Epistle to the Philippians書信的腓利

General Information 一般信息

The Epistle to the Philippians, the 11th book in the New Testament of the Bible, was written by Saint Paul to the Philippians - a Christian community in eastern Macedonia - from prison in Ephesus in AD 57 or, as some scholars believe, in Rome in the early 60s.在書信的腓利, 11本書在新約聖經,作者是聖保羅的腓利-基督教社會在東馬其頓-從監獄以弗所在公元57或象有些學者認為,在羅馬舉行六十年代初。 Some scholars think that the present letter is a composite of three different ones.一些學者認為,本函是一個綜合的三種不同的。 In one (4:10 - 20), Paul thanks the Philippians, with whom he had good relations, for a gift they sent him.在一( 4時10 - 20 ) ,保羅感謝腓利,與他有良好的關係,為他們送他禮物。 In another (1:1 - 3:1), Paul gives them a hopeful report of his legal situation and encourages them to Christian living.在另一個( 1:1 - 3:1 ) ,保羅給他們一個充滿希望的報告,他的法律狀況,並鼓勵他們基督徒的生活。 In a third (3:2 - 4:3), he attacks a Judaizing Gnostic group trying to mislead the Philippians. The epistle is noted for the hymn to Christ in 2:6 - 11 and for its generally joyful tone.在第三( 3:2 - 4:3 ) ,他攻擊猶太化諾斯底組試圖誤導腓利。指出的書信的讚美詩基督在2時06分- 11和快樂的總體基調。

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Bibliography 參考書目
F Craddock, Philippians: Interpretation (1984); J Fitzmeyer, The Letter to the Philippians (1968); JJ Muller, Epistles of Paul to the Philippians (1985); M Silva, Philippians (1988). F克拉多克腓利:解讀( 1984年) ; J Fitzmeyer ,這封信的腓利( 1968年) ;傑杰奧穆勒,書信保羅的腓利( 1985年) ; M席爾瓦,腓利( 1988年) 。


Epistle to the Philippians書信的腓利

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Greetings and thanksgiving (1:1-11)問候和感恩( 1:1-11 )
  2. Progress of the Gospel (1:12-20)進步的福音( 1:12-20 )
  3. Working and suffering for Christ (1:21-30)工作和痛苦基督( 1:21-30 )
  4. Exhortations to humility (2:1-13)告誡謙卑( 2:1-13 )
  5. Exhortation to the Christian life (2:14-18)勸勉的基督徒的生活( 2:14-18 )
  6. Personal remarks involving Timothy and Epaphroditus (2:19-30)個人備註涉及蒂莫和Epaphroditus ( 2:19-30 )
  7. Exhortations and warnings (3:1-4:9)規勸和警告( 3:1-4:9 )
  8. Thanksgiving (4:10-20)感恩節( 4:10-20 )
  9. Final greetings (4:21-22)最後的問候( 4:21-22 )


Philip'pi

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle to Philip'pians書信以Philip'pians

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Epistle to Philippians was written by Paul during the two years when he was "in bonds" in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year AD 62 or in the end of 61.到腓利的書信的作者是保羅的兩年期間,他是“債券”在羅馬( Phil. 1:7-13 ) ,大概在今年年初在公元62或61月底。 The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter.在腓利發出Epaphroditus ,他們的好友,與捐款,以滿足該必需品宗徒;和他返回保羅被送回他的這封信。 With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey.有了這個寶貴的通信Epaphroditus規定了他的歸途。 "The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful letter when first read in the church of Philippi, are hidden from us. And we may almost say that with this letter the church itself passes from our view. To-day, in silent meadows, quiet cattle browse among the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive church of the apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age and nation the letter written in a dungeon at Rome, and carried along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a light divine and a cheerful guide along the most rugged paths of life" (Professor Beet). “所造成的喜悅回來,和影響時,這個美好的信中第一次讀到教堂立,隱藏我們的。我們可以說,幾乎與本信教會本身通行證從我們的觀點。今天,在沉默的草原,寧靜的牛在廢墟中瀏覽該網站的標誌是什麼,一旦繁榮羅馬殖民地立,家中最有吸引力的教會使徒時代。但名稱和名聲和精神上的影響,這會不會通行證。為了無數的男人和女人在每個年齡和民族的信中地牢在羅馬舉行,並進行沿Egnatian方式一個不起眼的基督教信使,一直是輕神聖和快樂指南沿最堅固耐用的生活道路“ (教授甜菜) 。

