Gospel According to Matthew馬太福音

General Information 一般信息

The Gospel According to Matthew is the opening book of the New Testament of the Bible.該馬太福音是開放圖書的新約聖經。 Although first in canonical order, it is probably not the earliest Gospel.雖然第一次在規範秩序,它可能不是最早的福音。 Besides drawing heavily from the Gospel According to Mark, Matthew shapes material from other sources around Mark's narrative outline.除了繪畫的嚴重馬可福音,馬修形狀材料從其他來源馬克左右的敘事概要。 One such source, commonly called Q (from the German quelle, "source"), is thought to have consisted primarily of sayings of Jesus; it was also used by Luke. Material unique to this Gospel relates to the birth of Jesus (1 - 2), the arrangement of the Sermon on the Mount (5 - 7), and Jesus' utterances on the end of the world (24 - 25).這樣的一個來源,通常稱為Q (從德國一家公司, “源” ) ,被認為有主要是耶穌的說法,它也使用的盧克。 材料獨有的福音涉及耶穌的誕生( 1 - 2 ) ,安排的聖訓山( 5 - 7 ) ,以及耶穌的話語對世界的盡頭( 24 - 25 ) 。

Matthew is generally held to have been written about AD 80, although scholars have argued for dates as early as 65 and as late as 100.馬修普遍已書面約公元80 ,儘管學者們主張的日期早在65年底為100 。 Tradition ascribes authorship to the Apostle Matthew, but modern scholars, acknowledging Matthew as a source, contend that a disciple or school of disciples were responsible for its present form.傳統賦予作者的使徒馬太,但現代學者,承認馬修的來源,認為弟子的弟子或學校負責其目前的形式。

Matthew is the most topical of the Synoptic Gospels. The teachings and sayings of Jesus are gathered into five thematic discourses and structured around Mark's narrative framework. Each discourse is followed by a summary statement (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 28:1). A prologue and epilogue are added (1 - 2; 28:9 - 20). 馬修是最熱門的天氣福音。教義和諺語耶穌聚集到五個專題論述,並圍繞著馬克的敘事框架。 每個話語之後,簡要說明( 7時28 ; 11時01分; 13時53分; 19:1 ; 28:1 ) 。甲序幕和尾聲的補充( 1 - 2 ; 28:9 - 20 ) 。 Because of the emphasis on law, teaching, and righteousness, scholars believe that Matthew was addressed to a predominantly Jewish audience, presumably in Palestine or Syria. 由於側重於法律,教學,和義,學者認為,馬修是給猶太人為主的觀眾,大概是在巴勒斯坦和敘利亞。 Jesus is presented as the messianic fulfiller, especially in the role of king, and the teacher of the way of righteousness.耶穌作為救世主fulfiller的,尤其是在國王的作用,以及教師的方式,正義。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Douglas Ezell道格拉斯Ezell

Bibliography 參考書目
WG Kummel, Introduction to the New Testament (1975); JL McKenzie, "Matthew," in Jerome Biblical Commentary (1968).工作組Kummel ,介紹新約全書( 1975年) ;巨浪麥肯齊, “馬修”的杰羅姆聖經評注( 1968年) 。


Gospel According to Matthew馬太福音

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Birth and early years of the Messiah (1:1-4:16)出生和早年的彌賽亞( 1:1-4:16 )
  2. Galilean Ministry of Jesus (4:17-18:35)伽利略部耶穌( 4:17-18:35 )
  3. Perean Ministry (19-20) Perean部( 19-20 )
  4. Passion Week and Resurrection (21-28)受難週和復活( 21-28 )


Mat'thew

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Matthew, gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile.馬修,上帝的禮物,一個共同的猶太人的名字後,流亡國外。 He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum.他的兒子Alphaeus ,是一個酒館或稅務採集在Capernaum 。 On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me." Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple (Matt. 9:9). Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27); he now changed it, possibly in grateful memory of his call, to Matthew.有一次耶穌,今後從一側的湖,通過特製的房子裡坐在馬修,和對他說: “跟我來。 ”馬修起身跟著他,成為他的門徒(太9點09分) 。以前的名稱,他被稱為是列維(馬克2點14分;路加福音5時27分) ;他現在改變了它,可能在感謝紀念他的呼籲,向馬修。 The same day on which Jesus called him he made a "great feast" (Luke 5:29), a farewell feast, to which he invited Jesus and his disciples, and probably also many of old associates.同一天,耶穌叫他,他提出了“偉大的節日” (路加福音5點29分) ,告別宴,他請耶穌和他的弟子,或許也有許多舊的同夥。 He was afterwards selected as one of the twelve (6:15).他後來被選定為一個12 ( 6:15 ) 。 His name does not occur again in the Gospel history except in the lists of the apostles.他的名字不會再出現在歷史的福音除外名單中的使徒。 The last notice of him is in Acts 1:13.最後通知他的行為是在1點13 。 The time and manner of his death are unknown.的時間和方式對他的死亡是未知的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Gospel according to Mat'thew福音Mat'thew

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears.的作者,這本書是毫無疑問的馬修,一個使徒我們的上帝,他的名字值得。 He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists."他寫的福音基督根據他自己的計劃和目標,並從自己的角度來看,由於還沒有其他的“福音” 。 As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate.至於它的組成時,很少有在福音本身說明。 It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and some time after the events it records.這是明顯的書面之前銷毀耶路撒冷(太24 ) ,以及一段時間的事件之後,它的記錄。 The probability is that it was written between the years AD 60 and 65.的概率是,這是書面的公元60年和65 。 The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of Palestine.演員的思想和表達形式受僱於作家表明,這種福音寫猶太基督徒巴勒斯坦。 His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfilment.他偉大的目的是證明,拿撒勒的耶穌是彌賽亞的承諾,並在他的古老的預言有其履行。

The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed.福音充滿典故這些通道舊約中,基督是預測和預見的。 The one aim prevading the whole book is to show that Jesus is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write."一個目的prevading整本書是為了表明,耶穌是他“人在摩西的律法和先知沒有寫。 ” This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels.這福音包含不得少於65提到舊約43這些被直接口頭引用,大大超過了這些發現在其他福音。 The main feature of this Gospel may be expressed in the motto, "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil."的主要特點可這福音中所表達的座右銘, “我不是來摧毀,但履行的義務。 ” As to the language in which this Gospel was written there is much controversy.至於語言,這是福音書有很多爭議。 Many hold, in accordance with old tradition, that it was originally written in Hebrew (ie, the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Palestine), and afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by some person unknown.許多人,按照古老的傳統,它最初是在希伯來文(即阿拉姆或Syro , Chaldee方言,然後白話文的居民巴勒斯坦) ,然後翻譯成希臘文,由馬修本人或由一些人下落不明。

This theory, though earnestly maintained by able critics, we cannot see any ground for adopting.這一理論,雖然能夠保持認真的批評,我們就不能看到任何理由通過。 From the first this Gospel in Greek was received as of authority in the Church.從第一本福音希臘收到的權力在教會。 There is nothing in it to show that it is a translation.沒有任何東西在它表明它是一個翻譯。 Though Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere familiar with the Greek language.雖然馬修寫道主要是猶太人,但他們都熟悉希臘語。 The same reasons which would have suggested the necessity of a translation into Greek would have led the evangelist to write in Greek at first.出於同樣的理由將建議,需要有一個翻譯成希臘文會導致福音寫在希臘在第一。 It is confessed that this Gospel has never been found in any other form than that in which we now possess it.這是承認,這福音從未發現任何其他形式相比,我們現在擁有它。 The leading characteristic of this Gospel is that it sets forth the kingly glory of Christ, and shows him to be the true heir to David's throne. It is the Gospel of the kingdom.主要特點是福音是,它規定了王者的榮耀基督,並顯示出他是真正的繼承人大衛的寶座。這是福音王國。

Matthew uses the expression "kingdom of heaven" (thirty-two times), while Luke uses the expression "kingdom of God" (thirty-three times).馬修使用了“天國” ( 32次) ,而盧克使用了“神的國” ( 33次) 。 Some Latinized forms occur in this Gospel, as kodrantes (Matt. 5:26), for the Latin quadrans, and phragello (27:26), for the Latin flagello.一些Latinized形式出現在這福音,因為kodrantes (太5點26分) ,在拉丁美洲quadrans ,並phragello ( 27:26 ) ,在拉丁美洲flagello 。 It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the Latin language.必須記住,馬修是一個稅務採集的羅馬政府,因此,在與那些使用拉丁語。 As to the relation of the Gospels to each other, we must maintain that each writer of the synoptics (the first three) wrote independently of the other two, Matthew being probably first in point of time.至於關係的福音對方,我們必須保持每一個作家的synoptics (前三個)寫道獨立於其他兩個,馬修是第一次在可能的時間點。 "Out of a total of 1071 verses, Matthew has 387 in common with Mark and Luke, 130 with Mark, 184 with Luke; only 387 being peculiar to itself." “在總共1071詩句,馬修已經在共同的387馬克和路, 130馬克, 184沃頓;只有387正在特有的本身。 ” (See Mark; Luke; Gospels.) The book is fitly divided into these four parts: (1.) Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus (1; 2). (2.) The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to Christ's public ministry (3; 4:11). (見馬克;盧克;福音。 )這本書是fitly分為以下四個部分: ( 1 。 ) ,其中載有家譜,出生率和嬰兒耶穌( 1 ; 2 ) 。 ( 2 。 )話語和行動施洗約翰籌備基督的公共事務部( 3 ; 4時11分) 。 (3.) The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee (4:12-20:16). ( 3 。 )話語和行動,在加利利基督( 4:12-20:16 ) 。 (4.) The sufferings, death and resurrection of our Lord (20:17-28). ( 4 。 )的痛苦,死亡和復活的主( 20:17-28 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Matthew Chapters 10-12馬修章10月12日

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

Expansion and Opposition擴大和反對派

The King has come, the code of His Kingdom is set forth, His credentials presented, and He now expands the testimony concerning Himself, with the result of increasing opposition. This expansion is connected with the commission of the twelve disciples (Chap. 10), and the opposition is revealed in various ways in the chapters following.國王來了,他的代碼是英國規定,他的證書,並擴大了,他現在對自己的證詞,因此增加的反對。此次擴建是與該委員會的12個門徒(章10 ) ,和反對派揭示以各種方式在以下的章節。

The Disciples Commissioned門徒委託

10 Here we find "apostles" for the first time (v. 2), which means "those sent forth," an indispensable qualification for whose office was that of an eye-witness of the resurrection of Christ (Acts 1: 22; 1 Cor. 9:1). 10在這裡,我們找到“門徒”首次(五2 ) ,這意味著“送交提出, ”一個不可缺少的資格,他的辦公室是一個眼睛見證基督的復活(行為1 : 22 ; 1心病。 9:1 ) 。 The apostles were endued with miraculous powers as credentials of their ministry, and their work at this time was to announce to Israel only, that the Kingdom was at hand (vv. 6, 7).使徒被賦予的權力,與神奇的全權證書,他們表示,和他們的工作是在這個時候宣布向以色列只,王國在手( vv. 6日, 7日) 。 The Kingdom is the one promised to Israel on this earth, and through Israel to the other nations.王國是一個承諾,以色列在地球上,通過以色列向其他國家。 This explains things in the chapter, which if rightly understood, will keep us from reading into it that which does not belong there.這說明了事情的一章中,如果正確地理解,將使我們從讀成認為這並不屬於那裡。 For example, the power granted in verses 1 and 8 was in connection with this preaching of the Kingdom, and withdrawn when the Kingdom was finally rejected by Israel; although it will be renewed when the faithful remnant of the Jews again go forth during the tribulation to preach the same Kingdom.例如,在賦予的權力的詩句1和8是在這方面說教王國,並撤回在英國,終於拒絕了以色列;但將延長的信徒時遺留下來的猶太人去再次提出在磨難鼓吹同英國。

In the meantime, the preaching of the gospel of grace, especially committed to Paul, who was not of the twelve, is accompanied by gifts of another kind (Eph. 4:10-12).與此同時,宣講福音的寬限期,特別是致力於保羅,誰是不是12 ,是伴隨著禮物的另一種( Eph. 4:10-12 ) 。 Look at verses 11 to 15, where the "worthy" mean those looking for the Messiah promised by the Old Testament prophets.看看詩句11日至15日,那裡的“有價值的”是指那些尋找彌賽亞所許諾的舊約先知。 The gospel of grace is not offered to the "worthy," but to "whomsoever" will accept it. Or, take verses 16-23, which speak of the way the apostles' message would be received, and compare the prophecy they contain with the persecution in the Acts of the Apostles; or look at these verses in the light of the second coming of Christ, to which verse 23 refers.的福音寬限期沒有提供的“值得” ,但以“何人”將接受它。或者,採取詩句16-23 ,這說話的方式使徒將收到郵件,並比較它們包含與預言迫害在使徒行傳;或看看這些經文根據第二次來的基督,其中詩23指。

We learned in Daniel and elsewhere, that time is not counted in the history of Israel when she is not in her own land.我們學到的丹尼爾和其他地方,那個時候不計算在以色列歷史上,她是不是在自己的土地。 Hence the testimony here begun by the apostles and continued up to Israel's rejection of the Kingdom, is an unfinished testimony, and will be taken up again when the Church is translated during the tribulation.因此,證明這裡開始的使徒和持續到以色列拒絕王國,是一個未完成的證詞,並會採取行動的時候,教會是翻譯在磨難。

From this point to verse 33 we find encouragement.從這個角度,以詩33我們找到鼓勵。 The disciples are identified with their Lord (vv. 24, 25); therefore, they need not fear (vv. 26-28), for He cares for them (vv. 29-33).門徒確定其主( vv. 24日, 25日) ;因此,他們不必擔心( vv. 26日至28日) ,因為他關心他們( vv. 29-33段) 。 Then follows a description of the age in which we live, a time of war rather than peace (34-36); of separation on the part of Christ's followers (vv. 37, 38), and yet with the prospect of a bright recompense (vv. 39-42).接著介紹了年齡我們生活在其中,戰爭時期,而不是和平( 34-36 ) ;分離的一部分,基督的追隨者( vv. 37 , 38 ) ,但與前景光明的補償( vv. 39-42 ) 。 Modern research throws light on a chapter like this.現代研究全光一章這樣。 Take verses 9 and 10.採取詩句9日和10 。 Upon a monument at Kefr-Hanar in Syria, during this same period, one who calls himself "a slave" of the Syrian goddess tells of his begging journeys in her services, and uses the word for his collecting-bag here translated "scrip."經紀念碑Kefr - Hanar在敘利亞,在此期間,一個誰,自稱為“奴隸”敘利亞女神講述了他的乞討旅程中她的服務,並使用這個詞的收集袋這裡翻譯“息。 “ He boasts that "each journey brought in seventy bags."他吹噓“每程帶來了70袋。 ” The contrast with the followers of Christ is marked, who were neither to earn nor beg as they went forth with speed to herald His coming., Habershon.在與基督的追隨者的特點是,既不是誰,也不求賺取他們提出了與速度,預示著他的到來。 , Habershon 。

Anxiety of John the Baptist焦慮的施洗約翰

11 We are not surprised that as the testimony of Christ thus expanded (v. 1), John the Baptist in his prison should wonder. 11我們並不感到驚訝,作為基督的證詞,從而擴大(五1 ) ,施洗約翰在他的監獄應該奇蹟。 "Why, if this be the Christ, does He not take the Kingdom, or why does He not deliver me? Have I been mistaken in my witness to Him?" “啊,如果這是基督,但他沒有採取英國,或者為什麼他不能提供我嗎?難道我錯了,我看到他了嗎? ” John is told to reflect upon the evidence and to wait (vv. 2-6).約翰說,以反映出示的證據,並等待( vv. 2月6日) 。 How our Lord defends John, lest this act should reflect upon him (vv. 7-15)!如何捍衛我們的主約翰,以免該法應反映他( vv. 7月15日) ! Verse 11 has reference to John's relation to the Kingdom.新詩11提到約翰的關係王國。 The least in the Kingdom of heaven when it shall be set up upon earth, shall be greater than John could be before that time.至少在天國時,應設立地球時,應大於約翰可在上述時間之前。 The words do not speak of John in the moral sense, in which he was as great as any man born of woman, but in this dispensational sense.的話不說的約翰在道德意義上說,在他作為偉大的任何人出生的女子,但在這個dispensational意義。

Verse twelve is capable of two interpretations, an external and an internal one.新詩12能夠兩種解釋,外部和內部的一個。 In the first, the enemies of Jesus and John are the "violent" who are rejecting the Kingdom by force; in the second, the "violent" are those who in face of the opposition are pressing into the Kingdom.第一,耶穌的敵人和約翰是“暴力”誰是反對英國的武力;第二,在“暴力”是誰在面對反對派正進入英國。 A description of that generation follows as a foolish one (vv. 16-19), but there were some who believed and are referred to in the words "wisdom is justified of her children."說明那一代如下作為一個愚蠢的一個( vv. 16-19 ) ,但有一些誰信和中提到的“智慧是有道理的孩子。 ” As the judge of that generation our Lord now speaks (vv. 20-27).作為法官的一代現在講我們的上帝( vv. 20-27 ) 。 "Woe," is heard for the first time. “禍” ,是聽到首次。 In the coming day there will be different degrees of punishment (vv. 22, 24), responsibility being gauged by privilege.在接下來的一天將會有不同程度的處罰( vv. 22日, 24日) ,責任是衡量特權。

