Gospel According to Luke路加福音

General Information 一般信息

The Gospel According to Luke is the third book of the New Testament of the Bible.在路加福音是第三本書的新約聖經。 Because of its similarities to the Gospels According to Mark and Matthew, it is classified with them as the synoptic Gospels.由於其相似之處福音據馬克和馬修,這是與他們歸類天氣福音。 Although the Gospel was traditionally ascribed to Luke, a companion of Paul (Philem. 24; 2 Tim. 4:11), most modern scholars think that it was written between AD 80 and 90 by a Gentile Christian who wrote the Acts of the Apostles as a sequel. The Gospel characteristically teaches a message of universal salvation addressed to all people, not only to the Jews.雖然是傳統的福音路加福音原因,同伴的保羅( Philem. 24 ; 2蒂姆。 4時11 ) ,最現代化的學者認為,這是書面公元80至90的詹蒂萊基督教誰寫的使徒行傳作為續集。 福音教特點的信息普遍救恩給所有的人,不僅對猶太人。

Luke's Gospel can be divided into five major sections: a prologue (1:1 - 4); infancy narrative (1:5 - 2:52); ministry in Galilee (3:1 - 9:50); journey to Jerusalem (9:51 - 21:38); and the passion and resurrection (22:1 - 24:53).路加福音可分為五個主要部分:前言( 1:1 - 4 ) ;嬰兒敘事( 1:5 - 2點52 ) ;部加利利( 3:1 - 9點50分) ;旅程耶路撒冷( 9 : 51 - 21:38 ) ;的激情與復活( 22:1 - 24:53 ) 。 The conclusion sets the scene for the spread of the Christian word, as recounted in the Acts.結論集現場傳播基督教一詞,因為回憶中的行為。

In common with the other Gospels, Luke relates the principal events of Christ's public life. Passages peculiar to Luke include the parable of the good Samaritan (10:25 - 37), the prodigal son (15:11 - 32), and Christ's words to the women of Jerusalem and to the good thief (23:27 - 31, 43). Commentators point out the prominence given to women. Examples include the story of Elizabeth (1:5 - 66), Mary's part in the infancy narrative (1:5 - 2:52), and the widow of Naim (7:11 - 17).在共同與其他福音路加福音涉及的主要事件基督的公共生活。 通道特有的盧克包括寓言的好心的撒瑪利亞人( 10:25 - 37 )中,浪子( 15點11 - 32 ) ,和基督的話對婦女的耶路撒冷和良好的小偷( 23:27 - 31 , 43 ) 。評論家指出突出婦女。例子包括故事伊麗莎白( 1:5 - 66 ) ,瑪麗參加了嬰兒的說明( 1:5 - 2點52分) ,和的遺孀納伊姆( 7點11 - 17 ) 。 Luke also contains three hymns that have become an important part of liturgy: the Magnificat (1:46 - 55), the Benedictus (1:68 - 79), and the Nunc Dimittis (2:29 - 32).盧克還包含了三個讚美詩已成為一個重要組成部分禮儀:在Magnificat ( 1時46分- 55 )中, Benedictus ( 1:68 - 79 ) ,和孔培養Dimittis ( 2時29 - 32 ) 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
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Bibliography 參考書目
GB Caird, The Gospel of St. Luke (1963); F Danker, Jesus and the New Age According to St. Luke (1972); JM Dawsey, The Lukan Voice (1986); F Evans, Saint Luke (1990). GB的凱爾德,福音的聖盧克( 1963年) ,女Danker ,耶穌和新時代據聖盧克( 1972年) ; JM Dawsey ,該Lukan語音( 1986年) ,女埃文斯,聖路加( 1990年) 。


Gospel According to Luke路加福音

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Jesus' thirty years of private life (1-4:13)耶穌的三十年的私人生活( 1-4:13 )
  2. Galilean Ministry of Jesus (4:14-9:50)伽利略部耶穌( 4:14-9:50 )
  3. Journey from Galilee to Jerusalem (9:51-19:44)從加利利耶路撒冷( 9:51-19:44 )
  4. Last days of Jesus in Jerusalem, His Crucifixion and Burial (19:45-23:56)最後幾天,耶穌在耶路撒冷,他的受難和埋葬( 19:45-23:56 )
  5. Resurrections and appearances of the Risen Lord and His Ascension (24:1-53) Resurrections和外表的復活基督和他的阿森松( 24:1-53 )


Luke盧克

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Luke, the evangelist, was a Gentile.盧克的傳播者,是一個詹蒂萊。 The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown.日期和轉換的情況下,他目前還無從知曉。 According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself.根據他自己的聲明(路加福音1:2 ) ,他是不是一個“見證人和部長詞從一開始。 ”這是可能的,他是一名醫生Troas ,並在那裡轉化保羅,向誰他非常重視自己。 He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1).他陪同他立,但並未有分享他監禁,也沒有陪他進一步被釋放後,在他的傳教之旅在這個時候(使徒17:1 ) 。 On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years.對保羅的第三次訪問立(二十時05分, 6 )我們再次會見盧克,誰可能已經花光了所有的中間的時間在這個城市,一個時期的七,八年。 From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27: 1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 24; Col. 4:14).從這個時候路加是保羅不斷的同伴在他的旅程,以耶路撒冷( 20:6-21:18 ) 。他再次消失認為在保羅的監禁在耶路撒冷和凱撒利亞,只有重新出現時,保羅提出了羅馬( 27 : 1 ) ,何處,他伴隨著他( 28:2 , 12月16日) ,而他仍然與他,直到他的第一次密切監禁(腓利門書24 ;上校四點14分) 。

The last notice of the "beloved physician" is in 2 Tim.最後通知“親愛的醫生”是在2蒂姆。 4:11. 4時11分。 There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.有許多段落保羅的書信中,以及在路加福音的著作,其中顯示的程度和準確性,他的醫學知識。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Gospel according to Luke福音路加

