consequences of obedience and a striving after wisdom (2:1-3).這一警告是加重了對比的後果,服從和努力後,智慧( 2:1-3 ) 。 4. 4 。 The Lord is shown as the protector of those who are wise in this sense (3:19-26).主顯示為保護這些誰是明智在這個意義( 3:19-26 ) 。 5. The division concludes with an admonition to charity and justice (3:27-35). 5 。該部門的最後一個警告,以慈善和正義( 3:27-35 ) 。

Practical and Doctrinal Remarks實踐和理論備註
In this part of the lesson we call attention to particular verses for explanation or application, acknowledging indebtedness to Arnot's "Laws From Heaven for Life on Earth."在這部分的教訓,我們呼籲注意特別詩句的解釋或適用,承認欠債阿諾特的“法律從天上地球上的生命。 ” 1:23 is a text for a revival sermon, containing a command and a promise joined, like Philippians 2:12. 1點23分是一個文字的復興布道,其中包含了一個命令,並承諾加入,如腓利2時12分。 It teaches in one sentence those two seemingly contradictiory doctrines, the sovereignity of God, and the free agency of man.它教導一句話這兩個看似contradictiory理論,上帝的主權和自由的人。 It is when we turn at God's reproof that He pours out His Spirit; though it be also true that unless His Spirit is poured out we can not turn.這是當我們又在上帝的責備說,他倒了他的精神;但它也是如此,除非他的精神是倒了,我們不能反過來。 1:24-32 offers an opportunity to preach on God's mercy to a rebellious people. 1:24-32提供了一個機會,宣揚上帝的仁慈一個叛逆的人。 He calls, stretches out His hands, counsels, and administers reproof.他呼籲,伸出他的手,律師,和管理責備。 On the other hand men refuse, disregard, set at nought, reject.另一方面,男子拒絕,漠視,定於化為烏有,拒絕。

The natural consequence follows; sowing disobedience they reap judgment. That judgment consists in calling on God and getting no answer, seeking diligently and not finding Him.的自然結果如下;播種收穫服從他們的判決。這一判決是在對上帝和要求越來越沒有答案,而不是努力尋求找到他。 The passage closes with a promise to them that hearken, deliverance from death at last and freedom from fear now.通過關閉,以保證他們傾聽,救我們脫離死亡,最後和免於恐懼的自由了。 2:1-9 suggests Christ's words in Luke 11:9, "Seek, and ye shall find." 2:1-9表明基督的話在路加福音11點09分, “追求,你們會發現。 ” The seeking is in verses 1-4, the finding in verses 5-9.尋求在詩句1-4 ,發現在5月9日的詩句。 2:10-22 is an outline of "the way of evil" (v. 12, RV). 2:10-22是大綱“邪惡的方式” (五12 ,風疹病毒) 。

The first step is "speaking froward things"; the second, leaving "the paths of uprightness," the feet soon follow the tongue (v. 13); the third, walking "in the ways of darkness" (v. 13); the fourth, rejoicing "to do evil" (v. 14); fifth, delighting, "in the frowardness of the wicked," we can not take pleasure in doing wickedness without finding pleasure in seeing others do it; sixth, to complete the picture, the evil person here particularly in mind is seen to be a woman (vv. 16-22).第一步是“講剛愎的東西” ;第二,使“的道路正氣, ”腳很快舌頭(五13 ) ;第三,散步“的方式在黑暗中” (五13 ) ;第四,歡欣鼓舞“做邪惡” (五14 ) ;第五,送“ ,在frowardness的邪惡, ”我們不能高興地做邪惡沒有找到高興地看到別人這樣做;第六,完成圖片,邪惡的人在這裡特別是在考慮到被認為是一個女人( vv. 16-22 ) 。 3:5, 6 presents one of the strongest promises of the Bible, the first text from which the author of this commentary ever preached. 3點05分, 6提出的一個最強烈的承諾的聖經,首先從該文的作者本評論都鼓吹。

Note how we are to trust, "with all thine heart."注意:我們如何信任“ ,與所有你的心。 ” God complains as much of a divided allegiance as of none.上帝抱怨多的一個分裂的忠誠為無。 Note the extent of our trust, "in all thy ways." "Few will refuse to acknowledge a superintending providence at certain times, and in certain operations that are counted great," but God wants us to confide in Him in the little, close, and kindly things.注意的程度,我們的信任, “在所有你的方式” 。 “很少人會拒絕承認superintending靜宜在某些時候,在某些行動,是個偉大的” ,但上帝希望我們信任他的很少,密切,並親切的東西。 3:11, 12 is quoted in Hebrews 12:5, 6. 3點11 , 12日引述希伯來書12點05分, 6 。 Note there how the inspired writer interprets the phrase, "My son."請注意,在如何激勵作家解釋一句, “我的兒子。 ” The speaker in Proverbs may have been addressing a pupil merely, but the Holy Spirit through him, "speaketh unto you as unto sons."該發言人在諺語可能已被處理的學生僅僅,但聖靈通過他, “ speaketh你們為你們的兒子。 ” "Despise not," means do not make light of chastening or cast it aside as if it had no meaning for you; "faint not" touches the opposite extreme, do not be driven to despair by the experience. “鄙視不”是指不輕chastening或投它留作如果它沒有意義的你“ ;微弱沒有”觸及了相反的極端,不要驅動絕望的經驗。 "The middle way is the path of safety." “中間道路是安全的道路。 ” 3:13-20 is a description and appreciation of wisdom, which throughout this book means piety or godliness. 3:13-20是一種描述和讚賞的智慧,這本書是指整個或信仰的虔誠。

In Ecclestiastes it is science.在Ecclestiastes這是科學。 And yet piety or godliness hardly expresses it in the highest sense in which it is sometimes found, where as for example in these verses, it suggests Christ.然而,幾乎虔誠或敬虔表示它在最高意義上的,有時發現,在例如在這些經文,這表明基督。 He is the wisdom of God as we learn in the New Testament, who, by the Holy Spirit through the holy Scriptures is made unto us wisdom (1 Cor. 2).他是上帝的智慧,因為我們了解在新約,誰,通過聖靈通過聖經是給我們的智慧( 1肺心病。 2 ) 。 Such wisdom can not be planned, much less created by us, but must be "found" or "gotten" (v. 13).這種智慧不能計劃的,更不用說我們創造的,但必須是“發現”或“變得” (五13 ) 。 Observe the figures describing it.觀察數字描述它。 It is precious merchandise (vv. 14, 15).它是珍貴的商品( vv. 14日, 15日) 。 It is a way of honor, pleasantness and peace (vv. 16, 17).這是一種榮譽, pleasantness與和平( vv. 16日, 17日) 。 It is a tree of life (v. 18).這是一個生命樹(五18 ) 。

Questions問題
1. 1 。 What is the chief part of all knowledge?什麼是行政的一部分,所有的知識? 2. Give the five general divisions of this lesson. 2 。為5個一般部門的這一課。 3. 3 。 Quote and give the doctrinal teaching of 1:23.報價和提供的理論教學中的1點23分。 4. 4 。 Quote and give the spiritual significance of 1:33; 3:5, 6; 3:11, 12.報價,並給予精神上的意義, 1時33分; 3點05分, 6個;三點11 , 12 。 5. 5 。 What does "wisdom" mean in this book?什麼是“智慧”是指在這本書嗎?

Proverbs Chapters 4-7諺語4-7章

These chapters begin with reminiscence.這些章節開始懷舊。 A father is reciting to a son the precepts taught him by his father in his youth, and which cover chapter four.父親是一個兒子背誦戒律教他父親在他的青年,其中包括第四章。 Chapter five is a warning against the evil woman.第五章是一個警告的邪惡女人。 Chapter six deals with suretyship, indolence, malice and violence, while chapter seven returns to the theme of chapter five.第六章涉及保證,懶惰,惡意和暴力,而第7章返回的主題第五章。 In the first-named chapter occurs the beautiful illustration of Hebrew rhythm to which attention was called in Lesson 1; and following it we find in verses 18 and 23, two of as oft-quoted texts as are in the whole book.在第一章的名字出現在美麗的說明希伯來語注意節奏而被稱為在第一課;及以下的話,我們發現在18日和23日的詩句,兩個作為經常引用文本是在整本書。

The "just" man, as usual in the Bible, is he who is justified by faith and walks with God in a holy obedience. On him the Sun of Righteousness shines.的“公正”的人,像往常一樣在聖經是誰,他是有道理的信念和走神的一個神聖的服從。對他的太陽照耀義。 His new life is at first like the morning light, a struggle between the darkness and the dawn.他的新生活是在上午首先要輕,之間的鬥爭的黑暗和黎明。 Ere long the doubt vanishes, and morning is unequivocally declared.不久消失的疑問,和今天上午明確宣布。 The counterpart is fitted to overawe the boldest heart, "The way of the wicked is as darkness, they know not at what they stumble. The thought is that the darkness is in them and they carry it, an evil heart of unbelief, wherever they go.對應都裝有嚇住了大膽的心, “道路上的黑暗邪惡的是,他們不知道在哪,他們偶然。想到的是,他們是在黑暗中,他們隨身攜帶,一個邪惡的心的不信神,不管他們在哪裡離去。