From the "wise and prudent" in their own eyes, ie, the self-righteous Pharisees, these things were hidden, but were revealed unto "babes," the poor in spirit conscious of their need (v. 25).從“明智和謹慎”在自己的眼睛,即自以為是的法利賽人,這些東西被隱藏,但透露給“寶貝” ,窮人的精神意識到他們需要(五25 ) 。 Our Lord now turns toward these in verses 28-30, in which he offers no longer the Kingdom, but rest and service to them that come to Him.我們的主現在看來對這些28日至30日在經文,其中他提供不再是英國,但休息和服務向他們來找他。 Practically He has been rejected by the nation, and is approaching the turning point in His ministry, when the proclamation of the Kingdom shall cease.實際上,他已經拒絕了該國,並正在接近轉折點他說,當宣布英國將停止。

Opposition Expressed反對派表達

12 The enmity is coming to a head. 12的敵意即將頭。 In 1-8, the Lord of the Sabbath is unjustly accused of Sabbath-breaking, and answers His accusers by facts of Holy Writ.在1月8日,主的安息日是不公正的指責安息日打破,並回答他的指控的事實聖經。 David, as the rejected king in his time, ate the shew-bread, and "Great David's greater Son" in His rejection is correspondingly guiltless. Next comes the temptation of 9-14, with the result that the opposition now becomes organized (v. 14), and the Lord withdraws Himself for His hour is not yet come.大衛,因為他拒絕了國王的時候,吃了shew ,麵包,和“大大衛更大的兒子”在他拒絕相應無罪。接下來的誘惑, 9月14日,結果現在成為反對派組織(五。 14 ) ,與上帝撤回自己的一小時是尚未到來。

As He is departing, the incident of 22-30 takes place, when He is again charged as the representative of Satan (v. 24, compared with 9:34).因為他離境, 22-30的事件發生,當他再次指控的代表撒旦(五24 ,相比之下, 9時34分) 。 The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost consists in attributing His work to Satan (vv. 31, 32).瀆神對聖靈包括在歸於他的工作撒旦( vv. 31 , 32 ) 。 "A word against the Son of Man" might be forgiven, for the Holy Spirit still remained to convict one of that sin by testifying to Christ. But when the testimony of the Holy Spirit to Christ was rejected as in this case, there was no hope left. “一個字對人子”可能得到寬恕,因為聖靈仍然定罪之一的罪孽的見證基督。但當證詞聖靈基督被拒絕在這種情況下,不存在希望離開。

The opposition increases by the demand for a sign (vv. 38-42). Had He not given sufficient signs?反對增加需求的一個標誌( vv. 38-42 ) 。如果他沒有給予足夠的跡象? Jonah is a type of His own death and resurrection and He will give him as a sign.喬納是一種自己的死亡和復活,他將讓他作為一個標誌。 The Queen of Sheba is another sign.示巴女王的又一個跡象。 But Israel is like a man out of whom a demon had gone of his own accord, and comes back to find the place unoccupied and brings seven other worse spirits to fill the former abode.但是,以色列就像是一個人了,其中一個魔鬼已經對自己的協議,並尋找回來的地方無人居住,使其他七個更糟的精神,以填補前居留權。 The nation, in other words, had been cured of idolatry by the Babylonian captivity, but now it was boasting of forms and ceremonies, traditions and self-righteousness.國家,換句話說,已治愈的偶像崇拜的巴比倫囚禁,但現在它擁有的形式和儀式,傳統和自以為是。 It was empty so far as the fear of Jehovah was concerned, and by and by the evil spirit would return, and the end of Israel, ie, the period of the tribulation, would be worse than the first.它是空的就害怕耶和華關注,並和邪惡的精神將返回,並結束以色列,即期間的苦難,將不如第一。

The Lord is rejected even by His family, as we judge by comparing the closing verses of this chapter with the reason in Mark 3:21. He declines to see them, and intimates the formation of a new family of faith.耶和華是拒絕甚至他的家人,因為我們的法官通過比較閉幕詩句本章的原因馬克3點21 。他拒絕見他們,和親密組成一個新家庭的信念。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 What is an essential qualification for an apostle?什麼是基本資格的倡導者? 2. 2 。 What is the limitation of the apostles' commission at this time?什麼是限制使徒委員會在這個時候? 3. 3 。 How does that limitation affect the teaching of chapter 10?請問這種限制影響到教學中的第10章? 4. 4 。 How may "violent" be interpreted in chapter 11?怎麼可能“暴力”來解釋第11章? 5. 5 。 On what principle will future retribution be rendered?對未來有什麼原則作出報復? 6. 6 。 What is the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost?什麼是褻瀆了聖靈? 7. 7 。 How would you explain verses 43-45?你會如何解釋經文43-45 ? 8. 8 。 How would you explain Jesus' reference to His mother and His brethren?你會如何解釋耶穌提及他的母親和兄弟?


Matthew Chapter 28馬修第28章

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

Resurrection復活

Perhaps the most important comment we can make on this chapter will be the order of the ten events on the day of which it speaks.也許最重要的評論,我們可以就這一章將秩序的活動, 10日它說話。

Another comment of interest is the order of the appearances of Jesus on this day.另一個意見是利益秩序的表現耶穌在這一天。

In dividing the chapter we have在分裂我們的一章

We can only touch upon the most important things, one of which is Christ's reference to His disciples as His "brethren" (v. 10).我們只能談談最重要的事情,其中之一是基督的門徒提及他的“兄弟” (五10 ) 。 For the first time does he use that word in such connection, showing that until His death and resurrection on their behalf the relationship had not become possible.第一次,他使用這個詞在這種方面,這表明,直到他的死亡和復活代表他們的關係還沒有成為可能。 (Compare Ps. 22: 22 and Heb. 2:11, 12.) Another important thing is verse 13, "Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole Him away while we slept." (比較聚苯乙烯。 22 : 22和河北。 2點11分, 12 。 )另一個重要的事情是詩13 , “餵葉,他的弟子來到夜間,並偷走了他走,我們睡覺。 ”

We give excerpts from Gaebelein on this verse:我們給摘錄Gaebelein就這一詩句:
"The watch recover from their fright, and some hasten to the city. Surely something happened or why should they leave their post to make a report? Then it is strange they went to the priests first and not the Roman governor. This was an irregular proceeding, from which we conclude that what they had to report was of greater importance for the priests than Pilate. Who knows but these priests had instructed the guard that if He should come forth they were to come to them first of all? Their report was a witness of the resurrection and that the tomb was empty." “在觀看他們的恐懼中恢復過來,有些加快城市。肯定有發生,或他們為什麼要離開自己的職位作報告?然後,奇怪的是他們到第一,而不是牧師的羅馬總督。這是一個不規則的程序,從我們的結論是什麼,他們的報告是更加重要的牧師比彼拉多。誰知道,但這些神職人員已指示後衛,如果他應該站出來,他們是來給他們首先?他們的報告證人的復活,並在1830年是空的。 “

"The Sanhedrin was hastily summoned to receive the report in an offical way. The straightforward statement, as men of military training are apt to report, made doubt about veracity impossible. To impeach them would have been insane. But what would happen if this truth got out among the people?" “公會是匆忙召集到接收報告以官方的方式。直截了當的聲明,因為男子的軍事訓練很容易的報告,提出疑問的真實性是不可能的。彈劾他們本來瘋狂。但會發生什麼,如果這個真理失控的人嗎? “

"The resurrection must be denied which could only be by inventing a lie. The only possible lie was that His disciples stole the body. The story is incredible. It is easier to believe He arose from the dead than to believe what the Jews invented about His resurrection. The disciples had forgotten about the resurrection promised and they were a scattered, poor, timid lot of people. But even if they had been anxious to steal the body, how could they have done it? Here was the company of armed men. Then there was the sealed, heavy stone." “復活必須拒絕只能發明謊言。唯一可能的謊言是,他的門徒偷走了身體。令人難以置信的故事。很容易相信他是從死,而不是相信猶太人發明約他的復活。門徒忘記了答應的復活,他們是分散的,可憐的,膽怯的很多人。但是,即使他們被急於竊取機構,他們怎麼能夠這樣做呢?這裡是該公司的武裝人員。然後是密封的,沉重的石頭。 “

"But the ridiculous side of the lie came out with the report the soldiers were to circulate. The disciples came and stole the body, while they were sleeping! It is incredible that all these men had fallen asleep at the same time, and so fast asleep that the commotion of rolling away the stone and the carrying away of the dead did not disturb them. Furthermore, sleeping at a post meant death for the Roman soldier. One might have nodded and risked his life, but that all slept is an impossiblity. But the report is foolish; they were asleep, and while asleep witnessed how the disciples stole the body of Jesus! It was a miserable lie, and is continued to the present day." “但是,可笑的一側出來的謊言的報告士兵分發。門徒來,偷走了身體,而他們正在睡覺!令人難以置信的是,所有這些人已經睡著了在同一時間,和如此之快睡著的騷動的滾動距離石頭和載走的死並沒有打擾他們。此外,睡覺意味著死亡後的羅馬士兵。人們也許點點頭,冒著生命危險,但是,所有睡是impossiblity 。但是,該報告是愚蠢的,他們正在睡覺,而睡覺目睹門徒偷走了耶穌的屍體!這是一個悲慘的謊言,並繼續到今天。 “

We might mention here the testimony of Josephus, who says in his Antiquities: "He appeared to them alive on the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning Him."我們可能會在這裡提到的證詞約瑟夫,誰在他的古物說: “他似乎他們還活著的第三天,作為神聖的先知曾預言這些和萬其他美好的事物有關他。 ”

A third matter of importance is the "Great Commission" as it is called (vv. 19, 20).第三個問題,重要的是, “大使命” ,因為它被稱為( vv. 19日, 20日) 。 Note the word "Name" as indicative of the Trinity.請注意這個詞“名稱”的指示的三一。 It is not names but " Name ."這不是名字,但“ 姓名 。 ” "Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the final name of the one true God. The conjunction in one name of the three affirms equality and oneness of substance." “聖父,聖子和聖靈的最後一個名稱的真神。 結合在一個名字三個申明平等和統一性的實質。 ”

Note the peculiarity of the terms.請注意特殊性的條款。 This is the Kingdom commission, as another expresses it, not the Christian commission.這是英國委員會,作為另一項表示,而不是基督教委員會。 The latter is in Luke, distinctively the Gentile Gospel, but not here, which is distinctively the Jewish Gospel.後者是在路加福音,獨特的詹蒂萊福音,但不是在這裡,這是明顯的猶太福音。 And this is all the more remarkable because in Luke, the disciples are commanded to go to the Jews (24:47), while here they are commanded to go to "all nations."這是更為顯著,因為在路加福音,門徒的指揮去猶太人( 24:47 ) ,而在這裡指揮他們去“所有國家。 ” It points to the close of the age when the commission will be carried out by the faithful remnant of the Jews so often spoken about.這點,至收盤時的年齡委員會將所進行的忠實殘猶太人常常談到。 It has not yet been carried out.尚未進行。 The story of the Acts is not its fulfilment.這個故事的行為不是其履行。 Its accomplishment has been interrupted, but will be taken up before the Lord comes to deliver Israel at the last.其成果已被中斷,但會採取行動之前,上帝來提供以色列在最後。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 Repeat the order of the events on the day of resurrection.重複秩序的事件的當天復活。 2. 2 。 Do the same with reference to the appearances of Jesus.這樣做參照表現耶穌。 3. 3 。 Divide the chapter into three parts. 4.鴻溝的一章分為三部分。 4 。 How would you answer the argument that the disciples stole the body of Jesus?你會如何回答這一論點門徒偷走了耶穌的身體? 5. 5 。 What is the significance of the word "Name" in the "Great Commission"?有什麼意義的字“名稱”中的“大使命” ? 6. 6 。 How do you distinguish the "Commission" in Matthew from that in Luke?你如何區分“委員會”馬太從在路加福音?


Gospel of St. Matthew聖馬太福音

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. CANONICITY一,正規

The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as Sacred Scripture, and read them at their religious assemblies.最早的基督教社區期待的書籍舊約為聖經,並閱讀他們自己的宗教集會。 That the Gospels, which contained the words of Christ and the narrative of His life, soon enjoyed the same authority as the Old Testament, is made clear by Hegesippus (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", IV, xxii, 3), who tells us that in every city the Christians were faithful to the teachings of the law, the prophets, and the Lord.這福音,其中載的話,基督和說明他的生活,很快享有同樣的權力舊約,是明確的Hegesippus (優西比烏, “組織胺。 eccl 。 ” ,四, 22 , 3 ) ,誰告訴我們,在每一個城市的基督信徒被忠於法律的教義,先知,和上帝。 A book was acknowledged as canonical when the Church regarded it as Apostolic, and had it read at her assemblies.一本書是公認的典型的時候,教會認為這是使徒,並且它的集會上宣讀。 Hence, to establish the canonicity of the Gospel according to St. Matthew, we must investigate primitive Christian tradition for the use that was made of this document, and for indications proving that it was regarded as Scripture in the same manner as the Books of the Old Testament. The first traces that we find of it are not indubitable, because post-Apostolic writers quoted the texts with a certain freedom, and principally because it is difficult to say whether the passages thus quoted were taken from oral tradition or from a written Gospel.因此,建立正規的福音聖馬太,我們必須調查原始基督教傳統使用的是這一文件,並跡象證明,它被看作是聖經中的同樣方式的圖書舊約。第一的痕跡,我們發現它不明白的,因為後使徒引述作家的文本具有一定的自由,主要是因為很難說是否段落從而引述取自口頭傳統或書面福音。 The first Christian document whose date can be fixed with comparative certainty (95-98), is the Epistle of St. Clement to the Corinthians.文件的第一個基督教的日期可以比較固定的確定性( 95-98 ) ,是使徒聖克萊門特的科林蒂安。 It contains sayings of the Lord which closely resemble those recorded in the First Gospel (Clement, 16:17 = Matthew 11:29; Clem., 24:5 = Matthew 13:3), but it is possible that they are derived from Apostolic preaching, as, in chapter xiii, 2, we find a mixture of sentences from Matthew, Luke, and an unknown source.它包含諺語上帝的相似記錄在第一福音(克萊門特馬修16:17 = 11點29 ;克萊姆。 , 24:5 =馬太13時03分) ,但卻是可能的,他們是來自使徒說教,因為在第十三章, 2 ,我們發現混合了句子馬太,路加,和來源不明。 Again, we note a similar commingling of Evangelical texts elsewhere in the same Epistle of Clement, in the Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles, in the Epistle of Polycarp, and in Clement of Alexandria.再次,我們注意到了類似的混合福音文本的其他地方同樣使徒克萊門特,在理論上的十二門徒,在使徒波利卡普,在克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞。 Whether these these texts were thus combined in oral tradition or emanated from a collection of Christ's utterances, we are unable to say.不論這些這些文本,因此合併後的口頭傳統或出自一個收集基督的話語,我們不能說。

The Epistles of St. Ignatius (martyred 110-17) contain no literal quotation from the Holy Books; nevertheless, St. Ignatius borrowed expressions and some sentences from Matthew ("Ad Polyc.", 2:2 = Matthew 10:16; "Ephesians", 14:2 = Matthew 12:33, etc.).在書信的聖依納爵(烈士110-17 )報價不包含文字的聖書;然而,聖伊格內修借來表達和一些句子馬修( “廣告Polyc 。 ” 2點02分=馬修10:16 ; “以弗所書“ , 14時02分=馬修12:33 ,等等) 。 In his "Epistle to the Philadelphians" (v, 12), he speaks of the Gospel in which he takes refuge as in the Flesh of Jesus; consequently, he had an evangelical collection which he regarded as Sacred Writ, and we cannot doubt that the Gospel of St. Matthew formed part of it.在他的“使徒的Philadelphians ” (五, 12 ) ,他講的福音,他需要在避難的肉耶穌;因此,他收集了福音,他視為神聖的令狀,我們不能懷疑,福音的聖馬太組成部分。

In the Epistle of Polycarp (110-17), we find various passages from St. Matthew quoted literally (12:3 = Matthew 5:44; 7:2 = Matthew 26:41, etc.). The Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles (Didache) contains sixty-six passages that recall the Gospel of Matthew; some of them are literal quotations (8:2 = Matthew 6:7-13; 7:1 = Matthew 28:19; 11:7 = Matthew 12:31, etc.). In the so-called Epistle of Barnabas (117-30), we find a passage from St. Matthew (xxii, 14), introduced by the scriptural formula, os gegraptai, which proves that the author considered the Gospel of Matthew equal in point of authority to the writings of the Old Testament.在使徒波利卡普( 110-17 ) ,我們發現不同的段落引用聖馬修字面(馬太12時03 = 5時44 ; 7點02分=馬修26:41 ,等等) 。中庸的十二門徒(十二使徒遺訓)載有66段落,回顧馬太福音;其中一些字面報價( 8:2 =馬修6:7-13 ; 7:1 =馬修28:19 ; 11時07 =馬修12:31等) 。在所謂的使徒巴納巴斯( 117-30 ) ,我們發現一個通道由St馬修( 22 , 14 ) ,介紹了聖經公式,全部gegraptai ,這證明了作者認為福音馬太平等的一點權力的著作舊約。