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Gospel according to Luke was written by Luke. 據福音路加福音的作者是盧克。 He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4).他不主張一直是見證人我們的主部,而是去了最好的信息來源,在他的影響力,並有書面說明有序的事實(路加福音1:1-4 ) 。 The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other.作者前三福音,該synoptics寫道,相互獨立。 Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.每個獨立的敘事寫下的指導下聖靈。 Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common.每一個作家有一些事情,無論是在物質和風格,特有的自己,然而,所有這三個有很多共同點。

Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of tolerance."路加福音被稱為“福音的國家,充滿了憐憫和希望,向世界的愛的痛苦的救世主” , “福音的聖潔的生活” , “福音的希臘人;的福音未來的福音逐步基督教的普遍性和gratuitousness福音;歷史性的福音;耶穌福音的好醫生和人類的救世主“的”福音的父上帝和兄弟情誼的人“ , ”女性的福音“ , ”福音的棄兒,在撒瑪利亞的酒館,在妓女和浪子“ , ”福音容忍。 “ The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4: 18).其主要特點是福音,因為法拉(劍橋聖經路加福音, Introd 。 )備註,是fitly表達的座右銘: “誰做了很好,癒合所有被壓迫的魔鬼” (使徒行10:38 ;壓縮機。路加福音4 : 18 ) 。 Luke wrote for the "Hellenic world."盧克寫的“希臘的世界。 ” This Gospel is indeed "rich and precious."這確實是福音“豐富和珍貴。 ” "Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. “在總共1151詩句, 389路已在與馬修和馬克, 176共同的馬修,就有41個在與馬克,僅留下544特有的自己。

In many instances all three use identical language." (See Matthew; Mark) There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when compared this result is obtained: Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences. That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar language. Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and Mark.在許多情況下都使用相同的語言3 。 “ (見馬修;馬克)有17我們的主的寓言這一特有的福音。 (見名單的寓言於附錄。 )盧克還記錄了我們的上帝的奇蹟這是省略的馬修和馬克。 (見名單奇蹟於附錄。 )的概略福音彼此相關的計劃後,下面的。如果每個內容福音派100 ,然後比較,這一結果表明:馬克7特殊性, 93巧合。馬修42特殊性, 58巧合。路加福音59特殊性, 41巧合。也就是說, 13 - fourteenths馬克,四sevenths的馬修和五分之二路加福音採取了同樣的事情描述的非常相似的語言。盧克的風格更成品和古典比馬修和馬克。

There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom.沒有那麼在它的希伯來成語。 He uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, "he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.他用幾個拉丁詞(路加福音12時06分, 7點41分; 8:30 ; 11點33 ; 19:20 ) ,但沒有敘利亞文或希伯來文的話,除非sikera ,一個令人興奮的飲料酒的性質,但沒有取得葡萄(來自希伯來。 shakar , “他是喝醉了” ,列夫。 10點09 ) ,可能棕櫚酒。 This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament. The date of its composition is uncertain.這福音包含2008年單獨提到舊約。日期其組成是不確定的。 It must have been written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed at about 63 or 64 AD This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner.它必須是書面前的行為,日期的組成一般是固定在大約63或64年這福音寫,因此,大概在60歲或63歲時,盧克可能已在愷撒在出席保羅,誰當時囚犯。 Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's imprisonment there.另一些人猜測,這是寫在羅馬期間保羅的監禁存在。 But on this point no positive certainty can be attained.但是,在這一點上沒有任何積極的肯定,才能實現。

It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not at the dictation of Paul.人們普遍以為路加福音寫的指導下,如果不是在聽寫的保羅。 Many words and phrases are common to both; eg Compare Luke 4:22 with Col. 4:6.許多單詞和短語是共同的,如比較路加福音4時22分與上校四點06 。 Compare Luke 4:32 with 1 Cor.比較路加福音4點32分與1心病。 2:4. 2時04分。 Compare Luke 6:36 with 2 Cor.比較路加福音6點36分與2心病。 1:3. 1:3 。 Compare Luke 6:39 with Rom.比較路加福音6點39分與光盤。 2:19. 2點19分。 Compare Luke 9:56 with 2 Cor.比較路加福音9時56分2心病。 10:8. 10時08分。 Compare Luke 10:8 with 1 Cor.比較路加福音十點08分與1心病。 10:27. 10:27 。 Compare Luke 11:41 with Titus 1:15.比較路加福音11點41分與提圖斯1:15 。 Compare Luke 18:1 with 2 Thess.比較路加福音18:1 2 Thess 。 1:11. Compare Luke 21:36 with Eph. 1:11 。比較路加福音21:36與厄。 6:18. 6:18 。 Compare Luke 22:19, 20 with 1 Cor. 11:23-29.比較路加福音22:19 , 20 1心病。 11:23-29 。 Compare Luke 24:46 with Acts 17:3.比較路加福音24:46行為17:3 。 Compare Luke 24:34 with 1 Cor.比較路加福音24:34 1心病。 15:5.十五時05分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Luke Chapter 24路加福音第24章

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

First Day of the Week第一天週

The order of our Lord's appearances on this day was given in the comment on Matthew 28, and need not be repeated.為了我們的上帝的出現在這一天是在馬太28日發表評論,並沒有必要重複。 Indeed all of the events in the chapter were dealt with there, except the walk to Emmaus (vv. 13-35).事實上所有活動的一章中處理了那裡,除了步行到厄瑪烏( vv. 13-35 ) 。 Three score furlongs represent nearly eight miles (v. 13).三個評分furlongs代表近800英里(五13 ) 。 Cleopas, one of the two on this journey is not met with elsewhere, and is to be distinguished from the "Clopas" of John 19:25. Cleopas ,其中兩個在這個征途上沒能達到的地方,而且是有別於“ Clopas ”約翰19:25 。 Luke has sometimes been identified as the other, but this is conjecture.盧克有時被確定為其他,但這是猜想。 The story runs on smoothly and requires little explanation; but, following Stuart, we remark on the wisdom Christ displayed in dealing with the men.這個故事上運行順利,並要求解釋甚少,但是下面的斯圖爾特,我們談話的智慧基督顯示在處理男性。