The church at Philippi was the first-fruits of European Christianity.在腓立比教會的第一果實歐洲基督教。 Their attachment to the apostle was very fervent, and so also was his affection for them.其附件使徒非常強烈,所以也被他的感情了。 They alone of all the churches helped him by their contributions, which he gratefully acknowledges (Acts 20:33-35; 2 Cor. 11: 7-12; 2 Thess. 3:8).它們本身的所有幫助他的教會的貢獻,他表示感謝(使徒20:33-35 ; 2心病。 11 : 7月12日; 2 Thess 。 3時08分) 。 The pecuniary liberality of the Philippians comes out very conspicuously (Phil. 4:15).金錢慷慨的腓利出來非常顯眼( Phil. 4:15 ) 。 "This was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Cor. 8 and 9 amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Cor. 8:2); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open-handed support of the great missionary and his work, are deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liberality of poor Christians is, in proportion, really greater than that of the rich" (Moule's Philippians, Introd.). The contents of this epistle give an interesting insight into the condition of the church at Rome at the time it was written. “這是一個特點,馬其頓代表團, 2心病。 8日和9充分和美麗證明。值得注意的是,馬其頓轉換了,作為一個階級,很差( 2心病。 8:2 ) ;和並行事實,他們的貧困和他們的雍容大度支持偉大的傳教士和他的工作,深感和諧。目前每天傳教士慷慨的窮人基督徒是,在比例,真的大於富人“ ( Moule的腓利, Introd 。 ) 。內容本書信給一個有趣洞察條件教會在羅馬的時候有人寫。

Paul's imprisonment, we are informed, was no hindrance to his preaching the gospel, but rather "turned out to the furtherance of the gospel."保羅的監禁,我們被告知,並沒有妨礙他宣揚福音,而是“變成了促進的福音。 ” The gospel spread very extensively among the Roman soldiers, with whom he was in constant contact, and the Christians grew into a "vast multitude."福音的傳播非常廣泛的羅馬士兵,與他是在不斷的接觸,以及基督信徒成長為一個“巨大的眾多。 ” It is plain that Christianity was at this time making rapid advancement in Rome.這是平原,基督教是在這個時候迅速提高在羅馬舉行。 The doctrinal statements of this epistle bear a close relation to those of the Epistle to the Romans.理論聲明本書信承擔密切相關的這些書信的羅馬。 Compare also Phil.比較還菲爾。 3:20 with Eph. 3時20分與厄。 2:12, 19, where the church is presented under the idea of a city or commonwealth for the first time in Paul's writings. The personal glory of Christ is also set forth in almost parallel forms of expression in Phil. 2時12分, 19日,那裡的教會下提出的想法,一個城市或英聯邦首次在保羅的著作。個人榮耀基督也闡述了幾乎平行的形式表達的菲爾。 2:5-11, compared with Eph. 2:5-11 ,而厄。 1:17-23; 2:8; and Col. 1:17-23 ;二時08分;和上校 1:15-20. 1:15-20 。 "This exposition of the grace and wonder of His personal majesty, personal self-abasement, and personal exaltation after it," found in these epistles, "is, in a great measure, a new development in the revelations given through St. Paul" (Moule). “這一論斷的寬限期,並想知道他的個人陛下,個人的自我自卑和個人提升後, ”發現的這些書信, “是,在很大程度上,一個新的發展給予的啟示通過聖保祿” ( Moule ) 。 Other minuter analogies in forms of expression and of thought are also found in these epistles of the Captivity.其他minuter類比的表現形式和思想,也發現在這些書信的圈養。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Caesar'a Philip'pi Caesar'a Philip'pi

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Caesara Philippi was a city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon. Caesara立是一個城市,東北沼澤平原的El -呼勒湖, 120英里以北的耶路撒冷,以及20英里以北的加利利海,在“高層消息來源”的約旦,和附近的基地赫爾蒙山。 It is mentioned in Matt.這是中提到的馬特。 16:13 and Mark 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry. 16時13分和8點27分馬克作為北部限制我們的上帝的公共事務部。 According to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Josh. 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), when it was a Canaanite sanctuary of Baal.據一些原來的名字叫巴爾,蓋德( Josh. 11點17 ) ,或巴爾-赫曼( Judg.三點03分; 1染色體。 5時23分) ,當它是一個迦南聖殿巴爾。 It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas, from a deep cavern full of water near the town.這是後來所謂Panium或Paneas ,從深層水溶洞充分鎮附近。 This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated with the worship of their god Pan.這個名字是考慮到洞窟的希臘馬其頓王國的安提阿,因為它相似的岩洞的希臘,這是始終與崇拜他們的神潘。 Its modern name is Banias.其現代的名字是Banias的。 Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar.希律王在這裡修了一座廟宇,他專注於奧古斯都愷撒。 This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar.這個鎮是後來擴大和美化的希律菲利普tetrarch的Trachonitis ,在其領土上成立了一個組成部分,並要求由他撒利亞腓立比,這部分是他自己的名字後,部分後,皇帝提庇留凱撒。 It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine.因此,區別於凱撒利亞巴勒斯坦。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle to the Philippians書信的腓利