The "Shepherd of Hermas" has several passages which bear close resemblance to passages of Matthew, but not a single literal quotation from it. In his "Dialogue" (xcix, 8), St. Justin quotes, almost literally, the prayer of Christ in the Garden of Olives, in Matthew, xxvi, 39,40. A great number of passages in the writings of St. Justin recall the Gospel of Matthew, and prove that he ranked it among the Memoirs of the Apostles which, he said, were called Gospels (I Apol., lxvi), were read in the services of the Church (ibid., i), and were consequently regarded as Scripture.在“牧人書”有幾個段落負有密切相似段落馬修,但沒有一個文字引用它。在他的“對話” ( xcix , 8 ) ,聖賈斯汀報價,幾乎字面上看,祈禱基督在花園的橄欖,在馬太, 26 , 39,40 。大量的段落的著作街賈斯汀記得馬太福音,並證明他排它的回憶錄中的使徒,他說,被稱為福音(一Apol 。 , lxvi ) ,被閱讀的服務教會(同上,我) ,並因此被視為聖經。

In his "Legatio pro christianis", xii, 11, Athenagoras (117) quotes almost literally sentences taken from the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:44). Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autol., III, xiii-xiv) quotes a passage from Matthew (v, 28, 32), and, according to St. Jerome (In Matt. Prol.), wrote a commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew.在他的“ Legatio親christianis ” ,第十二章,第11 ,那哥拉( 117 )報價幾乎刑期從字面上的聖訓山(馬太5時44分) 。西奧菲勒安提(廣告Autol 。 ,三,十三,十四)援引通過從馬修(五, 28 , 32 ) ,而且根據聖杰羅姆(在馬特。 Prol 。 ) ,寫了一篇評論的福音聖馬太。

We find in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs--drawn up, according to some critics, about the middle of the second century--numerous passages that closely resemble the Gospel of Matthew (Test. Gad, 5:3; 6:6; 5:7 = Matthew 18:15, 35; Test. Joshua 1:5, 6 = Matthew 25:35-36, etc.), but Dr. Charles maintains that the Testaments were written in Hebrew in the first century before Jesus Christ, and translated into Greek towards the middle of the same century.我們發現,在約十二始祖-制定了,據一些批評,對中東的第二個世紀-許多段落,酷似馬太福音( Test.蓋德,五點03分;六時06 ; 5時07分=馬修18:15 , 35 ;試驗。約書亞1:5 , 6 =馬修25:35-36 ,等等) ,但查爾斯博士堅持認為,聖經中的希伯來文寫的第一個世紀中前耶穌基督,並翻譯成希臘語中實現同樣的世紀。 In this event, the Gospel of Matthew would depend upon the Testaments and not the Testaments upon the Gospel.在這種情況下,馬太福音將取決於聖經,而不是聖經的福音。 The question is not yet settled, but it seems to us that there is a greater probability that the Testaments, at least in their Greek version, are of later date than the Gospel of Matthew, they certainly received numerous Christian additions.現在的問題是尚未解決,但在我們看來,有一個更大的概率聖經,至少在其希臘版,是日後比馬太福音,他們肯定收到了許多基督教補充。

The Greek text of the Clementine Homilies contains some quotations from Matthew (Hom. 3:52 = Matthew 15:13); in Hom.希臘文克萊門汀講道詞包含一些報價馬修( Hom. 3時52分=馬太15時13分) ;在磡。 xviii, 15, the quotation from Matthew 13:35, is literal.十八, 15日,報價從馬太13時35分,是字面。

Passages which suggest the Gospel of Matthew might be quoted from heretical writings of the second century and from apocryphal gospels--the Gospel of Peter, the Protoevangelium of James, etc., in which the narratives, to a considerable extent, are derived from the Gospel of Matthew.通道建議的福音馬修可能是邪教著作引用的第二個世紀,從未經福音-彼得福音的Protoevangelium詹姆斯等,其中說明,在相當程度上,都來源於馬太福音。

Tatian incorporated the Gospel of Matthew in his "Diatesseron"; we shall quote below the testimonies of Papias and St. Irenæus.塔蒂安納入馬太福音在他的“ Diatesseron ” ;我們將在下面回复的證詞帕皮亞和聖Irenæus 。 For the latter, the Gospel of Matthew, from which he quotes numerous passages, was one of the four that constituted the quadriform Gospel dominated by a single spirit. Tertullian (Adv. Marc., IV, ii) asserts, that the "Instrumentum evangelicum" was composed by the Apostles, and mentions Matthew as the author of a Gospel (De carne Christi, xii).對於後者,馬太福音,從他引用了許多通道,是一個4個構成quadriform福音為主的單一的精神。良( Adv.馬克。 ,四,二)聲稱,該“ Instrumentum evangelicum “組成的使徒,並提到馬修作為作者的福音(者卡爾內基督,十二) 。

Clement of Alexandria (Strom., III, xiii) speaks of the four Gospels that have been transmitted, and quotes over three hundred passages from the Gospel of Matthew, which he introduces by the formula, en de to kata Maththaion euaggelio or by phesin ho kurios.克萊門特亞歷山大( Strom. ,三,十三)談到四個福音已經轉交,並引用了300段落的福音馬修,他介紹的公式,恩日至魯卡塔Maththaion euaggelio或phesin浩kurios 。

It is unnecessary to pursue our inquiry further.這是不必要的,追求進一步的調查。 About the middle of the third century, the Gospel of Matthew was received by the whole Christian Church as a Divinely inspired document, and consequently as canonical.關於中東的第三個世紀的福音馬修受到整個基督教會作為一個神聖的文件,因此,作為典型。 The testimony of Origen ("In Matt.", quoted by Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", III, xxv, 4), of Eusebius (op. cit., III, xxiv, 5; xxv, 1), and of St. Jerome ("De Viris Ill.", iii, "Prolog. in Matt.,") are explicit in this repsect.作證的奧利( “在馬特。 ”引述優西比烏, “組織胺。 eccl 。 ” ,第三,二十五, 4 ) ,的優西比烏(同前。 ,三, 24 , 5 ;二十五, 1 ) ,以及聖杰羅姆( “者Viris伊利諾伊州” ,三, “ Prolog語言。在馬特。 ” )是明確在這一repsect 。 It might be added that this Gospel is found in the most ancient versions: Old Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian. Finally, it stands at the head of the Books of the New Testament in the Canon of the Council of Laodicea (363) and in that of St. Athanasius (326-73), and very probably it was in the last part of the Muratorian Canon.這可能是說,這是福音中發現的最古老的版本:老拉丁美洲,敘利亞和埃及。最後,它為團長的圖書的新約全書的佳能理事會老底嘉( 363 )和中這聖亞他那修( 326-73 ) ,並很可能有人在最後一部分穆拉多利佳能。 Furthermore, the canonicity of the Gospel of St. Matthew is accepted by the entire Christian world.此外,正規的聖馬太福音接受整個基督教世界。

II.二。 AUTHENTICITY OF THE FIRST GOSPEL真實性第一福音

The question of authenticity assumes an altogether special aspect in regard to the First Gospel.這個問題的真實性承擔完全特殊的方面,關於第一個福音。 The early Christian writers assert that St. Matthew wrote a Gospel in Hebrew; this Hebrew Gospel has, however, entirely disappeared, and the Gospel which we have, and from which ecclesiastical writers borrow quotations as coming from the Gospel of Matthew, is in Greek.基督教早期作家聲稱,聖馬太寫了福音希伯來文;這個希伯來福音然而,完全消失,並福音我們,從該教會作家借用報價來自馬太福音,是在希臘。 What connection is there between this Hebrew Gospel and this Greek Gospel, both of which tradition ascribes to St.哪些方面是有這個希伯來福音之間和希臘福音,這兩個傳統賦予街 Matthew?馬修? Such is the problem that presents itself for solution.就是這樣的問題,提出自己的解決方案。 Let us first examine the facts.讓我們首先審查事實。

A. TESTIMONY OF TRADITION答:傳統的見證

According to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., 111, xxxix, 16), Papias said that Matthew collected (synetaxato; or, according to two manuscripts, synegraphato, composed) ta logia (the oracles or maxims of Jesus) in the Hebrew (Aramaic) language, and that each one translated them as best he could.根據優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。 , 111 ,第39屆,第16 ) ,帕皮亞說,馬修收集( synetaxato ;或根據兩個手稿, synegraphato組成)鉭logia (或格言的神諭耶穌)在希伯來文(阿拉姆)的語言,每一個翻譯他們最好的,他可以。

Three questions arise in regard to this testimony of Papias on Matthew: (1) What does the word logia signify?三個問題中出現的關於這一問題的證詞帕皮亞馬修: ( 1 )是什麼字logia標誌? Does it mean only detached sentences or sentences incorporated in a narrative, that is to say, a Gospel such as that of St. Matthew?這是否意味著只有超脫判決或判刑納入敘述,也就是說,一個福音如聖馬太? Among classical writers, logion, the diminutive of logos, signifies the "answer of oracles", a "prophecy"; in the Septuagint and in Philo, "oracles of God" (ta deka logia, the Ten Commandments).在經典作家, logion ,該小的標誌,象徵著“回答的神諭” ,一個“預言” ,在七十和斐羅, “神諭的上帝” (大德克logia ,十誡) 。 It sometimes has a broader meaning and seems to include both facts and sayings.它有時具有更廣泛的含義,似乎既包括事實和諺語。 In the New Testament the signification of the word logion is doubtful, and if, strictly speaking, it may be claimed to indicate teachings and narratives, the meaning "oracles" is the more natural.在新約的意義logion一詞是令人懷疑的,如果嚴格來說,這可能是聲稱表明教義和說明,所指的“神諭”是更自然。 However, writers contemporary with Papias--eg St. Clement of Rome (Ad Cor., liii), St. Irenæus (Adv. Hær., I, viii, 2), Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I, cccxcii), and Origen (De Princip., IV, xi)--have used it to designate facts and savings.然而,當代作家與帕皮亞-如聖克萊門特的羅馬(廣告心病。 , LIII )號,聖Irenæus ( Adv. Hær 。 ,我,八, 2 ) ,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞( Strom. ,我cccxcii ) ,和奧利(者林奇普。 ,四,十一) -已經被指定的事實和儲蓄。 The work of Papias was entitled "Exposition of the Oracles" [logion] of the Lord", and it also contained narratives (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", III, xxxix, 9). On the other hand, speaking of the Gospel of Mark, Papias says that this Evangelist wrote all that Christ had said and done, but adds that he established no connection between the Lord's sayings (suntaxin ton kuriakon logion). We may believe that here logion comprises all that Christ said and did. Nevertheless, it would seem that, if the two passages on Mark and Matthew followed each other in Papias as in Eusebius, the author intended to emphasize a difference between them, by implying that Mark recorded the Lord's words and deeds and Matthew chronicled His discourses. The question is still unsolved; it is, however, possible that, in Papias, the term logia means deeds and teachings.工作帕皮亞題為“博覽會的甲骨文” [ logion ]上帝“ ,而且還載有說明(優西比烏, ”組織胺。 eccl 。 “ ,第三,第39屆,第9 ) 。另一方面,在談到馬克福音,帕皮亞說,這傳播者寫道所有基督說和做,但是他補充說,沒有關係建立的上帝的諺語( suntaxin噸kuriakon logion ) 。我們可能會認為,這裡logion包括所有基督說,也。然而,看來,如果這兩個通道的標誌和馬修其次對方帕皮亞中優西比烏,作者意在強調他們之間的差異,暗示馬克記錄上帝的言行和馬修記載他論述。現在的問題是尚未解決;但是,它可能是,在帕皮亞,任期logia手段先進事蹟和教誨。

(2) Second, does Papias refer to oral or written translations of Matthew, when he says that each one translated the sayings "as best he could"? ( 2 )第二,帕皮亞指口頭或書面翻譯馬修時,他說,每一個翻譯的諺語: “他可以作為最好的” ? As there is nowhere any allusion to numerous Greek translations of the Logia of Matthew, it is probable that Papias speaks here of the oral translations made at Christian meetings, similar to the extemporaneous translations of the Old Testament made in the synagogues.由於沒有任何提及許多希臘翻譯Logia的馬修,很可能帕皮亞談到這裡的口頭翻譯基督教會議上作出的,類似即席翻譯舊約在猶太教堂。 This would explain why Papias mentions that each one (each reader) translated "as best he could".這可以解釋為什麼帕皮亞提到,每一個(每個讀者)翻譯“為最佳,他可能會” 。

(3) Finally, were the Logia of Matthew and the Gospel to which ecclesiastical writers refer written in Hebrew or Aramaic? ( 3 )最後,是Logia馬太福音和教會作家的希伯來文提及的書面或阿拉姆? Both hypotheses are held.這兩種假設舉行。 Papias says that Matthew wrote the Logia in the Hebrew (Hebraidi) language; St. Irenæus and Eusebius maintain that he wrote his gospel for the Hebrews in their national language, and the same assertion is found in several writers.帕皮亞馬修說,寫了Logia在希伯來文( Hebraidi )語言;街Irenæus和優西比烏保持,他寫下了福音的猶太人在其國家的語言,同樣的說法,發現在幾個作家。 Matthew would, therefore, seem to have written in modernized Hebrew, the language then used by the scribes for teaching.馬修因此,似乎在現代化的希伯來文寫的語言然後用文士教學。 But, in the time of Christ, the national language of the Jews was Aramaic, and when, in the New Testament, there is mention of the Hebrew language (Hebrais dialektos), it is Aramaic that is implied.但是,在時間的基督,民族語言的猶太人是阿拉姆語,以及何時,在新約,有提到希伯來語( Hebrais dialektos ) ,它是阿拉姆說是不言而喻的。 Hence, the aforesaid writers may allude to the Aramaic and not to the Hebrew.因此,上述作家可能提到,阿拉姆語,而不是希伯來語。 Besides, as they assert, the Apostle Matthew wrote his Gospel to help popular teaching.此外,他們斷言,使徒馬太福音寫到他的教學,以幫助民眾。 To be understood by his readers who spoke Aramaic, he would have had to reproduce the original catechesis in this language, and it cannot be imagined why, or for whom, he should have taken the trouble to write it in Hebrew, when it would have had to be translated thence into Aramaic for use in religious services.可以理解他的讀者誰以阿拉姆,他將不得不重現原始理在這個語言,它無法想像為什麼,或對他們,他應該採取的麻煩將它寫在希伯來文,當它會已被翻譯成阿拉姆再用於宗教儀式。

Moreover, Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xxiv, 6) tells us that the Gospel of Matthew was a reproduction of his preaching, and this we know, was in Aramaic. An investigation of the Semitic idioms observed in the Gospel does not permit us to conclude as to whether the original was in Hebrew or Aramaic, as the two languages are so closely related.此外,優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。 ,三, 24 , 6 )告訴我們,馬太福音是複製他的說教,這我們知道,在阿拉姆。一項調查的猶太人成語觀察福音不讓我們結束是否原來是希伯來文或阿拉姆語,因為這兩種語言是如此密切相關。 Besides, it must be home in mind that the greater part of these Semitisms simply reproduce colloquial Greek and are not of Hebrew or Aramaic origin.此外,它必須是在考慮到家庭,大部份這些Semitisms只需複製口語,而不是希臘的希伯來語或阿拉姆來源。 However, we believe the second hypothesis to be the more probable, viz., that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Aramaic.然而,我們認為第二種假設是更可能的,即。 ,這馬太福音中寫到他的阿拉姆。

