Photius

General Information 一般信息

A saint of the Orthodox church, Photius, bc820, d.聖人的東正教教堂, Photius , bc820 , 4 Feb. 6, 891?, patriarch of Constantinople (858-67, 877-86), was long considered the initiator of the schism between the Eastern and Western churches. 2月6日, 891 ? ,君士坦丁堡牧首( 858-67 , 877-86 ) ,長期以來被認為是引發的分裂之間的東歐和西歐的教堂。 The greatest scholar of medieval Byzantium, he had a distinguished career as a diplomat, teacher, and writer before becoming patriarch.最偉大的學者中世紀拜占庭,他有一個傑出的職業生涯作為一名外交官,教師,作家才能成為主教。

When Byzantine emperor Michael III forced the resignation of the patriarch Ignatius in 858, Photius, still a layman, was elevated to the patriarchate after having received the lesser orders in six days.當拜占庭皇帝邁克爾三被迫辭職的主教依納爵在858 , Photius ,仍然是一個門外漢,升格為牧後,收到了小訂單六天。 He soon entered into a conflict with Pope Nicholas I. Nicholas was eager both to extend the growing power of the papacy over Byzantium and interested in the jurisdiction over the Bulgarians, converted (864) to Byzantine Christianity under Photius. The conflict, purely administrative at the beginning, acquired doctrinal undertones when Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as the pope's emissaries, began to introduce an interpolated text of the Nicene Creed.他很快就進入了一個衝突,教皇尼古拉一尼古拉急於擴大兩國日益增長的力量,教皇的拜占庭和感興趣的管轄權保加利亞,轉換( 864 )以拜占庭基督教根據Photius 。衝突,純粹的行政上一開始,收購理論意味當法蘭克人傳教士在保加利亞,作為教皇的使者,開始引入插值文尼西亞信經。 In the original text the Holy Spirit was said to have proceeded "from the Father," whereas in Carolingian Europe (but not yet in Rome) the text had been revised to say "from the Father and the Son" (filioque).即在原始文本聖靈據說接著“父親” ,而在加洛林歐洲(但尚未在羅馬)的案文進行了修訂說“來自父親的兒子” ( filioque ) 。

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In 867, Photius summoned a council that deposed Nicholas.在867 , Photius召集安理會,廢黜尼古拉。 A change of dynasty in Constantinople, however, brought the deposition (867) of Photius and a temporary return of Ignatius to the patriarchal throne.改變王朝君士坦丁堡,但是,使沉積( 867 )的一個臨時Photius和返回的伊格內修的宗法王位。 A reconciliation eventually occurred between Ignatius and Photius, and Photius was restored (878) to the patriarchate after the death of Ignatius.和解最終之間發生的伊格內修和Photius ,並Photius恢復( 878 )以宗去世後,依納爵。 In 879-80 a great council, presided over by Photius, was held at Hagia Sophia, with legates of Pope John VIII present.在879-80一個偉大理事會主持Photius ,舉行了聖索菲亞,與legates教皇約翰八本。 The council, with the legates' approval, confirmed the original form of the creed, and normal relations between Rome and Constantinople were restored.安理會與legates批准,確認的原始形式的信仰,和正常關係羅馬和君士坦丁堡恢復。 Photius was forced to retire in 886. Photius就被迫退役,在886 。 Feast day: Feb. 6.節日: 2月6日。

John Meyendorff約翰Meyendorff

Bibliography 參考書目
Dvornik, Francis, The Patriarch Photius in the Light of Recent Research (1958) and The Photian Schism, History and Legend (1958); Gerostergios, Asterios, St. Photios the Great (1980; Haugh, Richard, Photius and the Carolingians (1974); Meyendorff, John, Orthodoxy and Catholicity (1966); White, Despina S., Patriarch Photius and His Correspondence (1978). Dvornik ,弗朗西斯,牧首Photius根據最近的研究( 1958年)和Photian分裂,歷史和傳說( 1958年) ; Gerostergios , Asterios ,聖Photios大( 1980年;霍先生,理查德, Photius和Carolingians ( 1974年) ; Meyendorff ,約翰,東正教和天主教( 1966年) ;白宮, Despina南,牧Photius和他的通訊( 1978年) 。


Photius of Constantinople Photius君士坦丁堡

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. Photius君士坦丁堡,首席作者,大分裂東西方之間,是灣 at Constantinople c.在君士坦丁堡角 815 (Hergenröther says "not much earlier than 827", "Photius", I, 316; others, about 810); d. 815 ( Hergenröther說: “沒有什麼比827 ” , “ Photius ” ,我, 316 ,其他,約810 ) ; 4 probably 6 Feb., 897.大概6月, 897 。 His father was a spatharios (lifeguard) named Sergius.他的父親是一名spatharios (救生員)命名塞爾吉烏斯。 Symeon Magister ("De Mich. et Theod.", Bonn ed., 1838, xxix, 668) says that his mother was an escaped nun and that he was illegitimate. Symeon碩士( “者密歇根等Theod 。 ”波恩版。 , 1838年,第29 , 668 )說,他的母親是一名逃脫的尼姑,他是非法的。 He further relates that a holy bishop, Michael of Synnada, before his birth foretold that he would become patriarch, but would work so much evil that it would be better that he should not be born.他還涉及一個神聖的主教,邁克爾Synnada ,預言他出生之前,他將成為主教,但將如此多的罪惡,它會更好,他不應該出生。 His father then wanted to kill him and his mother, but the bishop said: "You cannot hinder what God has ordained. Take care for yourself."他的父親則想殺死他和他的母親,但主教說: “你不能阻礙什麼上帝祝聖。一定要照顧好自己。 ” His mother also dreamed that she would give birth to a demon.他的母親還想到,她將生下一個魔鬼。 When he was born the abbot of the Maximine monastery baptized him and gave him the name Photius (Enlightened), saying: "Perhaps the anger of God will be turned from him" (Symeon Magister, ibid., cf. Hergenröther, "Photius", I, 318-19).當他出生的住持寺院的Maximine受洗他,給他的名字Photius (開明) ,他說: “也許上帝的憤怒將變成他的” ( Symeon碩士,同上。 ,比照。 Hergenröther , “ Photius ” ,我, 318-19 ) 。 These stories need not be taken seriously. It is certain that the future patriarch belonged to one of the great families of Constantinople; the Patriarch Tarasius (784-806), in whose time the seventh general council (Second of Nicæa, 787) was held, was either elder brother or uncle of his father (Photius: Ep. ii, PG, CII, 609).這些故事不必認真考慮。可以肯定的是,未來的主教屬於一個偉大的家庭君士坦丁堡的主教Tarasius ( 784-806 ) ,在其第七次總理事會(第二尼西亞, 787 )舉行是不是哥哥或叔叔,他的父親( Photius :內啡肽。二,前列腺素,印度工業聯合會, 609 ) 。 The family was conspicuously orthodox and had suffered some persecution in Iconoclast times (under Leo V, 813-20).家庭是顯眼東正教和一些遭受迫害Iconoclast倍(根據永華五, 813-20 ) 。 Photius says that in his youth he had had a passing inclination for the monastic life ("Ep. ad Orient. et Oecon.", PG, CII, 1020), but the prospect of a career in the world soon eclipsed it. Photius說,在青年時代,他曾路過傾角的寺院生活( “內啡肽。廣告東方。等Oecon 。 ”素,印度工業聯合會, 1020 ) ,但前景的職業生涯即將在世界上超過它。

