Book of Malachi, Malachias瑪拉基書, Malachias

General Information 一般信息

Malachi is the last of the 12 books of the Minor Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible.瑪拉基是去年的12個圖書未成年先知在舊約聖經。 Malachi means "my messenger" in Hebrew, and few scholars believe that it is the actual name of the prophet.瑪拉基的意思是“我的使者”在希伯來文,和不少學者認為,這是的實際名稱先知。 The prophet's themes include the ritual purity of sacrifices, the evils of mixed marriages and divorce, and the coming day of judgment.先知的主題包括儀式純度犧牲,邪惡的混合婚姻和離婚,並在未來一天的判決。 The book, consisting of six oracles, is believed to have been written after the reconstruction of the Temple (516 BC) and before the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 450 BC).這本書,其中包括6名簽,被認為是書面後重建寺( 516年) ,並在改革的以斯拉和尼希米記(約450年) 。

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Book of Malachi, Malachias瑪拉基書, Malachias

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Sins of the Priests (1:1-2:9)罪孽祭司( 1:1-2:9 )
  2. Sins of the people (2:10-4:1)罪孽的人( 2:10-4:1 )
  3. Coming of the Son of Righteousness (4:2-6)未來的兒子義( 4:2-6 )


Mal'achi

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Malachi, messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Mal. 4:4, 5, 6).瑪拉基, Messenger或天使,最後的未成年人的先知,和作家的最後一本書舊約佳能( Mal. 4點04分, 5 , 6 ) 。 Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained in his book of prophecies.沒有人知道他以後的內容在書中的預言。 Some have supposed that the name is simply a title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah, and not a proper name.有些人以為的名字只是一個標題描述他的性格作為耶和華的使者,而不是一個適當的名稱。 There is reason, however, to conclude that Malachi was the ordinary name of the prophet.有原因,但是,得出結論認為,瑪拉基是普通名稱先知。 He was contemporary with Nehemiah (comp. Mal. 2:8 with Neh. 13:15; Mal. 2:10-16 with Neh. 13:23).他是當代與尼希米記( comp.條。二點08分與Neh 。 13:15 ;條。 2:10-16與Neh 。 13點23 ) 。 No allusion is made to him by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the temple, and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah, and when the temple services were still in existence (Mal. 1:10; 3:1, 10).沒有提及是向他提出以斯拉,他沒有提到恢復寺廟,並因此推斷,他預言在哈和撒迦利亞,當寺服務仍然存在( Mal. 1:10 ; 3 : 1 , 10 ) 。 It is probable that he delivered his prophecies about BC 420, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Neh. 13:6), or possibly before his return.很可能,他發表了他的預言約公元前420 ,在第二次返回尼希米記由波斯( Neh. 13點06 ) ,或可能在他返回。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Prophecies of Mal'achi預言Mal'achi

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters.的內容,這本書是在四個章節組成。 In the Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the AV) form but one.在希伯來文的第三和第四章(中的AV )的形式,但一個。 The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6-2:9) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in administering the law.整個共分三節,前面介紹( Mal. 1:1-5 ) ,其中提醒以色列先知耶和華的愛給他們。第一部分( 1:6-2:9 )載有嚴厲訓斥處理誰的神父曾鄙視耶和華的名字,並已領導人背離了他的崇拜和公約,並為他們偏袒管理的法律。 In the second (2:9-16) the people are rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen.在第二個( 2:9-16 )的人通婚斥責他們的盲目崇拜異教徒。 In the third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah.在第三個( 2:17-4:6 )他的地址的人作為一個整體,並警告他們今後的上帝的判斷,之前的到來彌賽亞。 This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament (Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).這本書是經常提及的新約全書(太11:10 ; 17:12 ;馬克1:2 ; 9時11 , 12 ;路加福音1時17分;光盤。 9點13 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Prophecies of Malachi預言瑪拉基

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

This book is a continuous discourse, so that, properly speaking, there are no intervening events.這本書是一個持續不斷的話語,因此,正確地說,沒有任何干預的活動。 The prophet is a contemporary of Nehemiah, following closely Zechariah and Haggai.先知是當代記,密切注視撒迦利亞和哈。 The evidence of this is chiefly internal and gathered from two facts: (1) That the second temple was evidently in existence at the time, and (2) That the evils condemned by Nehemiah are those which he also condemns.在這方面的證據主要是內部和收集到兩個事實: ( 1 ) ,第二聖殿明顯存在的時間,和( 2 )的邪惡譴責尼希米記是那些他還譴責。 This will appear as we proceed, but compare Malachi 1:7, 8; 2:11-16; 3:8-10 with the last chapter of Nehemiah, especially verses 10-14, 23-29.這將作為我們著手,但比較瑪拉基1:7 , 8 ; 2:11-16 ; 3:8-10的最後一章尼希米記,尤其是詩10月14日, 23日至29日。 Following an outline by Willis J. Beecher, we have:以下概述了威利斯學者比徹,我們有:

The Introduction導言

1:1-5 What word in verse 1 indicates that the message, or messages, are in the nature of rebuke rather than comfort? With what declaration does verse 3 begin? 1:1-5什麼詞詩1表明,信息,或信息,在性質上的譴責,而不是舒適?有什麼宣言詩3開始? While Jehovah thus declares Himself towards His Israel, how do they receive it? This skeptical insinuation in the interrogation, "Wherein hast thou loved us?"雖然耶和華從而宣告自己對他的以色列,他們如何接受?這懷疑影射的審訊, “其中你你愛我們? ” is a peculiarity of the book, and shows the people to have been in a bad spiritual frame, calculated to give birth to the practical sins enumerated later.是一個獨特的書,表明了人們一直在一個壞的精神範圍內,計算分娩的實際罪列舉後。

Be careful not to read a wrong meaning into that reference to Esau, as though God caused him to be born simply to have an object on which He might exercise His hate, or as if that hate condemned the individual Esau to misery in this life and eternal torment beyond.小心,不要讀成一個錯誤的含義,提及以掃,好像上帝使他出生僅僅是為了有一個對象,他可能行使他的仇恨,或如果這種仇恨譴責個別以掃來的苦難生活,在這永恆的折磨超越。 The hate of Esau as an individual is simply set over against the choice of Jacob as the heir to the promised seed of Abraham.仇恨的以掃作為個人是完全建立在對選擇的繼承人雅各布的承諾種子亞伯拉罕。 Esau did not inherit that promise, the blessing to the world did not come down in his line, but that of his brother Jacob, and yet Esau himself had a prosperous life; nor are we driven to the conclusion by anything the Bible says that he was eternally lost.以掃並未繼承這一承諾,祝福世界並沒有在他的路線,但他的哥哥雅各布,但以掃自己有富足的生活;我們也不是驅動的結論的任何聖經說,他是永遠失去了。

Moreover, the particular reference is not so much to Esau as a man as to the national descendants of Esau, the Edomites, who had not only been carried into captivity as Israel had been, but whose efforts to rebuild their waste places would not be successful as in the case of Israel, because the divine purposes of grace lay in another direction.此外,特別提到是不是要以掃作為一個男人作為國家後裔以掃的Edomites ,誰不僅已進行到以色列囚禁了,但他們的努力,以重建其廢物的地方就不會取得成功如以色列,因為神的恩典目的在於另一個方向。