He brought them to the written word, and He left them there (vv. 25-27), furnishing no fresh revelation, but expecting them to rest on the old one.他把他們帶到文字,和他堅持讓他們有( vv. 25日至27日) ,提供任何新的啟示,但希望他們休息舊。 What He expected of them, He still expects of His disciples, and the sooner we realize and act on it, the sooner will we have peace.他對它們的期望,但他仍希望他的弟子,而且越快我們認識和採取行動,越早將我們的和平。 Another interesting item is the reference to Simon Peter (v. 34) which no other evangelist mentions, but which Paul records later (1 Corinthians 15: 5). The reason for silence concerning it was the question of communion with His Lord that had to be settled for Peter. Could he again enjoy it after what he had done?另一個有趣的項目是參照西門彼得(五34 ) ,其中沒有提到其他傳播者,但後來保羅記錄(哥林多前書15 : 5 ) 。沉默的原因是有關問題的交流與他的上帝,必須解決的彼得。他能再次享受之後他的所作所為? "That visit settled it," says Stuart: "We say visit because evidently it was the Lord who sought him out." “這次訪問解決了, ”斯圖爾特說: “我們說的訪問,因為顯然這是主誰尋求他。 ”

He "hath appeared unto Simon."他“上帝似乎給西蒙。 ” The effect of this interview on Peter is seen in John 21:7.的影響,本次採訪的彼得是在約翰21點零七。 Luke is very definite concerning the evidences of Christ's resurrection.盧克是非常明確的證據基督的復活。 "A spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have" (39). “的精神上帝沒有肉和骨頭,因為你們看到我了” ( 39 ) 。 There is no mention of blood, for that is the life of the flesh (Lev. 17:14), and was poured out when He died for guilty men.沒有提到的血液,因為這是企業的生命,肉體( Lev. 17:14 ) ,並湧出當他死去的男子有罪。 Luke's version of the commission to the disciples is new, in that "repentance and remission of sins" were to "be preached in His Name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem" (v. 47).路加版本委員會對弟子是新的,在這“悔過和緩解的罪孽”是為了“宣揚他的名字在所有國家之間,開始在耶路撒冷” (五47 ) 。 This is "the gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 20 : 24), and is to be distinguished from the gospel of the Kingdom which our Lord Himself and His disciples preached throughout His earthly life.這是“福音的恩典上帝” (使徒行20 : 24 ) ,並有別於福音王國而我們的主本人和他的弟子鼓吹他的俗世生活。

That gospel will be preached again as we have seen (Matt. 24 : 14), but not until after the translation of the church, and Israel takes up her mission once more among the Gentiles.這將是宣揚福音再次正如我們所看到的(太24 : 14 ) ,但沒有翻譯之後,對教會和以色列採取的使命,她再次在外邦人。 Power was needed for the preaching of this gospel, and it is promised (v. 49), but our Lord must first ascend ere it can be "shed forth," hence the record following (vv. 50-51).權力是需要鼓吹這個福音,這是許諾(五49 ) ,但我們的主必須先登上元件可以“擺脫提出, ”因此,記錄如下( vv. 50-51 ) 。 This reference to the ascension in Luke makes his Gospel the most complete outline of the four, for it begins with the announcement of the birth of John the Baptist as none of the others do, and closes with this event which Mark alone alludes to but in the briefest manner.這一提法的阿森松使得他在路加福音福音最完整的提綱4 ,因為它開始時宣布的誕生施洗約翰因為沒有其他人,並關閉了這一事件標誌著獨立的意思,但在了這一問題的方式。 Speaking of verse 51, the Scofield Bible says very beautifully, "the attitude of our Lord here characterizes this age as one of grace, an ascended Lord is blessing a believing people with spiritual blessings.談到詩51 ,聖經上說的斯科菲爾德非常漂亮, “的態度,我們的主在這裡這個年齡段的特點之一寬限期,一個登上主祝福一相信人的精神祝福。

The Jewish, or Mosaic age was marked by temporal blessings as the reward of an obedient people (Deut. 28 : 1-15).猶太教,或花葉年齡的特點是時間的祝福作為獎勵一個聽話的人( Deut. 28日: 1月15日) 。 In the Kingdom or Millennial age, spiritual and temporal blessings unite."在約旦王國或千年年齡,精神和時間祝福團結。 “

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 Have you reviewed the order of our Lord's appearances?你有沒有審查為了我們的上帝的表現? 2. 2 。 How was Christ's wisdom displayed on the walk to Emmaus?如何基督的智慧顯示在步行厄瑪烏? 3. 3 。 What reason for silence is suggested in regard to our Lord's appearance to Simon?有什麼理由沉默是建議在關於我們的主的外觀西蒙? 4. Why is the mention of "blood" omitted in the testimony to Christ's bodily resurrection? 4 。為什麼提到“血”中省略的證詞,以基督的身體復活? 5. 5 。 What is the distinction between the two "gospels" mentioned?什麼是區分這兩個“福音”提到? 6. 6 。 In what sense is the third Gospel the completest?在什麼意義上是第三個福音的completest ? 7. 7 。 Distinguish among the three ages, the Jewish, Christian and Millennial.區分這三個年齡,猶太教,基督教和千年。


Gospel of Saint Luke福音聖路加

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The subject will be treated under the following heads:這個問題將被視為以下首長:

I. Biography of Saint Luke;一傳聖路加;

II.Authenticity of the Gospel; II.Authenticity的福音;

III.三。 Integrity of the Gospel;完整的福音;

IV.四。 Purpose and Contents;目的和內容;

V. Sources of the Gospel: Synoptic Problem;五,資料來源的福音:天氣問題;

VI.六。 Saint Luke's Accuracy;聖路加的準確性;

VII.七。 Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene; Lysanias , Tetrarch的阿貝利娜;

VIII.八。 Who Spoke the Magnificat?誰講Magnificat ?