He early laid the foundations of that erudition which eventually made him one of the most famous scholars of all the Middle Ages.他早期奠定了基礎的博學,最終使他最著名的學者的所有中世紀。 His natural aptitude must have been extraordinary; his industry was colossal.他的自然能力,必須有非凡的,他的行業是巨大的。 Photius does not appear to have had any teachers worthy of being remembered; at any rate he never alludes to his masters. Photius似乎並未有任何教師值得記住;無論如何,他從來沒有提到他的主人。 Hergenröther, however, notes that there were many good scholars at Constantinople while Photius was a child and young man, and argues from his exact and systematic knowledge of all branches of learning that he could not have been entirely self-taught (op. cit., I, 322). Hergenröther然而,注意到,有許多很好的學者在君士坦丁堡而Photius是兒童和年輕人,認為他準確和系統的了解各部門的學習,他不能被完全自學成才的(同前。 ,我, 322 ) 。 His enemies appreciated his learning.他的敵人讚賞他學習。 Nicetas, the friend and biographer of his rival Ignatius, praises Photius's skill in grammar, poetry, rhetoric, philosophy, medicine, law, "and all science" ("Vita S. Ignatii" in Mansi, XVI, 229). Nicetas ,他的朋友和傳記作家伊格內修他的對手,讚揚Photius的技巧,語法,詩歌,修辭學,哲學,醫學,法律, “和所有的科學” ( “簡歷南Ignatii ”在曼西,十六, 229 ) 。 Pope Nicholas I, in the heat of the quarrel writes to the Emperor Michael III: "Consider very carefully how Photius can stand, in spite of his great virtues and universal knowledge" (Ep. xcviii "Ad Mich.", PG, CXIX, 1030).教皇尼古拉一世,在激烈的爭吵寫入皇帝邁克爾三: “非常認真地考慮如何Photius經得起,儘管他的偉大美德和普遍的知識” ( Ep. xcviii “廣告密歇根州” ,前列腺素, CXIX , 1030年) 。 It is curious that so learned a man never knew Latin.奇怪的是這樣的教訓一個人從來不知道拉丁美洲。 While he was still a young man he made the first draft of his encyclopædic "Myrobiblion".雖然他仍然是一個年輕男子,他提出的第一稿他encyclopædic “ Myrobiblion ” 。 At an early age, also, he began to teach grammar, philosophy, and theology in his own house to a steadily increasing number of students.在早期階段,也,他開始教語法,哲學,神學在他自己的房子了越來越多的學生。

His public career was to be that of a statesman, coupled with a military command.他的公職生涯是是一個政治家,加上軍事指揮。 His brother Sergius married Irene, the emperor's aunt.他的弟弟塞爾吉烏斯艾琳結婚,皇帝的姑媽。 This connexion and his undoubted merit procured Photius speedy advancement.這無疑Connexion的優點和他的採購Photius迅速提高。 He became chief secretary of State (protosekretis) and captain of the Life Guard (protospatharios).他成為首席國務秘書( protosekretis )和隊長生命衛隊( protospatharios ) 。 He was unmarried.他是未婚。 Probably about 838 he was sent on an embassy "to the Assyrians" ("Myrobiblion", preface), ie, apparently, to the Khalifa at Bagdad.大概838 ,他發出了大使館“的亞述人” ( “ Myrobiblion ” ,序言) ,即,顯然,對哈利法在巴格達。 In the year 857, then, when the crisis came in his life, Photius was already one of the most prominent members of the Court of Constantinople.在今年857 ,然後,當危機是他一生中, Photius已經一個最突出的法院成員君士坦丁堡。 That crisis is the story of the Great Schism (see GREEK CHURCH). The emperor was Michael III (842-67), son of the Theodora who had finally restored the holy images.這一危機的故事的大分裂(見希臘教會) 。皇帝是邁克爾三( 842-67 ) ,兒子Theodora誰終於恢復聖像。 When he succeeded his father Theophilus (829-842) he was only three years old; he grew to be the wretched boy known in Byzantine history as Michael the Drunkard (ho methystes).當他成功的父親西奧菲勒( 829-842 ) ,他只有3歲,他從小是可憐男孩稱為拜占庭歷史邁克爾的酒鬼(何methystes ) 。 Theodora, at first regent, retired in 856, and her brother Bardas succeeded, with the title of Cæsar. Bardas lived in incest with his daughter-in-law Eudocia, wherefore the Patriarch Ignatius (846-57) refused him Holy Communion on the Epiphany of 857. Theodora ,在第一麗晶,退休856 ,和她的弟弟Bardas成功,與凱撒的標題。 Bardas住在亂倫他媳婦Eudocia ,何故的主教依納爵( 846-57 )拒絕他的聖餐頓悟的857 。 Ignatius was deposed and banished (Nov. 23, 857), and the more pliant Photius was intruded into his place.伊格內修被廢黜和流放( 11月23日, 857 ) ,以及順從Photius更是闖入了他的位置。 He was hurried through Holy Orders in six days; on Christmas Day, 857, Gregory Asbestas of Syracuse, himself excommunicate for insubordination by Ignatius, ordained Photius patriarch.他急忙通過聖訂單六天;在聖誕節, 857 ,格雷戈里Asbestas錫拉丘茲,對不服從自己破門的伊格內修,主教祝聖Photius 。 By this act Photius committed three offences against canon law: he was ordained bishop without having kept the interstices, by an excommunicate consecrator, and to an already occupied see.本法Photius致力於三個違反教會法:他被祝聖主教,而無需保持間隙,由一個破門consecrator ,並已經佔領見。 To receive ordination from an excommunicate person made him too excommunicate ipso facto.接收從破門協調人,他也破門事實上。