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER一,歷史條件下,一次,及特點

The Philippians, who were much endeared to St. Paul (i, 3, 7; iv, 1) had already on former occasions and under various circumstances sent him pecuniary aid, and now on learning of his imprisonment at Rome (Acts 27-28) they sent him to Epaphroditus, one of their number, to bear him alms and minister to his needs (ii, 25-29; iv, 18).在腓利,誰遠日的聖保祿( 1 , 3 , 7 ;四, 1 )已對前幾次和各種情況下向他發出的金錢援助,而現在學習的他被監禁在羅馬(使徒27-28 )他們把我送到Epaphroditus ,其中一人,承擔他的施捨和部長對他的需要(二, 25日至29日;四, 18 ) 。 St. Paul received him gladly, rejoicing in the affectionate and Christian sentiments of the Philippians (iv, 10-19), and in the generally satisfactory condition of their Church as reported to him by Epaphroditus.聖保祿他高興地收到,欣喜中的深情和基督教情緒的腓利(四, 10月19日) ,並在總體上是令人滿意的條件教會向他報告Epaphroditus 。 It may be that Epaphroditus had been the Apostle's companion and assistant at Philippi (ii, 25); at least he became such at Rome (ii, 30), but he fell dangerously ill and was at the point of death (ii, 27).這也許是因為Epaphroditus已宗徒伴侶和助手,立(二25 ) ;至少他是這樣的在羅馬(二30 ) ,但他下降病危,並在臨終(二27 ) 。 This news was distressing to the Philippians, and as soon as he recovered he was eager to return home (ii, 26).這個消息是令人痛心的腓利,一旦他恢復,他急於返回家園(二26 ) 。 Paul therefore hastened to send him (ii, 26-28) and profited by the opportunity to confide to him a letter to the faithful and the heads of his Church.保羅因此趕緊向他(二, 26日至28日) ,並從中獲利的機會,向他傾訴了一封信給教友和他的教會的元首。 In this letter, probably written by Timothy at his dictation, Paul expresses the sentiments of joy and gratitude which he cherishes in regard to the Philippians.在這封信中,可能寫的蒂莫在他聽寫,保羅表示感情的喜悅和感激,他十分珍視中關於腓利。 This is the keynote of the letter.這是主題的信。 It is an outpouring of the heart, breathing a wholly spontaneous and paternal intimacy. In it the loving heart of the Apostle reveals itself completely, and the affectionate tone, sincerity, and delicacy of the sentiments must have charmed its readers and won their admiration and love.這是一個源源不斷的心臟,呼吸完全自發和父親親近。在有愛心的使徒完全暴露,並深情基調,誠意和微妙的情緒必須有魅力,贏得讀者的欽佩和愛。 Hence, this letter is much more epistolary in style than the other Epistles of St. Paul.因此,這封信是更書信的風格比其他書信聖保羅。 Familiar expressions of joy and gratitude are mingled with dogmatic reflexions and moral exhortation, and it is useless to seek for orderly arrangement or strict sequence. On the other hand, although the general condition of the Church of Philippi was excellent and St. Paul did not have to deal with grave vices, there were nevertheless certain things which were not altogether satisfactory or which aroused apprehension.熟悉的表達喜悅和感激交織的教條反思和道德規勸,這是無用尋求有序安排或嚴格序列。另一方面,雖然總體狀況教會立是出色和聖保祿沒有必須處理的嚴重的罪惡,有某些東西,但是不完全令人滿意的或引起恐懼。 Paul had heard that the pride and vainglory of some, especially of two women, Evodia and Syntyche, had aroused misunderstandings and rivalries.保羅聽說的驕傲和虛榮一些,尤其是兩名婦女,吳茱萸和Syntyche ,引起了誤解和對抗。 Moreover a greater and more serious danger threatened them, perhaps on the part of Judaizers, who, though there is no need to assume their presence or propaganda at Philippi itself, had, it seems, disseminated their baneful doctrines throughout the neighbouring regions.此外更大和更嚴重的危險威脅他們,也許對部分Judaizers ,誰,但沒有必要承擔其存在或宣傳立本身,已經看來,傳播有害理論及其鄰近地區各地。 Hence the exhortations to fraternal charity and concord as well as to disinterestedness; these exhortations (i, 8, 27; ii, 2, 3, 14, 16; iv, 2 sq.) Paul bases on exalted dogmatic considerations taken from the example of Christ, and he also proposes to them the example of his own way of thinking and acting, which had but a single object, the glory of God and Christ.因此,告誡兄弟慈善與和諧以及無私;這些規勸(一,第8 ,第27條;二, 2 , 3 , 14 , 16 ;四, 2平方米)保羅基地崇高教條考慮從例子基督,他還建議他們的榜樣,自己的思維方式和行動,其中只有一個單一的對象,神的榮耀和基督。 But when he warns the Philippians against the Judaizers he returns to the tone of deep sorrow and unmitigated indignation which characterizes the Epistle to the Galatians.但是,當他警告說,腓利對他返回Judaizers的語氣深切的悲痛和憤慨的特點十足的書信向加拉太。