IX.九。 The Census of Quirinius;普查Quirinius ;

X. Saint Luke and Josephus.十,聖路加和約瑟夫。

I. BIOGRAPHY OF SAINT LUKE一傳聖路加

The name Lucas (Luke) is probably an abbreviation from Lucanus, like Annas from Ananus, Apollos from Apollonius, Artemas from Artemidorus, Demas from Demetrius, etc.盧卡斯的名稱(路)很可能從Lucanus的縮寫,如安納斯從Ananus ,阿波羅從阿波羅紐斯, Artemas從阿忒密多魯斯,迪馬斯從德梅等 (Schanz, "Evang. des heiligen Lucas", 1, 2; Lightfoot on "Col.", iv, 14; Plummer, "St. Luke", introd.) (坎茲, “ Evang 。萬聖盧卡斯” , 1 , 2 ;娜萊的“上校” ,四, 14 ;盧默, “聖路加” , introd 。 )

The word Lucas seems to have been unknown before the Christian Era; but Lucanus is common in inscriptions, and is found at the beginning and end of the Gospel in some Old Latin manuscripts (ibid.).盧卡斯這個詞似乎已經前所未有基督教時代;但Lucanus是常見的碑文,發現開始和結束時的福音在一些舊拉丁美洲手稿(同上) 。 It is generally held that St. Luke was a native of Antioch.人們普遍認為,聖盧克是一個土生土長的安蒂奧克。 Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. III, iv, 6) has: Loukas de to men genos on ton ap Antiocheias, ten episteuen iatros, ta pleista suggegonos to Paulo, kai rots laipois de ou parergos ton apostolon homilnkos--"Lucas vero domo Antiochenus, arte medicus, qui et cum Paulo diu conjunctissime vixit, et cum reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus est."優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。三,四,六)有: Loukas日的男子genos電Antiocheias噸, 10 episteuen iatros ,打鼓pleista suggegonos到聖保羅,啟腐爛laipois日歐parergos噸apostolon homilnkos - “盧卡斯維羅多摩Antiochenus ,藝術梅迪庫斯,歸仁等兼聖保羅丟conjunctissime vixit ,等暨reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus站“ Eusebius has a clearer statement in his "Quæstiones Evangelicæ", IV, i, 270: ho de Loukas to men genos apo tes Boomenes Antiocheias en--"Luke was by birth a native of the renowned Antioch" (Schmiedel, "Encyc. Bib.").優西比烏有一個明確的聲明,在他的“ Quæstiones Evangelicæ ” ,四,一, 270 :何日Loukas男子genos載試驗Boomenes Antiocheias英- “路加福音是本地出生的著名安提阿” ( Schmiedel , “ Encyc 。書目。 “ ) 。 Spitta, Schmiedel, and Harnack think this is a quotation from Julius Africanus (first half of the third century).施皮塔, Schmiedel ,並哈爾納克認為這是一個引用朱利阿弗里卡納斯(上半年3世紀) 。 In Codex Bezæ (D) Luke is introduced by a "we" as early as Acts 11:28; and, though this is not a correct reading, it represents a very ancient tradition.食品法典Bezæ (四)路加福音是介紹了“我們”的行為,早11點28分;和,雖然這是不正確的閱讀,它是一個非常古老的傳統。 The writer of Acts took a special interest in Antioch and was well acquainted with it (Acts 11:19-27; 13:1; 14:18-21, 14:25, 15:22, 23, 30, 35; 18:22).作者的行為採取了特殊的興趣,安提阿和熟悉它(使徒11:19-27 ;十三點零一; 14:18-21 , 14:25 , 15:22 , 23 , 30 , 35 ; 18 : 22 ) 。 We are told the locality of only one deacon, "Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch", 6:5; and it has been pointed out by Plummer that, out of eight writers who describe the Russian campaign of 1812, only two, who were Scottish, mention that the Russian general, Barclay de Tolly, was of Scottish extraction.我們被告知的地方只有一個執事, “尼古拉斯,一個proselyte安提” , 6點05分,它已經指出盧默說,在8個作家誰描述俄羅斯運動的1812年,只有兩個,誰是蘇格蘭,提到俄羅斯將軍,巴克萊德托利,這是蘇格蘭提取。 These considerations seem to exclude the conjecture of Renan and Ramsay that St. Luke was a native of Philippi.這些因素似乎排除了猜想雷南維和拉姆齊說,聖盧克是一個土生土長的立。

St. Luke was not a Jew.聖盧克不是猶太人。 He is separated by St. Paul from those of the circumcision (Colossians 4:14), and his style proves that he was a Greek.他是分離聖保祿從那些割禮(歌羅西書四點14分) ,和他的風格證明他是一個希臘人。 Hence he cannot be identified with Lucius the prophet of Acts 13:1, nor with Lucius of Romans 16:21, who was cognatus of St. Paul.因此,他不能確定路先知的行為的13點01分,也與羅馬的羅馬16時21分,誰是cognatus聖保羅。 From this and the prologue of the Gospel it follows that Epiphanius errs when he calls him one of the Seventy Disciples; nor was he the companion of Cleophas in the journey to Emmaus after the Resurrection (as stated by Theophylact and the Greek Menol.).從這個序幕的福音因此,埃皮法尼烏斯errs當他呼籲他的一個70門徒;也不是他的同伴的Cleophas的旅程厄瑪烏復活之後(如Theophylact和希臘Menol 。 ) 。 St. Luke had a great knowledge of the Septuagint and of things Jewish, which he acquired either as a Jewish proselyte (St. Jerome) or after he became a Christian, through his close intercourse with the Apostles and disciples.聖盧克了巨大知識七十和猶太人的事情,他獲得無論是作為一個猶太proselyte (聖杰羅姆)或之後,他成為一名基督信徒,通過他的密切交往與使徒和弟子。 Besides Greek, he had many opportunities of acquiring Aramaic in his native Antioch, the capital of Syria. He was a physician by profession, and St. Paul calls him "the most dear physician" (Colossians 4:14).除了希臘,他有許多機會獲得阿拉姆在他的安提阿,敘利亞的首都。他是一個醫生的職業,和聖保羅呼籲他“最親愛的醫生” (歌羅西書4時14 ) 。 This avocation implied a liberal education, and his medical training is evidenced by his choice of medical language.這興趣意味著通才教育,培訓和他的醫療證明了他選擇的醫學語言。 Plummer suggests that he may have studied medicine at the famous school of Tarsus, the rival of Alexandria and Athens, and possibly met St. Paul there.普拉默認為,他可能在醫學研究學院的著名塔爾蘇斯,對手亞歷山大和雅典,並可能會見了聖保羅的。 From his intimate knowledge of the eastern Mediterranean, it has been conjectured that he had lengthened experience as a doctor on board ship.從他熟悉的東地中海,它一直猜測,他已經延長經驗的醫生在船上。 He travailed a good deal, and sends greetings to the Colossians, which seems to indicate that he had visited them.他travailed一個很好的協議,並發出問候,歌羅西書,這似乎表明,他訪問了他們。