After vain attempts to make Ignatius resign his see, the emperor tried to obtain from Pope Nicholas I (858-67) recognition of Photius by a letter grossly misrepresenting the facts and asking for legates to come and decide the question in a synod.經過妄圖使伊格內修辭職見皇帝試圖獲得教皇尼古拉一世( 858-67 )承認Photius的信嚴重歪曲事實,並要求legates來決定這個問題的會議。 Photius also wrote, very respectfully, to the same purpose (Hergenröther, "Photius", I, 407-11). Photius還寫道,非常尊敬,以同樣的目的( Hergenröther , “ Photius ” ,我, 407-11 ) 。 The pope sent two legates, Rodoald of Porto and Zachary of Anagni, with cautious letters.教宗派出了兩個legates , Rodoald波爾圖和扎卡里的阿納尼,審慎字母。 The legates were to hear both sides and report to him.該legates是聽取雙方向他報告。 A synod was held in St. Sophia's (May, 861).阿議會舉行的聖索菲亞的( 5月, 861 ) 。 The legates took heavy bribes and agreed to Ignatius's deposition and Photius's succession.沉重的legates了賄賂,並同意依納的沉積和Photius的繼承。 They returned to Rome with further letters, and the emperor sent his Secretary of State, Leo, after them with more explanations (Hergenröther, op. cit., I, 439-460).他們回到羅馬進一步字母,皇帝派他的國務卿,獅子座,之後他們提供更多的解釋( Hergenröther ,同前。前。 ,我, 439-460 ) 。 In all these letters both the emperor and Photius emphatically acknowledge the Roman primacy and categorically invoke the pope's jurisdiction to confirm what has happened.在所有這些信件都天皇和Photius強調承認羅馬首要和明確援引教皇的管轄範圍,以確認發生了什麼事情。 Meanwhile Ignatius, in exile at the island Terebinth, sent his friend the Archimandrite Theognostus to Rome with an urgent letter setting forth his case (Hergenröther, I, 460-461).同時依納,流亡在島篤耨香松節油,派他的朋友,司祭Theognostus羅馬緊急信列明他的案件( Hergenröther ,我, 460-461 ) 。 Theognostus did not arrive till 862. Theognostus沒有到達到862 。 Nicholas, then, having heard both sides, decided for Ignatius, and answered the letters of Michael and Photius by insisting that Ignatius must be restored, that the usurpation of his see must cease (ibid, I, 511-16, 516-19).尼古拉斯,然後,聽取了雙方決定的伊格內修,並回答了信件的邁克爾和Photius堅持認為羅耀必須恢復,這篡奪他見必須停止(同上,我, 511-16 , 516-19 ) 。 He also wrote in the same sense to the other Eastern patriarchs (510-11).他還寫道:在同樣的意義上的其他東歐始祖( 510-11 ) 。 From that attitude Rome never wavered: it was the immediate cause of the schism.來自羅馬的態度從來沒有動搖過:這是直接原因分裂。 In 863 the pope held a synod at the Lateran in which the two legates were tried, degraded, and excommunicated.教皇在863舉行了主教在拉特蘭這兩個legates進行了審判,退化,並逐出教會。 The synod repeats Nicholas's decision, that Ignatius is lawful Patriarch of Constantinople; Photius is to be excommunicate unless he retires at once from his usurped place.重複尼古拉主教會議的決定,這是合法的伊格內修君士坦丁堡牧首; Photius要破門,除非他退休後,從他的篡奪的地方。

But Photius had the emperor and the Court on his side.但是Photius了天皇和法院對他的身邊。 Instead of obeying the pope, to whom he had appealed, he resolved to deny his authority altogether. Ignatius was kept chained in prison, the pope's letters were not allowed to be published.而不是服從教宗,並向他呼籲,他決心完全否認他的權力。修斯被關押在監獄中鐵鍊,教宗的信,不得出版。 The emperor sent an answer dictated by Photius saying that nothing Nicholas could do would help Ignatius, that all the Eastern Patriarchs were on Photius's side, that the excommunication of the legates must be explained and that unless the pope altered his decision, Michael would come to Rome with an army to punish him.皇帝派遣了一個答案取決於Photius尼古拉斯說,沒有什麼可以做,將有助於伊格內修,所有的東歐始祖被Photius的一方,即開除教籍的legates必須加以解釋並說,除非教宗改變他的決定,邁克爾會來羅馬軍隊,以懲罰他。 Photius then kept his place undisturbed for four years. Photius然後保持自己的位置不受干擾為四年。 In 867 he carried the war into the enemy's camp by excommunicating the pope and his Latins. 867他在戰爭進行到了敵人的營地開除教皇和他的拉丁人。 The reasons he gives for this, in an encyclical sent to the Eastern patriarchs, are: that Latins他給出的理由為,在一個通諭被送往東區始祖,是:拉丁人

fast on Saturday快上週六

do not begin Lent till Ash Wednesday (instead of three days earlier, as in the East)沒有開始四旬期到聖灰星期三(而不是3天前,在東)

do not allow priests to be married不允許神職人員結婚

do not allow priests to administer confirmation不允許神職人員管理確認

have added the filioque to the creed.添加filioque的信條。

Because of these errors the pope and all Latins are: "forerunners of apostasy, servants of Antichrist who deserve a thousand deaths, liars, fighters against God" (Hergenröther, I, 642-46).由於這些錯誤,教宗和所有拉丁人是: “先驅叛教公務員敵誰值得一千人死亡,騙子,對上帝戰士” ( Hergenröther ,我, 642-46 ) 。 It is not easy to say what the Melchite patriarchs thought of the quarrel at this juncture.這是不容易說什麼Melchite始祖思想的爭吵在此關頭。 Afterwards, at the Eighth General Council, their legates declared that they had pronounced no sentence against Photius because that of the pope was obviously sufficient.之後,舉行的第八次總理事會,其legates宣布,他們已經明顯沒有一句,因為這對Photius的教宗顯然是不夠的。