II.二。 ANALYSIS分析

For the reasons stated above a definite plan or clear division must not be sought in this Epistle.對於上述原因一個明確的計劃或明確分工不應尋求在這一書信。 The Letter is a succession of exhortations and effusions which may be collected under the following heads:該信繼承的規勸和積液可收集以下首長:

A. Introduction A.導言

After the superscription, in which he addresses himself to bishops, deacons, and faithful (i, 1-2), St. Paul rejoices in the excellent condition of the Church of the Philippians and gives thanks that by their alms they have shared in the merits of his captivity and the spread of the Gospel (3-8); he loves them with an intense love, ardently desiring and urgently entreating that God would deign to complete in them the work of perfection (9-11). superscription後,他在處理自己的主教,執事,和忠實的(一, 1月2日) ,聖保羅高興在狀態良好的教堂腓利和感謝,通過讓他們施捨,他們有共同的是非曲直他囚禁和傳播福音( 3-8 ) ;他喜歡他們強烈的愛,熱切希望和迫切求上帝設計完成他們的工作,完善( 9月11日) 。

B. Body of the Epistle灣機構的書信

(1) Paul begins by giving news, as a whole very satisfactory -- with regard to his own situation and that of the Church in Rome. ( 1 )保羅開始提供新聞,作為一個整體十分令人滿意-關於他自己的狀況,是羅馬的主教。 But what he relates concerning himself must have been meant for a tacit but no less eloquent appeal to abnegation and detachment, for Paul depicts himself as seeking in all things not his own glory or personal advantage, but solely the glory of Christ.但他與自己有關的必須是指一個默契,但不低於雄辯呼籲克制和支隊,保羅描繪自己為尋求在所有的事情不是他個人的榮耀或個人的優勢,但僅僅榮耀基督。 His captivity becomes to him a cause of joy, since it avails for the propagation of the Gospel (i, 12-14); what does it matter to him that some preach the Gospel out of unworthy zealotry, provided Christ be preached?他囚禁成為他的一個原因喜悅,因為它利用傳播福音(一, 12月14日) ;是什麼問題他說,一些傳福音的不配狂熱,提供基督宣揚? (15-18); given a choice of life and death he knows not which he prefers, life which permits him to do good for souls, or death, which shall be a testimony for Christ and shall unite him to Him (19-25). ( 15-18 ) ;給予生死抉擇,他不知道他喜歡,生活,使他做的很好的靈魂,或死亡,這應是一個見證基督,並應團結一致他他( 19-25 ) 。 He thinks, however, that he will be set free and may still labour for the spiritual progress of the Philippians.他認為,不過,他將成為自由和可能仍然勞動力的精神進步的腓利。

(2) he exhorts them more directly to lead a life worthy of the Gospel (i, 27a), and especially to concord and abnegation (i, 27b-ii, 4) (i) by the example of Christ Who being in the Divine form and possessing supreme independence nevertheless, for our good, annihilated himself and assumed the condition of a slave, even undergoing death; (ii) by the desire for a heavenly reward, such as Christ received (ii, 5-11). ( 2 )他激勵他們更直接地導致的生活福音(一,第27A條) ,特別是和諧與克制(一, 27B款,二,四) (一)的例子是在基督的神聖形式和擁有最高的獨立儘管如此,我們的好,他本人和消滅的條件承擔的奴隸,即使經歷死亡; (二)的願望天堂獎勵,如基督收到(二, 5月11日) 。 He concludes by repeating his general exhortation to Christian perfection and by affirming that to procure them this perfection he would gladly sacrifice his life.他得出的結論是,重複他一般告誡基督教完善和申明,採購他們這個完美,他將很樂意犧牲他的生命。