St. Luke first appears in the Acts at Troas (16:8 sqq.), where he meets St. Paul, and, after the vision, crossed over with him to Europe as an Evangelist, landing at Neapolis and going on to Philippi, "being assured that God had called us to preach the Gospel to them" (note especially the transition into first person plural at verse 10).聖盧克第一次出現在行為Troas ( 16時08 sqq 。 ) ,他在那裡會見聖保羅,並在的遠見,越過他到歐洲作為一個傳播者,降落在Neapolis並持續至立, “放心,上帝正在要求我們傳福音給他們” (注特別是過渡到第一人稱複數在詩10 ) 。 He was, therefore, already an Evangelist.他,因此,已經是一個福音。 He was present at the conversion of Lydia and her companions, and lodged in her house. He, together with St. Paul and his companions, was recognized by the pythonical spirit: "This same following Paul and us, cried out, saying: These men are the servants of the most high God, who preach unto you the way of salvation" (verse 17).他出席了轉換麗迪雅和她的同伴,並提出在她家。他與聖保羅和他的同伴,是公認的pythonical精神: “這同以下保羅和我們,哭了,他說:這些男子是公務員的最高神,誰鼓吹你們的方式救贖“ (詩17 ) 。 He beheld Paul and Silas arrested, dragged before the Roman magistrates, charged with disturbing the city, "being Jews", beaten with rods and thrown into prison.他看見保羅西拉斯逮捕,拖前羅馬地方法官,被控以令人不安的城市“ ,被猶太人” ,毆打棒扔進監獄。 Luke and Timothy escaped, probably because they did not look like Jews (Timothy's father was a gentile).盧克和蒂莫逃脫,可能是因為他們沒有像猶太人(提摩太的父親是猶太人) 。 When Paul departed from Philippi, Luke was left behind, in all probability to carry on the work of Evangelist.當保羅離開立路加福音是落在後面,在所有的可能性進行的工作的傳播者。 At Thessalonica the Apostle received highly appreciated pecuniary aid from Philippi (Phil., iv, 15, 16), doubtless through the good offices of St. Luke.在塞薩洛尼卡使徒收到高度讚賞金錢援助立( Phil. ,四, 15日, 16日) ,毫無疑問,通過斡旋聖盧克。 It is not unlikely that the latter remained at Philippi all the time that St. Paul was preaching at Athens and Corinth, and while he was travelling to Jerusalem and back to Ephesus, and during the three years that the Apostle was engaged at Ephesus.這不是不可能,後者仍處於立所有的時間,聖保羅是鼓吹在雅典和科林斯,而他前往耶路撒冷,並回到以弗所,並在三年使徒從事以弗所。 When St. Paul revisited Macedonia, he again met St. Luke at Philippi, and there wrote his Second Epistle to the Corinthians.當聖保羅重新馬其頓,他再次會見了聖盧克在立,有寫他的第二次書信的科林蒂安。

St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is "the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches" (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth.聖杰羅姆認為這是最有可能的聖盧克是“兄弟,他們的讚揚是福音所有的教堂” (哥林多後書8時18分) ,而且他是一個旗手的信科林斯。 Shortly afterwards, when St. Paul returned from Greece, St. Luke accompanied him from Philippi to Troas, and with him made the long coasting voyage described in Acts, xx.此後不久,當聖保羅返回希臘,聖盧克從立陪同他到Troas ,並與他取得長期滑行航程中所描述的行為,二十。 He went up to Jerusalem, was present at the uproar, saw the attack on the Apostle, and heard him speaking "in the Hebrew tongue" from the steps outside the fortress Antonia to the silenced crowd.他走到耶路撒冷,出席了軒然大波,看到了攻擊使徒,並聽到他說“在希伯來文的舌頭”的步驟以外的堡壘安東尼的沉默人群。 Then he witnessed the infuriated Jews, in their impotent rage, rending their garments, yelling, and flinging dust into the air.然後,他目睹了激怒猶太人,在他們的無能憤怒,再現他們的服裝,大叫,並扔灰塵到空氣中。 We may be sure that he was a constant visitor to St. Paul during the two years of the latter's imprisonment at Cæarea.我們可以肯定,他是一個不斷訪客聖保祿的兩年期間後者的監禁Cæarea 。 In that period he might well become acquainted with the circumstances of the death of Herod Agrippa I, who had died there eaten up by worms" (skolekobrotos), and he was likely to be better informed on the subject than Josephus. Ample opportunities were given him, "having diligently attained to all things from the beginning", concerning the Gospel and early Acts, to write in order what had been delivered by those "who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word" (Luke 1:2, 3). It is held by many writers that the Gospel was written during this time, Ramsay is of opinion that the Epistle to the Hebrews was then composed, and that St. Luke had a considerable share in it. When Paul appealed to Cæsar, Luke and Aristarchus accompanied him from Cæsarea, and were with him during the stormy voyage from Crete to Malta. Thence they went on to Rome, where, during the two years that St. Paul was kept in prison, St. Luke was frequently at his side, though not continuously, as he is not mentioned in the greetings of the Epistle to the Philippians (Lightfoot, "Phil.", 35). He was present when the Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians and Philemon were written, and is mentioned in the salutations given in two of them: "Luke the most dear physician, saluteth you" (Colossians 4:14); "There salute thee .在這期間,他很可能熟悉的情況,死亡希律阿格里帕我,誰死了吃了蠕蟲“ ( skolekobrotos ) ,他很可能是更好地了解這個問題比約瑟夫。給予充分的機會他說: “努力實現了所有的事情從一開始就”關於福音和早期行為,寫什麼,以便已交付的那些“誰從一開始就被目擊者和部長單詞” (路加福音1:2 , 3 ) 。它是由許多作家的福音寫在這段時間內,拉姆齊是認為,書信,以當時的希伯來人組成,而且聖盧克了相當大的份額了。當保羅呼籲愷撒,盧克和阿里斯陪同他從愷撒,並與他在風雨航程從克里特島到馬耳他。然後他們去羅馬,在那裡的兩年期間聖保祿被關在監獄,聖盧克,經常在他的方,但不是持續,因為他沒有提到的問候,書信的腓利(娜萊, “菲爾。 ” , 35 ) 。他目前在書信的歌羅西書以弗所書和腓利門書寫,並提到在語句中給出其中兩個: “路加福音最親愛的醫生, saluteth你” (歌羅西書4點14分) ; “有你致敬。 . . Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke my fellow labourers" (Philem., 24). St. Jerome holds that it was during these two years Acts was written.馬克,阿里斯,迪馬斯,和我的同胞勞動者路加福音“ ( Philem. , 24 ) 。聖杰羅姆認為,正是在這兩年的書面行為。