Then, suddenly, in the same year (Sept. 867), Photius fell.然後,突然,在同一年( 9 867 ) , Photius下跌。 Michael III was murdered and Basil I (the Macedonian, 867-86) seized his place as emperor. Photius shared the fate of all Michael's friends.邁克爾三被殺害和羅勒口(馬其頓, 867-86 )抓住他作為皇帝。 Photius共同的命運,所有邁克爾的朋友。 He was ejected from the patriarch's palace, and Ignatius restored.他被逐出主教的宮殿,與伊格內修恢復。 Nicholas I died (Nov. 13, 867). Adrian II (867-72), his successor, answered Ignatius's appeal for legates to attend a synod that should examine the whole matter by sending Donatus, Bishop of Ostia, Stephen, Bishop of Nepi, and a deacon, Marinus.尼古拉一世去世( 11月13日, 867 ) 。阿德里安二( 867-72 ) ,他的繼任者,回答修斯呼籲legates出席會議,應審查整個問題發送多納圖斯,主教奧斯提亞,斯蒂芬,主教Nepi和執事,馬里努斯。 They arrived at Constantinople in Sept., 869, and in October the synod was opened which Catholics recognize as the Eighth General Council (Fourth of Constantinople). This synod tried Photius, confirmed his deposition, and, as he refused to renounce his claim, excommunicated him.他們抵達君士坦丁堡在9月, 869 ,並在10月開幕的全球主教會議的天主教徒承認第八總理事會(第四君士坦丁堡) 。這項會議試圖Photius ,證實了他的沉積,並在他拒絕放棄索賠,逐出教會他。 The bishops of his party received light penances (Mansi, XVI, 308-409).他的主教黨收到輕penances (曼西,十六, 308-409 ) 。 Photius was banished to a monastery at Stenos on the Bosphorus. Photius被放逐到一個修道院在Stenos的博斯普魯斯。 Here he spent seven years, writing letters to his friends, organizing his party, and waiting for another chance.在這裡,他花了七年時間,寫信給他的朋友,他的黨的組織,並等待下一次機會。 Meanwhile Ignatius reigned as patriarch.同時作為主教依納統治。 Photius, as part of his policy, professed great admiration for the emperor and sent him a fictitious pedigree showing his descent form St. Gregory the Illuminator and a forged prophecy foretelling his greatness (Mansi, XVI, 284). Photius的一部分,他的政策,宣稱欽佩天皇和送他一個虛構的血統世系表顯示出了他的聖格里高利照明燈和一本偽造的預言預示他的偉大之處(曼西,十六, 284 ) 。 Basil was so pleased with this that he recalled him in 876 and appointed him tutor to his son Constantine.巴西爾是如此高興,他回顧他在876 ,並任命他的導師給他的兒子康斯坦丁。 Photius ingratiated himself with everyone and feigned reconciliation with Ignatius. Photius獻媚自己的每一個人,假裝和解與伊格內修。 It is doubtful how far Ignatius believed in him, but Photius at this time never tires of expatiating on his close friendship with the patriarch.令人懷疑的是多遠修斯相信他,但Photius從來沒有在這個時候輪胎闡述他的親密友誼與主教。 He became so popular that when Ignatius died (23 Oct, 877) a strong party demanded that Photius should succeed him; the emperor was now on their side, and an embassy went to Rome to explain that everyone at Constantinople wanted Photius to be patriarch.他變得如此受歡迎,當依納死亡( 10月23日, 877 )強有力的黨的要求應該接替他Photius ;皇帝現在站在他們一邊,和大使館去了羅馬解釋說,每個人都希望在君士坦丁堡的主教Photius 。 The pope (John VIII, 872-82) agreed, absolved him from all censure, and acknowledged him as patriarch.教皇(約翰八, 872-82 )同意,免除他所有的指責,並承認他的主教。

This concession has been much discussed.這種特許權進行了許多討論。 It has been represented, truly enough, that Photius had shown himself unfit for such a post; John VIII's acknowledgment of him has been described as showing deplorable weakness.它一直代表,真正的是,這Photius表明自己不適合這樣一個職位;約翰八世承認他已被描述為顯示可悲的弱點。 On the other hand, by Ignatius's death the See of Constantinople was now really vacant; the clergy had an undoubted right to elect their own patriarch; to refuse to acknowledge Photius would have provoked a fresh breach with the East, would not have prevented his occupation of the see, and would have given his party (including the emperor) just reason for a quarrel.另一方面,由伊格內修死亡,見君士坦丁堡現在真的空缺;神職人員有不容置疑有權選舉自己的主教;拒絕承認Photius將挑起新的違反與東方,也不會阻止他的職業的見,而且將會使他的政黨(包括皇帝)剛剛爭吵的原因。 The event proved that almost anything would have been better than to allow his succession, if it could be prevented. But the pope could not foresee that, and no doubt hoped that Photius, having reached the height of his ambition, would drop the quarrel.該活動證明,幾乎所有的東西會更好,而不是讓他繼承,如果它是可以預防的。但是,教宗無法預見的是,毫無疑問希望Photius ,已經達到的高度,他的野心,將下降的爭吵。

In 878, then, Photius at last obtained lawfully the place he had formerly usurped.在878 ,然後, Photius上獲得合法的地方,他原先被剝奪的。 Rome acknowledged him and restored him to her communion.羅馬承認他和他對她的恢復共融。 There was no possible reason now for a fresh quarrel.沒有任何可能的原因現在有一個新的爭吵。 But he had identified himself so completely with that strong anti-Roman party in the East which he mainly had formed, and, doubtless, he had formed so great a hatred of Rome, that now he carried on the old quarrel with as much bitterness as ever and more influence. Nevertheless he applied to Rome for legates to come to another synod.但他自稱,以便完全與強烈的反羅馬黨在東方,他主要是形成了,而且毫無疑問,他已經形成如此巨大的仇恨,羅馬,現在他所做的一切舊的爭吵與怨恨的多和以往任何時候都更大的影響力。然而,他適用於羅馬legates到另一個會議。 There was no reason for the synod, but he persuaded John VIII that it would clear up the last remains of the schism and rivet more firmly the union between East and West.沒有任何理由的主教,但他說服了約翰八,它將清理過去仍然分裂和鉚釘更堅定聯盟東方與西方之間。 His real motive was, no doubt, to undo the effect of the synod that had deposed him.他的真正動機是,毫無疑問,消除影響的會議罷免了他。 The pope sent three legates, Cardinal Peter of St. Chrysogonus, Paul, Bishop of Ancona, and Eugene, Bishop of Ostia.教宗派出三名legates ,紅衣主教Chrysogonus聖彼得,保羅,主教安科納,和尤金,主教奧斯提亞。 The synod was opened in St. Sophia's in November, 879.主教會議開幕式在聖索菲亞的11月, 879 。 This is the "Psuedosynodus Photiana" which the Orthodox count as the Eighth General Council.這是“ Psuedosynodus Photiana ”的東正教伯爵第八總理事會。 Photius had it all his own way throughout. Photius了這一切他自己的方式在整個。 He revoked the acts of the former synod (869), repeated all his accusations against the Latins, dwelling especially on the filioque grievance, anathematized all who added anything to the Creed, and declared that Bulgaria should belong to the Byzantine Patriarchate.他的行為撤銷前主教會議( 869 ) ,重複他的所有指控拉丁人,住宅尤其是在filioque不滿, anathematized所有誰添加任何的信仰,並宣布保加利亞應屬於拜占庭東正教。 The fact that there was a great majority for all these measures shows how strong Photius's party had become in the East.事實上,有絕大多數的所有這些措施表明,強大的Photius黨已成為在東部地區。 The legates, like their predecessors in 861, agreed to everything the majority desired (Mansi, XVII, 374 sq.).該legates ,像他們的前輩在861 ,同意將一切所需的多數(曼西,十七, 374平方米) 。 As soon as they had returned to Rome, Photius sent the Acts to the pope for his confirmation.當他們返回了羅馬, Photius發送行為教宗的確認。 Instead John, naturally, again excommunicated him.相反約翰,當然,他再次逐出教會。 So the schism broke out again.因此,分裂再次爆發。 This time it lasted seven years, till Basil I's death in 886.這一次,持續了七年,直到巴茲爾我的死亡886 。