The Second Division第二司

1:6-3:4 consists of an address to the priests and Levites, more especially the former, in which they are charged with three kinds of offenses. 1:6-3:4包括一個地址向神職人員和利,尤其是前者,在被指控犯有三種罪行。 The first is neglect of their temple duties, see chapter 1:6-2:9.首先是忽視了他們的寺廟職責,見第二章1:6-2:9 。 The character of the offense is seen in verses 7 and 8, and 12 and 13 of chapter 1, while the punishment in the event of impenitence is in chapter 2:1-9. The second offense concerns unholy marriages, verses 10-16 of chapter 2.性質的進攻是在詩句7和第8和第12條和第13條第1章,而處罰的,在發生impenitence是章2:1-9 。第二進攻關注邪惡的婚姻, 10月16日的詩句第2章。 It was for this sin as well as the preceding one that Jehovah refused to accept their offerings (13, 14).正是出於這一罪惡以及前一個耶和華拒絕接受他們的產品( 13 , 14 ) 。

Notice the strong argument against divorce found in verse 15. God made one wife for one man at the beginning though He had the power to make more, and He did this because of the godly seed He desired.聲明強烈反對離婚發現詩句15 。神之一的一名男子的妻子開始時雖然他有權力,使更多的工作,他這樣做是因為種子的虔誠,他想要的。 The third offense is that of skepticism, and as Beecher calls it, a bad skepticism, for there is a species of doubt which deserves compassionate treatment and which cannot be called evil in its spirit and motive.第三個是進攻的懷疑,並作為徹的話來說,一個壞的懷疑,因為一個物種疑問值得同情的待遇,並不能說是邪惡的精神和動機。 That, however, is hardly the kind of doubt now under consideration (See chapter 2:17).然而,這並不是一種疑問目前正在審議(見第一章2時17分) 。 This division closes, as does the division following, by a prediction "concerning a day in which the obedient and disobedient shall be differentiated and rewarded."本司關閉一樣,該司下面,由一個預測: “關於這一天的聽話和不聽話的,應區別和獎賞。 ”

This "day" we have often recognized as the "day of the Lord" still in the future both for Israel and the Gentile nations (3:1-4).這“天的”我們經常確認為“主日”仍然在未來都對以色列和聯合國的詹蒂萊( 3:1-4 ) 。 Notice the partial fulfillment of verse 1 in the career of John the Baptist, as indicated in the words and context of Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 1: 76. But the concluding verses of the prediction show that a complete fulfillment must be ahead.通知部分履行詩句1在職業生涯的施洗約翰指出,在文字和背景的馬修11:10 ;馬克1:2 ;路加福音1 : 76 。但是,最後的詩句的預測表明,圓滿完成必須提前。 The offering of Judah and Jerusalem has not yet been so purified by divine judgments as to be pleasant unto the Lord as in the days of old, but it shall yet come to pass.此次發行的猶太和耶路撒冷尚未如此純化神聖判斷是愉快你們在主的日子歲,但它應尚未出現。

The Third Division丙級

3:5-4:3 consists of an address to the people as a whole, who like the priests, are charged with three kinds of offenses. The first is certain public wrongs in which are grouped false swearing, adultery, oppression and injustice (3:5-7). 3:5-4:3包括一個地址的人作為一個整體,誰像牧師,被控犯有三種罪行。首先是某些公眾的錯誤,其中分為作廢,通姦,壓迫和不公正( 3:5-7 ) 。 The second is the failure to support the temple and its ministers (3:8-12), in which case notice the charge of divine robbery, and the blessing promised to faithfulness in tithes.第二個是不支持廟宇及其部長( 3:8-12 ) ,在這種情況下,通知了負責的神聖搶劫,祝福許諾忠誠的什一稅。 The third is the same kind of skepticism as with the priests (3:13-15).三是同樣的疑慮與神職人員( 3:13-15 ) 。 The prediction concluding this section covers verses 3:16-4:3, and is more comforting in character than the preceding one.預測結論本節涵蓋的詩句3:16-4:3 ,更欣慰的性質比前一個。

The Fourth Division第四司

4:4-6 is a grand conclusion in which the great day of the Lord is once more referred to, and Elijah the prophet named as His forerunner. 4:4-6是一項宏大的結論中,偉大的一天勳爵再次提到,和以利亞先知命名為他的先行者。 We learn from Matt.我們從馬特。 11: 14, Mark 9:11 and Luke 1:17 that John the Baptist is to be considered the type of this forerunner, but that Elijah is to come again to this earth is the opinion of many. 11 : 14 ,馬克路加福音9點11分和1點17分的施洗約翰是被認為是這一類型的先行者,但以利亞是再來這個地球是許多人認為。 There are those who believe that he and Moses are the two witnesses in Revelation 11 that shall do wonders in Jerusalem during the reign of the Antichrist.有那些誰相信他和摩西是在兩名證人的啟示11日將盡奇觀在耶路撒冷的統治期間的敵。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 What is the peculiarity of this book?什麼是特殊性這本書嗎? 2. 2 。 Give the proof that Malachi is contemporary with Nehemiah.現在證明,瑪拉基是當代與尼希米記。 3. 3 。 How do you explain God's "hatred" of Esau?你怎麼解釋上帝的“仇恨”的以掃? 4. What argument against divorce is found here? 4 。什麼反對離婚被發現呢? 5. 5 。 How do some interpret the prediction about Elijah?如何做一些解釋預測伊萊賈?


Malachias (Malachi) Malachias (瑪拉基)

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Hebrew Mál'akhî), one of the twelve minor prophets. (希伯來文Mál'akhî ) , 1名未成年人的12先知。