We have no information about St. Luke during the interval between St. Paul's two Roman imprisonments, but he must have met several of the Apostles and disciples during his various journeys.我們不知道聖盧克之間的間隔期間聖保祿兩個羅馬監禁,但他必須符合若干使徒和弟子在各種行程。 He stood beside St. Paul in his last imprisonment; for the Apostle, writing for the last time to Timothy, says: "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course. . . . Make haste to come to me quickly. For Demas hath left me, loving this world. . . . Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:7-11).他站在旁邊聖保祿在過去監禁;的使徒,寫在最後一次向霍震霆說: “我已經打了良好的戰鬥,我已經完成我的課程。 。 。 。趕快來我迅速。為迪馬斯上帝給我留下,愛這個世界。 。 。 。只有路加福音是與我“ (提摩太后書4:7-11 ) 。 It is worthy of note that, in the three places where he is mentioned in the Epistles (Colossians 4:14; Philemon 24; 2 Timothy 4:11) he is named with St. Mark (cf. Colossians 4:10), the other Evangelist who was not an Apostle (Plummer), and it is clear from his Gospel that he was well acquainted with the Gospel according to St. Mark; and in the Acts he knows all the details of St. Peter's delivery--what happened at the house of St. Mark's mother, and the name of the girl who ran to the outer door when St. Peter knocked.值得注意的是,在這三個地方,他的書信中提到的(歌羅西書4點14 ;腓利門書24 ;提摩太后書四點11分)他是命名聖馬克(參見歌羅西書4點10分) ,在其他傳播者誰不是使徒(盧默) ,顯然他的福音,他熟悉的福音聖馬克;和行為,他知道的所有細節聖彼得交付-發生了什麼在眾議院的聖馬克的母親,和名稱女孩誰跑到外門時,聖彼得撞倒。 He must have frequently met St. Peter, and may have assisted him to draw up his First Epistle in Greek, which affords many reminiscences of Luke's style.他必須經常會見了聖彼得大教堂,並可能協助他制定他的第一使徒在希臘,這使許多回憶路加福音的風格。 After St. Paul's martyrdom practically all that is known about him is contained in the ancient "Prefatio vel Argumentum Lucæ", dating back to Julius Africanus, who was born about AD 165.經過聖保祿殉道幾乎所有的了解他的情況載於古代“ Prefatio德維爾Argumentum Lucæ ” ,可追溯到朱利阿菲利加努斯,誰出生約公元165 。 This states that he was unmarried, that he wrote the Gospel, in Achaia, and that he died at the age of seventy-four in Bithynia (probably a copyist's error for Bœotia), filled with the Holy Ghost.這個國家,他是未婚,他寫了福音,在亞該亞,他去世時年僅74的螺(可能是抄寫的錯誤波伊俄提亞) ,充滿了聖靈。 Epiphanius has it that he preached in Dalmatia (where there is a tradition to that effect), Gallia (Galatia?), Italy, and Macedonia.埃皮法尼烏斯了它,他鼓吹的達爾馬提亞(其中有一個傳統,這一效應) ,高盧(加拉提亞? ) ,意大利和馬其頓。 As an Evangelist, he must have suffered much for the Faith, but it is controverted whether he actually died a martyr's death.作為一個傳播者,他必須受到很大的信心,但他是否真的controverted死於殉道。 St. Jerome writes of him (De Vir. III., vii).聖杰羅姆寫道他(者病毒。三。 ,七) 。 "Sepultus est Constantinopoli, ad quam urbem vigesimo Constantii anno, ossa ejus cum reliquiis Andreæ Apostoli translata sunt [de Achaia?]." “ Sepultus市盈率Constantinopoli ,廣告華富urbem vigesimo Constantii紀元,奧薩ejus暨reliquiis Andreæ阿波斯托利translata必須遵守[日亞該亞? ] 。 ”