As to the other text, notice the fountain, the heart (v. 23), and then the stream, the mouth, the eyes, the feet (vv. 24-27).至於其他的文字,請注意噴泉,心臟(五23 ) ,然後流,嘴,眼睛,英尺( vv. 24-27日) 。 The heart is kept by prayer and the Word of God, and then the life issuing from it is what it ought to be.心臟保存的祈禱和神的話語,然後從發行的生命是什麼應該。 The speech is pure, and true and potent. There are no secret longings and side glances after forbidden things, and the steps in matters of business, society, and the home are all ordered of the Lord.這次講話是純粹的,與真正的和有效的。沒有秘密的憧憬和側面的眼神後,被禁止的事情,和步驟方面的業務,社會和家庭都下令勳爵。 (Compare Christ's words, Matt. 15:18-20). (比較基督的話,馬特。 15:18-20 ) 。

Family Joys We have spoken of chapter five as a warning against the evil woman, which is true of its first half; but the reader will observe how the warning is accentuated by the contrast of the pure and happy home life in the second half, beginning at verse 15.家庭歡樂我們談到的第五章是一個警告反對邪惡的女人,這是真正的上半年,但讀者會看到如何警告加重對比純和快樂的家庭生活在今年下半年開始,在詩15 。 The former is a dark back ground to bring out the latter's beauty.前者是一個黑暗回到了地面,使後者的美麗。 The keynote of the first half is "remove for from her."主旨上半年是“消除對她的。 ” She is deceitful (vv. 3, 4), unstable (v. 6) and cruel (v. 9).她是騙人的( vv. 3 , 4 ) ,不穩定(五6 )和殘忍(五9 ) 。 To associate with her means waste of property and health (vv. 8, 9), and at the last remorse (vv. 12-14).聯同她的手段廢物的財產和健康( vv. 8日, 9日) ,並在最後悔恨( vv. 12月14日) 。

The home in comparison is a pure and well-guarded well (v. 15).家庭相比,是一個純粹的和良好的防守以及(五15 ) 。 Read verses 16 and 17 in the Revised Version, and observe a husband's duty toward his wife (v. 18).閱讀詩句16日和17日的修訂版,並默哀一丈夫的責任,向他的妻子(五18 ) 。 Let him avoid biting words, neglect, unnecessary absences and the like.讓他避免咬詞,忽視,不必要的缺勤等。 And as Paul says (Eph. 5:33), let "the wife see that she reverence her husband."和保羅說( Eph. 5時33分) ,讓“妻子看到,她尊敬她的丈夫。 ” The suretyship against which we are warned (6: 1-5) is of the inconsiderate kind.在保證對我們發出警告( 6 : 1月5日)是客氣的不體諒。 "That imprudent assumption of such obligations leaving out of account the moral unreliableness of the man involved." “這輕率擔任這些義務離開了帳戶的道德unreliableness的男子參與。 ” The advice is to get the quickest release possible (vv. 3-5).該意見是獲得盡可能最快的釋放( vv. 3月5日) 。 It does not mean that we should not kindly and prudently help a neighbor in financial need, if we can.這並不意味著我們不應該善意和謹慎幫助鄰居的財政需要,如果我們能。

The "mother" of verses 20-24 must be one who knows God, for it is the instilling of His Word only in the heart of her child that can produce the results indicated. Observe it is a grown son here referred to as keeping his mother's law.在“母親”的詩句20-24必須是誰知道上帝,因為這是他灌輸的只有二字的心臟,她的孩子能夠產生結果表明。遵守它是一個成長的兒子在這裡被稱為保住了他的母親的法律。

Questions問題
1. 1 。 What are the general subjects treated in these chapters?什麼是一般主體對待這些章節? 2. 2 。 Quote and explain 6:18.報價和解釋6:18 。 3. 3 。 What possible evidence is there in this lesson of our Lord's acquaintance with Proverbs?什麼是有可能的證據在這一課我們的上帝的認識諺語? 4. 4 。 What does this lesson teach about conjugal love?這是什麼課講授恩愛? About parental authority?關於父母的權威? About suretyship?關於保證?

Proverbs Chapters 8-9諺語8-9章

In these chapters we have a public discourse of Wisdom (personified) (c. 8), and what Lange describes as an allegorical exhibition of the call of men to a choice of wisdom or folly, (c. 9).這些章節我們有一個公共話語的智慧(人格化) (角8 ) ,以及蘭格描述為一個寓言展覽的呼籲,男子選擇的智慧或愚蠢, (角9 ) 。 It is really our Lord Jesus Christ putting forth this voice (8:1), and crying unto men at the gates of the city (vv. 4, 5).這確實是我們的主耶穌基督之後提出這個聲音( 8:1 ) ,和你們男人哭在蓋茨的城市( vv. 4 , 5 ) 。 It is He who speaks the excellent things (v.6), and on whose lips wickedness is an abomination (v. 7).這是他的出色誰講的東西(五.6 ) ,並在其嘴唇邪惡是令人深惡痛絕(五7 ) 。 Of Him alone can it be predicted that there is nothing crooked (forward) in His mouth (v. 8), or to be desired in comparison with Him (v. 10-18).他就可以預見,它沒有任何克魯克德(前鋒)在他的嘴裡(五8 ) ,或將要在比較理想的跟他(五, 10月18日) 。 It is He whose fruit is better than gold and who fills our treasuries (vv. 19-21).這是他的果實比黃金和誰填補我們的國庫券( vv. 19日至21日) 。 Were there any doubt of this identity would it not be removed by the remainder of the chapter?是否有任何疑問,這一身份將它不會被刪除的,其餘的一章? Who was set up from everlasting (v. 23)?誰是成立由永恆(五23 ) ? Or, who was daily God's delight (v. 30)? And of whom can it be said that to find Him finds life (v. 35)?或者,誰是每日上帝的喜悅(五30 ) ?和誰不能說,找到他認為生活(五35 ) ?

The Redeemer Anticipating Redemption救世主期待救贖
The heading of this paragraph expresses Arnot's conception of the latter part of the chapter, who says that, "if the terms are not applied to Christ they must be strained at every turn."標題對本款表示阿諾特的概念,後者的部分章節,誰說, “如果條件不適用於基督,他們必須在每一個又緊張。 ” Of course in a book written by Solomon it could not be said that Jesus was born in Bethlehem and died upon the cross, but if the Holy Sprit wished to make known something of the personal history of Christ before His coming, how could He have done so in plainer terms than these?當然是在一本書撰寫的所羅門不能說,耶穌誕生在伯利恆和死亡的交叉,但如果羅馬精神希望知道事情的個人歷史上的耶穌在他來了,他怎麼能這樣做所以在明白以上這些條款? Quoting the same in verses 30 and 31: "There three things are set in the order of the everlasting covenant: (1), the Father well pleased with His Beloved, 'I was daily His delight;' (2) the Son delighting in the Father's presence, 'rejoicing always before Him;' (3), the Son looking with prospective delight to the scene and subjects of His redemptive work, 'rejoicing in the habitable part of a His earth; and my delights were with the sons of men.'"報價相同的詩句30日和31日: “有三件事是確定的順序排列永恆的盟約: ( 1 ) ,父親也高興地看到自己心愛的, '我是每天都高興; ' ( 2 )的兒子送的父親的存在,始終在他面前歡欣鼓舞; ' ( 3 ) ,子期待與未來的喜悅到現場和他的救贖主題的工作,居住的喜悅中的一部分,他的地球和我的快樂是與兒子男子' 。 “

The Marriage Supper in the Old Testament婚姻晚餐在舊約
Arnot gives the foregoing title to the opening verses of chapter 9, where Wisdom, personifying the Son of God, has now come nigh unto men, having His habitation among them.阿諾特使上述標題開幕的第9章的經文,而智慧,擬人化的上帝之子,現在幾乎你們男人,有了他的居住其中。 Here we have the house, the prepared feast, the messengers, the invited guests, and the argument by which the invitation is supported.在這裡,我們有房子,在準備節日的使者,被邀請的客人,其中的論據支持的邀請。 The positive side of that argument is: "Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled."從積極的方面的這一論點是: “來吧,吃我的麵包,喝的酒我混。 ” The negative is: "Forsake the foolish, and live."消極是: “放棄愚蠢的,和生活的方式。 ” The closing of this chapter exhibits Christ's "great rival standing in the same wide thoroughfare of the world and bidding for the youth who thronged it."關閉本章展品基督的“偉大的對手站在同一廣泛通道的世界和投標的青年誰擠滿它。 ” "All that is contrary to Christ and dangerous to souls, is gathered up and individualized in the person of an abandoned woman lying in wait for unwary passengers, baiting her hook with sin and dragging her victims down the incline to hell." “所有這一切都違背了基督和危險的靈魂,是收集和個性的人,一個被遺棄的女子倒臥在等待粗心的乘客,有色她鉤與罪惡和拖了她的受害者傾斜地獄。 ” The reader will see how Proverbs may be fruitfully utilized in preaching the gospel.讀者將看到如何富有成效的諺語可以利用宣揚福音。

Questions問題
1. 1 。 What have we in these chapters?有什麼我們這些章節? 2. 2 。 Who really is speaking here?誰真正是在這裡講的? 3. 3 。 What proves it?什麼證明嗎? 4. 4 。 Analyze verses 30 and 31 from the New Testament point of view.分析詩句30日和31日從新約全書觀點。 5. 5 。 What parable of Christ is suggested in chapter 9?什麼寓言基督建議在第9章?