Basil was succeeded by his son Leo VI (886-912), who strongly disliked Photius. One of his first acts was to accuse him of treason, depose, and banish him (886).巴西爾是成功,他的兒子利奧六世( 886-912 ) ,誰不喜歡強烈Photius 。他的第一個行為是指控他叛國,罷免,並消除他( 886 ) 。 The story of this second deposition and banishment is obscure.這個故事的第二次沉積和流放是掩蓋。 The charge was that Photius had conspired to depose the emperor and put one of his own relations on the throne---an accusation which probably meant that the emperor wanted to get rid of him.收費是Photius陰謀推翻了皇帝,並把他自己的一個關係的王位---指責這可能意味著皇帝想擺脫他。 As Stephen, Leo's younger brother, was made patriarch (886-93) the real explanation may be merely that Leo disliked Photius and wanted a place for his brother.正如斯蒂芬李的弟弟,是主教( 886-93 )的真正解釋可能僅僅是獅子座喜歡Photius和希望的地方他的弟弟。 Stephen's intrusion was as glaring an offence against canon law as had been that of Photius in 857; so Rome refused to recognize him. It was only under his successor Antony II (893-95) that a synod was held which restored reunion for a century and a half, till the time of Michael Cærularius (1043-58).斯蒂芬的入侵情況明顯觸犯法律的佳能一直是Photius 857 ;所以羅馬拒絕承認他。這是只有在他的繼任者安東尼二( 893-95 ) ,一個會議召開,恢復團聚一個世紀一個半月,直到時間的邁克爾Cærularius ( 1043至58年) 。 But Photius had left a powerful anti-Roman party, eager to repudiate the pope's primacy and ready for another schism.但是Photius留下了一個強大的反羅馬黨,急於拒絕教宗的首要和準備再分裂。 It was this party, to which Cærularius belonged, that triumphed at Constantinople under him, so that Photius is rightly considered the author of the schism which still lasts.正是這種對黨,對其中屬於Cærularius ,即在君士坦丁堡下戰勝他,這樣Photius是正確地認為作者的分裂仍然持續。 After this second deposition Photius suddenly disappears from history.在這之後第二沉積Photius突然消失的歷史。 It is not even known in what monastery he spent his last years.它甚至不知道他在什麼修道院度過最後幾年。 Among his many letters there is none that can be dated certainly as belonging to this second exile.在他的許多信件但還沒有一個日期,可以肯定是屬於第二次被流放。 The date of his death, not quite certain, is generally given as 6 February, 897.死者死亡的日期,而不是很肯定,一般是作為2月6日, 897 。

That Photius was one of the greatest men of the Middle Ages, one of the most remarkable characters in all church history, will not be disputed.這Photius是最偉大的男人的中世紀,一個最顯著的特徵在所有教會的歷史,不會有爭議。 His fatal quarrel with Rome, though the most famous, was only one result of his many-sided activity.他與羅馬致命的爭吵,但最有名的,只有一個結果,他的多方面的活動。 During the stormy years he spent on the patriarch's throne, while he was warring against the Latins, he was negotiating with the Moslem Khalifa for the protection of the Christians under Moslem rule and the care of the Holy Places, and carrying on controversies against various Eastern heretics, Armenians, Paulicians etc. His interest in letters never abated.在多年的風風雨雨,他花費在牧首的寶座,而他對拉丁人交戰,他是談判的穆斯林法的保護下的基督徒和穆斯林統治照顧的聖地,並進行爭論打擊各種東歐異端,亞美尼亞人,等他有興趣Paulicians信中從來沒有減弱。 Amid all his cares he found time to write works on dogma, Biblical criticism, canon law, homilies, an encyclopædia of all kinds of learning, and letters on all questions of the day.在所有關心他發現他的時間給我們寫信工程教條,聖經批評,佳能法,講道詞百科全書的各種學習和信件的所有問題的一天。 Had it not been for his disastrous schism, he might be counted the last, and one of the greatest, of the Greek Fathers.如果不是因為他的災難性的分裂,他可能被計算在過去,其中一個最大的,希臘教父。 There is no shadow of suspicion against his private life.沒有任何懷疑的陰影對他的私生活。 He bore his exiles and other troubles manfully and well.他承擔他的流亡者和其他麻煩manfully和福祉。 He never despaired of his cause and spent the years of adversity in building up his party, writing letters to encourage his old friends and make new ones.他從來沒有絕望,他的事業和花了多年的逆境中建立了黨,寫信鼓勵他的老朋友,結交新的。