(3) The Apostle tells the Philippians that as soon as he knows the outcome of his affairs he will send to them Timothy, his devoted companion, who is so well-disposed towards the Philippians (ii, 19-24); in the meantime he sends them Epaphroditus, his fellow-labourer and their delegate to him (see above); he asks them to receive him with joy and to honour him greatly, because of the love which he bears them and the danger of death to which he was exposed while fulfilling his mission (25-30). ( 3 )使徒告訴腓利,只要他知道的結果,他的事務,他將發送給他們霍震霆,他專門的同伴,誰是這麼好,處置對腓利(二19-24 ) ;在此期間他向他們Epaphroditus ,他的同胞,工人和他們的代表,他(見上文) ;他問他們接受他的喜悅和履行他很大,因為他的愛熊他們和死亡的危險,他暴露在履行他的使命( 25-30 ) 。

(4) Desiring to end or abbreviate his Epistle Paul begins the conclusion (iii, 1a, the To loipon), but suddenly interrupts it in order again to put the Philippians on their guard against the Judaizing teachers, which he does by once more presenting to them his own example: Has he not all the benefits and titles in which the Judaizers are accustomed to glory and much more? ( 4 )希望年底或縮寫他的使徒保羅開始結束(三1A款,該要loipon ) ,但突然中斷,以便再次把腓利就其防範猶太化的教師,他沒有再一次提出的他們自己的例子:有他並非所有的利益和遊戲中, Judaizers習慣於光榮和更? But all this he has despised and rejected and counted as dung that he might gain true justice and perfection, which are secured, not by the works of the law, but by faith (iii, 1-11).但是,所有這一切,他鄙視和拒絕,算作牛糞,他可能獲得真正的正義和完善,這是擔保,而不是由工作的法律,而是由信仰(三, 1月11日) 。 This perfection, it is true, he had not yet attained, but he never ceased to press toward the mark and the prize to which God had called him, thus refuting by his own example those who in their pride call themselves perfect (12-16); he incites his readers to imitate him (17) and not to follow those who loving the things of this world, have depraved habits (18-iv, 1).這完美,這是真的,他還沒有實現,但他從未停止對新聞界紀念和獎金的上帝叫他,從而駁斥了他自己的例子是誰在他們的驕傲自稱完美( 12月16日) ;他煽動他的讀者,效法他( 17 ) ,而不是遵循這些東西誰愛這個世界,已墮落習慣( 18四, 1 ) 。

(5) To this general exhortation Paul adds a special admonition. ( 5 )這項一般告誡保羅增加了一個特別的警告。 He binds two women, Evodia and Syntyche, to concord (iv, 2-3), and exhorts all to spiritual joy, urging the observance of goodness and gentleness among them (5), bidding them be disturbed by nothing, but have recourse to God in all their anxieties (6-7), and endeavour to attain to Christian perfection in all things (8-9).他結合兩女,吳茱萸和Syntyche ,以和諧(四, 2月3日) ,並力勸所有精神喜悅,敦促遵守善良和溫柔其中( 5 ) ,投標人沒有受到干擾,但訴諸上帝在其所有的焦慮( 6-7 ) ,並努力實現基督教完善一切事物( 8-9 ) 。

C. Epilogue角尾聲

Paul concludes his Epistle by a more explicit renewal of thanks to the Philippians for their alms, using the most delicate expressions and making his manner of acceptance a final exhortation to detachment and abnegation (11-19). This is followed by the Doxology and salutations.保羅結束了他的書信更明確續期感謝腓利的施捨,用最微妙的表情和他的方式接受最後告誡支隊和克制( 11月19日) 。這是遵循的Doxology和敬意。 Especially noteworthy are his salutations to those of the household of the emperor (20-23).尤其值得一提的是他的敬意這些家庭的皇帝( 20-23 ) 。