Proverbs Chapters 10-15諺語章10月15日

Some regard the division now entered upon as the original nucleus of the whole collection of proverbs (see the first sentence of verse one).有些人認為現在已經進入司後的原始核心整個收集諺語(見的第一句詩之一) 。 The division extends really to the close of chapter 22, and contains "maxims, precepts and admonitions with respect to the most diverse relations of life."該司擴大真的結束第22章,並載有“格言,戒律和告誡方面關係最多樣化的生活。 ” In so much of it as is covered by the present lesson we have a contrast "between the godly and the ungodly, and their respective lots in life."在如此多的它是目前所涉及的教訓,我們有一個對比“的虔誠和ungodly ,以及它們各自在生活中很多。 ”

Following Zockler's outline in Lange we have this contrast set before us, first in general terms (c. 10), and after that, to the end of the lesson, in detail, as follows: (1) As to the just and unjust, and good and bad conduct towards one's neighbor, chapter 11. (2) As to the domestic and public associations, chapter 12. (3) As to the use of temporal good, and of the Word of God as the highest good, chapter 13.以下Zockler的大綱中蘭格我們這種反差一套擺在我們面前的,首先是在一般條款(角10 ) ,並在此之後,結束了教訓,詳細,具體情況如下: ( 1 )至於正義與非正義,和好的和壞的行為對一個人的鄰居,第11章。 ( 2 )作為國內和公共協會,第12章。 ( 3 )至於使用時間好,和神的話語作為最高良好,第13章。 (4) As to the relation between the wise and the foolish, the rich and the poor, masters and servants, chapter 14. ( 4 )之間的關係的明智的和愚蠢的,富國與窮國,主人和僕人,第14章。 (5) As to the various other relations and callings in life, especially within the sphere of religion, chapter 15. ( 5 )至於其他各種關係和調用的生活,特別是在宗教領域,第15章。

Memory Verses and Choice Texts記憶體詩詞與選擇文本
This lesson is not suggestive of questions, but contains verses it would be well to memorize.這一教訓是不能暗示的問題,但包含的詩句將以及記憶。 For example, in chapter 10, verses 7, 9, 14, 22, 25; chapter 11, verses 1, 2, 13, 24, 25, 26, 30; chapter 13, verses 7, 15, 24; chapter 14, verses 10, 12, 25, 27, 32, 34; chapter 15, verses 1, 3, 8.例如,在第10章,詩7日, 9日, 14日, 22日, 25日;第11章,詩句1 , 2 , 13 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 30 ;第13章詩句7 , 15 , 24 ;第14章,詩句10 , 12 , 25 , 27 , 32 , 34 ;第15章,詩句1 , 3 , 8 。 In Arnot's "Laws from Heaven for Life on Earth," there are helpful discourses on several of these texts, the titles of which will be appreciated by young preachers: "Posthumous Fame," 10:7; "The Center of Gravity," 10:9; "The Passing Whirlwind and the Sure Foundation," 10:25; "Assorted Pairs," 11:2; "Virtue Its Own Reward," 11: 17; "Scattering to Keep, and Keeping to Scatter," 11:24; "Raising the Market," 11:26; "The Wisdom of Winning Souls," 11:30; "Man Responsible for His Belief," 14:12; "The Two Departures--The Hopeful and the Hopeless," 14:32在阿諾特的“法律從天堂地球上的生命” ,是有幫助的論述有幾個這些文本,標題將年輕傳教士讚賞: “遺名人堂” , 10時07分; “重心” , 10 : 9 ; “的傳遞旋風和好的基礎, ” 10:25 “ ;組合配對, ” 11點02分, “德自己的獎勵, ” 11 : 17 ; “散射保持,並保持分散, ” 11 : 24日, “提高市場, ” 11時26分; “的智慧贏得心靈, ” 11:30 “負責人,他相信, ” 14:12 ; “兩個出發-充滿希望和絕望, ” 14 : 32

Proverbs Chapters 16-24諺語章16-24

In these chapters we have a series of exhortations to a life of godliness expressed in general terms about as follows: (1) Confidence in God as a wise ruler, chapter 16.這些章節,我們有一系列的規勸的生活敬虔表示籠統大約如下: ( 1 )對上帝的信心作為一個明智的統治者,第16章。 (2) A disposition of peacefulness and contentment, chapter 17. ( 2 )處置的平靜和滿足,第17章。 (3) The virtues of affability, fidelity, and others of a social nature, chapter 18. ( 3 )美德親切,忠實,和其他的社會性,第18章。 (4) Humility and meekness, chapter 19. (5) Sobriety, diligence and kindness, chapter 21. ( 4 )謙遜和溫順,第19章。 ( 5 )冷靜,勤奮和善良,第21章。 (6) Justice, patience, submission, chapter 21. ( 6 )司法,耐心,提交第21章。 (7) The attainment and preservation of a good name, chapter 22. ( 7 )實現和維護一個良好的名稱,第22章。 (8) Warnings against avarice, licentiousness, and similar vices, chapter 23. ( 8 )警告貪婪,淫,以及類似的惡習,第23章。 (9) Warnings against ungodly companionship, chapter 24. ( 9 )警告ungodly陪伴,第24章。

Proverbs Chapters 25-29諺語25-29章

This division of the book is introduced in the first verse of chapter 25, as the "proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, copied out."該司的這本書是介紹了在第一詩的第25章,為“諺語所羅門群島,這是男子的Hezekiah ,猶太國王,複製了。 ” What these words mean it is difficult to say, except in the general sense that the teachers of Hezekiah's period selected and gathered together wise sayings that had been written, or handed down orally in previous generations.這些話是什麼意思,很難說,除了在一般意義上說,教師的Hezekiah的時期選擇和明智的諺語聚集了書面或口頭流傳下來的前幾代。 They may have been those of Solomon only, and yet his name may be attached to them simply because they were now made part of his general collection.他們可能已被這些所羅門只,但他的名字可能賦予它們僅僅是因為他們現在的一部分,他一般收集。 They contain admonitions to the fear of God and righteousness, addressed partly to kings, and yet also to their subjects. They also contain warnings against evil conduct of various kinds, (c. 26); against conceit and arrogance (c. 27); against unlawful dealings, especially of the rich with the poor (c. 28); and against stubbornness and insubordination, (c. 29).它們含有告誡的恐懼和正義的上帝,給部分國王,但他們也科目。他們還包含警告邪惡行為的各種(約26 ) ;對自負和傲慢(角27 ) ;取締非法交易,尤其是豐富的窮人(角28 ) ;和打擊頑固和不服從, (角29 ) 。

Proverbs Chapters 30-31諺語30-31章

The last division consists of two supplements, one of the words of Agur (c. 30), and the other of Lemuel (c. 31). Agur's words begin with an exaltation of the Word of God (vv. 1-6), followed by short and pithy maxims with reference to the rich and the poor, pride and greed, etc. Lemuel's words open with a philosophical statement, applying chiefly to kings, followed by his well-known poem in praise of the virtuous woman.最後司由兩個補充,一個字的Agur (角30 ) ,和其他的Lemuel (角31 ) 。 Agur的話首先提升的神的話語( vv. 1-6 ) ,其次是短期和精闢格言參考富國和窮國,驕傲和貪婪等Lemuel的話打開了哲學的聲明,主要是向國王申請,其次是他眾所周知的詩讚美的嬪。


Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the Hagiographa, and found in the Vulgate after the books of Psalms and Job.一個Sapiential著作舊約放置在希伯來聖經中Hagiographa ,發現後,在拉丁文聖經的書詩篇和就業。