And yet the other side of his character is no less evident.但另一邊的他的性格沒有那麼明顯。 His insatiable ambition, his determination to obtain and keep the patriarchal see, led him to the extreme of dishonesty.他貪得無厭的野心,他決心以獲取和保持重男輕女見,使他的極端不誠實。 His claim was worthless.他聲稱是毫無價值的。 That Ignatius was the rightful patriarch as long as he lived, and Photius an intruder, cannot be denied by any one who does not conceive the Church as merely the slave of a civil government.這是應有的伊格內修宗主教,只要他生活,並Photius入侵者,不能否認任何一個誰不想像教會只是奴隸的文官政府。 And to keep this place Photius descended to the lowest depth of deceit.並保持這個地方Photius下降到最低深入的欺騙。 At the very time he was protesting his obedience to the pope he was dictating to the emperor insolent letters that denied all papal jurisdiction.在關鍵時刻,他抗議他服從教宗,他口述皇帝無禮信否認了所有的教皇管轄權。 He misrepresented the story of Ignatius's deposition with unblushing lies, and he at least connived at Ignatius's ill-treatment in banishment.他歪曲的故事修斯的沉積與臉皮厚在於,他至少縱容修斯的虐待流放。 He proclaimed openly his entire subservience to the State in the whole question of his intrusion.他公開宣布他的整個國家屈從於整個問題的他的入侵。 He stops at nothing in his war against the Latins.他停在他的戰爭中沒有對拉丁人。 He heaps up accusations against them that he must have known were lies.他堆了對他們的指控,他一定知道是謊言。 His effrontery on occasions is almost incredible.他的厚顏無恥,有時幾乎是難以置信的。 For instance, as one more grievance against Rome, he never tires of inveighing against the fact that Pope Marinus I (882-84), John VIII's successor, was translated from another see, instead of being ordained from the Roman clergy.例如,作為一個對羅馬更加不滿,他從來沒有對輪胎的inveighing的事實,教宗馬里努斯口( 882-84 ) ,約翰八世的繼任者,被翻譯從另一個見,而不是祝從羅馬神職人員。 He describes this as an atrocious breach of canon law, quoting against it the first and second canons of Sardica; and at the same time he himself continually transferred bishops in his patriarchate. The Orthodox, who look upon him, rightly, as the great champion of their cause against Rome, have forgiven all his offences for the sake of this championship. They have canonized him, and on 6 Feb., when they keep his feast, their office overflows with his praise.他形容這是一個殘酷的違反教會法,對它引用的第一和第二炮的Sardica ;同時他不斷轉移主教在他的宗主。東正教,誰看他,正確的,正如偉大的冠軍他們的事業對羅馬,原諒他所有的罪行,為了這個冠軍。他們冊封他,並在6月,當他們繼續他的盛宴,他們的辦公室溢出他的讚譽。 He is the "far-shining radiant star of the church", the "most inspired guide of the Orthodox", "thrice blessed speaker for God", "wise and divine glory of the hierarchy, who broke the horns of Roman pride" ("Menologion" for 6 Feb., ed. Maltzew, I, 916 sq.).他是“遠輻射閃耀的明星,教會” , “最鼓舞指南東正教” , “三次發言上帝保佑” , “明智的和神聖的榮譽等級,誰打破了羅馬角驕傲” ( “ Menologion ” 6月,教育署。 Maltzew ,我, 916平方米) 。 The Catholic remembers this extraordinary man with mixed feelings.天主教記得這個非同尋常的人懷著複雜的感情。 We do not deny his eminent qualities and yet we certainly do not remember him as a thrice blessed speaker for God.我們不否認他傑出的品質,但我們當然不會忘記他,作為一個三次發言上帝保佑。 One may perhaps sum up Photius by saying that he was a great man with one blot on his character---his insatiable and unscrupulous ambition.一個也許總結Photius說,他是一個偉大的男子一項污點,他的性格---他貪得無厭的和不道德的雄心。 But that blot so covers his life that it eclipses everything else and makes him deserve our final judgment as one of the worst enemies the Church of Christ ever had, and the cause of the greatest calamity that ever befell her.但是,雜交,使包括他的生命,它超越一切,使他應該得到我們的最終判決是一種最可怕的敵人基督教會過,並造成最大的災難都降臨了。

WORKS

Of Photius's prolific literary production part has been lost.的Photius的多產的文學創作的一部分已遺失。 A great merit of what remains is that he has preserved at least fragments of earlier Greek works of which otherwise we should know nothing.偉大的優點是什麼,他仍然保留了至少片段早期希臘的作品,其中,否則,我們應該知道什麼。 This applies especially to his "Myriobiblion".這特別適用於他的“ Myriobiblion ” 。

The "Myriobiblion" or "Bibliotheca" is a collection of descriptions of books he had read, with notes and sometimes copious extracts.該“ Myriobiblion ”或“圖書館”是一家集描述他的書籍閱讀,並注意到,有時大量提取。 It contains 280 such notices of books (or rather 279; no. 89 is lost) on every possible subject---theology, philosophy, rhetoric, grammar, physics, medicine.它載有280名這樣的告示的書籍(或更確切地說279 ;沒有。 89丟失)在一切可能的主題---神學,哲學,修辭,語法,物理,醫學。 He quotes pagans and Christians, Acts of Councils, Acts of Martyrs, and so on, in no sort of order.他引用了異教徒和基督徒的行為安理會行為的烈士,等等,在沒有某種秩序。 For the works thus partially saved (otherwise unknown) see Krumbacher, "Byz. Litter.", 518-19.有關工程從而部分保存(其他不詳)見Krumbacher , “ Byz 。垃圾。 ” 518-19 。

The "Lexicon" (Lexeon synagoge) was compiled, probably, to a great extent by his students under his direction (Krumbacher, ibid., 521), from older Greek dictionaries (Pausanias, Harpokration, Diogenianos, Ælius Dionysius).該“詞典” ( Lexeon synagoge )彙編,也許在很大程度上由他的學生在他的領導( Krumbacher ,同上。 , 521 ) ,從舊希詞典(鮑桑尼亞, Harpokration , Diogenianos ,來源於多那修斯) 。 It was intended as a practical help to readers of the Greek classics, the Septuagint, and the New testament.它的目的是作為一個實際幫助讀者希臘名著,七十,和新約。 Only one manuscript of it exists, the defective "Codex Galeanus" (formerly in the possession of Thomas Gale, now at Cambridge), written about 1200.只有一個手稿的存在,有缺陷的“法典Galeanus ” (以前所擁有的托馬斯烈風,現在在劍橋) ,寫1200年。

The "Amphilochia", dedicated to one of his favourite disciples, Amphilochius of Cyzicus, are answers to questions of Biblical, philosophical, and theological difficulties, written during his first exile (867-77).該“ Amphilochia ” ,致力於一個他最喜歡的弟子, Amphilochius的Cyzicus ,是問題的答案聖經,哲學和神學的困難,寫在自己的第一個流亡( 867-77 ) 。 There are 324 subjects discussed, each in a regular form--question, answer, difficulties, solutions---but arranged again in no order.有324個議題,每個定期形式-問題,答案的困難,解決---但沒有安排再次秩序。 Photius gives mostly the views of famous Greek Fathers, Epiphanius, Cyril of Alexandria, John Damascene, especially Theodoret. Photius使大部分的意見,著名的希臘教父,埃皮法尼烏斯,西里爾亞歷山大,約翰達瑪森,特別是Theodoret 。