I. PERSONAGE AND NAME一,人物和NAME

It is the last book of the collection of the twelve Minor Prophets which is inscribed with the name of Malachias.這是最後一本書中收集的12個小先知這是刻有名字的Malachias 。 As a result, the author has long been regarded as the last of the canonical prophets of the Old Testament.因此,筆者一向被視為最後的典型先知舊約。 All that is known of him, however, is summed up in the tenor of his preaching and the approximate period of his ministry.所有這一切都知道他,但是,是在總結了他的要旨說教和近似期間職。 The Jewish schools identified him quite early with the scribe Esdras.猶太學校確定他相當早期的編劇埃斯德拉斯。 This identification, which is without historical value and is based according to St. Jerome on an interpretation given to Mal., ii, 7, was at first probably suggested by the tradition which beheld in Esdras the intermediary between the prophets and the "great synagogue", whose foundation was attributed to him and to which he was considered to have transmitted the deposit of doctrine handed down by the prophets (Pirqe Abhôth, I, 2).這個鑑定,這是沒有歷史價值,並根據據聖杰羅姆的解釋條。 ,二,第7 ,第一次大概是在所建議的傳統看見在埃斯德拉斯間的先知和“偉大的猶太教堂“ ,其基礎是因為他和他被視為傳播交存理論流傳下來的先知( Pirqe Abhôth ,我, 2 ) 。 The position of intermediary fully belonged to Esdras on the hypothesis that he was the last of the prophets and the first member of the "great synagogue".中介機構的立場完全屬於埃斯德拉斯的假說,他是最後的先知和首個“偉大的猶太教堂。 ” The name Malachias figures at the head of the book in the Septuagint.名稱Malachias數字團長的圖書在七十。 The Alexandrine translator, however, did not understand Mal., i, 1, to contain the mention of the author's proper name; he translates the passage: "The word of the Lord by the hand of his Angel," so that he has evidently understood the Hebrew expression to be the common noun augmented by the suffix; he has, moreover, read Mál'akhô instead of Mál'akhî.在亞歷山大的翻譯,但不明白條。 ,我, 1 ,以遏制提及作者的適當的名稱,他通過翻譯: “這個詞的上帝的手他的天使” ,所以,他已明顯理解希伯來語表達是常見的名詞後綴增加;他,此外,閱讀Mál'akhô不是Mál'akhî 。 We cannot say whether this reading and interpretation should not be considered as an effect of Jewish speculations concerning the identity of the author of the book with Esdras, or whether an interpretation of this kind was not at the foundation of the same speculation.我們不能說這是否閱讀和解釋不應該被看作是影響猶太投機的身份一書的作者與埃斯德拉斯,或是否有這樣的解釋並沒有在相同的基礎猜測。 However that may be, the interpretation of the Septuagint found an echo among the ancient Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, and even gave rise, especially among the disciples of Origen, to the strangest fancies.不過可能是,該解釋的迴聲七十發現的古代神父和教會的作家,甚至引起,尤其是在門徒奧利,以最奇怪的幻想。

A large number of modern authors likewise refuse to see in Mál'akhî the proper name of the author.大量現代作家同樣拒絕看到Mál'akhî適當的作者名稱。 They point out that in Mal., iii, 1, the Lord announces: "Behold I send my angel (mál'akhî)...".他們指出,在馬累。 ,三, 1 ,主宣布: “看,我送我的天使( mál'akhî )...". According to them, it is from this passage that the name Mál'akhî was borrowed by a more recent author, who added the inscription to the book (i, 1).據他們說,正是從這個通道的名字Mál'akhî借用的更近的作者,誰增加了登記的書(一, 1 ) 。 But, in the first place, this epithet Mál'akhî could not have the same value in i, 1, as in iii, 1, where it is the noun augmented by the suffix (my angel).但是,擺在首位,這一修飾語Mál'akhî不能有相同的價值,一, 1 ,如在三, 1 ,它是增加了名詞後綴(我的天使) 。 For in i, 1, the Lord is spoken of in the third person, and one would expect the noun with the suffix of the third person, as in fact is given in the Septuagint (his angel).在一, 1 ,主講的第三人,一個期望的名詞後綴的第三人,實際上是在七十(他的天使) 。 The messenger of the Lord is moreover announced in iii, 1, to arrive thereafter (cf. iv, 5; Hebrew text, iii, 23); consequently no one could have imagined that this same messenger was the author of the book.信使耶和華是另外宣布,三, 1 ,到達其後(見四,五;希伯來文,三, 23 ) ;因此沒有人能想像這是同一信使一書的作者。 There would remain the hypothesis that Mál'akhî in i, 1, should be understood as a qualifying word signifying angelicus --- ie he who was concerned with the angel, who prophesied on the subject of the angel (iii, 1).這將仍然是一種假設,即Mál'akhî在一, 1 ,應該理解為一個修飾詞意angelicus ---即他關注的是誰的天使,誰預言關於這個問題的天使(三, 1 ) 。 This explanation, however, is too far-fetched.這種解釋,但是,是很牽強。 It is at least more probable that Mál'akhî in i, 1, should be understood as the proper name of the author, or as a title borne historically by him and equivalent to a proper name. We are no doubt in presence of an abbreviation of the name Mál'akhîyah, that is "Messenger of Yah".這至少是更可能Mál'akhî在一, 1 ,應被理解為正確的作者姓名,或作為一種所有權承擔歷史上他和相當於一個適當的名稱。我們是毫無疑問的存在的縮寫名稱Mál'akhîyah ,這是“信使嚴” 。

II.二。 CONTENTS OF THE BOOK這本書的目錄

The Book of Malachias in the Hebrew comprises three chapters.書Malachias在希伯來語包括三個章節。 In the Greek Bible and in the Vulgate in contains four, chapter iii, 19 sqq., of the Hebrew forming a separate chapter.在希臘聖經和拉丁文聖經中包含四個,第三章, 19 sqq 。 ,希伯來形成一個單獨的一章。 The book is divided into two parts, the first extending from i, 2, to ii, 16, and the second from ii, 17, to the end.這本書分為兩部分,第一部分從一,二,以二, 16日,第二次從二, 17日,結束。 In the first the prophet first inveighs against the priests guilty of prevarication in their discharge of the sacrificial ritual, by offering defective victims (i, 6-ii, 4), and in their office of doctors of the Law (ii, 5-9).在第一先知第一inveighs對神職人員犯推諉其履行祭祀儀式中,通過提供有缺陷的受害者(一, 6 - 2 , 4 ) ,並在其辦公室的醫生法(二, 5月9日) 。 He then accuses the people in general, condemning the intestine divisions, the mixed marriages between Jews and Gentiles (ii, 10-12), and the abuse of divorce (ii, 13-16).然後,他指責人民,譴責腸司,異族通婚的猶太人和外邦人(二, 10月12日) ,以及濫用離婚(二13-16 ) 。 The second part contains a discourse full of promise.第二部分包含一個話語充滿了希望。 To a first complaint concerning the impunity which the wicked enjoy (ii, 17), Yahweh replies that the Lord and the angel of the New Testament are about to come for the purpose of purifying the sons of Levi and the entire nation (iii, 1-5); if the people are faithful to their obligations, especially with respect to the tithes, they will be loaded with Divine blessings (iii, 6-12).第一個申訴的有罪不罰現象惡人享受(二17 ) ,答复說,耶和華上帝和天使的新約全書即將來到的目的是淨化的兒子列維和整個民族(三, 1 -5 ) ;如果人民忠實於自己的義務,特別是在什一稅,他們將滿載神祝福(三, 6月12日) 。 To a second complaint concerning the afflictions that fall to the lot of the just, while the wicked succeed in everything (iii, 13), Yahweh gives answer that on the day of his justice the good will take a glorious revenge (iii, 14 sqq.).第二次投訴的苦難是秋天的命運公正,而成功的一切邪惡的(三13 ) ,耶和華使答案的一天,他和正義的良好意願採取光榮報復(三, 14 sqq 。 ) 。 The book closes with a double epilogue; the first recalls the remembrance of Moses, and the laws promulgated on Mount Horeb (iv, 4; Hebrew text, iii, 22); the second announces the coming of Elias before the day of Yahweh (iv, 5-6; Heb., iii, 23-24).這本書關閉雙尾聲;第一回顧紀念摩西,並頒布的法律何烈山(四, 4 ;希伯來文,三, 22 ) ;第二次宣布的到來埃利亞斯前一天耶和華(四, 5月6日;希伯來。 ,三, 23日至24日) 。 The unity of the book taken as a whole is unquestionable; but many critics consider as the addition of another hand either both the epilogues or at least the second.團結的書作為一個整體是不容置疑的,但許多評論家認為作為增加另一方面也都epilogues或至少是第二次。 There is indeed no connexion between these passages and what goes before, but from this consideration alone no certain conclusion can be drawn.確實沒有聯接通道和之間發生的事情,但僅僅從這一考慮沒有某些得出。