I. NAMES AND GENERAL OBJECT一,名稱和一般對象

In the Masoretic Text, the Book of Proverbs has for its natural heading the words Míshlê Shelomoh (Proverbs of Solomon), wherewith this sacred writing begins (cf. x).在馬所拉文本,這本書的諺語有其自然標題改為Míshlê Shelomoh (諺語所羅門) ,這個神聖的書面wherewith開始(參見X )來完成。 In the Talmud and in later Jewish works the Book of Proverbs is oftentimes designated by the single word Míshlê, and this abridged title is expressly mentioned in the superscription "Liber Proverbiorum, quem Hebræi Misle appellant", found in the official edition of the Vulgate.在塔木德和猶太作品在以後的圖書往往諺語是指定的一個字Míshlê ,這簡略標題中明確提及的superscription “書Proverbiorum ,關於Hebræi Misle上訴人” ,發現在正式版的武加大。 In the Septuagint manuscripts, the two Hebrew titles are rendered by and , respectively.在七十手稿,兩個希伯來文所提供的標題,並分別。 From these Greek titles again are immediately derived the Latin renderings, "Parabolæ Salomonis", "Parabolæ", a trace of which appears in the Tridentine "Decretum de Canon. Script.", wherein the Book of Proverbs is simply called "Parabolæ".從這些希臘冠軍再次立即源性拉丁美洲渲染, “ Parabolæ Salomonis ” , “ Parabolæ ”的痕跡出現在Tridentine “教令日佳能。腳本。 ” ,其中,圖書的諺語就是所謂的“ Parabolæ ” 。 The ordinary title "Proverbia Salomonis" was apparently taken from the Old Latin Version into the Vulgate, whence comes directly the usual English title of "Proverbs".普通的標題是“ Proverbia Salomonis ”顯然是從老版本到拉丁美洲武加大,何處直接通常的英文名稱的“諺語” 。 In the Church's liturgy, the Book of Proverbs is, like the other Sapiential writings, designated by the common term "Wisdom".在教會的禮儀,這本書的諺語一樣,是其他Sapiential著作,共同指定的長期“智慧” 。 This is consonant to the practice, common in early Christian times, of designating such books by the word "Wisdom" or by some expresion in which this word occurs, as "All-virtuous Wisdom", etc. Indeed, it is probable that the title , "Wisdom", was common in Jewish circles at the beginning of Christianity, and that it passed from them to the early Fathers of the Church (cf. Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxii, xxvi).這是輔音的做法,一般在早期基督教時代,指定這樣的書,用“智慧” ,或在其中一些表達這個詞時,作為“全良性智慧”等事實上,這是可能的標題, “智慧” ,是常見的猶太人圈子開始基督教,而且通過他們早日父親教會(見優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ” ,四,二十二, XXVI )號決議。 Of the various names given to the Book of Proverbs, that of Wisdom best sets forth the ethical object of this inspired writing. However disconnected the pithy sayings or vivid descriptions which make up the book may appear, they, each and all, are bound by one and the same moral purpose: they aim at inculcating wisdom as understook by the Hebrews of old, that is perfection of knowledge showing itself in action, whether in the case of king or peasant, statesman or artisan, philosopher or unlearned.各種名稱給予圖書的諺語,即智慧最好闡明道德對象的啟發寫作。然而斷開了精闢的諺語或生動的說明,彌補可能出現的書,他們每一個和所有,受同一個道德目的:他們的目的是灌輸智慧understook的希伯來書老,這是完善知識顯示自己的行動,無論是在案件國王或農民,政治家或技工,哲學家或胸無點墨。 Differently from the term "Wisdom", the title Míshlê (St. Jerome, Masloth) has a distinct reference to the symbolic character and poetical form of the sayings which are gathered together in the Book of Proverbs.不同的術語“智慧” ,標題Míshlê (聖杰羅姆, Masloth )具有鮮明的象徵參考性質和詩歌形式的格言是聚集在這本書中的諺語。 In general, the Hebrew Mashal (constr. plur. Míshlê) denotes a representative saying, that is, a statement which, however deduced from a single instance, is capable of application to other instances of a similar kind.一般情況下,希伯來馬沙勒( constr. plur 。 Míshlê )指代表說,這就是一份聲明,但推導出一個單一的個體,能夠適用於其他情況類似。 Taken in this sense, it corresponds pretty well to the words proverb, parable, maxim etc., in our Western literatures.在這個意義上說,它符合不錯的話諺語,寓言,格言等,在我們的西方文獻。 But besides, it has the meaning of sentences constructed in parallelism; and in point of fact, the contents of the Book of Proverbs exhibit, from beginning to end, this leading feature of Hebrew poetry.但除此之外,它的含義,句子構造並行;並在事實上,內容的圖書諺語展覽,從開始到結束,這主要特點希伯來詩歌。 Hence, it appears that, as prefixed to this inspired writing, the word Míshlê describes the general character of the Book of Proverbs as a manual of practical rules which are set forth in a poetical form.因此,看來,作為這個前綴啟發寫作,這個詞Míshlê介紹了一般性質的圖書諺語作為一個切實可行的規則手冊中都有具體規定在一個詩的形式。

II.二。 DIVISIONS AND CONTENTS司和目錄

As it stands at the present day, the Book of Proverbs begins with the general title, "Míshlê Shelomoh, the son of David, king of Israel", which is immediately followed by a prologue (i, 2-6), stating the aim and importance of the entire work: the whole collection aims at imparting wisdom and at enabling men to understand all kinds of Mashals.因為它停留在目前的一天,這本書開始諺語的一般商品, “ Míshlê Shelomoh的兒子大衛,以色列之王” ,這是緊接著由序幕(一, 2月6日) ,說明目的和重要性的全部工作:整個收集旨在傳授智慧和使男子了解各種Mashals 。 The first part of the book (i, 7-ix), itself a hortatory introduction to the collection of proverbs which follows, is a commendation of wisdom.第一部分的書(一, 7 - 9 ) ,這本身就是一個勸告介紹收集諺語如下,是一個讚揚智慧。 After a deeply religious epigraph (i, 7), the writer, speaking like a father, gives a series of exhortations and warnings to an imagined pupil or disciple.經過深入宗教題詞(一, 7人) ,作家,像一個父親講,給出了一系列的規勸和警告,以一個臆想的學生或弟子。 He warns him against evil company (i, 8-19); describes to him the advantages attending the pursuit of wisdom, and the evils to be avoided by such course (ii); exhorts him to obedience, to trust in God, to the payment of legal offerings, to patience under the Divine chastisements, and sets forth the priceless value of wisdom (iii, 1-26).他警告說他對邪惡的公司(一, 8月19日) ;介紹了他的優點出席追求智慧,和罪惡,以避免此類課程(二) ;勸告他服從,相信上帝,向支付法律服務,以耐心的神聖chastisements ,並闡明了無價價值的智慧(三, 1月26日) 。 After some miscellaneous precepts (iii, 27-35), he renews his pressing exhortation to wisdom and virtue (iv), and gives several warnings against unchaste women (v; vi, 20-35; vii), after the first of which are inserted warnings against suretyship, indolence, falsehood, and various vices (vi, 1-19. At several points (i, 20-33; viii; ix) Wisdom herself is introduced as speaking and as displaying her charms, origin, and power to men. The style of this first part is flowing, and the thoughts therein expressed are generally developed in the form of connected discourses. The second part of the book (x-xxii, 16) has for its distinct heading: "Míshlê Shelomoh", and is made up of disconnected sayings in couplet form, arranged in no particular order, so that it is impossible to give a summary of them. In many instances a saying is repeated within this large collection, usually in identical terms, at times with some slight changes of expression. Appended to this second part of the book are two minor collections (xxii, 17-xxiv, 22; ssiv, 23-34), chiefly made up of aphoristic quatrains. The opening verses (xxii, 17-21) of the first appendix request attention to the "words of the wise" which follow (xxii, 22-xxiv, 22), and which, in a consecutive form recalling that of the first part of the book, set forth warnings against various excesses. The second appendix has for its title: "These also are words of the wise", and the few proverbs it contains conclude with two verses (33, 34), apparently taken over from vi, 10, 11. The third part of the book (xxv-xxix) bears the inscription: "These are also Míshlê Shelomoh, which the men of Ezechias, king of Juda, copied out." By their miscellaneous character, their couplet form, etc., the proverbs of this third part resemble those of x-xxii, 16. Like them also, they are followed by two minor collections (xxx and xxxi, 1-9), each suplied with its respective title. The first of these minor collections has for its heading: "Words of Agur, the son of Takeh", and its principal contents are Agur's meditation on the Divine transcendence (xxx, 2-9), and groups of numerical proverbs. The second minor collection is inscribed: "The Words of Lamuel, a king: the oracle which his mother taught him." In it the queen-mother warns her son against sensuality, drunkenness, and injustice. Nothing is known of Agur and Lamuel; their names are possibly symbolical. The book concludes with an alphabetical poem descriptive of the virtuous woman (xxxi, 10-39).在其他一些戒律(三27-35 ) ,他再次告誡他的緊迫的智慧和美德(四) ,並給出一些警告unchaste婦女(五;六, 20-35 ;七)後,第一批插入警告保證,懶惰,虛偽,以及各種惡習(六, 1月19日。在幾個點(一, 20-33 ;第八;九)她是智慧的發言和介紹展示她的魅力,原產地,以及權力男子。風格的第一部分是流動的,並表示那裡的想法通常是發達國家的形式,連接論述。第二部分書籍(十- 22 , 16 )有其獨特的標題: “ Míshlê Shelomoh ”和由斷開諺語在對聯的形式,安排在任何特定的順序,因此,不可能給它們的摘要。在許多情況下一種說法是多次在這個大集合,通常是在相同的條件,有時一些略有改動的表達。附在本第二部分是兩個未成年人的圖書收藏( 22 , 17 , 24 , 22 ; ssiv , 23-34 ) ,主要由aphoristic絕句。開放的詩句( 22 , 17日至21日)第一附錄要求注意“的話明智”的後續( 22 , 22 , 24 , 22 ) ,其中,在一個連續的形式回顧的第一部分這本書,提出警告各種過激行為。第二個附錄的標題有: “這些話也是明智的” ,少數諺語它包含兩個詩句結束時( 33歲, 34歲) ,顯然接管六, 10 , 11 。第三部分圖書( 25 - XXIX )號決議承擔題詞: “這也是Míshlê Shelomoh ,其中男子埃澤希亞甚國王猶大,複製了。 ”通過他們的雜項的性質,其對聯的形式等,為這個第三部分類似於的X - 22 , 16 。他們一樣也,他們之後是兩個小集合(三十和三十一, 1月9日) ,每個suplied其各自的冠軍。其中第一個未成年人收藏的標題: “詞Agur的兒子Takeh “ ,其主要內容是Agur的冥想的神聖超越(三十, 2月9日) ,和團體的數值諺語。第二次要收集者: ”的話拉穆埃,國王:甲骨文而他的母親教他。 “在這份聲明中,女王母親說她的兒子對肉感,酗酒,和不公正。沒有人知道的Agur和拉穆埃;他們的名字可能象徵。這本書的最後一個字母詩描述嬪(三十一, 10-39 ) 。