Let us now recall the testimony of the other ecclesiastical writers on the Gospel of St. Matthew.現在讓我們回顧的證詞其他教會作家的福音聖馬太。 St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, i, 2) affirms that Matthew published among the Hebrews a Gospel which he wrote in their own language. Eusebius (Hist. eccl., V, x, 3) says that, in India, Pantænus found the Gospel according to St. Matthew written in the Hebrew language, the Apostle Bartholomew having left it there.聖Irenæus ( Adv. Haer 。 ,三,一, 2 )申明,馬修出版的希伯來1福音中寫道,他自己的語言。優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。 ,五,十, 3 )說,在印度, Pantænus找到了福音聖馬太寫在希伯來語,使徒巴塞洛繆離開它。 Again, in his "Hist. eccl."同樣,在他的“組織胺。 eccl 。 ” (VI xxv, 3, 4), Eusebius tells us that Origen, in his first book on the Gospel of St. Matthew, states that he has learned from tradition that the First Gospel was written by Matthew, who, having composed it in Hebrew, published it for the converts from Judaism. According to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, xxiv, 6), Matthew preached first to the Hebrews and, when obliged to go to other countries, gave them his Gospel written in his native tongue. (六二十五, 3 , 4 ) ,優西比烏告訴我們,俄利根,在他的第一本書的福音聖馬太指出,他已經從傳統的經驗教訓,第一福音的作者是馬修,誰,組成了它在希伯來文,出版的轉換來自猶太教。根據優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。 ,三, 24 , 6 ) ,馬修第一次鼓吹的希伯來人,並不得不去其他國家,他的福音給他們寫在他的母語。 St. Jerome has repeatedly declared that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew ("Ad Damasum", xx; "Ad Hedib.", iv), but says that it is not known with certainty who translated it into Greek.聖杰羅姆一再宣稱,馬修寫下福音希伯來文( “廣告Damasum ” ,第XX號“的廣告Hedib 。 ” ,四) ,但是他說,這是不確知誰翻譯成希臘文。 St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Epiphanius, St. John Chrysostom, St. Augustine, etc., and all the commentators of the Middle Ages repeat that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew.聖西里爾耶路撒冷,聖格雷戈里的高利,聖埃皮法尼烏斯,聖約翰金口,聖奧古斯丁,等等,所有的評論員中世紀重複,馬太福音中寫到他的希伯來語。 Erasmus was the first to express doubts on this subject: "It does not seem probable to me that Matthew wrote in Hebrew, since no one testifies that he has seen any trace of such a volume."伊拉斯謨是第一個表示懷疑就這個問題: “這似乎並不可能,我認為馬修在希伯來文寫的,因為沒有任何人證明,他已經看到的任何踪跡這樣的體積。 ” This is not accurate, as St. Jerome uses Matthew's Hebrew text several times to solve difficulties of interpretation, which proves that he had it at hand.這是不準確的,因為使用聖杰羅姆馬修的希伯來文多次來解決困難的解釋,這證明他在手。 Pantænus also had it, as, according to St. Jerome ("De Viris Ill.", xxxvi), he brought it back to Alexandria. Pantænus也有它,因為,根據聖杰羅姆( “者Viris伊利諾伊州” , XXXVI )號決議,他把它回到亞歷山大。 However, the testimony of Pantænus is only second-hand, and that of Jerome remains rather ambiguous, since in neither case is it positively known that the writer did not mistake the Gospel according to the Hebrews (written of course in Hebrew) for the Hebrew Gospel of St. Matthew.但是,證言Pantænus只有二手,而杰羅姆仍然比較模糊,因為在兩種情況下均未是積極眾所周知,作家沒有錯誤福音根據希伯來書(書面當然希伯來文)的希伯來文聖馬太福音。 However all ecclesiastical writers assert that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew, and, by quoting the Greek Gospel and ascribing it to Matthew, thereby affirm it to be a translation of the Hebrew Gospel.但是所有的教會作家聲稱馬修寫下福音希伯來文,並引述希臘福音,並賦予它馬修,從而確認這是一個翻譯希伯來福音。

B. EXAMINATION OF THE GREEK GOSPEL OF ST. B.審查希臘福音秘。 MATTHEW馬修

Our chief object is to ascertain whether the characteristics of the Greek Gospel indicate that it is a translation from the Aramaic, or that it is an original document; but, that we may not have to revert to the peculiarities of the Gospel of Matthew, we shall here treat them in full.我們的主要目的是確定是否特點希臘福音表明,它是一個翻譯過來的阿拉姆語,或者說這是一個原始文件,但是,我們可能無法恢復的特殊性馬太福音,我們應在這裡對待他們充分。

(1) The Language of the Gospel ( 1 )語言的福音

St. Matthew used about 1475 words, 137 of which are apax legomena (words used by him alone of all the New Testament writers).聖馬太用大約1475字, 137個是apax legomena (用字由他單獨的所有新約全書作家) 。 Of these latter 76 are classical; 21 are found in the Septuagint; 15 (battologein biastes, eunouchizein etc.) were introduced for the first time by Matthew, or at least he was the first writer in whom they were discovered; 8 words (aphedon, gamizein, etc.) were employed for the first time by Matthew and Mark, and 15 others (ekchunesthai, epiousios, etc.) by Matthew and another New Testament writer.這些後者76頃經典; 21世紀發現了七十; 15 ( battologein biastes , eunouchizein等) ,首次提出了馬修,或者至少他是第一位作家,他們被發現; 8字( aphedon , gamizein等)被僱用首次由馬修和馬克,和15人( ekchunesthai , epiousios等)的馬修和另一新約全書作家。 It is probable that, at the time of the Evangelist, all these words were in current use.這是可能的,在時間上的傳播者,所有這些話是目前使用的。 Matthew's Gospel contains many peculiar expressions which help to give decided colour to his style.馬太福音包含了許多獨特的表現形式,幫助,使他決定膚色的風格。 Thus, he employs thirty-four times the expression basileia ton ouranon; this is never found in Mark and Luke, who, in parallel passages, replace it by basileia tou theou, which also occurs four times in Matthew.因此,他僱用了34倍的表達國度噸ouranon ,這是從來沒有發現在馬克和盧克,誰在平行通道,取代它的國度頭theou ,其中還發生4次馬修。 We must likewise note the expressions: ho pater ho epouranions, ho en tois ouranois, sunteleia tou alonos, sunairein logon, eipein ti kata tinos, mechri tes semeron, poiesai os, osper, en ekeino to kairo, egeiresthai apo, etc. The same terms often recur: tote (90 times), apo tote, kai idou etc. He adopts the Greek form Ierisiluma for Jerusalem, and not Ierousaleu, which he uses but once.我們必須注意到這樣的表達:何父何epouranions ,浩恩tois ouranois , sunteleia頭alonos , sunairein登錄, eipein鈦片tinos , mechri工商業污水附加費semeron , poiesai操作系統, osper ,恩ekeino以kairo , egeiresthai載脂蛋白等相同經常發生的條件:手提包( 90次) ,載脂蛋白手提包,啟idou等他採用希臘形式Ierisiluma的耶路撒冷,而不是Ierousaleu ,他使用,但一旦。 He has a predilection for the preposition apo, using it even when Mark and Luke use ek, and for the expression uios David.他有偏愛的介詞脂蛋白,使用它,即使馬克和盧克使用綻出,並表達uios大衛。 Moreover, Matthew is fond of repeating a phrase or a special construction several times within quite a short interval (cf. ii, 1, 13, and 19; iv, 12, 18, and v, 2; viii, 2-3 and 28; ix, 26 and 31; xiii, 44, 4.5, and 47, etc.).此外,馬修喜歡重複一個短語或一個特別建造幾次相當短的時間間隔(見二, 1 , 13和19 ;四, 12 , 18 ,和V , 2 ;八, 2月3日和28日;九, 26日和31日; 13 , 44 , 4.5 ,和47等) 。 Quotations from the Old Testament are variously introduced, as: outos, kathos gegraptai, ina, or opos, plerothe to rethen uto Kuriou dia tou prophetou, etc. These peculiarities of language, especially the repetition of the same words and expressions, would indicate that the Greek Gospel was an original rather than a translation, and this is confirmed by the paronomasiæ (battologein, polulogia; kophontai kai ophontai, etc.), which ought not to have been found in the Aramaic, by the employment of the genitive absolute, and, above all, by the linking of clauses through the use of men .引用舊約有各種介紹,如: outos , kathos gegraptai ,伊納,或opos , plerothe以rethen反對派Kuriou天頭prophetou等這些特殊的語言,特別是在重複同樣的詞語,表明希臘是一個福音,而不是原來的翻譯,並已經證實了這一點paronomasiæ ( battologein , polulogia ; kophontai開ophontai等) ,這不應該被發現的阿拉姆語,所僱用的所有格絕對的,和最重要的是,由掛鉤的條款通過使用男性。 . . oe, a construction that is peculiarly Greek. Ø ,建築是特有的希臘。 However, let us observe that these various characteristics prove merely that the writer was thoroughly conversant with his language, and that he translated his text rather freely.然而,讓我們看到,這些不同的特徵證明只是說作家是徹底熟悉他的語言,他翻譯的文字,而他的自由。 Besides, these same characteristics are noticeable in Christ's sayings, as well as in the narratives, and, as these utterances were made in Aramaic, they were consequently translated; thus, the construction men .此外,這些相同的特徵是顯著基督的說法,以及在敘述部分,並在這些言論是在阿拉姆語,他們因此翻譯;因此,建設男子。 . . de (except in one instance) and all the examples of paronomasia occur in discourses of Christ.日(除一個實例)和所有的例子發生在話語俏皮話基督。 The fact that the genitive absolute is used mainly in the narrative portions, only denotes that the latter were more freely translated; besides, Hebrew possesses an analogous grammatical construction.事實上,所有格絕對主要是用來在說明部分,不僅是指後者更自由翻譯;此外,希伯來語擁有了一個類似的語法建築。 On the other hand, a fair number of Hebraisms are noticed in Matthew's Gospel (ouk eginosken auten, omologesei en emoi, el exestin, ti emin kai soi, etc.), which favour the belief that the original was Aramaic.另一方面,不少Hebraisms是發現在馬太的福音(旭eginosken奧汀, omologesei恩emoi ,薩爾瓦多exestin ,德州儀器西艾敏開的SOI等) ,有利於相信,原來是阿拉姆語。 Still, it remains to be proved that these Hebraisms are not colloquial Greek expressions.儘管如此,仍有待證明,這些Hebraisms不是希臘口語表達。

(2) General Character of the Gospel ( 2 )一般性質,福音

Distinct unity of plan, an artificial arrangement of subject-matter, and a simple, easy style--much purer than that of Mark--suggest an original rather than a translation.不同的統一計劃,人工安排事項,以及簡單,易用的風格-許多純比馬克-建議的原始而不是翻譯。 When the First Gospel is compared with books translated from the Hebrew, such as those of the Septuagint, a marked difference is at once apparent.當第一個福音是與本書被翻譯來自希伯來文,例如七十,有顯著區別是一次明顯的。 The original Hebrew shines through every line of the latter, whereas, in the First Gospel Hebraisms are comparatively rare, and are merely such as might be looked for in a book written by a Jew and reproducing Jewish teaching. However, these observations are not conclusive in favour of a Greek original.原來希伯來語彪炳每一行後者,而在第一福音Hebraisms是比較罕見的,而且僅僅是如可能是在尋找一本書撰寫的猶太人及音響猶太人教學。然而,這些意見不是決定性的贊成希臘原始。 In the first place, the unity of style that prevails throughout the book, would rather prove that we have a translation.首先,統一的風格,全國各地普遍的圖書,寧願證明,我們有一個翻譯。 It is certain that a good portion of the matter existed first in Aramaic--at all events, the sayings of Christ, and thus almost three-quarters of the Gospel.可以肯定的是,相當一部分存在的問題首先在阿拉姆-所有事件,基督的說法,因此,近四分之三的福音。 Consequently, these at least the Greek writer has translated.因此,這些至少在希臘作家翻譯。 And, since no difference in language and style can be detected between the sayings of Christ and the narratives that are claimed to have been composed in Greek, it would seem that these latter are also translated from the Aramaic.而且,由於無明顯差異的語言和風格可以偵測之間的說法是耶穌和說明,這些人已組成希臘,看來這些後者也從亞拉姆語翻譯。 This conclusion is based on the fact that they are of the same origin as the discourses.這一結論是基於一個事實,即他們是同一來源的論述。 The unity of plan and the artificial arrangement of subject-matter could as well have been made in Matthew's Aramaic as in the Greek document; the fine Greek construction, the lapidary style, the elegance and good order claimed as characteristic of the Gospel, are largely a matter of opinion, the proof being that critics do not agree on this question.統一的計劃和安排的人工事由可能以及已經取得了馬修的阿拉姆在希臘文件;罰款希臘建設,這句簡潔的風格,優雅和良好秩序聲稱為特徵的福音,基本上見仁見智,證明是,批評者不同意這個問題。 Although the phraseology is not more Hebraic than in the other Gospels, still it not much less so.雖然用語的不是更多的希伯來比其他福音,仍然不能少得多做。 To sum up, from the literary examination of the Greek Gospel no certain conclusion can be drawn against the existence of a Hebrew Gospel of which our First Gospel would be a translation; and inversely, this examination does not prove the Greek Gospel to be a translation of an Aramaic original.總之,從文學研究的希臘福音沒有一定的結論可以得出對存在希伯來福音,我們首先將是一個福音翻譯;和成反比,這項考試並不證明希臘福音是一個翻譯原來的阿拉姆語。

(3) Quotations from the Old Testament ( 3 )引用舊約

It is claimed that most of the quotations from the Old Testament are borrowed from the Septuagint, and that this fact proves that the Gospel of Matthew was composed in Greek.據稱,大部分引用舊約是借用七十,這一事實證明,馬太福音組成希臘。 The first proposition is not accurate, and, even if it were, it would not necessitate this conclusion.第一個命題是不準確的,而且,即使它是,它並不一定需要這個結論。 Let us examine the facts.讓我們來看看事實。 As established by Stanton ("The Gospels as Historical Documents", II, Cambridge, 1909, p. 342), the quotations from the Old Testament in the First Gospel are divided into two classes.所確立的斯坦頓( “的福音書作為歷史文獻” ,二,劍橋, 1909年,第342頁)中,引用舊約在第一福音分為兩類。 In the first are ranged all those quotations the object of which is to show that the prophecies have been realized in the events of the life of Jesus.首先是為所有這些報價的目的是要表明,該預言已經實現的事件中的生命,耶穌。 They are introduced by the words: "Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet," or other similar expressions.他們所介紹的話: “現在一切都這樣做,它可能是應驗上帝的先知說, ”或者其他類似表達。 The quotations of this class do not in general correspond exactly with any particular text.引文這一類的一般不完全相符與任何特定的文本。 Three among them (ii, 15; viii, 17; xxvii, 9, 10) are borrowed from the Hebrew; five (ii, 18; iv, 15, 16; xii, 18-21; xiii, 35; xxi, 4, 5) bear points of resemblance to the Septuagint, but were not borrowed from that version.其中三(二15八, 17 ;二十七, 9 , 10 )是借用希伯來語;五年(二18 ;四, 15 , 16 ;十二, 18日至21日; 13 , 35 ; 21日, 4日, 5 )承擔點相似的譯本,但沒有借自該版本。 In the answer of the chief priests and scribes to Herod (ii, 6), the text of the Old Testament is slightly modified, without, however, conforming either to the Hebrew or the Septuagint.在回答的祭司長和文士對希律王(二6 ) ,案文舊約是略作修改,但不符合或者希伯萊或七十。 The Prophet Micheas writes (v, 2): "And thou Bethlehem, Ephrata, art a little one among the thousands of Juda"; whereas Matthew says (ii, 6): "And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda art not the least among the princes of Juda".先知Micheas寫道(五, 2 ) : “和你伯利恆,埃夫拉塔,藝術有點之一數以千計的猶大” ;而馬修說, (二,六) : “和你的土地伯利恆猶大藝術不是至少在王子的猶大“ 。 A single quotation of this first class (iii, 3) conforms to the Septuagint, and another (i, 23) is almost conformable.單引號的第一類(三, 3 )符合七十,而另一個(一, 23歲)幾乎是符合。 These quotations are to be referred to the first Evangelist himself, and relate to facts, principally to the birth of Jesus (i, ii), then to the mission of John the Baptist, the preaching of the Gospel by Jesus in Galilee, the miracles of Jesus, etc. It is surprising that the narratives of the Passion and the Resurrection of Our Lord, the fulfilment of the very clear and numerous prophecies of the Old Testament, should never be brought into relation with these prophecies.這些報價被稱為第一傳播者本人,並涉及到的事實,主要是耶穌的誕生(一,二) ,然後的任務施洗約翰,在宣揚福音的耶穌在加利利地區的奇蹟耶穌等,這是令人吃驚的是,說明的激情與復活我們的上帝,實現了非常明確和眾多的預言舊約,絕不應該把與這些預言。 Many critics, eg Burkitt and Stanton, think that the quotations of the first class are borrowed from a collection of Messianic passages, Stanton being of opinion that they were accompanied by the event that constituted their realization.許多批評,如伯基特和斯坦頓,認為報價一流是借用的集合彌賽亞通道,斯坦頓被認為他們是伴隨著事件構成的實現。 This "catena of fulfilments of prophecy", as he calls it, existed originally in Aramaic, but whether the author of the First Gospel had a Greek translation of it is uncertain.這種“系列的fulfilments的預言” ,因為他的話來說,最初的阿拉姆存在,但是否作者第一福音了希臘譯本,是不確定的。 The second class of quotations from the Old Testament is chiefly composed of those repeated either by the Lord or by His interrogators.第二類的引用舊約主要是由那些重複無論是主或由他的審問。 Except in two passages, they are introduced by one of the formula: "It is written"; "As it is written"; "Have you not read?" "Moses said".除在兩個通道,他們介紹了一個公式: “這是寫” , “由於這是寫” , “你有沒有讀? ” , “摩西說。 ” Where Matthew alone quotes the Lord's words, the quotation is sometimes borrowed from the Septuagint (v, 21 a, 27, 38), or, again, it is a free translation which we are unable to refer to any definite text (v, 21 b, 23, 43).凡馬修報價僅主的話,報價有時借用七十(五, 21 , 27 , 38 ) ,或者再次,它是一個免費的翻譯,我們不能提及任何明確的文字(五, 21 b , 23 , 43 ) 。 In those Passages where Matthew runs parallel with Mark and Luke or with either of them, all the quotations save one (xi, 10) are taken almost literally from the Septuagint.在這些通道在馬修並行不悖馬克和盧克或其中一人,所有的報價拯救一(十一, 10 )是幾乎從字面上七十。