III.三。 DATE OF COMPOSITION日期組成

The opinion brought forward some time ago, that the book of Malachias was composed in the second century BC, has received no support.該意見提出了前一段時間,這本書組成的Malachias在公元前二世紀,沒有得到任何支持。 Critics are practically agreed in dating the book from about the middle of the fifth century BC The text itself does not furnish any explicit information, but many indications are in favour of the assigned date:批評實際上同意約會書從中東的公元前五世紀,文字本身也沒有提供任何明確的信息,但許多跡象都贊成指定日期:

(a) mention of the Peha (i, 8), as the political head of the people takes us back to the Persian period; the title of Peha was indeed that borne by the Persian governor especially at Jerusalem (Haggai 1:1; Ezra 5:14; Nehemiah 5:14-15); (一)提及Peha (一, 8 ) ,作為政治領導人民把我們回到波斯時期; Peha的標題確實是該所承擔的波斯總督特別是在耶路撒冷(哈1:1 ;以斯拉5點14分;尼希米記5:14-15 ) ;

(b) the book was not composed during the first years that followed the return from the Babylonian captivity, because not only the Temple exists, but relaxation in the exercise of worship already prevails (Malachi 1:6 sqq.); (二)本書是不是組成的頭幾年之後返回巴比倫囚禁,因為不僅寺存在,但放鬆行使崇拜已經盛行(瑪拉基1時06 sqq 。 ) ;

(c) on the other hand it is hardly probable that the discourses of Malachias are of later date than Nehemias. ( c )在另一方面,可能是很難的話語Malachias是日後比Nehemias 。 In the great assembly which was held during the first sojourn of Nehemias at Jerusalem, among other engagements, the people had taken that of paying the tithes regularly (Nehemiah 10:38), and history testifies that in this respect the adopted resolutions were faithfully carried out, although in the distribution of the tithes the Levites were unjustly treated (Nehemiah 13:5, 10, 13).在大是大會期間舉行的第一次逗留Nehemias在耶路撒冷,除其他活動,人們已採取了定期繳納什一稅(尼希米記10:38 ) ,歷史證明,在這方面,通過了各項決議,忠實地履行了指出,儘管在分配的什一稅的利被不公正地對待(尼希米記13時05分, 10 , 13 ) 。 Now Malachias complains not of the injustice of which the Levites were the object, but of the negligence on the part of the people themselves in the payment of the tithes (iii, 10).現在Malachias抱怨沒有的不公正,而利的對象,但該過失,人民自己支付的什一稅(三10 ) 。 Again, Malachias does not regard mixed marriages as contrary to a positive engagement, like that which was taken under the direction of Nehemias (Nehemiah 10:30); he denounces them on account of their unhappy consequences and of the contempt which they imply for the Jewish nationality (Malachi 2:11, 12);再次, Malachias並不認為異族通婚違背了積極的接觸一樣,這是採取的指導下Nehemias (尼希米記10:30 ) ;他譴責他們就到他們的不愉快的後果和蔑視,他們暗示的猶太人國籍(瑪拉基2點11 , 12 ) ;

(d) it is not even during the sojourn of Nehemias at Jerusalem that Malachias wrote his book. ( d )它甚至沒有在逗留Nehemias在耶路撒冷說, Malachias寫他的書。 Nehemias was Peha, and he greatly insists upon his disinterestedness in the exercise of his functions, contrary to the practices of his predecessors (Nehemiah 5:14 sqq.); but Malachias gives us to understand that the Peha was severely exacting (i, 8); Nehemias是Peha ,他極大地堅持他的無私在行使其職能,相反的做法,他的前任(尼希米記5時14 sqq 。 ) ;但Malachias使我們認識到,嚴格Peha嚴重(一, 8 ) ;

(e) The date of composition can only fall within some short time before the mission of Nehemias. ( e )在組成之日起只能屬於一些短的時間內收到的使命Nehemias 。 The complaints and protestations to which this latter gives expression (Nehemiah 2:17; 4:4 sq.; 5:6, sqq., etc.) are like an echo of those recorded by Malachias (iii, 14, 15).投訴及抗議此後者表達(尼希米記二時17分, 4時04平方米; 5時06 , sqq 。等) ,如迴聲這些記錄Malachias (三, 14 , 15 ) 。 The misfortune that weighted so heavily upon the people in the days of Malachias (iii, 9 sqq.) were still felt during those of Nehemias (Nehemiah 5:1 sqq.).不幸的加權所以很大程度上取決於人的日子Malachias (三, 9 sqq 。 )仍然認為在那些Nehemias (尼希米記5:1 sqq 。 ) 。 Lastly and above all, the abuses condemned by Malachias, namely, the relaxation in religious worship, mixed marriages and the intestine divisions of which they were the cause (Malachi 2:10-12; cf. Nehemiah 6:18), the negligence in paying the tithes, were precisely the principal objects of the reforms undertaken by Nehemias (Nehemiah 10:31, 33, sqq., 10:38 sqq.).最後和最重要的是,侵犯譴責Malachias ,即放寬宗教崇拜,異族通婚和腸道司他們的事業(瑪拉基2:10-12 ;比照。尼希米記6:18 ) ,中的疏忽繳納什一稅,正是主要對象所進行的改革Nehemias (尼希米記10:31 , 33歲, sqq 。 , 10:38 sqq 。 ) 。 As the first mission of Nehemias falls in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes I (Nehemiah 2:1), that is in 445 BC, it follows that the composition of the Book of Malachias may be placed about 450 BC作為第一使命Nehemias屬於在20年的阿爾塔克賽爾克斯口(尼希米記2:1 ) ,這是在445年,因此,組成書Malachias可放置約公元前450

IV.四。 IMPORTANCE OF THE BOOK重要性預訂

The importance lies (1) in the data which the book furnishes for the study of certain problems of criticism concerning the Old Testament, and (2) in the doctrine it contains.的重要性在於( 1 )中的數據,這本書提供了研究的某些問題的批評關於舊約,和( 2 )在理論上它包含。