III.三。 HEBREW TEXT AND ANCIENT VERSIONS希伯來語文字與古VERSIONS

A close study of the present Hebrew Text of the Book of Proverbs proves that the primitive wording of the pithy sayings which make up this manual of Hebrew wisdom has experienced numerous alterations in the course of its transmission. Some of these imperfections have, with some probability, been assigned to the period during which the maxims of the "wise men" were preserved orally.仔細研究本希伯來文字的圖書的諺語證明,原始的措辭簡練諺語構成本手冊希伯來智慧經歷了無數的改建過程中,其傳播。其中的一些不完善的,有的概率,被分配到的期間的格言是“智者”保存口頭。 Most of them belong undoubtedly to the time after these sententious or enigmatic sayings had been written down.其中大部分屬於無疑的時間在這些簡潔的或神秘的說法已被寫下來。 The Book of Proverbs was numbered among the "Hagiographa" (writings held by the ancient Hebrews as less sacred and authoritative than either the "Law" or the "Prophets"), and, in consequence, copyists felt naturally less bound to transcribe its text with scrupulous accuracy.圖書編號諺語是在“ Hagiographa ” (著作舉行的古代希伯來人少的神聖和權威比的“法”或“先知” ) ,因此, copyists感覺不到自然的約束,以抄寫其文字與嚴格的準確性。 Again, the copyists of Proverbs knew, or at least thought they knew, by memory the exact words of the pithy sayings they had to write out; hence arose involuntary changes which, once introduced, were perpetuated or even added to by subsequent transcribers.同樣, copyists諺語知道,或者至少認為他們知道,內存的準確的話簡練諺語他們不得不寫出來,因此產生的非自願的變化,一旦實施,持續下去,甚至添加到後來的謄寫。 Finally, the obscure or enigmatic character of a certain number of maxims led to the deliberate insertion of glosses in the text, so that primitive distichs now wrongly appear in the form of tristichs, etc. (cf. Knabenbauer, "Comm. in Proverbia", Paris, 1910).最後,掩蓋或神秘的性質一定數量的格言導致蓄意掩蓋插入的文本,從而使原始distichs現在出現在錯誤的形式tristichs等(參見Knabenbauer , “商業。在Proverbia ” ,巴黎, 1910年) 。 Of the ancient versions of the Book of Proverbs, the Septuagint is the most valuable.古代版本的圖書的諺語,在七十是最寶貴的。 It probably dates from the middle of the second century BC, and exhibits very important differences from the Massoretic Text in point of omissions, transpositions, and additions.它可能從中東日期的公元前二世紀,和展品非常重要的差異從Massoretic中的文字的遺漏, transpositions ,和補充。 The translator was a Jew conversant indeed with the Greek language, but had at times to use paraphrases owing to the difficulty of rendering Hebrew pithy sayings into intelligible Greek.翻譯是一個猶太人精通確實與希臘語,但有時由於使用釋義的困難使希伯來語簡練諺語到可理解希臘。 After full allowance has been made for the translator's freedom in rendering, and for the alterations introduced into the primitive wording of this version by later transcribers and revisers, two things remain quite certain: first, the Septuagint may occasionally be utilized for the discovery and the enmendation of inaccurate readings in our present Hebrew Text; and next, the most important variations which this Greek Version presents, especially in the line of additions and transpositions, point to the fact that the translator rendered a Hebrew original which differed considerably from the one embodied in the Massoretic Bibles.經過充分津貼方面已取得的譯者的自由渲染,以及改建引入原始措詞這個版本的更新謄寫和審校,兩件事仍然相當肯定:第一,七十偶爾會用於發現和enmendation不準確的讀數,我們目前的希伯來文字;和未來,最重要的變化這希臘版本介紹,特別是在線路的補充和transpositions ,指向這樣一個事實,即作出了希伯來語翻譯原始而相差很大的一個體現在Massoretic聖經。 It is well known that the Sahidic Version of Proverbs was made from the Septuagint, before the latter had been subjected to recensions, and hence this Coptic Version is useful for the control of the Greek Text.眾所周知,在Sahidic版本的諺語是從七十,後者之前一直受到recensions ,因此,這是有益的科普特版本的控制希臘文字。 The present Peshito, or Syriac Version of Proverbs was probably based on the Hebrew Text, with which it generally agrees with regard to material and arrangement.本Peshito ,或敘利亞文版本的諺語可能是希伯來文的基礎上的文字,它與一般同意關於物質和安排。 At the same time, it was most likely made with respect to the Septuagint, the peculiar readings of which it repeatedly adopts.與此同時,這是最有可能作出的譯本,特殊讀數它一再採用。 The Latin Version of Proverbs, which is embodied in the Vulgate, goes back to St. Jerome, and for the most part closely agrees with the Massoretic Text.拉丁美洲版本的諺語,這是體現在武加大,可追溯到聖杰羅姆,並在大多數情況下密切同意Massoretic文字。 It is probable that many of its present deviations from the Hebrew in conformity with the Septuagint should be referred to later copyists anxious to complete St. Jerome's work by means of the "Vetus Itala", which had been closely made from the Greek.很可能,它的許多本偏離希伯來語符合七十,應提交後copyists急於完成聖杰羅姆的工作,通過“ Vetus伊泰萊” ,這一直密切從希臘。

IV.四。 AUTHORSHIP AND DATE作者身份和日期

The vexed questions anent the authorship and date of the collections which make up the Book of Proverbs go back only to the sixteenth century of our era, when the Hebrew Text began to be studied more closely than previously.令人煩惱的問題anent作者和日期的集合構成的圖書諺語回去只有16世紀的時代,希伯來文字開始研究比以往更加密切。 They were not even suspected by the early Fathers who, following implicitly the inscriptions in i, 1; x, 1; xxiv, 1 (which bear direct witness to the Solomonic authorship of large collections of proverbs), and being misled by the Greek rendering of the titles in xxx, 1; xxxi, 1 (which does away altogether with the references to Agur and Lamuel as authors distinct from Solomon), regarded King Solomon as the author of the whole Book of Proverbs.他們甚至不懷疑早期教父誰,下面的含蓄的銘文中一, 1 ;十, 1 ; 24 , 1 (負有直接見證了Solomonic著作權的大量藏書諺語) ,和被誤導的希臘渲染標題在三十, 1 ;三十一, 1 (不完全以外的提及Agur和拉穆埃作為作者有別於所羅門群島) ,把所羅門王的作者整本書的諺語。 Nor were they real questions for the subsequent writers of the West, although these medieval authors had in the Vulgate a more faithful rendering of xxx, 1; xxxi, 1, which might have led them to reject the Solomonic origin of the sections ascribed to Agur and Lamuel respectively, for in their eyes the words Agur and Lamuel were but symbolical names of Solomon.也不是真正的問題,為以後的西方作家,雖然這些中世紀的作者曾在武加大更忠實呈現三十, 1 ;三十一, 1 ,可能導致他們拒絕Solomonic原產地的部分歸因於Agur和拉穆埃分別在他們眼裡的話Agur和拉穆埃只是象徵性的名字所羅門。 At the present day, most Catholic scholars feel free to treat as non-Solomonic not only the short sections which are ascribed in the Hebrew Text to Agur and Lamuel, but also the minor collections which their titles attribute to "the wise" (xxii, 16- xxiv, 22; xxiv, 23-34), and the alphabetical poem concerning the virtuous woman which is appended to the whole book.在當今,大多數天主教學者隨時視為非Solomonic不僅短期部分是歸因於希伯來文Agur和拉穆埃,而且還收藏該未成年人的圖書屬性的“明智” ( 22 , 16 - 24 , 22 ; 24 , 23-34 ) ,以及字母詩關於嬪這是附加到整本書。 With regard to the other parts of the work (i-ix; x-xxii, 16; xxv-xxix), Catholic writers are wellnigh unanimous in ascribing them to Solomon.至於其他部分的工作(第一至第九;的X 22 , 16 ;二十五,二十九) ,天主教作家wellnigh一致歸咎於他們所羅門。 Bearing distinctly in mind the statement in III (AV I) Kings, iv, 29-32, that, in his great wisdom, Solomon "spoke 3000 Mashals", they have no difficulty in admitting that this monarch may be the author of the much smaller number of proverbs included in the three collections in question.軸承明顯銘記發言中三(影音一)國王,四, 29-32 , ,在他非凡的智慧,索羅門“以3000 Mashals ” ,他們有沒有困難承認這可能是國王的作者多數量較少的諺語包含在集合中的三個問題。 Guided by ancient Jewish and Christian tradition they feel constrained to abide by the explicit titles to the same collections, all the more so because the titles in the Book of Proverbs are manifestly discriminating with respect to authorship, and because the title, "These also are Mishle Shelomoh, which the men of Ezechias, King of Juda, copied out" (xxv, 1), in particular, bears the impress of definiteness and accuracy. Lastly, looking into the contents of these three large collections, they do not think that anything found therein with respect to style, ideas, historic background etc. should compel anyone to give up the traditional authorship, at whatever time–either under Ezechias, or as late as Esdras–all the collections embodied in the Book of Proverbs reached their present form and arrangement.遵循古老的猶太教和基督教傳統,他們認為制約遵守明確的標題,以同樣的藏品,更是因為這本書書名的諺語是明顯的歧視方面的作者,而且因為標題中, “這也Mishle Shelomoh ,其中男子埃澤希亞甚國王猶大,複製了“ ( 25 , 1 ) ,特別是負有印象的定性和準確性。最後,尋找到的內容,這三個大的集合,他們不認為發現有任何方面的作風,思想,歷史背景等應迫使人放棄傳統的作者,在任何時間,任何根據埃澤希亞甚,或遲埃斯德拉斯,所有收藏的圖書中所體現的諺語達到本形式和安排。 A very different view concerning the authorship and date of the collections ascribed to Solomon by their titles is gaining favour among non-Catholic scholars.一個非常不同的看法關於作者和日期的集合歸因於所羅門群島的頭銜越來越贊成非天主教學者。 It treats the headings of these collections as no more reliable than the titles of the Psalms.它的標題對待這些藏品因為沒有更可靠的比冠軍的詩篇。 It maintains that none of the collections comes from Solomon's own hand and that the general tenor of their contents bespeaks a late post-exilic date.它堅持認為,沒有收集來自所羅門自己的手,說的一般步驟,其內容bespeaks晚後放逐日期。 The following are the principal arguments usually set forth in favour of this opinion.以下是通常的主要論據闡述贊成這一意見。 In these collections there is no challenge of idolatry, such as would naturally be expected if they were pre-exilic, and monogamy is everywhere presupposed.在這些收藏品有沒有挑戰的偶像,如自然會預期,如果他們預先放逐,和一夫一妻制是各地的先決條件。 It is very remarkable, too, that throughout no mention is made of Israel or of any institution peculiar to Israel.這是非常了不起的,也是在整個沒有提到以色列或任何機構所特有的以色列。 Again, the subject of those collections is not the nation, which apparently no longer enjoys independence, but the individual, to whom wisdom appeals in a merely ethical, and hence very late, manner.同樣,這些問題的收藏不是國家,顯然不再享有獨立,但對個人,申訴人的智慧不僅在倫理,因此很晚,方式。 The personification of wisdom, in particular (chap. viii), is either the direct result of the influence of Greek upon Jewish thought, or, if independent of Greek philosophy, the product of late Jewish metaphysics.智慧的化身,特別是(第八章) ,或者直接造成的影響,希臘呼籲猶太思想,或者,如果獨立的古希臘哲學,產品的後期猶太形而上學。 Finally, the close spiritual and intellectual relation of Proverbs to Ecclesiasticus shows that, however great and numerous are the differences in detail between them, the two works cannot be separated by an interval of several centuries.最後,精神和智力密切有關的諺語來Ecclesiasticus表明,但是和許多偉大的分歧詳細它們之間,這兩個工程是不能分開的間隔幾百年。 Despite the confidence with which some modern scholars urge these arguments against the traditional authorship of i-ix; x-xxii, 16; xxv,- xxix, a close examination of their value leaves one unconvinced of their proving force.儘管有信心在這方面,一些現代學者敦促這些論點對傳統的著作權一至九;的X 22 , 16 ;二十五, -第29屆,認真審查了其價值葉一信服其證明力。