(4) Analogy to the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke ( 4 )類比福音的聖馬克和聖盧克

From a first comparison of the Gospel of Matthew with the two other Synoptic Gospels we find從第一次比較馬太福音與其他兩個天氣福音我們發現

that 330 verses are peculiar to it alone; that it has between 330 and 370 in common with both the others, from 170 to 180 with Mark's, and from 230 to 240 with Luke's;有330所特有的詩句是單幹; ,它已與330和370共同的同其他人,由170至180馬克的,從230到240的盧克;

that in like parts the same ideas are expressed sometimes in identical and sometimes in different terms; that Matthew and Mark most frequently use the same expressions, Matthew seldom agreeing with Luke against Mark.像部分,在相同的想法表示有時在相同的,有時在不同的條件,這馬修和馬克最常使用相同的表現形式,馬修很少同意盧克對馬克。 The divergence in their use of the same expressions is in the number of a noun or the use of two different tenses of the same verb.他們的分歧在使用相同的表現形式是在一些名詞或使用兩種不同的時態相同的動詞。 The construction of sentences is at times identical and at others different.建設判決有時相同,並在其他國家不同。

That the order of narrative is, with certain exceptions which we shall later indicate, almost the same in Matthew, Mark, and Luke.該命令的說明是,除某些例外情況外,我們將稍後表明,幾乎在同一馬太,馬克,和盧克。

These facts indicate that the three Synoptists are not independent of one another.這些事實表明,這三個Synoptists不是獨立的。 They borrow their subject-matter from the same oral source or else from the same written documents.他們借用其標的物從同一口腔來源或他人相同的書面文件。 To declare oneself upon this alternative, it would be necessary to treat the synoptic question, and on this critics have not vet agreed.宣布自己的這一選擇,就必須處理的天氣問題,並就這一批評沒有審核同意。 We shall, therefore, restrict ourselves to what concerns the Gospel of St.因此,我們將限制自己關心的福音街 Matthew.馬修。 From a second comparison of this Gospel with Mark and Luke we ascertain:從第二個比較本馬克福音和路加福音我們確定:

that Mark is to be found almost complete in Matthew, with certain divergences which we shall note;該標記是可以找到幾乎完全在馬太,具有一定的分歧,我們應注意;

that Matthew records many of our Lord's discourses in common with Luke;這馬修記錄我們的許多上帝的話語在與盧克;

that Matthew has special passages which are unknown to Mark and Luke.這一具有特殊通道馬修是未知馬克和盧克。

Let us examine these three points in detail, in an endeavour to learn how the Gospel of Matthew was composed.讓我們來看看這三個點詳細,在努力學習如何馬太福音組成。

(a) Analogy to Mark (一)類比馬克

Mark is found complete in Matthew, with the exception of numerous slight omissions and the following pericopes: Mark, i, 23-28, 35-39; iv, 26-29; vii, 32-36; viii, 22-26; ix, 39, 40; xii, 41-44.馬克是完整的馬修發現,除了眾多的輕微遺漏和下列pericopes :馬克,我, 23-28 , 35-39 ;四, 26日至29日;七, 32-36 ;八, 22日至26日; ㈨ , 39 , 40 ;十二, 41-44 。 In all, 31 verses are omitted. The general order is identical except that, in chapters v-xiii, Matthew groups facts of the same nature and savings conveying the same ideas.在所有31日,經文是省略。一般秩序是相同的,不過,在第五章,第十三馬修團體事實同樣的性質和儲蓄輸送同樣的想法。 Thus, in Matthew 8:1-15, we have three miracles that are separated in Mark; in Matthew 8:23-9:9, there are gathered together incidents otherwise arranged in Mark, etc.因此,在馬太8:1-15 ,我們有三個奇蹟分隔在馬克;馬太8:23-9:9 ,有聚集事件另有安排馬克等 Matthew places sentences in a different environment from that given them by Mark.馬修地方句子在不同的環境,考慮到他們的標誌。 For instance, in 5:15, Matthew inserts a verse occurring in Mark 4:21, that should have been placed after 13:23, etc.例如,在5:15 ,馬修插入詩馬克4點21分發生的,這應該被置於後, 13時23分,等等

In Matthew the narrative is usually shorter because he suppresses a great number of details.在馬太的敘述通常較短,因為他抑制了大量的細節。 Thus, in Mark, we read: "And the wind ceased: and there was made a great calm", whereas in Matthew the first part of the sentence is omitted.因此,在馬克,我們讀到: “與風停止:人們作出了很大的平靜” ,而馬修的第一部分是省略句。 All unnecessary particulars are dispensed with, such as the numerous picturesque features and indications of time, place, and number, in which Mark's narrative abounds.所有不必要的詳情免除,如許多風景如畫的特點和標誌的時間,地點和數量,其中馬克的敘事比比皆是。

Sometimes, however, Matthew is the more detailed.但是,有時候,馬修是更詳細的。 Thus, in 12:22-45, he gives more of Christ's discourse than we find in Mark, iii, 20-30, and has in addition a dialogue between Jesus and the scribes.因此,在12:22-45 ,他可以讓更多的基督的話語中找到比我們馬克,三, 20-30 ,並除了耶穌之間的對話和文士。 In chapter xiii, Matthew dwells at greater length than Mark, iv, upon the object of the parables, and introduces those of the cockle and the leaven, neither of which Mark records. Moreover, Our Lord's apocalyptic discourse is much longer in Matthew, xxiv-xxv (97 verses), than in Mark, xiii (37 verses).在第十三章,馬修居住在更大的長度比馬克,四,根據對象的寓言,並介紹了這些在起皺和酵,既不其中馬克記錄。此外,我們的上帝的話語是世界末日更長在馬太,二十四- 25 ( 97詩句) ,比馬克,第十三( 37詩句) 。

Changes of terms or divergences in the mode of expression are extremely frequent.變化的條件或不同的表達方式,是非常頻繁。 Thus, Matthew often uses eutheos, when Mark has euthus; men .因此,馬修經常使用eutheos ,當馬克euthus ;男子。 . . de, instead of kai, as in Mark, etc.; the aorist instead of the imperfect employed by Mark. 。日,而不是開,如在馬克等;的aorist不完善,而不是受僱於馬克。 He avoids double negatives and the construction of the participle with eimi; his style is more correct and less harsh than that of Mark; he resolves Mark's compound verbs, and replaces by terms in current use the rather unusual expressions introduced by Mark, etc.他避免雙重否定和建設詞與英美;他的風格是更正確和不太苛刻比馬克;他解決馬克的複合動詞,並取代當前的條款,在使用不尋常的表現形式介紹了馬克等

He is free from the lack of precision which, to a slight extent, characterizes Mark.他是自由的缺乏準確性其中,略有程度,特徵標誌。 Thus, Matthew says "the tetrarch" and not "the king" as Mark does, in speaking of Herod Antipas; "on the third day" instead.of "in three days".因此,馬修說: “在tetrarch ”而不是“國王”為標誌的,在談到希律安提帕; “第三天” instead.of “在三天內” 。 At times the changes are more important.在時代的變化更為重要。 Instead of "Levi, son of Alpheus," he says: "a man named Matthew"; he mentions two demoniacs and two blind persons, whereas Mark mentions only one of each, etc.而不是“利維的兒子,鼓, ”他說: “一名男子名為馬修” ;他提到了兩個demoniacs和兩名失明者,而只有一個馬克提到每等

Matthew extenuates or omits everything which, in Mark, might be construed in a sense derogatory to the Person of Christ or unfavourable to the disciples. Thus, in speaking of Jesus, he suppresses the following phrases: "And looking round about on them with anger" (Mark 3:5); "And when his friends had heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him. For they said: He is beside himself" (Mark 3:21), etc. Speaking of the disciples, he does not say, like Mark, that "they understood not the word, and they were afraid to ask him" (ix, 3 1; cf. viii, 17, 18); or that the disciples were in a state of profound amazement, because "they understood not concerning the loaves; for their heart was blinded" (vi, 52), etc. He likewise omits whatever might shock his readers, as the saying of the Lord recorded by Mark: "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (ii, 27).馬修extenuates或忽略一切,在馬克,可能被解釋在某種意義上貶損的人身或不利的基督的門徒。因此,在談到耶穌,他抑制以下詞組: “和尋找全面了解他們的憤怒“ (馬克3點05分) ;他說: ”當他的朋友們聽說過,他們走了出去打下擱置在他身上。對他們說:他是自己身邊“ (馬克3時21分) ,等他的弟子,他不說,像馬克說, “他們不理解這個詞,他們不敢問他, ” (九, 3月1日;比照。八, 17 , 18 ) ;或門徒是在一個國家的深刻的驚愕,因為“他們不理解的麵包;他們的心被蒙蔽” (六, 52歲)等,他同樣遺漏任何可能衝擊他的讀者,正如俗話勳爵記錄馬克: “安息日是為男子,而不是人為的安息日“ (二27 ) 。 Omissions or alterations of this kind are very numerous.遺漏或改變這種非常眾多。 It must, however, be remarked that between Matthew and Mark there are many points of resemblance in the construction of sentences (Matthew 9:6; Mark 2:10; Matthew 26:47 = Mark 14:43, etc.); in their mode of expression, often unusual.但是,它必須是說,馬修和馬克之間有許多相似點的建設中的判決(馬太9點06 ;馬克2時10分;馬修26:47 =馬克14:43 ,等等) ;在其表達方式,往往是不尋常的。 and in short phrases (Matthew 9:16 = Mark 2:21; Matthew 16:28 = Mark 9:1; Matthew 20:25 = Mark 10:42); in some pericopes, narratives, or discourses, where the greater part of the terms are identical (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Matthew 26:36-38 = Mark 14:32-34; Matthew 9:5-6 = Mark 2:9-11), etc.和短語(馬太9點16分=馬克2時21分;馬修16點28 =馬克9:1 ;馬修20:25 =馬克10點42分) ;在一些pericopes ,說明,或論述,其中較大部分條件是相同的(馬太4:18-22 ;馬克1:16-20 ;馬太26:36-38 =馬克14:32-34 ;馬太9:5-6 =馬克2:9-11 )等

(b) Analogy to Luke (二)類比路加福音

A comparison of Matthew and Luke reveals that they have but one narrative in common, viz., the cure of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8:5-13 = Luke 7:1-10).比較馬太和路加福音表明,他們只有一個共同的敘述,即。 ,治愈率的百夫長的僕人(馬太8:5-13 =路加福音7:1-10 ) 。 The additional matter common to these Evangelists, consists of the discourses and sayings of Christ.額外的問題共同這些福音,包括論述和諺語基督。 In Matthew His discourses are usually gathered together, whereas in Luke they are more frequently scattered.他的話語在馬太通常聚集在一起,而在路加福音他們更經常地分散。 Nevertheless, Matthew and Luke have in common the following discourses: the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7, the Sermon in the Plain, Luke 6); the Lord's exhortation to His disciples whom He sends forth on a mission (Matthew 10:19-20, 26-33 = Luke 12:11-12, 2-9); the discourse on John the Baptist (Matthew 11 = Luke 7); the discourse on the Last Judgment (Matthew 24; Luke 17).然而,馬修和盧克的共同點如下論述:在山中聖訓的(馬太5月7日,在講道平原路加福音6 ) ;上帝告誡門徒他將提出的一項任務(馬太10 : 19-20 , 26-33 =路加福音12:11-12 , 2月9日) ;的討論施洗約翰(馬太11 =路加福音7 ) ;話語的最後判決(馬太24 ;路加福音17 ) 。 Moreover, these two Evangelists possess in common a large number of detached sentences, eg, Matt., iii, 7b-19, 12 = Luke.此外,這兩個擁有共同的福音了大量的獨立的句子,例如,馬特。 ,三, 7B條, 19 , 12 =盧克。 iii, 7b-9, 17; Matt., iv, 3-11 = Luke, iv, 3-13; Matt., ix, 37, 38 = Luke x, 2; Matt., xii, 43-45 = Luke, xi, 24-26 etc. (cf. Rushbrooke, "Synopticon", pp. 134-70).三, 7B條, 9日, 17日;馬特。 ,四, 3月11日=路加福音,四, 3月13日;馬特。 ,第九章, 37 , 38 =路加福音十, 2 ;馬特。 ,十二, 43-45 =路加福音,十一, 24日至26日等(參見Rushbrooke , “ Synopticon ” ,頁。 134-70 ) 。 However, in these parallel passages of Matthew and Luke there are numerous differences of expression, and even some divergences in ideas or in the manner of their presentation.但是,在這些平行通道的馬修和盧克有許多不同的表達,甚至一些分歧意見或的方式,他們的介紹。 It is only necessary to recall the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12 = Luke 6:20b-25): in Matthew there are eight beatitudes, whereas in Luke there are only four, which, while approximating to Matthew's In point of conception, differ from them in general form and expression.只有必要回顧福(馬太5:3-12 =路加福音6:20 β - 25 ) :在馬太有八個福,而在路加福音只有四個,其中,同時逼近到馬修在點的概念,不同於他們的一般形式和表達方式。 In addition to having in common parts that Mark has not, Matthew and Luke sometimes agree against Mark in parallel narratives.除了共同的部分,馬克沒有,馬修和盧克有時同意對馬克的平行敘述。 There have been counted 240 passages wherein Matthew and Luke harmonize with each other, but disagree with Mark in the way of presenting events, and particularly in the use of the same terms and the same grammatical emendations.有240個段落,其中馬太和路加福音互相協調,但不同意馬克的方式介紹活動,特別是在使用相同的條件和相同的語法emendations 。 Matthew and Luke omit the very pericopes that occur in Mark.馬修和盧克省略非常pericopes中出現的標誌。

(c) Parts peculiar to Matthew (三)部分特有的馬修

These are numerous, as Matthew has 330 verses that are distinctly his own. Sometimes long passages occur, such as those recording the Nativity and early Childhood (i, ii), the cure of the two blind men and one dumb man (ix, 27-34), the death of Judas (xxvii, 3-10), the guard placed at the Sepulchre (xxvii, 62-66), the imposture of the chief priests (xxviii, 11-15), the apparition of Jesus in Galilee (xxviii, 16-20), a great portion of the Sermon on the Mount (v, 17-37; vi, 1-8; vii, 12-23), parables (xiii, 24-30; 35-53; xxv, 1-13), the Last Judgment (xxv, 31-46), etc., and sometimes detached sentences, as in xxiii, 3, 28, 33; xxvii, 25, etc. (cf. Rushbrooke, "Synopticon", pp.171-97).這些是眾多的,因為馬修,有330詩句是明顯自己。有時長期通道發生,如記錄的誕生和幼兒(一,二) ,治愈率兩個瞎子和一個啞巴男子(九, 27 -34 ) ,死亡的猶大(二十七, 3月10日) ,警衛排在聖墓(二十七, 62-66 ) ,該騙局的祭司長(二十八, 11月15日) ,耶穌的幽靈在加利利(二十八, 16日至20日) ,很大一部分的聖訓山(五, 17-37 ;六, 1月8日;七, 12月23日) ,寓言( 13 , 24-30 ; 35-53 ;二十五, 1月13日) ,最後的審判( 25 , 31-46 ) ,等等,有時單獨的句子,如在23日, 3日, 28 , 33 ;二十七, 25日等(參見Rushbrooke , “ Synopticon ” pp.171 - 97 ) 。 Those passages in which Matthew reminds us that facts in the life of Jesus are the fulfilment of the prophecies, are likewise noted as peculiar to him, but of this we have already spoken.這些通道中,馬修的事實提醒我們,生活中的耶穌是實現的預言,也同樣指出,他所特有的,但這個我們已經談過。