(1) For the study of the history of the Pentateuch, it is to be remarked that the Book of Malachias is directly connected with Deuteronomy, and not with any of those parts of the Pentateuch commonly designated under the name of priestly documents. ( 1 )為研究歷史的五經,應該說這本書的Malachias是直接與申命記,而不是任何這些地區的摩西五通常指定的名義下祭司文件。 Thus Mal., i, 8, where the prophet speaks of the animals unfit for sacrifice, brings to mind Deut., xv, 21, rather than Lev., xxii, 22 sq.; the passage in Mal., ii, 16, relating to divorce by reason of aversion, points to Deut., xxiv, 1.因此條。 ,我日, 8日,在先知談到動物不適宜的犧牲,使我想起Deut 。 ,十五,第21 ,而不是列夫。 , 22 , 22平方米;通過在馬累。 ,二, 16 ,關於離婚原因的厭惡,點Deut 。 , 24 , 1 。 What is even more significant is that, in his manner of characterizing the Tribe of Levi and its relations with the priesthood, Malachias adopts the terminology of Deuteronomy; in speaking of the priests, he brings into evidence their origin not from Aaron but from Levi (ii, 4, 5 sqq.; iii, 3 sq.).什麼是更重要的是,在他的方式的特點部落列維以及它與牧師Malachias採用的術語申命記;在談到牧師,他將作為證據的來源,但不是從亞倫從列維(二, 4 , 5 sqq 。 ;三, 3平方米) 。 Consequently, it would be an error to suppose that in this respect Deuteronomy represents a point of view which in the middle of the fifth century was no longer held.因此,這將是一個錯誤的假設,在這方面申命記代表的觀點來看,它在中東的15世紀已不再舉行。 Let us add that the first of the two epilogues, with which the book concludes (iv, 4; Hebrew text, iii, 32), is likewise conceived in the spirit of Deuteronomy.讓我們補充說,第一次為期epilogues ,這本書的結論(四, 4 ;希伯來文,三, 32歲) ,也同樣構想的精神,申命記。

The examination of the Book of Malachias may be brought to bear on the solution of the question as to whether the mission of Esdras, related in I Esd., vii-x, falls in the seventh year of Artaxerxes I (458 BC), that is to say, thirteen years before the first mission of Nehemias, or in the seventh year Artaxerxes II (398 BC), and therefore after Nehemias.審查書Malachias可能施加的解決的問題是,是否埃斯德拉斯的使命,在我與可持續發展教育。 ,第七至第十,跌倒後的第七年阿爾塔克賽爾克斯口( 458年) ,即也就是說, 13年前第一次訪問的Nehemias ,或在第七個年頭阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二( 398年) ,因此,後Nehemias 。 Immediately after his arrival in Jerusalem, Esdras undertakes a radical reform of the abuse of mixed marriages, which are already considered contrary to a positive prohibition (Ezra 10).他抵達後立即在耶路撒冷,埃斯德拉斯進行徹底改革,濫用通婚,這是已經被認為違反了積極的禁止(以斯拉10 ) 。 He tells us also that, supported by the authority of the King of Persia and with the co-operation of the governors beyond the river, he laboured with full success to give to religious worship all its splendour (Ezra 7:14, 15, 17, 20-8:36).他告訴我們還得到了權威的波斯國王與合作的省長超出了河,他辛勤的圓滿成功給予宗教崇拜其所有輝煌(埃茲拉7點14分, 15 , 17 , 20-8:36 ) 。 And nothing whatever justifies the belief that the work of Esdras had but an ephemeral success, for in that case he would not in his own memoirs have related it with so much emphasis without one word of regret for the failure of his effort.並沒有任何理由相信,工作埃斯德拉斯了,但一個短暫的成功,為在這種情況下,他不會在自己的回憶錄中有相關的IT與如此強調沒有一個字的遺憾,他的努力失敗。 Can data such as these be reconciled with the supposition that the state of affairs described by Malachias was the immediate outcome of the work of Esdras related in I Esd., vii-x?可這些數據,如能與假定的狀況描述的是立即Malachias的工作成果在我埃斯德拉斯有關可持續發展教育。 ,第七至第十?

(2) In the doctrine of Malachias one notices with good reason as worthy of interest the attitude taken by the prophet on the subject of divorce (ii, 14-16). ( 2 )在理論上的一個告示Malachias有充分的理由值得利益所採取的態度先知的主題離婚(二14-16 ) 。 The passage in question is very obscure, but it appears in v. 16 that the prophet disapproves of the divorce tolerated by Deut., xxvi, 1, viz., for cause of aversion.通過在問題很模糊,但它出現在五, 16先知不贊成離婚容忍Deut 。 , 26 , 1 ,即。 ,對事業的反感。

The Messianic doctrine of Malachias especially appeals to our attention.該學說Malachias彌賽亞特別呼籲我們的注意。 In Mal. iii, 1, Yahweh announces that he will send his messenger to prepare the way before Him.在條。三, 1 ,耶和華宣布,他將派遣他的使者鋪平道路在他面前。 In the second epilogue of the book (iv, 5, 6; Heb., text, iii, 23 sq.), this messenger is identified with the prophet Elias.在第二尾聲的書籍(四,五,六;希伯來。 ,文字,三, 23平方米) ,這Messenger是確定先知埃利亞斯。 Many passages in the New Testament categorically interpret this double prophecy by applying to John the Baptist, precursor of our Lord (Matthew 11:10, 14; 17:11-12; Mark 9:10 sqq.; Luke 1:17).許多段落中的新約全書明確解釋這種雙重預言的申請施洗約翰,前體我們的上帝(馬太11:10 , 14 ; 17:11-12 ;馬克9:10 sqq 。 ;路加福音1時17 ) 。 The prophecy of Malachias, iii, 1, adds that, as soon as the messenger shall have prepared the way, "the Lord, whom you seek, and the angel of the testament, whom you desire," will come to His temple.預言的Malachias ,三, 1 ,補充說,一旦信使應編制的方式, “上帝,你們尋求和天使的證明,你們的願望, ”將要到他寺。 The Lord is here identified with the angel of the testament; this is evident from the construction of the phrase and from the circumstance that the description of the mission of the angel of the testament (vv. 2 sq.) is continued by the Lord speaking of Himself in the first person in v. 5.這裡是上帝的天使確定的證明,這是明顯的建設短語和情況的說明的任務天使的見證( vv. 2平方米)是繼續上帝發言對自己的第一人訴5 。