III.三。 AUTHENTICITY, UNITY, AND INTEGRITY真實性,統一和完整

The authenticity of the Epistle as a whole, which was generally accepted until the middle of the nineteenth century, was first denied by the Tübingen School (Baur, 1845; Zeller; Volckmar).的真實性,書信作為一個整體,這是普遍接受的,直到十九世紀中葉,最早是否認的,蒂賓根大學學院(包爾, 1845年;澤勒; Volckmar ) 。 Their arguments, namely lack of originality, the evidence of a semi-Gnostic idea, a doctrine of justification which could not be that of St. Paul etc., were triumphantly refuted by Lünemann, Brückner, Schenkel etc.他們的論點,即缺乏原創性,證據的半諾斯底思想,學說的理由不能是聖保羅等,是勝利駁斥Lünemann ,布魯克納,申克爾等 But other contradictors subsequently arose, such as van Manen and especially Holsten (for their chief arguments see below).但是,其他contradictors隨後出現的,如範梅南特別是Holsten (其行政論點見下文) 。 At present the authenticity may be said to be universally admitted not only by Catholic exegetes but also by most Protestants and Rationalists (Hilgenfeld, Harnack, Zahn, Jülicher, Pfleiderer, Lightfood, Gibb, Holtzmann).目前的真實性可以說是普遍承認不僅天主教exegetes而且大多數新教徒和理性主義( Hilgenfeld ,哈爾納克,贊恩, Jülicher ,弗萊德爾, Lightfood ,吉布, Holtzmann ) 。

(1) External Criticism ( 1 )外部批評

Arguments from external criticism permit no doubt on the subject.論點允許來自外部的批評毫無疑問的主題。 We will not deal with the quotations from or reminiscences of the Epistle which some authors profess to find in early ecclesiastical writers, such as Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle to Diognetus etc. (see Cornely, "Introductio", IV, 491; Jacquier, p. 347; Toussaint in "Dict. De la Bible", sv Philippiens).我們不會處理引文或回憶的書信其中一些作者信奉找到早期教會作家,如克萊門特的羅馬,依納爵的安提阿,牧人書的書信,以Diognetus等等(見Cornely “引“ ,四, 491 ; Jacquier ,第347頁;圖中的”快譯通。德拉魯阿聖經“ ,西沃特Philippiens ) 。 About 120 St. Polycarp speaks explicitly to the Philippians of the letters (or the letter, epistolai) which Paul has written to them, and some passages of his letter prove that he had read this Epistle to the Philippians.約120名街波利卡普講明確腓利的字母(或字母, epistolai ) ,其中保羅曾寫信給他們,有些段落證明他的信,他已閱讀此書信向腓利。 Subsequently the Muratorian Canon, St. Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and the Apostolicon of Marcion attribute it expressly to St.隨後,穆拉多利佳能,聖Irenæus ,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,良,和Apostolicon的馬吉安屬性明確聖 Paul.保羅。 After Tertullian the testimonies become numerous and incontestable and the unanimity was maintained without the slightest exception until the middle of the nineteenth century.德爾圖良的證詞後,成為眾多和無可爭議的一致性和維持,沒有絲毫的例外,直到十九世紀中葉。

(2) Internal Criticism ( 2 )內部批評

The difficulties drawn from the Epistle itself, which some authors have urged against tradition, are misleading, as is now admitted by the most prominent Rationalists and Protestants.困難來自書信本身,一些作者已敦促對傳統,它具有誤導性,因為現在是承認的最突出的理性主義和新教徒。