These various considerations have given rise to a great number of hypotheses, varying in detail, but agreeing fundamentally.這些不同的考慮,已引起了大量的假設,不同的細節,但同意根本。 According to the majority of present critics--H.根據目前的大多數批評- H 。 Holtzmann, Wendt, Jülicher, Wernle, von Soden, Wellhausen, Harnack, B. Weiss, Nicolardot, W. Allen, Montefiore, Plummer, and Stanton--the author of the First Gospel used two documents: the Gospel of Mark in its present or in an earlier form, and a collection of discourses or sayings, which is designated by the letter Q. The repetitions occurring in Matthew (v, 29, 30 = xviii, 8, 9; v, 32 xix, 9; x, 22a = xxiv, 9b; xii, 39b = xvi, 4a, etc.) may be explained by the fact that two sources furnished the writer with material for his Gospel. Holtzmann ,溫特, Jülicher , Wernle ,馮索登,豪森,哈爾納克灣魏斯, Nicolardot ,美國艾倫,蒙特弗洛爾,盧默,並斯坦頓-作者的第一福音用了兩個文件:福音馬克在其本或在先前的形式,並收集了論述或諺語,這是指定的文字問:重複發生在馬修(五, 29 , 30 = 18 , 8 , 9 ;五, 32 19 ,第9條;第十22A條= 24 , 9B條;第十二39b =十六, 4A條等) ,可以解釋的是,兩個來源提供的材料的作家,他福音。 Furthermore, Matthew used documents of his own.此外,馬修用他自己的文件。 In this hypothesis the Greek Gospel is supposed to be original.在這一假設希臘福音應該是原來的。 and not the translation of a complete Aramaic Gospel.而不是一個完整的翻譯阿拉姆福音。 It is admitted that the collection of sayings was originally Aramaic, but it is disputed whether the Evangelist had it in this form or in that of a Greek translation.這是承認,收集格言最初是阿拉姆語,但它是有爭議的傳播者是否曾在此表或在一個希臘翻譯。 Critics also differ regarding the manner in which Matthew used the sources.批評者還對不同的方式,馬修用來源。 Some would have it that Matthew the Apostle was not the author of the First Gospel, but merely the collector of the sayings of Christ mentioned by Papias.有些人認為馬修使徒不是作者的第一福音,但僅僅是收藏家的諺語所提到基督帕皮亞。 "However", says Jülicher, "the author's individuality is so strikingly evident in his style and tendencies that it is impossible to consider the Gospel a mere compilation". “但是” ,說Jülicher “ ,作者的個性是如此驚人的表現在他的風格和趨勢,不可能考慮福音只是彙編” 。 Most critics are of a like opinion.大多數批評者的意見一樣。 Endeavours have been made to reconcile the information furnished by tradition with the facts resulting from the study of the Gospel as follows: Matthew was known to have collected in Aramaic the sayings of Christ, and, on the other hand, there existed at the beginning of the second century a Gospel containing the narratives found in Mark and the sayings gathered by Matthew in Aramaic. Endeavours have been made to reconcile the information furnished by tradition with the facts resulting from the study of the Gospel as follows: Matthew was known to have collected in Aramaic the sayings of Christ, and, on the other hand, there existed at the beginning of第二世紀福音包含的說明中找到馬克和諺語所收集的馬修在阿拉姆。 It is held that the Greek Gospel ascribed to Matthew is a translation of it, made by him or by other translators whose names it was later attempted to ascertain.它認為,希臘福音歸咎於馬修是一個譯本,由他或其他譯員的名字後來試圖確定。

To safeguard tradition further, while taking into consideration the facts we have already noted, it might be supposed that the three Synoptists worked upon the same catechesis, either oral or written and originally in Aramaic, and that they had detached portions of this catechesis, varying in literary condition. The divergences may be explained first by this latter fact, and then by the hypothesis of different translations and by each Evangelist's peculiar method of treating the subject-matter, Matthew and Luke especially having adapted it to the purpose of their Gospel.為了維護傳統進一步,同時考慮到的事實我們已經注意到,可以假定這三個Synoptists工作時同樣的理,無論是口頭或書面和原來的阿拉姆語,並說,他們離這部分理,變在文學條件。的分歧可能是第一次由後者事實,然後由不同的假說翻譯和每個傳播者的特殊治療方法的主題事項,馬修和盧克適應它具有特別的目的的福音。 There is nothing to prevent the supposition that Matthew worked on the Aramaic catechesis; the literary emendations of Mark's text by Matthew may have been due to the translator, who was more conversant with Greek than was the popular preacher who furnished the catechesis reproduced by Mark.沒有任何東西,以防止假定馬修工作的阿拉姆理;文學emendations馬克的案文的馬修可能是由於翻譯,誰更精通希臘比流行的傳教士理誰提供了複製的馬克。 In reality, the only difficulty lies in explaining the similarity of style between Matthew and Mark.在現實生活中,唯一的困難在於解釋了相似的風格馬修和馬克之間。 First of all, we may observe that the points of resemblance are less numerous than they are said to be.首先,我們可以看到,點少許多相似之處是比他們說是。 As we have seen, they are very rare in the narratives at all events, much more so than in the discourses of Christ.正如我們所看到的,他們是非常罕見的說明在所有的事件,更比的論述基督。 Why, then, should we not suppose that the three Synoptists, depending upon the same Aramaic catechesis, sometimes agreed in rendering similar Aramaic expressions in the same Greek words?那麼,為什麼我們不能假設,這三個Synoptists ,這取決於同阿拉姆理,有時同意阿拉姆在提供類似的表達在同一希臘的話? It is also possible to suppose that sayings of Christ, which in the three Synoptic Gospels (or in two of them) differed only in a few expressions, were unified by copyists or other persons.還可以假設諺語基督,而在這三個天氣福音(或兩個)不同的只有少數幾個表現形式,是統一的copyists或其他人。 To us it seems probable that Matthew's Greek translator used Mark's Greek Gospel, especially for Christ's discourses.我們看來可能是馬修的希臘翻譯使用馬克希臘福音,尤其是對基督的話語。 Luke, also, may have similarly utilized Matthew's Greek Gospel in rendering the discourses of Christ. Finally, even though we should suppose that Matthew were the author only of the Logia, the full scope of which we do not know, and that a part of his Greek Gospel is derived from that of Mark, we would still have a right to ascribe this First Gospel to Matthew as its principal author.盧克,也可能有同樣利用馬修在渲染希臘福音的基督的論述。最後,即使我們應該假設馬修是作者唯一的Logia ,全面的,我們不知道,這部分他的希臘福音來自馬克說,我們仍然有權利賦予第一馬太福音作為主要作者。

Other hypotheses have been put forth.其他假設已經提出。 In Zahn's opinion, Matthew wrote a complete Gospel in Aramaic; Mark was familiar with this document, which he used while abridging it.在贊恩的意見,寫了完整的馬修福音在阿拉姆;馬克熟悉這份文件,他用而剝奪它。 Matthew's Greek translator utilized Mark, but only for form, whereas Luke depended upon Mark and secondary sources, but was not acquainted with Matthew.馬修希臘翻譯利用馬克,但僅限於形式,而盧克取決於馬克和第二手資料,但不熟悉馬修。 According to Belser, Matthew first wrote his Gospel in Hebrew, a Greek translation of it being made in 59-60, and Mark depended on Matthew's Aramaic document and Peter's preaching.據Belser ,馬修第一次寫他的福音希伯來文,希臘譯本中取得59-60 ,和馬克取決於馬修的阿拉姆文件和Peter的說教。 Luke made use of Mark, of Matthew (both in Aramaic and Greek), and also of oral tradition.盧克利用馬克,馬太(都在亞拉姆語和希臘語) ,並口頭傳統。 According to Camerlynck and Coppieters, the First Gospel in its present form was composed either by Matthew or some other Apostolic writer long before the end of the first century, by combining the Aramaic work of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke.據Camerlynck和Coppieters ,第一福音以其目前的形式組成,由馬或其他一些使徒作家長期在年底前的第一個世紀,結合阿拉姆馬修和工作的福音路加。

III.三。 PLAN AND CONTENTS OF THE FIRST GOSPEL計劃和內容的第一福音

The author did not wish to compose a biography of Christ, but to demonstrate, by recording His words and the deeds of His life, that He was the Messias, the Head and Founder of the Kingdom of God, and the promulgator of its laws.作者並不希望撰寫傳記的基督,而是要證明,記錄他的話和行動的生命,他是弭賽亞元首和方正王國的上帝,和發布者的法律。 One can scarcely fail to recognize that, except in a few parts (eg the Childhood and the Passion), the arrangement of events and of discourses is artificial.幾乎沒有人能認識到這一點,除少數地區(如兒童和激情) ,安排的活動和話語是人為的。 Matthew usually combines facts and precepts of a like nature.馬修通常結合事實和規則類似性質。 Whatever the reason, he favours groups of three (thirty-eight of which may be counted)--three divisions in the genealogy of Jesus (i, 17), three temptations (iv, 1-11), three examples of justice (vi, 1-18), three cures (viii, 1-15), three parables of the seed (xiii, 1-32), three denials of Peter (xxvi, 69-75), etc.; of five (these are less numerous)--five long discourses (v-vii, 27; x; xiii, 1-52; xviii; xxiv-xxv), ending with the same formula (Kai egeneto, ote etelesen ho Iesous), five examples of the fulfilment of the law (v, 21-48), etc.; and of seven--seven parables (xiii), seven maledictions (xxiii), seven brethren (xxii, 25), etc. The First Gospel can be very naturally divided as follows:-不管什麼原因,他贊成組三( 38的可算) -三個部門在耶穌的家譜(一, 17 ) , 3名誘惑(四, 1月11日) ,三個例子司法(六, 1月18日) ,三名治愈(八, 1月15日) ,三名寓言種子(十三, 1-32 ) ,三否認彼得( 26 , 69-75 ) ,等等; 5 (這是少許多) -五年長期論述(五至七,第27條;第十第十三1-52 ;十八; 24 - XXV )號決議,結束同樣的公式(啟egeneto ,手etelesen何Iesous ) , 5個例子履行法律(五21-48 ) ,等等;和7 - 7寓言(十三) , 7 maledictions (二十三) , 7個兄弟( 22 , 25 )等第一福音可以很自然地分為以下幾類: -

A. INTRODUCTION (1-2) A.導言( 1-2 )

The genealogy of Jesus, the prediction of His Birth, the Magi, the Flight into Egypt, the Massacre of the Innocents, the return to Nazareth, and the life there.耶穌的家譜,預測自己的出生,賢士,飛行到埃及,屠殺無辜,返回拿撒勒,和那裡的生活。

B. THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF JESUS (3-25)灣公安部耶穌( 3月25日)

This may be divided into three parts, according to the place where He exercised it.這可分為三個部分,根據他的地方行使它。

(1) In Galilee (3-18) ( 1 )在加利利( 3月18日)

(a) Preparation for the public ministry of Jesus (3:1 to 4:11) ( a )編制的公共事務部的耶穌( 3:1至4點11分)

John the Baptist, the Baptism of Jesus, the Temptation, the return to Galilee.施洗約翰,在耶穌洗禮的誘惑,回到加利利。

(b) The preaching of the Kingdom of God (4:17 to 18:35) (二)宣揚上帝的王國(四點17分至18時35分)

(1) the preparation of the Kingdom by the preaching of penance, the call of the disciples, and numerous cures (iv, 17-25), the promulgation of the code of the Kingdom of God in the Sermon on the Mount (v, I-vii, 29); ( 1 )編寫王國的說教的懺悔,要求門徒,以及眾多的治療(四17-25 ) ,頒布了代碼王國的上帝在聖訓山(五,一至七, 29 ) ;

(2) the propagation of the Kingdom in Galilee (viii, I-xviii, 35). ( 2 )傳播王國加利利(八,一至十八, 35歲) 。 He groups together:他團體一起:

the deeds by which Jesus established that He was the Messias and the King of the Kingdom: various cures, the calming of the tempest, missionary journeys through the land, the calling of the Twelve Apostles, the principles that should guide them in their missionary travels (viii, 1-x, 42);事蹟其中耶穌成立,他是弭賽亞和王國國王:各種治療方法,在平靜的暴風雨,傳教旅程通過土地,要求的十二門徒,的原則,要引導他們傳教旅行(八, 1一X 42 ) ;

various teachings of Jesus called forth by circumstances: John's message and the Lord's answer, Christ's confutation of the false charges of the Pharisees, the departure and return of the unclean spirit (xi, 1-xii, 50);各種教義耶穌提出要求的情況下:約翰的信息和上帝的答案,基督的confutation的虛假指控的法利賽,出發和返回的不潔精神(十一, 1 - 12 , 50 ) ;

finally, the parables of the Kingdom, of which Jesus makes known and explains the end (xiii, 3-52).最後,寓言王國,其中耶穌使已知和解釋結束(十三, 3-52 ) 。

(3) Matthew then relates the different events that terminate the preaching in Galilee: Christ's visit to Nazareth (xiii, 53-58), the multiplication of the loaves, the walking on the lake, discussions with the Pharisees concerning legal purifications, the confession of Peter at Cæsarea, the Transfiguration of Jesus, prophecy regarding the Passion and Resurrection, and teachings on scandal, fraternal correction, and the forgiveness of injuries (xiv, 1-xviii, 35). ( 3 )馬修然後與不同的事件,終止鼓吹加利利:基督的訪問拿撒勒( 13 , 53-58 ) ,增殖的麵包,在湖面上行走,與法利有關法律purifications ,供認彼得在愷撒,耶穌的變形,預言就受難與復活和教義的醜聞,兄弟改正,並寬恕傷害(十四, 1 - 18 , 35 ) 。

(2) Outside Galilee or the way to Jerusalem (19-20) ( 2 )外加利利或道路耶路撒冷( 19-20 )

Jesus leaves Galilee and goes beyond the Jordan; He discusses divorce with the Pharisees; answers the rich young man, and teaches self-denial and the danger of wealth; explains by the parable of the labourers how the elect will be called; replies to the indiscreet question of the mother of the sons of Zebedee, and cures two blind men of Jericho.耶穌離開加利利和超越喬丹;他討論離婚的法利;回答了豐富的年輕人,並教授自我否定和危險的財富;解釋的寓言勞動者如何選出將要求;答复輕率問題的母親的兒子號Zebedee ,並治愈兩個瞎子傑里科。

(3) In Jerusalem (21-25) ( 3 )在耶路撒冷( 21-25 )

Jesus makes a triumphal entry into Jerusalem; He curses the barren fig tree and enters into a dispute with the chief priests and the Pharisees who ask Him by what authority He has banished the sellers from the Temple, and answers them by the parables of the two sons, the murderous husbandmen, and the marriage of the king's son.耶穌使凱旋進入耶路撒冷;他咒罵荒蕪無花果樹和進入爭端與祭司長和法利賽誰問他有什麼權力,他放逐賣方廟,並回答他們的寓言兩兒子殺人husbandmen ,和結婚國王的兒子。 New questions are put to Jesus concerning the tribute, the resurrection of the dead, and the greatest commandment.新的問題是把耶穌的敬意, ,死人復活,最大的誡命。 Jesus anathematizes the scribes and Pharisees and foretells the events that will precede and accompany the fall of Jerusalem and the end of the world.耶穌anathematizes的文士和法利和預示的事件,將先和陪同秋天耶路撒冷和世界的盡頭。

C. THE PASSION AND THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS (26-28)角的熱情和復活的耶穌( 26-28 )

(1) The Passion (26-27) ( 1 )激情( 26-27 )

Events are now hurrying to a close.活動現在匆匆結束。 The Sanhedrin plots for the death of Jesus, a woman anoints the feet of the Lord, and Judas betrays his Master.公會地塊的死亡耶穌,一個女人的腳anoints耶和華,猶大背叛他的主人。 Jesus eats the pasch with His disciples and institutes the Eucharist.吃的pasch耶穌與門徒和研究所聖體。 In the Garden of Olives, He enters upon His agony and offers up the sacrifice of His life.花園裡的橄欖,他進入他的痛苦,並提供了犧牲了生命。 He is arrested and brought before the Sanhedrin.他被逮捕並送交公會。 Peter denies Christ; Judas hangs himself.彼得否認基督;猶大自殺。 Jesus is condemned to death by Pilate and crucified; He is buried, and a guard is placed at the Sepulchre (xxvi, 1-xxvii, 66).耶穌是被判處死刑的彼拉多和釘在十字架上,他是埋葬,一名看守是放置在聖墓( 26 , 1 -二十七, 66 ) 。

(2) The Resurrection (28) ( 2 )復活( 28 )

Jesus rises the third day and appears first to the holy women at Jerusalem, then in Galilee to His disciples, whom He sends forth to propagate throughout the world the Kingdom of God.耶穌的第三天上漲,並出現首次羅馬婦女在耶路撒冷,然後在加利利,他的弟子,他將提出的傳播在世界各地神的國。

IV.四。 OBJECT AND DOCTRINAL TEACHING OF THE FIRST GOSPEL對象和理論教學中的第一福音

Immediately after the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, Peter preached that Jesus, crucified and risen, was the Messias, the Saviour of the World, and proved this assertion by relating the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord.結束後立即後裔的聖靈的使徒彼得鼓吹耶穌,釘在十字架和復活,是弭賽亞,救世主的世界,證明了這一論斷的有關人的生命,死亡和復活的主。 This was the first Apostolic teaching, and was repeated by the other preachers of the Gospel, of whom tradition tells us that Matthew was one. This Evangelist proclaimed the Gospel to the Hebrews and, before his departure from Jerusalem, wrote in his mother tongue the Gospel that he had preached. Hence the aim of the Evangelist was primarily apologetic.這是首次使徒教學,並重複了其他傳教士的福音,其中的傳統告訴我們,馬修是其中之一。這項宣布福音傳播者的猶太人,並在他離開耶路撒冷,寫在他的母語福音,他所持的觀點。因此,目標的傳播者主要是抱歉。 He wished to demonstrate to his readers, whether these were converts or still unbelieving Jews, that in Jesus the ancient prophecies had been realized in their entirety. This thesis includes three principal ideas:他想證明他的讀者,無論這些人轉換或仍然不信猶太教徒,耶穌說,在古老的預言已經實現的全部內容。這一論斷包含三個主要的想法:

Jesus is the Messias, and the kingdom He inaugurates is the Messianic kingdom foretold by the prophets;耶穌是弭賽亞,和英國,他開創的是彌賽亞預言英國的先知;

because of their sins, the Jews, as a nation, shall have no part in this kingdom因為他們的罪孽,猶太人,作為一個國家,不應有任何參與這個王國

the Gospel will be announced to all nations, and all are called to salvation.福音將宣布對所有國家,所有被稱為救贖。