A particularly famous passage is that of Mal., i, 10-11.通過一個特別有名的是誤。 ,我, 10月11日。 In spite of a difficulty in the construction of the phrase, which can be avoided by vocalizing one word otherwise than the Massoretes have done (read miqtar, Sept. thymiama, instead of muqtar in verse 11), the literal sense is clear.儘管有困難,建造的短語,它可避免的聲音以外的一個詞的Massoretes做(讀miqtar , 9月thymiama ,而不是muqtar的詩句11人) ,字面意義是顯而易見的。 The principal question is to know what is the sacrifice and pure offering spoken of in v. 11. A large number of non-Catholic exegetes interpret it of the sacrifices actually being offered from east to west at the time of Malachias himself.主要問題是,知道什麼是犧牲和純粹提供談到在訴11 。大量的非天主教exegetes解釋的犧牲實際提供從東到西的時候, Malachias本人。 According to some, the prophet had in view the sacrifices offered in the name of Yahweh by the proselytes of the Jewish religion among all the nations of the earth; others are more inclined to the belief that he signifies the sacrifices offered by the Jews dispersed among the Gentiles.據一些,先知在查看犧牲的名義提供的耶和華的proselytes猶太宗教各民族之間的地球;其他人更傾向於相信,他的犧牲,意味著所提供的猶太人分散在外邦人。 But in the fifth century BC neither the Jews dispersed among the Gentiles nor the proselytes were sufficiently numerous to justify the solemn utterances used by Malachias; the prophet clearly wants to insist on the universal diffusion of the sacrifice which he has in view.但是,在公元前五世紀的猶太人都分散在外邦人還是proselytes有足夠的理由眾多的莊嚴言論所使用的Malachias ;先知明確要堅持普遍擴散的犧牲,他的觀點。 Hence others, following the example of Theodore of Mopsuestia, think they can explain the expression in v. 11 as referring to the sacrifices offered by the pagans to their own gods or to the Supreme God; those sacrifices would have been considered by Malachias as materially offered to Yahweh, because in fact Yahweh is the only true God.因此其他人,下面的例子,西奧多的Mopsuestia ,認為他們可以解釋表達訴11 ,它是指所提供的犧牲的異教徒自己的神或上帝的最高法院,這些犧牲本來被認為有重大的Malachias提供給耶和華,因為事實上耶和華是唯一的真神。 But it appears inconceivable that Yahweh should, by means of Malachias, have looked upon as "pure" and "offered to his name" the sacrifices offered by the Gentiles to this or that divinity; especially when one considers the great importance Malachias attaches to the ritual (i, 6 sqq., 12 sqq.; iii, 3 sq.) and the attitude he takes towards foreign peoples (i, 2 sqq.; ii, 11 sq.).但現在看來不可思議的耶和華應通過Malachias ,都看成“純粹”和“提供給他的名字”的犧牲所提供的外邦人為這個或那個神,特別是考慮的非常重要的Malachias重視儀式(一, 6 sqq 。 , 12 sqq 。 ;三, 3平方米)和態度,他對外國人民(一, 2 sqq 。 ;二, 11平方米) 。 The interpretation according to which chap.解釋根據該章。 i, 11, concerns the sacrifices in vogue among the Gentiles at the epoch of Malachias himself fails to recognize that the sacrifice and the pure offering of v. 11 are looked upon as a new institution succeeding the sacrifices of the Temple, furnishing by their very nature a motive sufficient to close the doors of the house of God and extinguish the fire of the altar (v. 10).一, 11日,關注流行的犧牲之間的外邦人在時代Malachias自己不承認的犧牲和純粹提供訴11人看成一個新的機構接替犧牲的寺,家具由於其本身的性質的動機足夠關閉的門教堂和撲滅大火的祭壇(五10 ) 。 Consequently v. 11 must be considered as a Messianic prophecy.因此訴11必須被看作是一個彌賽亞的預言。 The universal diffusion of the worship of Yahweh is always proposed by the prophets as a characteristic sign of the Messianic reign. That the phrase is construed in the present tense only proves that here, as on other occasions, the prophetic vision contemplates its object absolutely without any regard to the events that should go before its accomplishment.普遍傳播的崇拜耶和華總是先知提出的一個特徵標誌彌賽亞統治。這句話是解釋在目前的緊張只能證明,在這裡,因為在其他場合,預言遠景設想的目標絕對不任何方面的事件,應該在其成就。 It is true that Mal., iii, 3-4, says that after the coming of the angel of the testament the sons of Levi will offer sacrifices in justice, and that the sacrifice of Juda and Jerusalem will be pleasing to the Lord.誠然,條。 ,三, 3月4日表示,在今後的天使的證明的兒子列維將提供犧牲正義,而且犧牲的猶大和耶路撒冷將是令人高興的上帝。 But the new institutions of the Messianic reign might be considered, either inasmuch as they were the realization of the final stage in the development of those of the Old Testament (and in this case they would naturally be described by the help of the images borrowed from the latter), or inasmuch as they implied the cessation of those of the Old Testament in their proper form.但是,新機構的彌賽亞統治可以考慮,或者因為它們是實現的最後階段在發展這些舊約(在這種情況下,他們自然會來描述的幫助下,借用圖像後者) ,或因為它們意味著停止這些舊約的適當形式。 In Mal., iii, 3-4, the religious institutions of the Messianic reign are considered from the former point of view, because the language is consolatory; in Mal, i, 10, 11, they are considered from the latter point of view, because the language here is menacing.在馬累。 ,三, 3月4日,宗教機構的彌賽亞統治被認為來自前的觀點來看,因為語言是consolatory ;在末,我, 10 , 11 ,它們被認為從後者的角度看,因為這裡的語言是危險的。

Certain authors, while admitting the Messianic character of the passage, think that it should be interpreted not of a sacrifice in the strict sense of the word, but of a purely spiritual form of devotion.某些作者,同時承認彌賽亞性質通道,認為這應解釋不是犧牲在嚴格意義上的字,而是一個純粹的精神形式的獻身精神。 However, the terms employed in v.然而,條款受聘於五 11 express the idea of a sacrifice in the strict sense. 11表達的想法,犧牲嚴格意義上的。 Moreover, according to the context, the censured sacrifices were not considered impure in their quality of material sacrifices, but on account of the defects with which the victims were affected; it is consequently not on account of an opposition to material sacrifices that the offering spoken of in v. 11 is pure.此外,根據該背景下,指責犧牲並不被視為不潔的質量,材料的犧牲,但考慮到與該缺陷的受害者都受到影響,這是因此沒有考慮到一個反對物質犧牲,提供口語11日,在五,是純粹的。 It is an altogether different question whether or not the text of Malachias alone permits one to determine in a certain measure the exact form of the new sacrifice.這是一個完全不同的問題,不論是否文Malachias一個單獨的許可證,以確定在某種程度的確切形式的新的犧牲。 A large number of Catholic exegetes believe themselves justified in concluding, from the use of the term minhah in v. 11, that the prophet desired formally to signify an unbloody sacrifice.許多天主教exegetes有理由相信自己的結論,從一詞的使用minhah在五, 11日,即先知理想的正式標誌一個unbloody犧牲。 The writer of the present article finds it so much the more difficult to decide on this question, as the word minhah is several times employed by Malachias to signify sacrifice in the generic sense (i, 13; ii, 12, 13; iii, 3, 4, and in all probability, i, 10).作者本文章認為,這麼多比較困難的決定就這一問題,因為這個詞是minhah多次受僱於Malachias意味著犧牲的一般意義(一, 13人;二, 12日, 13日;三, 3 , 4 ,和在所有的可能性,我, 10 ) 。 For the rest, the event has shown how the prophecy was to be realized.其餘的事件已經表明的預言是如何來實現。 It is of the Eucharistic sacrifice that Christian antiquity has interpreted the passage of Malachias (cf. Council of Trent, Sess. XXII, 1).這是聖體聖事犧牲,基督教解釋古代的流逝Malachias (參見理事會特倫特, Sess 。二十二, 1 ) 。

Publication information Written by A. Van Hoonacker.出版信息書面由A.凡Hoonacker 。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.轉錄由托馬斯J Bress 。天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