I. NAMES AND GENERAL OBJECT一,名稱和一般對象

The Book of Proverbs is justly numbered among the protocanonical writings of the Old Testament.書編號諺語是公正的protocanonical著作舊約。 In the first century of our era its canonical authority was certainly acknowledged in Jewish and Christian circles, for the Sacred Writers of the New Testament make a frequent use of its contents, quoting them at times explicitly as Holy Writ (cf. Romans 12:19-20; Hebrews 12:5-6; James 4:5-6, etc.).在二十一世紀我們時代的典型管理局肯定是承認猶太教和基督教界的神聖作家新約全書使經常使用其內容,引用他們有時明確的聖經(參見羅馬書12點19 -20 ;希伯來書12:5-6 ;詹姆斯4:5-6 ,等等) 。 It is true that certain doubts as to the inspiration of the Book of Proverbs, which had been entertained by ancient rabbis who belonged to the School of Shammai, reappeared in the Jewish assembly at Jamnia (about AD 100); but these were only theoretical difficulties which could not induce the Jewish leaders of the time to count this book out of the Canon, and which in fact were there and then set at rest for ever.誠然,某些懷疑的啟示圖書諺語,這是古代猶太不受理誰屬於學校的沙麥,重新出現在猶太人大會詹姆尼(約公元100 ) ;但這些都只是理論上的困難不能誘導猶太領導人的時間來計算出這本書的佳能,而且事實上在那裡,然後設置為以往任何時候都在休息。 The subsequent assaults of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 429), of Spinoza (d. 1677), and of Le Clerc (d. 1736) against the inspiration of that sacred book left likewise its canonical authority unshaken.隨後的攻擊西奧多的Mopsuestia ( 4 429 ) ,斯賓諾莎( 4 1677年) ,和樂賈勒( 4 1736 )對這一神聖的啟示書離開同樣其典型管理局動搖。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息作者弗朗西斯大腸桿菌吉戈特。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to Fr.神父與感謝。 John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.約翰Hilkert和聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

For Introductions to the Old Testament see INTRODUCTION.為介紹舊約見導言。 Recent commentaries–Catholic: ROHLING, (Mainz, 1879); LESÊTRE (Paris, 1879); FILLION (Paris, 1892); VIGOUROUX (Paris, 1903); KNABENBAUER (Paris, 1910).最近評論天主教: ROHLING , (美茵茨, 1879年) ; LESÊTRE (巴黎, 1879年) ;菲利安(巴黎, 1892年) ; VIGOUROUX (巴黎, 1903年) ; KNABENBAUER (巴黎, 1910年) 。 Protestant: ZÖCKLER (tr. New York, 1870); DELITSCH (tr. Edinburgh, 1874); NOWACK (Leipzig, 1883); WILDEBOER (Freiburg, 1897); FRANKENBERG (Göttingen, 1898); STRACK (Nördlingen, 1899); TOY (New York, 1899).新教: ZÖCKLER (編輯部紐約, 1870年) ; DELITSCH (編輯部愛丁堡, 1874年) ; NOWACK (萊比錫, 1883年) ; WILDEBOER (弗賴堡, 1897年) ;弗蘭肯貝格(哥廷根, 1898 ) ;施特拉克(諾德林根, 1899年) ;玩具(紐約, 1899年) 。 General works: MEIGNAN, Solomon, son règne, ses écrits (Paris, 1890); CHEYNE, Job and Solomon, (New York, 1899); KENT, The Wise Men of Ancient Israel (New York, 1899); DAVISON, The Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament (London, 1900).一般工程: MEIGNAN ,索羅門,兒子英國,經濟局局長écrits (巴黎, 1890年) ;進益,就業和所羅門群島, (紐約, 1899年) ;肯特智者古代以色列(紐約, 1899年) ;戴維森,智慧文學舊約(倫敦, 1900年) 。


Book of Proverbs圖書諺語

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Title and Divisions.標題和司。

Not Solomonic.沒有Solomonic 。

Wisdom.智慧。

No Immortality or Messiah.沒有不朽或彌賽亞。

Date.日期。

Title and Divisions.標題和司。

One of the Ketubim, or Hagiographa, belonging to the group of "Ḥokmah," or "Wisdom" books.一個Ketubim ,或Hagiographa ,屬於該集團的“ Ḥokmah ”或“智慧”的書籍。 The Masoretic superscription to the first and twenty-fifth chapters is "Proverbs of Solomon" ("Mishle Shelomoh"; and so in the subscription to the book in the Alexandrian and Sinaitic Greek MSS.); but in the Greek and in later Jewish usage (and in the AV and RV) the book is entitled simply "Proverbs" ("Mishle"). superscription的馬所拉的第一和第二十五章是“諺語所羅門” ( “ Mishle Shelomoh ” ;因此,在認購書在亞歷山大和Sinaitic希臘衛星。 ) ;但在希臘和使用在以後的猶太人(和在影音和RV )這本書的題目是簡單的“諺語” ( “ Mishle ” ) 。 The longer title belonged originally to the central collection of aphorisms, x.較長標題屬於原來的中央收集警句,十 1-xxii. 1 - 22 。 16, and to xxv.-xxix., and may have been extended early to the whole work, but the shorter form became the predominant one, as, indeed, there are other titles to certain sections (xxii. 17, xxx. 1, xxxi, 1). 16日,並xxv. -二十九。 ,並可能已擴大到整個年初的工作,但更短的形式,成為佔主導地位,因為,事實上,有其他遊戲的某些部分( xxii. 17三十。 1 ,三十一, 1 ) 。 It is uncertain whether or not the name "Wisdom" (or "All-Virtuous Wisdom"), common in early Christian writings (Clement of Rome, "Corinth," i. 57; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iv. 22 et al.), was of Jewish origin; the designation "Book of Wisdom" in the Talmud (Tosef., BB 14b) may be a descriptive term and not a title, and the citation of Job xxviii.目前尚不能確定是否或沒有名稱為“智慧” (或“全良性智慧” ) ,一般在早期基督教著作(克萊門特的羅馬, “科林斯, ”一57 ;歐西比烏斯“組織胺。 Eccl 。 ”四。 22等。 ) ,這是猶太血統;指定“智慧書”中的塔木德( Tosef. ,預算局第14B ) ,或許是一種描述性術語,而不是所有權,和引文的就業二十八。 12 ("But where shall wisdom be found?") at the beginning of the Midrash merely indicates that the book belongs in the Ḥokmah category. 12 ( “但是,在應智慧找到? ” )開始的時候,米德拉士僅僅表明圖書屬於Ḥokmah類別。