A. JESUS AS MESSIAS答:耶穌是弭賽亞

St. Matthew has shown that in Jesus all the ancient prophesies on the Messias were fulfilled.聖馬太表明,在所有的古代耶穌的弭賽亞prophesies得到滿足。 He was the Emmanuel, born of a Virgin Mother (i, 22, 23), announced by Isaias (vii, 14); He was born at Bethlehem (ii, 6), as had been predicted by Micheas (v, 2), He went to Egypt and was recalled thence (ii, 15) as foretold by Osee (xi, 1).他是艾曼紐,所生的童貞母親(一, 22日, 23日)宣布,伊薩亞(第七章, 14條) ;他出生在伯利恆(二6 ) ,因為已經預測Micheas (五, 2 ) ,他還向埃及和再回顧(二, 15歲)作為預言的Osee (十一, 1 ) 。 According to the prediction of Isaias (xl, 3), He was heralded by a precursor, John the Baptist (iii, 1 sqq.); He cured all the sick (viii, 16 so.), that the Prophecy of Isaias (liii, 4) might be fulfilled; and in all His actions He was indeed the same of whom this prophet had spoken (xiii, 1).據預測伊薩亞(儀, 3 ) ,他所預示的前奏,施洗約翰(三, 1 sqq 。 ) ;他治愈所有的病人(八, 16做。 ) ,該預言伊薩亞( liii , 4 )可能實現;並在他的所有行動,他確實是相同的,其中提到這個先知(十三, 1 ) 。 His teaching in parables (xiii, 3) was conformable to what Isaias had said (vi, 9).他的教學中寓言(十三, 3 )符合什麼伊薩亞說(六, 9 ) 。 Finally, He suffered, and the entire drama of His Passion and Death was a fulfilment of the prophecies of Scripture (Isaiah 53:3-12; Psalm 21:13-22).最後,他遭受了整個劇的熱情和死亡是實現的預言聖經(以賽亞書53:3-12 ;詩篇21:13-22 ) 。 Jesus proclaimed Himself the Messias by His approbation of Peter's confession (16:16-17) and by His answer to the high priest (26:63-64).耶穌自封的弭賽亞了他的認可彼得招供( 16:16-17 )和他的回答的大祭司( 26:63-64 ) 。 St. Matthew also endeavours to show that the Kingdom inaugurated by Jesus Christ is the Messianic Kingdom.聖馬太還努力表明,英國成立了耶穌基督是彌賽亞王國。 From the beginning of His public life, Jesus proclaims that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand (4:17); in the Sermon on the Mount He promulgates the charter of this kingdom, and in parables He speaks of its nature and conditions.從一開始就對他的公共生活,耶穌宣稱天國是手( 4:17 ) ;在講道山上他頒布憲章這一英國,並在比喻他談到其性質和條件。 In His answer to the envoys of John the Baptist Jesus specifically declares that the Messianic Kingdom, foretold by the Prophets, has come to pass, and He describes its characteristics: "The blind see, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, the poor have the gospel preached to them."在回答的特使施洗約翰耶穌特別聲明,彌賽亞英國,預言的先知,已經過去,他描述了其特點: “盲人見,和瘸腿走路,是潔淨的麻風病人的聾子聽到,死者復活,窮人有福音宣講給他們。 “ It was in these terms, that Isaias had described the future kingdom (xxxv, 5, 6; loci, 1).正是在這些方面,該伊薩亞描述了未來的英國(三十五, 5 , 6 ;位點, 1 ) 。 St. Matthew records a very formal expression of the Lord concerning the coming of the Kingdom: "But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then is the kingdom of God come upon you" (xii, 28).聖馬太記錄一個非常正式的表達上帝關於未來的王國: “但是如果我的聖靈鑄造了魔鬼,然後是神的國降臨你” ( 12 , 28 ) 。 Moreover, Jesus could call Himself the Messias only inasmuch as the Kingdom of God had come.此外,耶穌可以自稱唯一的弭賽亞因為上帝已經到來。

B. EXCLUSION OF JEWS FROM MESSIANIC KINGDOM灣排除猶太人彌賽亞王國

The Jews as a nation were rejected because of their sins, and were to have no part in the Kingdom of Heaven.猶太人作為一個國家被駁回,因為他們的罪孽,並沒有參加天國。 This rejection had been several times predicted by the prophets, and St. Matthew shows that it was because of its incredulity that Israel was excluded from the Kingdom, he dwells on all the events in which the increasing obduracy of the Jewish nation is conspicuous, manifested first in the princes and then in the hatred of the people who beseech Pilate to put Jesus to death.這種拒絕已多次預言的先知,和聖馬太表明,這是因為它的懷疑,以色列被排除在英國,他談到的所有活動中,越來越頑固不化的猶太民族是突出表現第一王子,然後在仇恨的人誰求彼拉多把耶穌死刑。 Thus the Jewish nation itself was accountable for its exclusion from the Messianic kingdom.因此,猶太人本身就是負責其排除在彌賽亞王國。

C. UNIVERSAL PROCLAMATION OF THE GOSPEL角通用宣布福音

That the pagans were called to salvation instead of the Jews, Jesus declared explicitly to the unbelieving Israelites: "Therefore I say to you that the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and shall be given to a nation yielding the fruits thereof" (xxi, 43); "He that soweth the good seed, is the Son of man. And the field is the world" (xiii, 37-38).這異教徒被稱為救贖不是猶太人,耶穌明確宣布不信以色列人: “因此,我告訴你,神的國應採取由你,並應考慮到一個國家的水果有高產” ( 21 , 43 ) ; “他說, soweth良好的種子,是人子。與外地是世界” ( 13 , 37-38 ) 。 "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all nations, and then shall the consummation come" (xxiv, 14). “這福音王國應鼓吹在全世界的所有國家的證詞,然後應完善來” ( 24 , 14 ) 。 Finally, appearing to His Apostles in Galilee, Jesus gives them this supreme command: "All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. Going therefore, teach ye all nations" (xxviii 18, 19). These last words of Christ are the summary of the First Gospel.最後,似乎他的門徒在加利利,耶穌給他們這個最高法院的命令: “所有的權力是給我在天堂和地球。走出因此,教你們所有國家” (二十八18日, 19日) 。最後幾句話是基督總結第一福音。 Efforts have been made to maintain that these words of Jesus, commanding that all nations be evangelized, were not authentic, but in a subsequent paragraph we shall prove that all the Lord's sayings, recorded in the First Gospel, proceed from the teaching of Jesus.已作出努力,以保持這些話的耶穌,指揮,所有國家應evangelized ,沒有真實的,但在隨後的一段,我們將證明,所有上帝的話,記錄在第一福音,從教學中的耶穌。

V. DESTINATION OF THE GOSPEL五,目的地的福音

The ecclesiastical writers Papias, St. Irenæus, Origen, Eusebius, and St. Jerome, whose testimony has been given above (II, A), agree in declaring that St.教會作家帕皮亞,聖Irenæus ,俄利根,優西比烏,和聖杰羅姆,他們的證詞給予了上述(二A ) ,同意在宣布街 Matthew wrote his Gospel for the Jews.馬太福音寫他的猶太人。 Everything in this Gospel proves, that the writer addresses himself to Jewish readers.一切都在這福音證明,地址,作者本人對猶太讀者。 He does not explain Jewish customs and usages to them, as do the other Evangelists for their Greek and Latin readers, and he assumes that they are acquainted with Palestine, since, unlike St. Luke he mentions places without giving any indication of their topographical position.他沒有解釋猶太習俗和慣例向他們一樣,其他福音的希臘文和拉丁文的讀者,他認為他們是熟悉的巴勒斯坦,這是因為,與聖盧克他提到的地方,而無須給予任何說明他們的地形位置。 It is true that the Hebrew words, Emmanuel, Golgotha, Eloi, are translated, but it is likely that these translations were inserted when the Aramaic text was reproduced in Greek.的確,希伯來話,艾曼紐,墓地,埃洛伊,翻譯,但有可能是,這些翻譯被插入時,阿拉姆的案文轉載於希臘。 St. Matthew chronicles those discourses of Christ that would interest the Jews and leave a favourable impression upon them.聖馬太納尼亞這些論述基督,將利息猶太人離開了較好的印象給他們。 The law is not to be destroyed, but fulfilled (v, 17).法律不是被摧毀,但完成(五, 17 ) 。 He emphasizes more strongly than either St. Mark or St. Luke the false interpretations of the law given by the scribes and Pharisees, the hypocrisy and even the vices of the latter, all of which could be of interest to Jewish readers only.他強調更強烈比聖馬克或聖盧克虛假對法律的解釋所給予的文士和法利賽人的虛偽,甚至是罪惡的是後者,所有這一切都可能感興趣的猶太讀者。 According to certain critics, St. Irenæus (Fragment xxix) said that Matthew wrote to convert the Jews by proving to them that Christ was the Son of David.根據某些批評,聖Irenæus (片段XXIX )號決議說,馬修寫道轉換猶太人的事實證明,他們說,基督是大衛之子。 This interpretation is badly founded.這種解釋是嚴重的。 Moreover, Origen (In Matt., i) categorically asserts that this Gospel was published for Jews converted to the Faith.此外,俄利根(在馬特。 ,我)斷然聲稱,這福音出版猶太人皈依信仰。 Eusebius (Hist. eccl. III, xxiv) is also explicit on this point, and St.優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。三,第24 )也明確這一點,和聖 Jerome, summarizing tradition, teaches us that St. Matthew published his Gospel in Judea and in the Hebrew language, principally for those among the Jews who believed in Jesus, and did not observe even the shadow of the Law, the truth of the Gospel having replaced it (In Matt. Prol.).杰羅姆,總結傳統,教導我們,聖馬太福音出版他在朱迪亞和希伯來語,主要是為那些在猶太人誰相信耶穌,並沒有觀察的陰影,甚至法律,真相的福音了取代它(在馬特。 Prol 。 ) 。 Subsequent ecclesiastical writers and Catholic exegetes have taught that St. Matthew wrote for the converted Jews.隨後作家和天主教教會的教導exegetes聖馬太寫的轉換猶太人。 "However," says Zahn (Introd. to the New Testament, II, 562), "the apologetical and polemical character of the book, as well as the choice of language, make it extremely probable that Matthew wished his book to be read primarily by the Jews who were not yet Christians. It was suited to Jewish Christians who were still exposed to Jewish influence, and also to Jews who still resisted the Gospel". “不過,說: ”贊恩( Introd.新約,二, 562 ) , “論戰的apologetical和性質的圖書,以及選擇的語言,使之極有可能馬修希望他的書來閱讀,主要由猶太人誰尚未基督徒。這是適合猶太基督徒誰仍然暴露於猶太人的影響,同時也仍然抵制猶太人誰的福音“ 。

VI.六。 DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION日期和地點組成

Ancient ecclesiastical writers are at variance as to the date of the composition of the First Gospel.古代教會作家有差異,以之組成的第一福音。 Eusebius (in his Chronicle), Theophylact, and Euthymius Zigabenus are of opinion that the Gospel of Matthew was written eight years, and Nicephorus Callistus fifteen years, after Christ's Ascension--ie about AD 38-45.優西比烏(在他的記事) , Theophylact ,並Euthymius Zigabenus都認為,馬太福音寫八年,並Nicephorus卡利斯圖斯十五年,在基督的阿森松島-即約公元38-45 。 According to Eusebius, Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew when he left Palestine.根據優西比烏,馬太福音中寫下希伯來離開巴勒斯坦。 Now, following a certain tradition (admittedly not too reliable), the Apostles separated twelve years after the Ascension, hence the Gospel would have been written about the year 40-42, but following Eusebius (Hist. eccl., III, v, 2), it is possible to fix the definitive departure of the Apostles about the year 60, in which event the writing of the Gospel would have taken place about the year 60-68.現在,在某些傳統(誠然不太可靠) ,使徒失散12年後,阿森松島,因此,福音會描寫過40-42年,但下面的優西比烏( Hist. eccl 。 ,第三,第五,第2 ) ,有可能修正最終離開使徒關於今年60歲,在這種情況下,書面的福音會發生約60-68年。 St Irenæus is somewhat more exact concerning the date of the First Gospel, as he says: "Matthew produced his Gospel when Peter and Paul were evangelizing and founding the Church of Rome, consequently about the years 64-67."聖Irenæus是較為確切的日期第一福音,因為他說: “馬太福音時,他製作彼得和保羅的宣傳,並成立了,羅馬教會,因此大約64-67年。 ” However, this text presents difficulties of interpretation which render its meaning uncertain and prevent us from deducing any positive conclusion. In our day opinion is rather divided.然而,這一案文提出解釋方面的困難,以致其含義不確定和阻止我們推斷出任何積極的結論。在當今的意見相當分歧。 Catholic critics, in general, favour the years 40-45, although some (eg Patrizi) go back to 36-39 or (eg Aberle) to 37.天主教會的批評,總的來說,有利於年40-45 ,雖然有些(如柏德)回到36-39或(如阿伯利) 37 。 Belser assigns 41-42; Conély, 40-50; Schafer, 50-51; Hug, Reuschl, Schanz, and Rose, 60-67. Belser指派41-42 ; Conély , 40-50 ;謝弗, 50-51 ;擁抱, Reuschl ,坎茲,和玫瑰, 60-67 。 This last opinion is founded on the combined testimonies of St. Irenæus and Eusebius, and on the remark inserted parenthetically in the discourse of Jesus in chapter xxiv, 15: "When therefore you shall see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place": here the author interrupts the sentence and invites the reader to take heed of what follows, viz.: "Then they that are in Judea, let them flee to the mountains."這最後的意見是建立在合併後的證詞街Irenæus和優西比烏,以及備註插入附帶的話語耶穌在第二十四章, 15條: “當你因此應看到令人深惡痛絕的荒涼,這是談到丹尼爾先知,站在神聖的地方“ :作者在這裡中斷了一句,並請讀者留意以下,即。 : ”然後,他們是在朱迪亞,讓他們逃往山區。 “ As there would have been no occasion for a like warning had the destruction of Jerusalem already taken place, Matthew must have written his Gospel before the year 70 (about 65-70 according to Batiffol). Protestant and Liberalistic critics also are greatly at variance as regards the time of the composition of the First Gospel.至於就沒有機會了類似警告的破壞耶路撒冷已經發生,必須有書面馬太福音他70年前(約65-70據Batiffol ) 。新教和自由主義的批評者也有很大差異的關於時間的組成第一福音。 Zahn sets the date about 61-66, and Godet about 60-66; Keim, Meyer, Holtzmann (in his earlier writings), Beyschlag, and Maclean, before 70, Bartiet about 68-69; W. Allen and Plummer, about 65-75; Hilgenfeld and Holtzmann (in his later writings), soon after 70; B. Weiss and Harnack, about 70-75; Renan, later than 85, Réville, between 69 and 96, Jülicher, in 81-96, Montefiore, about 90-100, Volkmar, in 110; Baur, about 130-34.贊恩規定的日期大約61-66 ,並代約60-66 ;凱姆,邁耶, Holtzmann (在先前的著作) , Beyschlag和麥克林,前70 , Bartiet約68-69 ;美國艾倫和盧默,約65 -75 ; Hilgenfeld和Holtzmann (在晚年著作)後不久, 70 ;灣Weiss和哈爾納克,大約70-75段;雷南維,不遲於85雷維爾, 69和96之間, Jülicher ,在81-96 ,蒙特弗洛爾,約90-100 , Volkmar ,在110個;鮑爾,約130-34 。 The following are some of the arguments advanced to prove that the First Gospel was written several years after the Fall of Jerusalem.以下是一些論點來證明,第一福音寫幾年陷落後耶路撒冷。 When Jesus prophesies to His Apostles that they will be delivered up to the councils, scourged in the synagogues, brought before governors and kings for His sake; that they will give testimony of Him, will for Him be hated and driven from city to city (x, 17-23) and when He commissions them to teach all nations and make them His disciples, His words intimate, it is claimed, the lapse of many years, the establishment of the Christian Church in distant parts, and its cruel persecution by the Jews and even by Roman emperors and governors.當耶穌使徒prophesies ,他說,他們將交付安理會, scourged在猶太教堂,提交省長和國王隊,他的酒; ,他們將提供證詞,他將是對他恨和趕出城市(十, 17日至23日) ,當他佣金他們教所有國家和讓他們門徒,他的話親密,據稱,失效多年,建立了基督教會在遙遠的地方,它的殘酷迫害猶太人,甚至羅馬的皇帝和省長。 Moreover, certain sayings of the Lord--such as: "Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church" (xi, 18), "If he [thy brother] will not hear them: tell the Church" (xviii, 10)--carry us to a time when the Christian Church was already constituted, a time that could not have been much earlier than the year 100.此外,某些說法的上帝-如: “你是彼得;和這個岩石,我將建立我的教會” (十一, 18 ) , “如果他[你哥哥]不會聽到他們的聲音:告訴教會” (十八, 10 ) -執行我們的時候,基督教會已經組成,時間不能早得多已經超過100年。 The fact is, that what was predicted by Our Lord, when He announced future events and established the charter and foundations of His Church, is converted into reality and made coexistent with the writing of the First Gospel.事實是,這是預測我們的主,他宣布今後的活動,並成立了聯合國憲章和基礎,他的教會,轉化為現實,並取得了共存的書面第一福音。 Hence, to give these arguments a probatory value it would be necessary either to deny Christ's knowledge of the future or to maintain that the teachings embodied in the First Gospel were not authentic.因此,讓這些論點一probatory價值就必須要么否認基督的知識,或對未來保持這種教義體現在第一福音不是真實的。