TORREY, The Prophecy of Malachi in Journal of Soc. TORREY的預言瑪拉基雜誌的SoC 。 for Biblical Lit.為聖經里拉。 (1898), pp. 1 sqq.; PEROWNE, Book of Malachi (Cambridge, 1896); REINKE, Der Prophet Maleachi (1856). ( 1898年) ,頁。 1 sqq 。 ;掃,瑪拉基書(劍橋, 1896年) ;克,明鏡先知Maleachi ( 1856年) 。 Consult also Commentaries on te Minor Prophets by SMITH (1900); DRIVER (Nahum-Malachi; Century Bible); KNABENBAUER (1886); WELLHAUSEN (1898); NOWACK (1904); MARTI (1904); VAN HOONACKER (1908); also Introductions to the Old Testament (see AGGEUS.)協商還評特小先知的史密斯( 1900年) ;司機(內厄姆-瑪拉基;世紀聖經) ; KNABENBAUER ( 1886年) ;豪森( 1898 ) ; NOWACK ( 1904年) ; MARTI ( 1904年) ;加值型網路HOONACKER ( 1908年) ;也介紹舊約(見AGGEUS 。 )


Book of Malachi瑪拉基書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Contents.目錄。

Prophetic Tone.先知基調。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

-Critical View:臨界查看:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The Book of Malachi is the last in the canon of the Old Testament Prophets.該瑪拉基書是去年在佳能舊約先知。 It has three chapters in the Masoretic text, while in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Peshiṭta it has four.它有三個章節中的馬所拉文本,而在七十的武加大,以及Peshiṭta它有四個。 The King James Version also, following the latter versions, has four chapters.國王詹姆斯版本還後,後者版本中,有4個章節。 As in the books of Isaiah, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes, the last verse in the Masoretic text is a repetition of the last verse but one.在書籍的以賽亞,耶利米哀歌,並傳道書,最後詩句中的馬所拉文本是重複過去的詩只有一個。 The style of the book is more prosaic than that of any of the other prophetical books; the parallelism met with in the others is here less pronounced, and the imagery often lacks force and beauty.風格的書籍更平淡無奇比任何其他預言書;的並行會見了在這裡的其他人不太明顯,而且圖像往往缺乏力量和美感。 The method of treatment is rather novel; it approaches the teaching method of the schools; Cornill speaks of it as "casuistic-dialectic."治療方法比較新穎,它的辦法的教學方法的學校; Cornill談到它是“詭辯,辯證的。 ” Thus the prophet first states his proposition; then he follows with remonstrances that might be raised by those he addresses; finally he reasserts his original thesis (comp. i. 2 et seq., 6 et seq.; ii. 13 et seq., 17; iii. 8, 13 et seq.).因此,先知先國的主張,然後他注視著remonstrances可能提出的那些他地址;最後,他重申他的原始論文( comp.島2起。 , 6起。 ;二。 13起。 , 17 ;三。 8日, 13日起。 ) 。 This form adds vividness to the argument.這種形式增加了生動的論點。 The book may be divided into three sections-(1) i.這本書可分為三個部分, ( 1 )一 1-ii. 1 - 2 。 9; (2) ii. 9 ( 2 )二。 10-17; (3) iii. (AV iii. and iv.), the divisions given being those of the Masoretic text. 10月17日; ( 3 )三。 (影音三。和第四。 ) ,該司正在考慮這些的馬所拉文本。

Contents.目錄。

Ch.總。 i.字母i. 2-ii. 2二。 9 represent Yhwh as Ruler and loving Father. 9代表Yhwh作為標尺和慈父。 It opens with a tender allusion to the love shown by Yhwh to Judah in the past; yet Judah acted faithlessly, deserting its benefactor.它打開了投標針對所表現出的愛,以猶太Yhwh在過去,但猶太擔任faithlessly ,開小差的恩人。 Malachi then addresses himself to the priests, those who are to lead the people in the way of Yhwh.瑪拉基然後針對自己的牧師,這些誰是領導人民在道路Yhwh 。 He castigates them for being derelict in their duty by offering on Yhwh's altars polluted bread and animals that have blemishes.他castigates他們正在失職的責任,提供關於Yhwh的祭壇污染麵包和動物,有污點。 By doing so they show that they despise Yhwh (i. 6-10).通過這樣做,他們表明,他們瞧不起Yhwh (一, 6月10日) 。 But Yhwh can do without their worship, for the time will come when the whole heathen world will worship Him (i. 11-14).但是Yhwh離不開他們的崇拜,其時將異教徒時,整個世界將崇拜他(一11月14日) 。 If the priests will not heed the admonition, dire punishment will be visited upon them (ii. 1-8).如果牧師不會聽從勸告,可怕的懲罰將是他們訪問(白介素1月8日) 。

Ch.總。 ii.二。 10-17 speaks of Yhwh as the supreme God and Father of all, and inveighs against those who had left their Jewish wives and married heathen women. 10月17日談到Yhwh作為最高神的父親,並且對那些inveighs誰離開自己的妻子和猶太人結婚異教徒婦女。

Ch.總。 iii.三。 (AV iii. and iv.) speaks of Yhwh as the righteous and final Judge. (影音三。與四) 。談到Yhwh作為最後的正義和法官。 It begins with the announcement that the messenger of Yhwh will come to prepare the way for Him by purifying the social and religious life (1-4).它首先宣布的使者Yhwh將準備為他的淨化社會和宗教生活( 1-4 ) 。 Yhwh will call to judgment all those who have transgressed the moral law and have been lax in the observance of the ritual; He invites all who have gone astray to return to Him and receive His blessings (5-15).耶和華將呼籲所有這些判斷誰擁有transgressed道德法律,並已渙散的紀念儀式;他請所有誰已經走入歧途返回他和接受他的祝福( 5月15日) 。 The faithful will be blessed, while those who persist in disobeying the law of God will be punished (16-21).此外,教友們將祝福,而誰堅持不服從上帝的法律都將受到懲罰( 16-21 ) 。 The book closes with a final exhortation to the godly.這本書結束了最後告誡的虔誠。

Prophetic Tone.先知基調。

Malachi, as opposed to the other prophetical books, lays much stress upon ceremonial observance (i. 6 et seq., 13 et seq.; iii. 7 et seq., 22): the priest is Yhwh's messenger (ii. 7, iii. 3 et seq.), and the law of Moses, with its statutes and observances, must be strictly observed (iii. 22).瑪拉基,而不是其他預言書籍,是很強調紀念儀式後, (一6起。 , 13起。 ;三。 7起。 , 22 ) :牧師是Yhwh信使(白介素7 ,三。 3起。 )和摩西律法,其章程和紀念活動,必須嚴格遵守( iii. 22 ) 。 Yet he is not a formalist; the book breathes the genuine prophetic spirit.然而,他不是一個形式主義;這本書的真正預言呼吸精神。 Thus, from the idea of the brotherhood of all Israelites he deduces the social duties which they owe to one another (ii. 10).因此,從思想,博愛的所有猶太人,他推導出了社會責任,他們應該彼此(白介素10 ) 。 Ceremonial observance is of value in his eyes only so long as it leads to spiritual service.紀念儀式的價值是在他眼裡只有這麼長時間,因為它導致精神服務。 In scathing language he lays bare the moral degeneracy of his time, a time given over to adultery, false swearing, oppression of the hireling and the widow and the fatherless (iii. 5 et seq.). Especially severe is he toward those who had entered into wedlock with heathen women (ii. 11-16).在嚴厲的語言,他暴露了道義上的簡並的時間,時間交給通姦,虛假宣誓就職,壓迫的僱工和寡婦和父親( iii. 5起。 ) 。特別嚴重的是誰,他對那些已經進入未婚婦女與異教徒(白介素11月16日) 。