(a) Language and style. (一)語言和風格。 The hapax legomena (which occur about forty times) prove nothing against the Pauline origin of the Epistle, since they are met with in almost the same proportion in the certainly authentic Epistles.該hapax legomena (發生約40次)證明並不反對波利娜起源書信,因為它們是同在幾乎相同的比例在一定正宗書信。 Moreover, certain words (about twenty) quite peculiar to the Epistles of St. Paul, certain forms of expression, figures, methods of style (i, 22, 27, 29; iii, 8, 14), and repetitions of words demonstrate the Pauline character of the Epistle. (b) Doctrine.此外,某些字( 20 )非常奇特的書信聖保羅,某些形式的表達,數字,方法,風格(一, 22 , 27 , 29 ;三, 8日, 14日) ,和重複的話表明,波利娜性質的書信。 (二)原則。 The two chief objections brought forward by Holsten (Jahrb. Für Prot. Theol., I, 125; II, 58, 282) have found little credit among exegetes, while Holsten himself in a more recent work ("Das Evangelium des Paulus", Berlin, 1898, II, 4) concedes that the theology of the Epistle to the Philippians is thoroughly Pauline.兩個主要的反對意見提出的Holsten ( Jahrb.獻給普羅特。 Theol 。 ,我, 125 ;二, 58 , 282 )發現小信貸之間exegetes ,而Holsten本人在最近的工作( “達斯萬保盧斯福音” ,柏林, 1898年,二,四)承認,神學書信的腓利是徹底波琳。 In fact (a) the Christology of the Epistle to the Philippians, which portrays Christ pre-existing in the form of God and made man through the Incarnation, does not contradict that of the First Epistle to the Corinthians (xv, 45), which depicts the Risen Christ as a heavenly Man, clothed with His glorified body, or that of the other Epistles which, in a simpler form, also show us Christ pre-existing as a Divine Being and made man through he Incarnation (Galatians 4:4; Romans 7:3; 2 Corinthians 8:9).事實上, ( a )在基督的使徒的腓利,其中描繪基督預先存在的形式,上帝和人通過的情況,並不矛盾,在第一使徒的科林蒂安斯( 15 , 45 ) ,其中描繪了復活的基督作為一個天上人,他的衣著與榮耀機構,或其他書信,在一個較簡單的形式,也表明我們基督預先存在的神和人通過他道成肉身(加拉太4時04分;羅馬7點03分;哥林多後書8時09分) 。 (b) The doctrine on justification by faith and not by works set forth in the Epistles to the Romans and the Galatians, is not contradicted here (iii, 6); if indeed St. Paul speaks here of legal justice it is obviously to show its powerlessness and nothingness (7-9). ( b )該學說的理由的信仰,而不是通過作品中規定的書信,以羅馬和加拉太,是不是自相矛盾這裡(三6 ) ;如果確實談到這裡聖保祿的法律正義顯然表明它的無能為力和虛無( 7-9 ) 。

The unity and integrity of the Epistle have also been denied or doubted by some authors.的統一和完整的書信也被剝奪或懷疑有些作者。 Völter and Spitta maintained that this Epistle is a compilation of another authentic Epistle to the Philippians and an apocryphal one written about AD 120. Völter和施皮塔認為這書信彙編了另一個真實的書信向腓利和未經書面約公元1 120 。 Clemen saw in it a compilation of two authentic Epistles.克萊門看到它匯集了兩個真實的書信。 These theories met with little success while the arguments which have been brought forward in their behalf, viz.這些理論並沒有產生太大的成功,而論點已提出在其代表,即。 The double conclusion (iii, 1, and iv, 4) mingled with personal details, moral counsels, doctrinal instructions etc., are sufficiently explained by the familiar and consequently free and unrestrained character of the Epistle.雙結論(三, 1 ,和第四, 4 )交織在一起的個人資料,道德律師,理論指導等,充分的解釋的熟悉,因此自由和無限制的性質書信。

Place and Date地點和日期

There is not the shadow of a doubt that the Epistle to the Philippians was written during the Apostle's captivity (i, 7, 13, 14, 17; ii, 24).沒有毫無疑問,該書信的腓利寫在宗徒囚禁(一, 7 , 13 , 14 , 17 ;二, 24 ) 。 Moreover, it is certain that it was written not at Cæsarea, as some have maintained, but at Rome (AD 62-64).此外,這是肯定的,這是書面沒有凱撒利亞,如一些人所堅持,但在羅馬(公元62-64 ) 。 Such is the nearly unanimous opinion even of those who claim that the three other Epistles of the Captivity were written at Cæsarea [see i, 13 (the prætorium); iv, 22 (the house of Cæsar); i, 17 sqq.這是幾乎一致的意見的人甚至聲稱,誰其他三個書信的圈養寫在凱撒利亞[見我, 13條( prætorium ) ;四, 22 (眾議院凱撒) ;一, 17 sqq 。 (this supposes a more important Church than that of Cæsarea)]. (此假設一個更重要的教會比凱撒利亞) ] 。 Critics do not agree as to whether the Epistle was written at the beginning of the sojourn at Rome or at the end, before or after the other three Epistles of the captivity.批評者不同意,是否寫的書信開始的時候,逗留在羅馬結束時或之前或之後,其他三個書信的囚禁。 Most of them incline towards the second view (Meyer, Weiss, Holtzmann, Zahn, Jülicher etc.).他們大多偏向第二期(羅邁耶,魏斯, Holtzmann ,贊恩, Jülicher等) 。 For the arguments pro and con see the works of the various critics.的論點贊成和反對的作品看到的各種批評。 The present author, however, is of the opinion that it was written towards the end of the captivity.本作者,但是,認為這是寫在接近年底時的囚禁。