St. Luke its always represented by the calf or ox, the sacrificial animal, because his Gospel begins with the account of Zachary, the priest, the father of John the Baptist.聖盧克它始終代表了小腿或牛,祭祀動物,因為他的福音開始與該帳戶的扎卡里,牧師的父親施洗約翰。 He is called a painter by Nicephorus Callistus (fourteenth century), and by the Menology of Basil II, AD 980.他被稱為畫家的Nicephorus卡利斯圖斯( 14世紀) ,以及由Menology的巴西爾二世,公元980 。 A picture of the Virgin in S.照片中的美屬維爾京南 Maria Maggiore, Rome, is ascribed to him, and can be traced to AD 847 It is probably a copy of that mentioned by Theodore Lector, in the sixth century.瑪利亞教堂,羅馬,原因是他,可追溯到公元847這可能是一份提到西奧多講師,在公元6世紀。 This writer states that the Empress Eudoxia found a picture of the Mother of God at Jerusalem, which she sent to Constantinople (see "Acta SS.", 18 Oct.).筆者指出,皇后Eudoxia找到了圖片天主之母在耶路撒冷,這是她送往君士坦丁堡(見“獸類黨衛軍。 ” 10月18日) 。 As Plummer observes.正如盧默觀察。 it is certain that St. Luke was an artist, at least to the extent that his graphic descriptions of the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, Shepherds.可以肯定的是,聖盧克是一個藝術家,至少在某種程度上,他的圖片說明報喜,探視,耶穌,牧羊人。 Presentation, the Shepherd and lost sheep, etc., have become the inspiring and favourite themes of Christian painters.介紹,牧人和丟失羊等,已成為鼓舞人心,最喜歡的主題基督教畫家。

St. Luke is one of the most extensive writers of the New Testament.聖盧克是一個最廣泛的作家的新約。 His Gospel is considerably longer than St. Matthew's, his two books are about as long as St.他的福音大大長於聖馬太,他的兩本書即將只要街 Paul's fourteen Epistles: and Acts exceeds in length the Seven Catholic Epistles and the Apocalypse.保羅的14書信:和行為的長度超過七天主教書信和啟示。 The style of the Gospel is superior to any NT writing except Hebrews.作風福音優於任何書面新台幣除外希伯來書。 Renan says (Les Evangiles, xiii) that it is the most literary of the Gospels.雷南維說(法國Evangiles ,十三) ,它是最文學的福音。 St. Luke is a painter in words.聖盧克是一個畫家的話。 "The author of the Third Gospel and of the Acts is the most versatile of all New Testament writers. He can be as Hebraistic as the Septuagint, and as free from Hebraisms as Plutarch. . . He is Hebraistic in describing Hebrew society and Greek when describing Greek society" (Plummer, introd.). “的作者和第三福音的行為是最多才多藝的所有新約全書作家。他可以作為Hebraistic的譯本,並免費從Hebraisms作為普魯塔克。 。 。他是在描述希伯來語Hebraistic社會和希臘時描述希臘社會“ (盧默, introd 。 ) 。 His great command of Greek is shown by the richness of his vocabulary and the freedom of his constructions.他的偉大的指揮希臘是所表現出的豐富的詞彙和他的自由,他的建築。

II.二。 AUTHENTICITY OF THE GOSPEL真實性的福音

A. Internal Evidence A.內部證據

The internal evidence may be briefly summarized as follows:內部證據可簡述如下:

The author of Acts was a companion of Saint Paul, namely, Saint Luke; and作者的行為是一個同伴的聖保羅,即聖路加;和

the author of Acts was the author of the Gospel.作者的行為是一個作者的福音。

The arguments are given at length by Plummer, "St. Luke" in "Int. Crit. Com." (4th ed., Edinburgh, 1901); Harnack, "Luke the Physician" (London, 1907); "The Acts of the Apostles" (London, 1909); etc.的論點得到了長時間的盧默, “聖路加”中的“詮釋。危重。 com 。 ” (第4版。 ,愛丁堡, 1901年) ;哈爾納克, “路加醫生” (倫敦, 1907年) ; “的行為使徒“ (倫敦, 1909年) ;等

(1) The Author of Acts was a companion of Saint Paul, namely, Saint Luke There is nothing more certain in Biblical criticism than this proposition. ( 1 )作者的行為是一個同伴的聖保羅,即聖路加沒有什麼更多的某些聖經批評比這個命題。 The writer of the "we" sections claims to be a companion of St. Paul.作家的“我們”部分聲稱是同伴聖保羅。 The "we" begins at Acts, xvi, 10, and continues to xvi, 17 (the action is at Philippi). It reappears at xx, 5 (Philippi), and continues to xxi, 18 (Jerusalem). “我們”始於行為,本篤十六世, 10年,並繼續十六, 17 (該訴訟是在立) 。它會重新出現在第XX號, 5 (立) ,並繼續二十一,第18條(耶路撒冷) 。 It reappears again at the departure for Rome, xxvii, 1 (Gr. text), and continues to the end of the book.它會重新出現再次啟程前往羅馬,二十七, 1 ( Gr.文本) ,並繼續年底這本書。

Plummer argues that these sections are by the same author as the rest of the Acts:普拉默認為,這些部分是由同一作者的其他行為:

from the natural way in which they fit in;從自然的方式,其中最適合自己的;