The conditions that existed under his predecessors Haggai and Zechariah seem to have existed at the time of Malachi.存在的條件下他的前任哈和撒迦利亞似乎已經存在的時候,瑪拉基。 The Exile is a matter of the past; the Temple is built, and sacrifices are being offered (i. 10, iii. 1-10).流亡是一個令人過去;廟宇建,和犧牲正在提供(一10 ,三。 1月10日) 。 Malachi describes most faithfully the temper of his generation.瑪拉基最忠實地描述了他的脾氣一代。 The people had strayed away from Yhwh, and sought, by an assumption of indifference and by mockery, to hide their restlessness.迷路的人遠離Yhwh ,並設法通過假設的冷漠和嘲弄,隱藏自己的不安。 The exiles had been disillusioned when they found the land of their fathers a wilderness.流亡者已經醒悟的時候,他們發現的土地,他們的父親荒野。 Drought, locusts, failure of harvests (iii. 10 et seq.) had deepened their discontent. Yhwh's sanctuary had been rebuilt, but still their condition did not improve; they were growing impatient and were asking for proofs of Yhwh's love (iii. 13 et seq.).旱災,蝗災,失敗的收成( iii. 10起。 )加深了他們的不滿。 Yhwh的庇護所已經重建,但他們的狀況仍然沒有改善,他們越來越不耐煩,並要求提供證明Yhwh的愛( iii. 13起。 ) 。 Under the pressure of these unfavorable circumstances, priests and people neglected to show Yhwh the honor due to Him (i. 2 et seq.).的壓力下,這些不利的情況下,司鐸和人民表現出Yhwh被忽視的榮譽欠他(島2起。 ) 。 Malachi lays stress upon the inevitableness of the Day of Judgment, the coming of which would prove to the skeptical that devotion and fear of God are not in vain, but will be rewarded.瑪拉基注重對inevitableness天的判決,未來將證明,其中的懷疑和恐懼的獻身上帝是不是徒勞的,但會得到回報。 The messenger of Yhwh and the Last Judgment form the closing theme of Malachi's prophecy.使者Yhwh和最後的審判形式閉幕主題瑪拉基的預言。 The messenger will come in the person of Elijah, who will regenerate the people and restore them to union with Yhwh.使者將在人的以利亞,誰將重新恢復人民和他們聯盟Yhwh 。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Malachi is identified with Mordecai by R. Naḥman and with Ezra by Joshua b.瑪拉基是確定莫迪凱的河Naḥman和以斯拉的約書亞灣 Ḳarḥa (Meg. 15a). Ḳarḥa ( Meg. 15A條) 。 Jerome, in his preface to the commentary on Malachi, mentions that in his day the belief was current that Malachi was identical with Ezra ("Malachi Hebræi Esdram Existimant").杰羅姆,他在序言的評注瑪拉基,提到,在他的一天,相信這是目前相同瑪拉基與以斯拉( “瑪拉基Hebræi Esdram Existimant ” ) 。 The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel to the words "By the hand of Malachi" (i. 1) gives the gloss "Whose name is called Ezra the scribe."在根的喬納森本Uzziel的話“的手瑪拉基” (一1 )給出了光澤“的名字叫做以斯拉的編劇。 ” According to Soṭah 48b, when Malachi died the Holy Spirit departed from Israel.據Soṭah 48B條,當瑪拉基死亡聖靈離開以色列。 According to RH 19b, he was one of the three prophets concerning whom there are certain traditions with regard to the fixing of the Jewish almanac.根據濕度19B條,他是一個關於三個先知的人有某些方面,傳統的固定猶太年曆。 A tradition preserved in pseudo-Epiphanius ("De Vitis Proph.") relates that Malachi was of the tribe of Zebulun, and was born after the Captivity.的傳統保存在偽埃皮法尼烏斯( “者葡萄Proph 。 ” )涉及的瑪拉基是該部落的Zebulun ,以及出生後獲釋。 According to the same apocryphal story he died young, and was buried in his own country with his fathers.據未經證實的故事,他同樣早逝,和被安葬在他自己的國家,他的父親。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The name is not a "nomen proprium"; it is generally assumed to be an abbreviation of (="messenger of Yhwh"), which conforms to the Μαλαχίας of the Septuagint and the "Malachias" of the Vulgate.這個名字是不是一個“ nomen proprium ” ;人們普遍假定的縮寫( = “信使Yhwh ” ) ,這符合Μαλαχίας的譯本和“ Malachias ”的武加大。 The Septuagint superscription is ὲν χειρὶ ἀγγήλου αὐτοῦ, for . Wellhausen, Kuenen, and Nowack consider ch.在七十superscription是ὲν χειρὶ ἀγγήλου αὐτοῦ為。豪森, Kuenen ,並審議總Nowack 。 i.字母i. 1 a late addition, pointing to Zech. 1晚此外,指著Zech 。 ix.九。 1, xii. 1 ,十二。 1. 1 。 Cornill states that Zech. Cornill國家Zech 。 ix.-xiv. and Malachi are anonymous, and were, therefore, placed at the end of the prophetical books. ix.至十四。和瑪拉基是匿名的,並因此,放在最後的預言書。 Mal.條。 iii.三。 1 shows almost conclusively that the term was misunderstood, and that the proper name originated in amisconception of the word. 1顯示了決定性的任期被誤解,而且適當的名稱起源於amisconception一詞。 The consensus of opinion seems to point to 432-424 BC as the time of the composition of the book.協商一致的意見似乎指向432-424年的時間組成的書。 This was the time between the first and second visits of Nehemiah to Jerusalem.這之間的時間第一次和第二次訪問記耶路撒冷。 Some assert that the book was written before 458 BC, that is, before the arrival of Ezra in Jerusalem.有人斷言,這本書是寫在公元前458 ,也就是到達之前埃茲拉在耶路撒冷。

Isidore Singer, Adolf Guttmacher伊西多爾歌手,阿道夫古特馬赫

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Boehme, in Stade's Zeitschrift, vii.伯梅,在體育場的雜誌,七。 210 et seq.; Driver, Introduction: D. Knobel, Prophetismus der Hebräer, i. 210起。 ;驅動器,導言: 4克諾貝爾, Prophetismus之Hebräer島 386, Breslau, 1837; Bleek, Introduction to the Old Testament, 2d ed., i. 386 ,布雷斯勞, 1837年; Bleek ,介紹舊約,二維版。島 357; Cornill, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, pp. 357 ; Cornill導論中存在老聖經頁。 205 et seq., Freiburg, 1896; Cornill, The Prophets of Israel, p. 205起。弗賴堡, 1896年; Cornill ,以色列的先知,第 158, Chicago, 1895.SAG 158 ,芝加哥, 1895.SAG


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