The following divisions of the book are indicated in the text: (1) A group of discourses on the conduct of life (i.-ix.), comprising the praise of wisdom as the guide of life (i.-iv.); warnings against unchaste women (v.-vii.; with three misplaced paragraphs, vi. 1-19, against certain social faults); the description of wisdom as the controller of life and as Yhwh's companion in the creation of the world (viii.); and a contrast between wisdom and folly (ix.; with a misplaced collection of aphorisms, ix. 7-12).下列部門的書案文中指出: ( 1 ) A組的論述的行為生活( i.-ix. ) ,包括讚揚的智慧為指導的生活( i.-iv. ) ;警告unchaste婦女(五至七。 ;三個錯位段,六。 1月19日,對某些社會斷裂) ;的說明智慧作為控制器的生活和Yhwh的同伴創造的世界( viii. ) ;和對比的智慧和愚蠢( ix. ;與錯位收集警句,九。 7月12日) 。 (2) A collection, or book, of aphoristic couplets (x. 1-xxii. 16). ( 2 )收集,或書籍,對aphoristic春聯(十1 - 22 。 16 ) 。 (3) Two small groups of aphoristic quatrains (xxii. 17-xxiv. 22 and xxiv. 23-34). ( 3 )兩小團體aphoristic絕句( xxii. 17 - 24 。 22和24 。 23-34 ) 。 (4) A second collection of couplets (xxv.-xxix). ( 4 )第二次收集春聯( xxv. - XXIX )號決議。 (5) A miscellaneous group of discourses and numerical aphorisms (xxx.-xxxi.), mostly in tetrads: reverent agnosticism (xxx. 1-4); certainty of God's word (5-6); a prayer (7-9); against slandering a servant (10); against certain vices and errors (11-33); a code for a king (xxxi. 1-9); a picture of a model housewife (10-31). ( 5 )一份雜項組的論述和數值警句( xxx. -三十一。 ) ,大部分是在四分:虔誠不可知論( xxx. 1月4日) ;確定性和天主聖言的( 5-6 ) ;祈禱( 7-9 ) ;對誹謗僕人( 10 ) ;對某些罪惡和錯誤( 11-33 ) ;一個代碼為國王( xxxi. 1月9日) ;圖片示範家庭主婦( 10月31日) 。 These divisions, various in form and content, suggest that the book was formed by the combination of a number of booklets.這些部門,各在形式和內容表明,這本書是由結合了一些小冊子。

Not Solomonic.沒有Solomonic 。

The ascription of the book to Solomon, in the titles and in tradition, is without valid foundation.歸屬本書所羅門群島,在標題和傳統,是沒有有效的基礎。 In the Prophets and Psalms titles are admittedly not authoritative-they are based on the feeling or guesses of late scribes, not on documentary evidence-and they can not be more trustworthy here.在先知和詩篇標題誠然沒有權威,他們是根據感覺或猜測月底文士,沒有書面證據,也不能在這裡更值得信賴。 The elaborate heading to the section xxv.-xxix.標題的擬定的第xxv. -二十九。 ("Proverbs of Solomon Edited by Scholars of Hezekiah's Court") is paralleled by the superscriptions to some of the Psalms (li., lix., lx.), which are manifestly untrustworthy. Hezekiah'stime may have been chosen by the author of this heading because he regarded the collection xxv.-xxix. ( “諺語所羅門編輯學者Hezekiah的法院” )是平行的superscriptions的一些詩篇( li. ,螺旋。 ,光照。 ) ,這顯然是不可信的。 Hezekiah'stime可能已被選定的作者這個項目,因為他認為,收集xxv. -二十九。 as later than x.-xxii. 16, and therefore to be referred to the Augustan age of Hezekiah, which followed the golden age of David and Solomon.為不遲於十- 22 。 16 ,因此將交給古斯坦年齡Hezekiah ,這之後的黃金時代大衛和所羅門。 But there is no proof that the age of Hezekiah was Augustan; on the contrary, it was a period of conflict, and the work of editing and combining did not begin till a century or two later.但沒有證據表明,年齡Hezekiah是古斯坦;相反,它是一個衝突期間,和工作的編輯和合併,也沒有到一個世紀或兩個更新。 Moreover, as is pointed out below, the thought of the Book of Proverbs is as alien to the Hezekian as to the Solomonic age.此外,正如下文指出,思想的圖書諺語是格格不入的Hezekian至於Solomonic年齡。

In the first place, there is no trace in the book of the religious problems and conflicts of the pre-exilic period.首先,沒有任何痕跡在書中的宗教問題和衝突前的放逐期間。 The Prophets, from Amos to Ezekiel, are in deadly fear of foreign cults, and testify, during this whole period, that Israel is more or less given over to the worship of other gods than Yhwh and to idolatry.先知,來自阿莫斯納曼以厄澤克爾,是致命的恐懼外國邪教和作證,在這整個期間,以色列是或多或少地考慮到其他神靈崇拜比Yhwh和偶像崇拜。 The polemic against such infidelity is the dominant note of the prophetic preaching down to the latter half of the sixth century.針對這種論戰不忠是主導注意到先知講道下降到下半年的六世紀。 But in Proverbs there is not a word of all this.但是,在為沒有一個字的這一切。 Monotheism is quietly taken for granted.一神教是悄悄地認為是理所當然的。 There is no mention of priests or prophets (the word "vision" in xxix. 18 is a clerical error); the sacrificial ritual is almost completely ignored.沒有提到祭司或先知(單詞“願景”在第29屆。 18日是一個文書錯誤) ;祭祀儀式幾乎完全被忽略。 Throughout the literature till the time of Ezra the national interest is predominant; here it is quite lacking-the name Israel does not occur.在整個文學到時以斯拉國家利益為主;這裡是相當缺乏,以色列的名稱不會發生。 The religious atmosphere of the book is wholly different from that which characterizes Jewish thought down to the end of the fifth century.宗教氣氛的書是完全不同的特點猶太人認為到年底,五世紀。

Wisdom.智慧。

In no point is the change more noticeable than in the attitude toward wisdom.在任何一點的變化更加明顯比態度智慧。 The wisdom of the pre-Ezran Old Testament writings is shrewd common sense and general keen intelligence (II Sam. xiv.; I Kings iii.); and because it was controlled by worldly considerations it was looked on with disfavor by the Prophets as not being in harmony with the word of God as they understood it (Jer. viii. 9, ix. 23; Ezek. vii. 26).智慧的前Ezran舊約著作是精明的常識和一般熱衷情報(二山姆。十四。 ;王三。 ) ; ,因為它是由世俗的考慮,這是看似與不贊成的預言不目前在和諧與上帝的話,因為他們的理解( Jer.八。 9日,九。 23 ;結。七。 26 ) 。 In Proverbs it stands for the broadest and highest conception of life, and is identified with the law of God. Yet it is the utterance of sages, whose counsel is represented as the only sufficient guide of conduct (i.-iv., xxii. 17-21).在為代表的最廣泛和最高的人生觀,並確定了與上帝的律法。然而,它是話語的先賢,他的律師代表出席了會議作為唯一的充分指導的行為( i.-iv. ,二十二。 17-21日) 。 The sages do not employ the prophetic formula "Thus saith the Lord" or appeal to the law of Moses; they speak out of their own minds, not claiming divine inspiration, yet assuming the absolute authoritativeness of what they say-that is, they regard conscience as the final guide of life.聖賢不僱用先知公式“因此saith上帝”或呼籲摩西律法;他們講出自己的頭腦,而不是宣稱的神聖靈感,但承擔的絕對權威,他們說什麼,也就是說,他們認為良知作為最後的生活指南。 While the contents of the book are various, parts of it dealing with simple, every-day matters, the prevailing tone is broadly religious: God is the ruler of the world, and wisdom is the expression (through human conscience) of His will. In one passage (viii.), animated by a fine enthusiasm, wisdom is personified (almost hypostatized) as a cosmic force, the nursling of God, standing by His side at the creation of the world (comp. Job xxviii.; Wisdom of Solomon vii.).雖然這本書的內容是不同的,部分處理簡單,每天事項,普遍的基調大致宗教:上帝是統治者的世界,和智慧的表達(通過人類良知)他將。在一個通道( viii. ) ,動畫罰款的熱情,智慧是人格化(幾乎hypostatized )作為宇宙力量, nursling上帝,站在他身邊創造的世界( comp.就業二十八。 ;智慧所羅門群島七。 ) 。 This conception, foreign to the pre-Ezran Old Testament thought, suggests the period when the Jews came under Greek influence.這一概念,外國預先Ezran舊約全書思想,表明期間猶太人遭到希臘的影響。