Publication information Written by A. Vander Heeren.出版信息書面由A.范德麒麟大廈。 Transcribed by Paula J. Eckardt.轉錄由保學者Eckardt 。 Dedicated in loving memory, and with deep gratitude, to my father, Paul A. Eckardt, 1917-2000 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.獻給熱愛內存,並深為感激,我的父親,保羅A Eckardt , 17年至2000年的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

The following are general works and commentaries, in which the reader will find a more extensive bibliography, and information concerning earlier works and commentaries.以下是一般的作品和評論中,讀者會看到一個更廣泛的書目,以及有關早期作品和評論。

BEELEN, Commentarius in Epistolam S. Pauli ad Philippenses (2nd ed., Louvain, 1852); IDEM, Het nieuwe Testament (Bruges, 1892); BISPING, Erklärung der Briefe an die Epheser, Philipper und Kolosser (Münster, 1866); LIPSIUS, Brief an die Galater, Römer, Philipper (Handcommentar zum NT), adapted by Holtzmann (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1892); MOULE, The Epistle to the Philippians (Cambridge, 1895); CORNELY, Introductio specialis in singulos NT libros (Paris, 1897); MÜLLER, Der Ap. BEELEN , Commentarius在Epistolam由保利廣告Philippenses (第二版。 ,盧萬, 1852年) ;同上,報nieuwe全書(布魯日, 1892年) ; BISPING , Erklärung之書信的死亡Epheser , Philipper與Kolosser (明斯特, 1866年) ; LIPSIUS ,簡一死Galater ,羅默Philipper ( Handcommentar zum新台幣) ,改編Holtzmann (第二版。弗賴堡, 1892年) ; MOULE的書信的腓利(劍橋, 1895年) ; CORNELY ,引的特別singulos新台幣libros (巴黎, 1897年) ;穆勒,德國鴨。 Paulus Brief an die Philipper (Freiburg, 1899); VAN STEENKISTE, Commentarius in omnes S. Pauli Epistolas (Bruges, 1899); FUNK, Patres Apostolici (Tübingen, 1901); VINCENT, The Epistles to the Philippians and to Philemon (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1902); HAUPT, Die Gefangenschaftsbriefe (8th ed., Göttingen, 1902); JACQUIER, Historie des livres du Nouveau Testament, I (Paris, 1904); SHAW, The Pauline Epistles (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1904); CLEMEN, Paulus, sein Leben und Wirken (Giessen, 1904); BELSER, Einleitung in das neue Testament (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1905); LE CAMUS, L'œuvre des Apotres (Paris, 1905) PÖLZL, Der Weltapostel Paulus (Ratisbon, 1905); LIGHTFOOT, St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians (16th ed., London, 1908); FILLION IN VIGOUROUX, Dict.保盧斯簡介一死Philipper (弗賴堡, 1899年) ;加值型網路STEENKISTE , Commentarius在適用第聖保利Epistolas (布魯日, 1899年) ;放克, Patres Apostolici (圖賓根, 1901年) ;文森特的書信向腓利和腓利門書(第二版。 ,愛丁堡, 1902年) ;豪普特,模具Gefangenschaftsbriefe (第八版。 ,哥廷根, 1902年) ; JACQUIER ,史萬里弗杜新約,我(巴黎, 1904年) ;逸夫,該波利娜書信(第2版。 ,愛丁堡, 1904年) ;克萊門,保盧斯,存在的生平與Wirken (吉森, 1904年) ; BELSER導論之新約中(第2版。 ,弗賴堡, 1905年) ;樂CAMUS ,歐萊雅œuvre萬Apotres (巴黎, 1905年) PÖLZL ,明鏡Weltapostel保盧斯( Ratisbon , 1905年) ;娜萊,聖保祿使徒的腓利(第16版。 ,倫敦, 1908年) ;菲利安的VIGOUROUX ,快譯通。 De la Bible, sv Philippes; TOUSSAINT, ibid, sv Philippiens; IDEM, Epitres de S. Paul (Paris, 1910); PRAT, La Théologie de S. Paul (Paris, 1909); FOUARD, Saint Paul, ses dernières années (Paris, 1910); VIGOUROUX-BACUEZ-BRASSAC, Manuel Biblique, IV (Paris, 1911).德拉魯阿聖經希沃特Philippes ;圖森,同上,西沃特Philippiens ;同上, Epitres日由保羅(巴黎, 1910 ) ;普拉特,香格里拉神學日由保羅(巴黎, 1909年) ; FOUARD ,聖保羅,經濟局局長dernières années (巴黎, 1910 ) ; VIGOUROUX - BACUEZ - BRASSAC ,曼努埃爾Biblique ,第四章(巴黎, 1911年) 。


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