VII.七。 HISTORIC VALUE OF THE FIRST GOSPEL歷史價值第一福音

(1) OF THE NARRATIVES ( 1 )的說明

Apart from the narratives of the Childhood of Jesus, the cure of the two blind men, the tribute money, and a few incidents connected with the Passion and Resurrection, all the others recorded by St. Matthew are found in both the other Synoptists, with one exception (viii, 5-13) which occurs only in St. Luke. Critics agree in declaring that, regarded as a whole, the events of the life of Jesus recorded in the Synoptic Gospels are historic.除了說明耶穌的童年,治愈率兩個瞎子的敬意錢,和一些事件與受難與復活所有其他記錄的聖馬修被發現在其他Synoptists ,與唯一的例外(八, 5月13日) ,其中只發生在聖盧克。批評同意宣布,被視為一個整體,所發生的事件記錄耶穌生命中的天氣福音是歷史性的。 For us, these facts are historic even in detail, our criterion of truth being the same for the aggregate and the details.對我們來說,這些事實是歷史性的,即使在細節,我們的真理標準正在同為總結和細節。 The Gospel of St. Mark is acknowledged to be of great historic value because it reproduces the preaching of St. Peter.福音聖馬克承認有很大的歷史價值,因為它抄錄了說教的聖彼得。 But, for almost all the events of the Gospel, the information given by St. Mark is found in St. Matthew, while such as are peculiar to the latter are of the same nature as events recorded by St. Mark, and resemble them so closely that it is hard to understand why they should not be historic, since they also are derived from the primitive catechesis.但是,幾乎所有的活動的福音,所提供的資料聖馬克是在聖馬太,而如特有後者屬於同一性質的事件記錄的聖馬克,類似於他們這樣密切合作,這是很難理解為什麼他們不應該成為歷史,因為他們也都來自原始理。 It may be further observed that the narratives of St. Matthew are never contradictory to the events made known to us by profane documents, and that they give a very accurate account of the moral and religious ideas, the manners and customs of the Jewish people of that time.這可能是進一步指出,說明聖馬太絕不矛盾的事件表明了我們的褻瀆文件,而且他們提供一個非常準確到道德和宗教思想,禮儀和習俗的猶太人民那個時候。 In his recent work, "The Synoptic Gospels" (London, 1909), Montefiore, a Jewish critic, does full justice to St. Matthew on these different points.在他最近的工作, “天氣福音” (倫敦, 1909年) ,蒙特弗洛爾,一個猶太評論家,沒有充分的正義聖馬太對這些不同點。 Finally all the objections that could possibly have been raised against their veracity vanish, if we but keep in mind the standpoint of the author, and what he wished to demonstrate.最後所有的反對意見可能會有人提出反對其真實性消失,但如果我們記住的角度作者,以及他希望證明。 The comments we are about to make concerning the Lord's utterances are also applicable to the Gospel narratives.評論我們即將作出的關於上帝的話語也適用於福音說明。 For a demonstration of the historic value of the narratives of the Holy Childhood, we recommend Father Durand's scholarly work, "L'enfance de Jésus-Christ d'après les évangiles canoniques" (Paris, 1907).為展示歷史價值的說明的神聖童年,我們建議父親杜蘭德的學術工作, “歐萊雅童年德赫蘇基督德apr鑣萊évangiles canoniques ” (巴黎, 1907年) 。

(2) OF THE DISCOURSES ( 2 )論述

The greater part of Christ's short sayings are found in the three Synoptic Gospels and consequently spring from the early catechesis.大部份基督的短期諺語被發現在這三個天氣福音,因此春季從早期理。 His long discourses, recorded by St. Matthew and St. Luke, also formed part of an authentic catechesis, and critics in general are agreed in acknowledging their historic value.他長期論述,記錄的聖馬太和聖盧克,還組成部分,真正的講授,並批評一般都同意在承認其歷史價值。 There are, however some who maintain that the Evangelist modified his documents to adapt them to the faith professed in Christian communities at the time when he wrote his Gospel.但也有一些誰堅持認為,他的傳播者修改文件,以使其適應在宣稱信仰基督教社區時,他寫下了福音。 They also claim that, even prior to the composition of the Gospels, Christian faith had altered Apostolic reminiscences. Let us first of all observe that these objections would have no weight whatever, unless we were to concede that the First Gospel was not written by St. Matthew. And even assuming the same point of view as our adversaries, who think that our Synoptic Gospels depend upon anterior sources, we maintain that these changes, whether attributable to the Evangelists or to their sources (ie the faith of the early Christians), could not have been effected.他們還聲稱,即使之前的組成福音,基督教信仰改變使徒逸事。讓我們首先看到,這些反對意見就沒有什麼重量,除非我們要承認,第一福音沒有書面的聖。馬修。而且即使假設有相同的看法是因為我們的對手,誰認為我們天氣福音取決於前來源,我們堅持認為,這些變化,無論是歸因於福音或其來源(即信仰早期基督教徒) ,無法實施。

The alterations claimed to have been introduced into Christ's teachings could not have been made by the Evangelists themselves.改變聲稱已被引入基督的教誨無法作出了自己的福音。 We know that the latter selected their subject-matter and disposed of it each in his own way, and with a special end in view, but this matter was the same for all three, at least for the whole contents of the pericopes, and was taken from the original catechesis, which was already sufficiently well established not to admit of the introduction into it of new ideas and unknown facts.我們知道,他們的選擇,後者的主題事項和處置每次在他自己的方式,並有特殊目的,但這個問題是相同的所有三個,至少在整個內容pericopes ,是採取從原來的理,這是已經充分確定的不承認它的引入新的思想和未知的事實。 Again, all the doctrines which are claimed to be foreign to the teachings of Jesus are found in the three Synoptists, and are so much a part of the very framework of each Gospel that their removal would mean the destruction of the order of the narrative.再次,所有理論都自稱是外國來的教誨,耶穌被發現在這三個Synoptists ,是這麼多的一部分,非常框架每個福音,他們的搬遷將意味著破壞秩序的說明。 Under these conditions, that there might be a substantial change in the doctrines taught by Christ, it would be necessary to suppose a previous understanding among the three Evangelists, which seems to us impossible, as Matthew and Luke at least appear to have worked independently of each other and it is in their Gospels that Christ's longest discourses are found.在這種情況下,可能有重大變化的理論講授的基督,有必要將先前的假設之間的理解三個福音,這對我們來說似乎是不可能的,因為馬修和盧克至少似乎獨立工作的對方正是在他們的福音,基督最長的論述被發現。 These doctrines, which were already embodied in the sources used by the three Synoptists, could not have resulted from the deliberations and opinions of the earliest Christians.這些理論,這已經體現在所用的來源的三個Synoptists ,不能造成的審議情況和意見的最早基督徒。 First of all, between the death of Christ and the initial drawing up of the oral catechesis, there was not sufficient time for originating, and subsequently enjoining upon the Christian conscience, ideas diametrically opposed to those said to have been exclusively taught by Jesus Christ.首先,與基督的死亡和最初擬定的口頭講授,也沒有足夠的時間起源,隨後責令各基督教良心,思想截然相反那些說已經完全教耶穌基督。 For example, let us take the doctrines claimed, above all others, to have been altered by the belief of the first Christians, namely that Jesus Christ had called all nations to salvation.例如,讓我們的理論宣稱,上述所有其他國家,已經改變了信仰第一基督徒,即耶穌基督曾呼籲所有國家救贖。 It is said that the Lord restricted His mission to Israel, and that all those texts wherein He teaches that the Gospel should be preached throughout the entire world originated with the early Christians and especially with Paul. Now, in the first place, these universalist doctrines could not have sprung up among the Apostles.有人說,上帝限制訪問以色列,並要求所有這些案文教授說,他在福音應該鼓吹整個世界的起源與早期基督信徒,特別是與保羅。現在,擺在首位,這些普遍性理論不能如雨後春筍般冒出來的使徒。 They and the primitive Christians were Jews of poorly developed intelligence, of very narrow outlook, and were moreover imbued with particularist ideas.他們與原始基督徒猶太人不發達的情報,在非常狹窄的視野,而且充滿了particularist想法。 From the Gospels and Acts it is easy to see that these men were totally unacquainted with universalist ideas, which had to be urged upon them, and which, even then, they were slow to accept.從福音和行為很容易地看到,這些人是完全不了解普遍的想法,這將敦促他們,這,即使在那時,他們緩慢的接受。 Moreover, how could this first Christian generation, who, we are told, believed that Christ's Second Coming was close at hand, have originated these passages proclaiming that before this event took place the Gospel should be preached to all nations?此外,怎麼會這樣第一基督教一代,誰,我們被告知,認為基督的第二次來是近在咫尺,源於這些通道宣布,在這一事件發生的福音應該鼓吹所有國家? These doctrines do not emanate from St. Paul and his disciples.這些理論並不來自聖保羅和他的弟子。 Long before St. Paul could have exercised any influence whatever over the Christian conscience, the Evangelical sources containing these precepts had already been composed.早在聖保羅可以行使任何影響力無論在基督教的良心,福音來源含有這些戒律已經組成。 The Apostle of the Gentiles was the special propagator of these doctrines, but he was not their creator.使徒的外邦人特別是傳播這些理論,但他不是他們的創作者。 Enlightened by the Holy Spirit, he understood that the ancient prophecies had been realized in the Person of Jesus and that the doctrines taught by Christ were identical with those revealed by the Scriptures.開明的聖靈,他的理解是,古老的預言實現了在該人身上耶穌教的理論是相同的基督與所揭示的聖經。

Finally, by considering as a whole the ideas constituting the basis of the earliest Christian writings, we ascertain that these doctrines, taught by the prophets, and accentuated by the life and words of Christ, form the framework of the Gospels and the basis of Pauline preaching.最後,考慮作為一個整體構成的思想的基礎上最早的基督教著作,我們確定這些理論,所教的先知,並加劇了生活和基督的話,形成的框架內,福音的基礎波利娜說教。 They are, as it were, a kind of fasces which it would be impossible to unbind, and into which no new idea could be inserted without destroying its strength and unity.他們是,因為它是,一種fasces其中就不可能解除綁定,並納入任何新的想法可以插入不破壞它的力量和團結。 In the prophecies, the Gospels the Pauline Epistles, and the first Christian writings an intimate correlation joins all together, Jesus Christ Himself being the centre and the common bond.在預言,福音的波利娜書信,第一基督教密切相關的著作同所有在一起,耶穌基督自己正在該中心和共同的紐帶。 What one has said of Him, the others reiterate, and never do we hear an isolated or a discordant voice.什麼人說他,其他重申,從來沒有這樣做,我們聽到一個孤立的或不協調的聲音。 If Jesus taught doctrines contrary or foreign to those which the Evangelists placed upon His lips, then He becomes an inexplicable phenomenon, because, in the matter of ideas, He is in contradiction to the society in which He moved, and must be ranked with the least intelligent sections among the Jewish people.如果耶穌教導理論相反或外國那些福音放在了他的嘴唇,那麼他將成為一個令人費解的現象,因為在這個問題上的想法,他是矛盾的社會中,他感動的,必須與排名至少智能章節之間的猶太人民。 We are justified, therefore, in concluding that the discourses of Christ, recorded in the First Gospel and reproducing the Apostolic catechesis, are authentic.我們有理由,因此得出結論,基督的話語,記錄在第一福音及音響使徒理,是真實的。 We my however, again observe that, his aim being chiefly apologetic, Matthew selected and presented the events of Christ's life and also these discourses in a way that would lead up to the conclusive proof which he wished to give of the Messiahship of Jesus.我們我的,但再次看到,他的目的是主要歉然,馬修選定,並介紹了事件的基督的生命,還這些論述的方式,將導致到確鑿的證據,他想給的Messiahship耶穌。 Still the Evangelist neither substantially altered the original catechesis nor invented doctrines foreign to the teaching of Jesus.仍然是傳播者既不大大改變了原來的理論講授,也沒有發明外國教學耶穌。 His action bore upon details or form, but not upon the basis of words and deeds.他的行動的細節後膛或形式,但不得頒發的依據言行。

APPENDIX: DECISIONS OF THE BIBLICAL COMMISSION附錄:決定委員會的聖經

The following answers have been given by the Biblical Commission to inquiries about the Gospel of St. Matthew: In view of the universal and constant agreement of the Church, as shown by the testimony of the Fathers, the inscription of Gospel codices, most ancient versions of the Sacred Books and lists handed down by the Holy Fathers, ecclesiastical writers, popes and councils, and finally by liturgical usage in the Eastern and Western Church, it may and should be held that Matthew, an Apostle of Christ, is really the author of the Gospel that goes by his name.下面的回答得到了聖經委員會詢問的福音聖馬太:鑑於普遍和持續的協議教會顯示,證言的父親,碑文的福音codices ,最古老的版本的聖書,並列出流傳下來的羅馬父親,教會作家,教皇和議會,並最終使用的禮儀在東歐和西歐的教會,它可能和應該認為馬修,一個基督的使徒,是真正的作者福音的推移,他的名字。 The belief that Matthew preceded the other Evangelists in writing, and that the first Gospel was written in the native language of the Jews then in Palestine, is to be considered as based on Tradition.相信馬修之前以書面其他福音,這是第一次寫的福音母語猶太人然後在巴勒斯坦,應被視為基於傳統。

The preparation of this original text was not deferred until after the destruction of Jerusalem, so that the prophecies it contains about this might be written after the event; nor is the alleged uncertain and much disputed testimony of Irenaeus convincing enough to do away with the opinion most conformed to Tradition, that their preparation was finished even before the coming of Paul to Rome.在編寫本原文是不是推遲到後銷毀耶路撒冷,這樣的預言它包含關於這可能是寫在事件發生後,也不是被指控的不確定和許多有爭議的證詞依令人信服,足以消除的意見最符合傳統,他們的準備工作完成之前,在今後的保羅羅馬。 The opinion of certain Modernists is untenable, viz., that Matthew did not in a proper and strict sense compose the Gospel, as it has come down to us, but only a collection of some words and sayings of Christ, which, according to them, another anonymous author used as sources.的意見,某些現代主義是站不住腳的,即。 ,這馬修沒有在適當的和嚴格意義上撰寫的福音,因為它已經給我們,但只收集了一些單詞和諺語的基督,而根據他們另一個匿名作者作為來源。

The fact that the Fathers and all ecclesiastical writers, and even the Church itself from the very beginning, have used as canonical the Greek text of the Gospel known as St. Matthew's, not even excepting those who have expressly handed down that the Apostle Matthew wrote in his native tongue, proves for certain that this very Greek Gospel is identical in substance with the Gospel written by the same Apostle in his native language.事實上,父親和所有教會作家,甚至教會本身從一開始就已經作為典型的希臘文的福音稱為聖馬太,甚至除外誰明確下達的使徒馬太寫在他的母語,對某些證明,這非常希臘福音的實質內容是相同的福音書面由同一使徒,他的母語。 Although the author of the first Gospel has the dogmatic and apologetic purpose of proving to the Jews that Jesus is the Messias foretold by the prophets and born of the house of David, and although he is not always chronological in arranging the facts or sayings which he records, his narration is not to be regarded as lacking truth.雖然作者的第一次福音的教條和道歉的目的,事實證明,猶太人認為耶穌是弭賽亞預言的先知和出生在眾議院的大衛,雖然他並不總是順序安排事實或諺語,他記錄,他的敘述是不被視為缺乏真理。 Nor can it be said that his accounts of the deeds and utterances of Christ have been altered and adapted by the influence of the prophecies of the Old Testament and the conditions of the growing Church, and that they do not therefore conform to historical truth.也不能說,他的賬戶的事蹟和話語基督已經改變和調整的影響的預言舊約和條件日益教會,並確保他們不會因此符合歷史事實。 Notably unfounded are the opinions of those who cast doubt on the historical value of the first two chapters, treating of the genealogy and infancy of Christ, or on certain passages of much weight for certain dogmas, such as those which concern the primacy of Peter (xvi, 17-19), the form of baptism given to the Apostles with their universal missions (xxviii, 19-20), the Apostles' profession of faith in Christ (xiv, 33), and others of this character specially emphasized by Matthew.值得注意的是毫無根據的是誰的意見對這些懷疑的歷史價值的頭兩章,治療的家譜和基督的嬰兒,或在某些段落的重視某些教條,如那些關注的首要彼得(十六, 17日至19日) ,洗禮的形式提供給使徒的普遍特派團(二十八, 19日至20日) ,宗徒專業基督( 14 , 33 ) ,以及其他有此特點特別強調的馬修。

Publication information Written by E. Jacquier.出版信息書面由E. Jacquier 。 Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik & Herman F. Holbrook. Omnes sancti Apostoli et Evangelistae, orate pro nobis. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄的厄尼Stefanik &赫爾曼樓霍爾布魯克。義務聖阿波斯托利等Evangelistae , orate親諾比斯。天主教百科全書,卷十,發布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在