Biblical works.---Only fragments of these are extant, chiefly in Catenas.聖經工程.---只有破碎的這些都是現存的,主要是在Catenas 。 The longest are from Commentaries on St. Matthew and Romans.最長的是來自評聖馬太和羅馬。

Canon Law.---The classical "Nomocanon" (qv), the official code of the Orthodox Church, is attributed to Photius.佳能法.---了經典的“ Nomocanon ” ( qv ) ,正式編號的東正教教堂,是因為Photius 。 It is, however, older than his time (see JOHN SCHOLASTICUS).然而,以上的時間(見John SCHOLASTICUS ) 。 It was revised and received additions (from the synods of 861 and 879) in Photius's time, probably by his orders.這是修訂和增補收到(從主教會議的861和879 )在Photius的時間,可能是他的命令。 The "Collections and Accurate Expositions" (Eunagolai kai apodeixeis akribeis) (Hergenröther, op. cit., III, 165-70) are a series of questions and answers on points of canon law, really an indirect vindication of his own claims and position.在“集合和準確博覽會” ( Eunagolai啟apodeixeis akribeis ) ( Hergenröther ,同前。前。 ,三, 165-70 )是一系列的問題及答案要點佳能法,實際上是間接證明自己的主張和立場。 A number of his letters bear on canonical questions.他的一些信件施加典型問題。

Homilies.---Hergenröther mentions twenty-two sermons of Photius (III, 232).講道詞.--- Hergenröther提到2002年的布道的Photius (三, 232 ) 。 Of these two were printed when Hergenröther wrote (in PG, CII, 548, sq.), one on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, and one at the dedication of a new church during his second patriarchate.這兩個印刷時Hergenröther寫道(中前列腺素,印度工業聯合會, 548 ,平方米) ,一個是關於耶穌的聖母,和一個在奉獻一個新的教會在他第二次宗主。 Later, S. Aristarches published eighty-three homilies of different kinds (Constantinople, 1900). Dogmatic and polemical works.---Many of these bear on his accusations against the Latins and so form the beginning of the long series of anti-Catholic controversy produced by Orthodox theologians.後來,南Aristarches出版83講道詞的不同種類(君士坦丁堡, 1900年) 。教條主義和論戰工程.---許多這些承擔對他的指控拉丁人等形式開始的一系列反天主教爭議產生的東正教神學。 The most important is "Concerning the Theology about the Holy Ghost" (Peri tes tou hagiou pneumatos mystagonias, PG, CII, 264-541), a defence of the Procession from God the Father alone, based chiefly on John, xv, 26.最重要的是“關於神學的聖靈” (頭圍試驗hagiou pneumatos mystagonias ,前列腺素,印度工業聯合會, 264-541 ) ,辯護的遊行隊伍從父神,僅主要基於對約翰,十五, 26 。 An epitome of the same work, made by a later author and contained in Euthymius Zigabenus's "Panoplia", XIII, became the favourite weapon of Orthodox controversialists for many centuries. The treatise "Against Those who say that Rome is the First See", also a very popular Orthodox weapon, is only the last part or supplement of the "Collections", often written out separately.一個縮影同樣的工作,提出以後作者並載於Euthymius Zigabenus的“ Panoplia ” ,第十三,成為最喜愛的武器東正教controversialists許多世紀。的論文“對那些誰說,羅馬是第一見” ,還一個非常受歡迎的東正教核武器,只是最後一部分或補充的“集合” ,往往書面分開。 The "Dissertation Concerning the Reappearance of the Manichæans" (Diegesis peri tes manichaion anablasteseos, PG, CII, 9-264), in four books, is a history and refutation of the Paulicians.在“論文關於再現Manichæans ” ( Diegesis圍試驗manichaion anablasteseos ,前列腺素,印度工業聯合會, 9-264 ) ,在四本書,是一個歷史和反駁的Paulicians 。 Much of the "Amphilochia" belongs to this heading.大部分“ Amphilochia ”屬於本項。 The little work "Against the Franks and other Latins" (Hergenröther, "Monumenta", 62-71), attributed to Photius, is not authentic.小工作“對弗蘭克斯和其他拉丁人” ( Hergenröther , “華裔” , 62-71 ) ,歸因於Photius ,是不是真實的。 It was written after Cærularius (Hergenröther, "Photius", III, 172-224).這是寫在Cærularius ( Hergenröther , “ Photius ” ,三, 172-224 ) 。

Letters.---Migne, PG, CII, publishes 193 letters arranged in three books; Balettas (London, 1864) has edited a more complete collection in five parts. They cover all the chief periods of Photius's life, and are the most important source for his history.信件.---米涅,前列腺素,印度工業聯合會,出版193個字母排列的三本書; Balettas (倫敦, 1864年)已修改的更完整的收集五個部分。它們涵蓋所有行政時期Photius的生命,是最重要的源的歷史。

A. Ehrhard (in Krumbacher, "Byzantinische Litteratur", 74-77) judges Photius as a distinguished preacher, but not as a theologian of the first importance.答: Ehrhard (在Krumbacher , “ Byzantinische Litteratur ” , 74-77 )法官Photius作為一個傑出的牧師,而不是神學的第一重要性。 His theological work is chiefly the collection of excerpts from Greek Fathers and other sources.他的神學的工作主要是收集摘錄希臘父親和其他來源。 His erudition is vast, and probably unequalled in the Middle Ages, but he has little originality, even in his controversy against the Latins. Here, too, he only needed to collect angry things said by Byzantine theologians before his time.他的博學是巨大的,而且可能無與倫比的中世紀,但他幾乎沒有原創性,甚至在他的爭議,對拉丁人。這裡,他只需要收集生氣的事情由拜占庭神學說在他的時間。 But his discovery of the filioque grievance seems to be original.但他發現filioque申訴似乎是原始的。 Its success as a weapon is considerably greater than its real value deserves (Fortescue, "Orthodox Eastern Church", 372-84).它的成功作為武器是大大高於其實際價值值得(斯丘, “東正教東正教會” , 372-84 ) 。