No Immortality or Messiah.沒有不朽或彌賽亞。

The theology of Proverbs is the simplest form of theism.神學諺語是最簡單的形式的有神論。 The individual man stands in direct relation with God, needing no man or angel to act as mediator (comp. Job v. 1. xxxiii. 23).個別男子站在直接關係的上帝,沒有人需要或天使充當調解人( comp.就業訴1 。三十三。 23 ) 。 No supernatural being, except God, is mentioned.沒有神仙,除了上帝,是提及。 Salvation lies in conduct, which is determined by man's will.救國在於進行,這是取決於人的意志。 Men are divided into two classes, the righteous and the wicked: the former are rewarded, the latter punished, by God; how one may pass from one class into the other is not said.男子分為兩班,正義與邪惡的:前者的回報,後者的懲罰,是上帝;如何可以從一個類的其他不說。 Reward and punishment belong to the present life; the conception of the underworld is the same as in the body of Old Testament writings; there is no reference to ethical immortality (on xi. 7 and xiv. 32 see the commentaries).賞罰屬於本生活;的概念黑社會是一樣的身體,舊約著作;沒有提到道德永生(上十一。 7和14 。 32見注) 。 Wickedness leads to premature death (v. 5, ix. 18, et al.); wisdom confers long life (iii. 16).邪惡導致過早死亡(五5 ,第九章。 18日,等。 ) ;智慧賦予壽命長( iii. 16 ) 。 Doubtless the authors, pious men, observed the national sacrificial laws (xv. 8), but they lay no stress on them-they regard conduct as the important thing.毫無疑問,作者,虔誠的男子,看到國家犧牲法律( xv. 8 ) ,但他們沒有任何壓力在於他們,他們的行為方面的重要的事情。 The book contains no Messianic element.這本書不包含彌賽亞元素。 The description in xvi.中的描述十六。 10-15 is of the ideal king, who is controlled by the human law of right (in contrast with the delineations in Isa. xi. 1-5, xxxii. 1, 2; Zech. ix. 9). 10月15日是理想的國王,誰控制了人的法律權利(在相反的劃分在ISA 。十一。 1月5日,三十二。 1 , 2 ; Zech 。九。 9 ) 。 This attitude may point to a time when there was a lull in the general Messianic i nterest (about 250-200 BC), but it is satisfactorily accounted for by the supposition that the sages, concerned with the inculcation of a universal code of life, took little interest in the popular hope of a restoration of national independence. Proverbs bears witness, especially in the first and the third division, to the existence of some sort of organized higher instruction at the time when it was composed.這種態度可能指向的時候,有一個平靜的一般彌賽亞字母i利息(約250-200年) ,但它是令人滿意的佔了假定的聖賢,關心灌輸一種普遍代碼的生活,在興趣不大受歡迎希望恢復國家獨立。諺語見證,特別是在第一和第三司,存在某種形式的有組織更高指令時有人組成。 The frequent form of address, "my son," indicates the relation of a teacher to his pupils.頻繁的形式解決, “我的兒子” ,表明了有關的教師,以他的學生。 There is no information regarding regular academies before the second century BC (from Antigonus of Soko onward), but it is probable that those that are known did not spring into existence without forerunners.沒有資料就經常院校前公元前二世紀(從安提岡的鴉起) ,但很可能是那些不知道春天到不存在的先驅。 The instruction in such schools would naturally be of the practical ethical sort that is found in Proverbs (on the "mashal" form here adopted see Proverbs).在教學中這樣的學校自然會實際倫理那種中發現諺語(關於“火炬”的形式在這裡通過見諺語) 。 The book has been always highly valued for the purity and elevation of its moral teaching. Not only are justice and truthfulness everywhere enjoined, but revenge is forbidden (xxiv. 17), and kindness to enemies insisted on (xxv. 21).這本書一直高度重視的純度和提高其道德教育。不僅是正義和真理責成各地,但復仇禁止( xxiv. 17 ) ,和善待敵人堅持( xxv. 21 ) 。 The conception of family life is a high one: monogamy is taken for granted; children are to honor parents, and parents to be the guides of children; an honorable position is assigned the wife and mother.的概念,家庭生活是一個高1 :一夫一妻制是理所當然的;子女履行父母,父母是指導兒童;光榮的立場是分配的妻子和母親。 Infidelity on the part of a married woman is denounced at length (v., vii.), and the youth is repeatedly warned against the "strange woman," that is, the unchaste wife of another man.不忠的一部分已婚婦女的譴責在長度(五,七。 )和青年是一再警告,不要對“奇怪的女人” ,即unchaste另一名男子的妻子。 There are many maxims relating to thrift and economy (vi. 1-11, xxvii. 23-27, et al.).有許多格言有關節約和經濟( vi. 1月11日,二十七。 23日至27日,等。 ) 。 Excess is denounced, and self-control and temperance enjoined.過剩的譴責,和自我控制和戒酒責成。 The motive urged for well-doing is well-being, success, and happiness.動機敦促以及做的是幸福,成功和幸福。 In so far the ethical system is utilitarian, but the success presented as a goal, while sometimes merely material (xi. 15; xviii. 2, 18, et al.), rises at other times to the height of an ideal conception of a happy life (iii., viii.).在迄今為止的道德體系是功利的,但成功作為目標,而有時僅僅是材料( xi. 15 ;十八。 2 , 18 ,等。 ) ,增加在其他時間,以高度的一個理想的概念幸福生活( iii. ,八。 ) 。 In this higher sense the utilitarian view approaches the idea of a life devoted to humanity, though this idea is not definitely expressed in Proverbs.在這個意義上說,較高的功利觀點方法的想法,專門討論人類生活,但這種想法並不一定表示諺語。

Date.日期。

The characteristics described above point to the post-Ezran period as the time of origination of the book; to this period alone can be referred the tacit recognition of monotheism and monogamy, the absence of a national tone, and the marks of a developed city life. These traits are reproduced in Ben Sira (BC 190), the similarity of whose thought to that of Proverbs is obvious.上文所述的特徵點後Ezran期間的時間起源的書籍;此期間就可以被稱為默示承認一神教和一夫一妻制,沒有一個國家的基調,並標誌著一個發達的城市生活。這些特點轉載於本特希拉(公元前190 )的相似性,其認為這一諺語是顯而易見的。 But this latter is made up of different parts that appear to be of different dates. From a comparison of thought and form the following conclusion may be regarded as probable: The earliest collections (about the year 400) were the aphorisms contained in x.-xv., xvi.-xxii.但是,這後者是由不同的零件,似乎是在不同的日期。從比較的思想,形成了以下結論可能會被視為可能的:最早的收藏品(約400年)是警句載於十-十五。 , xvi. - 22 。 16, xxv.-xxvii., and xxviii.-xxix., from which later editors formed the two booklets, x.-xxii. 16 , xxv. -二十七。 ,並xxviii. -二十九。從後來編輯形成了兩本小冊子,十,二十二。 16 and xxv.-xxix. 16日和xxv. -二十九。 (350-300). ( 350-300 ) 。 A little later came the collection of more elaborate quatrains, xxii.有一點後來收集更為詳盡的絕句,二十二。 17-xxiv., and, toward the middle of the third century, the sustained discourses of i.-ix. 17 - 24 。 ,而且對中東的第三個世紀,持續的話語i.-ix. The latest section, probably, is xxx.-xxxi., and the whole may have been edited not long before the year 200. These dates are approximate, but it seems reasonably certain that the book is later than the year 400 BC On the objection made to its canonization see Bible Canon (§ 11); on the text and versions see the commentaries.最新的一節,也許是xxx. -三十一。 ,整個可能已被修改不久,一年200 。這些日期的逼近,但似乎相當肯定這本書是最遲在公元前400年在反對以其封見聖經佳能( § 11 ) ;上看到文字和版本的評注。 In the Septuagint the order of subsections in the third, fourth, and fifth divisions is as follows: xxii.在七十秩序的小節中的第三,第四,第五師如下: 22 。 17-xxiv. 22; xxx. 17 - 24 。 22 ;三十。 1-14; xxiv. 1月14日;二十四。 23-34; xxx. 23-34 ;三十。 15-33; xxxi. 15-33 ;三十一。 1-9; xxv.-xxix.; xxxi. 10-31. 1月9日; xxv. -二十九。 ;三十一。 10月31日。 Whether this divergence from the Hebrew order is due to accident, or to caprice, or to an original difference of arrangement, it is hardly possible to say.這是否背離希伯來秩序是由於意外事故,或任性,或以不同的安排,原來,這是幾乎不可能的話。

Crawford Howell Toy克勞福德霍威爾玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Text:文字:

Baumgartner, Etude Critique sur l'Etat du Texte du Livre des Proverbes, 1890; Bickell, in WZKM 1891; Pinkuss (Syriac version), in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1894; Grätz, in his Monatsschrift, 1884, and Emendationes, 1892-94; Chajes, Proverbien Studien, 1899; Müller and Kautzsch, in SBOT 1901. Translations and Commentaries: Midrash Mishle, ed.鮑姆加特納,練習批判要件行政法院杜書文本杜萬Proverbes , 1890年; Bickell ,在WZKM 1891年; Pinkuss (敘利亞文版) ,在體育場的雜誌, 1894年;格拉茨,在他的月刊, 1884年和Emendationes , 1892年至1894年; Chajes , Proverbien Studien , 1899 ; Müller和Kautzsch ,在SBOT 1901年。翻譯和評注:米德拉士Mishle ,教育署。 Buber, 1893; Saadia, ed.布伯, 1893年; Saadia ,教育署。 Derenbourg, 1894; Rashi, Ibn Ezra, Levi b. Derenbourg , 1894年; Rashi ,本以斯拉,列維灣 Gershom, in Giggeius, In Proverbia Salomonis, 1620.格爾肖姆,在Giggeius ,在Proverbia Salomonis , 1620年。

For other Jewish commentaries see L. Dukes, in Cahen, La Bible, 1847, and H. Deutsch, Die Sprüche Salomon's nach Talmud und Midrasch Dargestellt, 1887; Ewald, Poetische Bücher des AT's, 1837, 1867; Delitzsch, Commentary, English transl., 1875; Nowack, in Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, 1887; Frankenburg, in Nowack's Hand-Kommentar, 1898; Toy, in International Critical Commentary, 1899.其他猶太評論見屬士杜克,在Cahen ,香格里拉聖經, 1847年和H.德語,模具Sprüche所羅門的nach塔爾穆德與Midrasch Dargestellt , 1887年;埃瓦爾德, Poetische Bücher沙漠上的, 1837年, 1867年;德里,評注,英文譯。 , 1875年; Nowack ,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊, 1887年;弗蘭肯堡,在Nowack的手Kommentar , 1898 ;玩具,在國際的評論文章, 1899年。

See also Bois, La Poésie Gnomique, 1886; Cheyne, Job and Solomon, 1887; Monteflore, Notes upon Proverbs, in JQR 1889-90. Parallels from other literatures are given by Malan, Original Notes on the Book of Proverbs, 1889-93, and G. Jacobs, Altarabische Parallelen zum AT 1897.T.又見木材,詩歌協會Gnomique , 1886年;進益,就業和所羅門群島, 1887年; Monteflore ,債券時諺語,在JQR 1889年至1890年。 Parallels的其他文獻給出了馬蘭,原鈔票的圖書的諺語, 1889年至1893年,和G.雅各布Altarabische Parallelen zum在1897.T.


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