Editions.--The works of Photius known at the time were collected by Migne, PG, CI-CV.版.--的作品Photius稱為當時所收集米涅,前列腺素,孔子的簡歷。 J. Balettas, Photiou epistolai (London, 1864), contains other letters (altogether 260) not in Migne.學者Balettas , Photiou epistolai (倫敦, 1864年) ,載有其他字母(共260 )不米涅。 A. Papadopulos-Kerameus, "S. Patris Photii Epistolæ XLV" (St. Petersburg, 1896) gives forty-five more, of which, however, only the first twenty-one are authentic.答: Papadopulos - Kerameus , “南祖國報Photii Epistolæ第四十五” (聖彼得堡, 1896年)為45以上,其中,然而,只有第一21頃作準。 S. Aristaches, Photiou logoi kai homiliai 83 (Constantinople, 1900, 2 vols.), gives other homilies not in Migne. Oikonomos has edited the "Amphilochia" (Athens, 1858) in a more complete text. J.南Aristaches , Photiou logoi啟homiliai 83 (君士坦丁堡, 1900年,第2卷。 ) ,使其他講道詞不是在米涅。 Oikonomos編輯的“ Amphilochia ” (雅典, 1858 )在更完整的文本。學者 Hergenröther, "Monumenta græca ad Photium eiusque historiam pertinentia" (Ratisbon, 1869), and Papadopulos-Kerameus, "Monumenta græca et latina ad historiam Photii patriarchæ pertinentia" (St. Petersburg, 2 parts, 1899 and 1901), add further documents. Hergenröther , “華裔græca廣告Photium eiusque historiam pertinentia ” ( Ratisbon , 1869年) ,和Papadopulos - Kerameus , “華裔græca等拉蒂納廣告historiam Photii patriarchæ pertinentia ” (聖彼得堡,兩部分, 1899年和1901年) ,進一步補充文件。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息作者阿德里安斯丘。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.轉錄由托馬斯J Bress 。天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The Acts of the Synods of 869 and 879 are the most important sources (Mansi, XVI and XVII).的行為主教會議的869和879是最重要的來源(曼西,十六和十七) 。 THEOGNOSTUS (Archimandrite at Constantinople), Libellos periechon panta ta kata ton megan, a contemporary account of the beginning of the schism (in Mansi, XVI, 295, sq.); NIKETAS DAVID PAPHLAGON (d. 890); Bios Ignatiou (Mansi, XVI, 209 sq.). THEOGNOSTUS (司祭在君士坦丁堡) , Libellos periechon panta鉭魯卡塔噸梅根,當代帳戶開始分裂(在曼西,十六, 295平方米) ; NIKETAS張子PAPHLAGON ( 4 890 ) ;介紹Ignatiou (曼西,十六, 209平方米) 。 PAPADOPULOS-KERAMEUS declared this to be a fourteenth-century forgery in the Vizant. PAPADOPULOS - KERAMEUS宣布這是一個十四世紀偽造的Vizant 。 Vremennik (1899), 13-38, Pseudoniketas ho paphlagon; he was successfully refuted by VASILJEWSKI (ibid., 39-56); cf. Byzant. Vremennik ( 1899 ) ,前段時間, Pseudoniketas何paphlagon ;他成功地反駁VASILJEWSKI (同上, 39-56段) ;比照。 Byzant 。 Zeitschrift, IX, (1900), 268 sq. GENESIOS, Basileiai (written between 945-959), a history of the emperors and Court from Leo V (813-20) to Basil I (867-86), published in Corpus Scriptorum Hist.雜誌,九, ( 1900 ) , 268平方米GENESIOS , Basileiai (書面945-959之間) ,歷史的皇帝和法院從永華五( 813-20 ) ,以巴茲爾口( 867-86 ) ,發表在語料庫Scriptorum歷史。 Byzantinæ (Bonn, 1834) and PG, CIX,15 sqq.; LEO GRAMMATICUS, re-edition of SYMEON MAGISTER, Chronicle, in Corpus Script., 1842, and PG CVIII, 1037 sqq. HERGENRÖTHER, Photius, Patriarch von Konstantinopel, sein Leben, seine Schriften u. Byzantinæ (波恩, 1834年)和PG ,捷達夥伴, 15 sqq 。 ;低軌GRAMMATICUS ,重新版SYMEON碩士,紀事,在語料庫腳本。 , 1842年,和PG CVIII , 1037年sqq 。 HERGENRÖTHER , Photius ,牧馮Konstantinopel ,盛生平,著作美國塞納河 das griechische Schisma (Ratisbon, 1867-69) (the most learned and exhaustive work on the subject).東西griechische Schisma ( Ratisbon , 1867年至1869年) (最詳盡的工作的經驗教訓和關於這個問題的) 。 DEMETRAKOPULOS, Historia tou schismatos tes latinikes apo tes orthodoxou ekklesias (Leipzig, 1867), is an attempted rejoinder to HERGENRÖTHER, as is also KREMOS, Historia tou schismatos ton duo ekklesion (Athens, 1905-07, two volumes published out of four). DEMETRAKOPULOS ,歷史頭schismatos工商業污水附加費latinikes載試驗orthodoxou ekklesias (萊比錫, 1867年) ,是一個試圖回答到HERGENRÖTHER ,因為還KREMOS ,歷史頭schismatos噸多ekklesion (雅典, 1905至1907年,兩卷出版了4個) 。 LÄMMER, Papst Nikolaus u. die byzantinsche Staatskirche seiner Zeit (Berlin, 1857); PICHLER, Geschichte der kirchlichen Trennung zwischen dem Orient. LÄMMER , Papst尼古拉美國死於byzantinsche Staatskirche seiner特(柏林, 1857年) ;皮希勒,史kirchlichen Trennung zwischen馬克東方。 u.美國 Occident (Munich, 1864-65); NORDEN, Das Papsttum und Byzanz (Berlin, 1903); KRUMBACHER, Geschichte der Byzantinischen Litteratur (Munich, 1897), 73-79, 515-524 (with copious bibliography); FORTESCUE, The Orthodox Eastern Church (London, 1907), 135-171; RUINAUT, Le schisme de Photius (Paris, 1910).歐美(慕尼黑, 1864年至1865年) ; NORDEN ,達斯Papsttum與Byzanz (柏林, 1903年) ; KRUMBACHER ,史Byzantinischen Litteratur (慕尼黑, 1897年) , 73-79 , 515-524 (有豐富的書目) ; FORTESCUE ,東正教東方教會(倫敦, 1907 ) , 135-171 ; RUINAUT ,樂schisme日Photius (巴黎, 1910年) 。


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