from references to them in other parts; and提到他們在其他地方;和

from the identity of style.從身份的風格。

The change of person seems natural and true to the narrative, but there is no change of language.人的變化很自然和真實的說明,但沒有改變的語言。 The characteristic expressions of the writer run through the whole book, and are as frequent in the "we" as in the other sections.表達的特點,作者貫穿整本書,並經常在“我們”在其他章節。 There is no change of style perceptible.沒有改變的風格明顯。 Harnack (Luke the Physician, 40) makes an exhaustive examination of every word and phrase in the first of the "we" sections (xvi, 10-17), and shows how frequent they are in the rest of the Acts and the Gospel, when compared with the other Gospels.哈爾納克(路加醫生, 40歲)進行了詳盡的檢查每一個字和詞組在第一的“我們”部分( 16 , 10月17日) ,並顯示出它們是如何頻繁的其餘部分的行為和福音相比其他福音。 His manner of dealing with the first word (hos) will indicate his method: "This temporal hos is never found in St. Matthew and St. Mark, but it occurs forty-eight times in St. Luke (Gospels and Acts), and that in all parts of the work."他以何種方式處理的第一個字(居屋)將表明他的方法: “這是從來沒有時間居屋中發現聖馬太和聖馬克,但它發生的48次在聖盧克(福音和行為) ,以及在所有部分的工作。 “ When he comes to the end of his study of this section he is able to write: "After this demonstration those who declare that this passage was derived from a source, and so was not composed by the author of the whole work, take up a most difficult position. What may we suppose the author to have left unaltered in the source? Only the 'we'. For, in fact, nothing else remains. In regard to vocabulary, syntax, and style, he must have transformed everything else into his own language. As such a procedure is absolutely unimaginable, we are simply left to infer that the author is here himself speaking."當他來結束他的研究本條他能寫: “經過這次示威是誰申明,本次通過來自一個來源,因此沒有作者所組成的整體工作,採取了最困難的立場。什麼可我們假設作者已離開不變的來源?只有'我們' 。對,事實上,沒有別的仍然存在。關於詞彙,語法和風格,他必須改變一切成他自己的語言。作為這樣一個程序是絕對無法想像的,我們只是左推斷,這裡是作者自己說話。 “ He even thinks it improbable, on account of the uniformity of style, that the author was copying from a diary of his own, made at an earlier period.他甚至認為這不可能,就到了統一的風格,這是複製的作者從自己的日記,提出在同期。 After this, Harnack proceeds to deal with the remaining "we" sections, with like results.在此之後,哈爾納克收益以處理遺留的“我們”部分,喜歡的結果。 But it is not alone in vocabulary, syntax and style, that this uniformity is manifest.但它絕非是唯一在詞彙,語法和風格,這是明顯的一致性。 In "The Acts of the Apostles", Harnack devotes many pages to a detailed consideration of the manner in which chronological data, and terms dealing with lands, nations, cities, and houses, are employed throughout the Acts, as well as the mode of dealing with persons and miracles, and he everywhere shows that the unity of authorship cannot be denied except by those who ignore the facts.在“使徒行傳” ,哈爾納克專門的網頁,以詳細審議的方式,時間數據,並條款處理土地,國家,城市和住房,在整個就業的行為,以及模式的處理者和奇蹟,他都表明,統一的作者也不能否認,除非這些誰無視事實。 This same conclusion is corroborated by the recurrence of medical language in all parts of the Acts and the Gospel.這同樣的結論證實了復發的醫學語言中所有部分的行為和福音。

That the companion of St. Paul who wrote the Acts was St. Luke is the unanimous voice of antiquity.該配套的聖保祿誰寫的聖盧克行為是一致的聲音文物。 His choice of medical language proves that the author was a physician.他選擇的醫學語言證明,作者是一名醫生。 Westein, in his preface to the Gospel ("Novum Test. Græcum", Amsterdam, 1741, 643), states that there are clear indications of his medical profession throughout St. Luke's writings; and in the course of his commentary he points out several technical expressions common to the Evangelist and the medical writings of Galen. Westein ,他在前言福音( “新工具測試。巴” ,阿姆斯特丹, 1741年, 643 ) ,國家有明確跡象表明,他在整個醫學界聖盧克著作;和過程中,他的評論,他指出了技術表達共同的傳播者和醫療著作伽倫。 These were brought together by the Bollandists ("Acta SS.", 18 Oct.).這些被召集的Bollandists ( “獸類黨衛軍。 ” 10月18日) 。 In the "Gentleman's Magazine" for June, 1841, a paper appeared on the medical language of St. Luke.在“君子雜誌” 6月, 1841年,一份文件上出現的醫學語言的聖盧克。 To the instances given in that article, Plummer and Harnack add several others; but the great book on the subject is Hobart "The Medical Language of St. Luke" (Dublin, 1882).以實例給出了這一條,盧默和哈爾納克添加其他幾個,但偉大的書是關於這一主題的霍巴特“醫療語言的聖盧克” (都柏林, 1882年) 。 Hobart works right through the Gospel and Acts and points out numerous words and phrases identical with those employed by such medical writers as Hippocrates, Arctæus, Galen, and Dioscorides.霍巴特工程通過福音權利和行為,並指出許多相同的單詞和短語與那些受僱於該醫療作家希波克拉底, Arctæus ,伽倫,和Dioscorides 。 A few are found in Aristotle, but he was a doctor's son.有幾個是在亞里士多德,但他是一個醫生的兒子。 The words and phrases cited are either peculiar to the Third Gospel and Acts, or are more frequent than in other New Testament writings.單詞和短語的引用都特有的第三福音和行為,或者是更頻繁地比其他新約全書著作。 The argument is cumulative, and does not give way with its weakest strands.其論點是累積的,不給予其最弱的方式鏈。 When doubtful cases and expressions common to the Septuagint, are set aside, a large number remain that seem quite unassailable.當可疑情況和表現形式共同七十,是擱置,大批仍然似乎相當無懈可擊。 Harnack (Luke the Physician! 13) says: "It is as good as certain from the subject-matter, and more especially from the style, of this great work that the author was a physician by profession. Of course, in making such a statement one still exposes oneself to the scorn of the critics, and yet the arguments which are alleged in its support are simply convincing. . . . Those, however, who have studied it [Hobart's book] carefully, will, I think, find it impossible to escape the conclusion that the question here is not one of merely accidental linguistic coloring, but that this great historical work was composed by a writer who was either a physician or was quite intimately acquainted with medical language and science. And, indeed, this conclusion holds good not only for the 'we' sections, but for the whole book."哈爾納克(路加醫生! 13 )說: “這是一樣好一些的標的物,而且特別是從作風,這個偉大的工作,作者是一名醫生的職業。當然,在作出這樣的聲明一個仍然暴露自己的輕蔑的批評,但論點被指控在其支持僅僅是令人信服的。 。 。 。這些,但是,誰研究過它[霍伯特的書]小心,將我認為,找到它無法逃避的結論是,這裡的問題是不是僅僅是偶然的語言色彩,但這種偉大的歷史組成的工作是一名作家誰是一種醫生或非常熟悉的語言和科學的醫療。實際上,這結論不僅擁有良好的'我們'節,但對整本書。 “ Harnack gives the subject special treatment in an appendix of twenty-two pages.哈爾納克給予特殊待遇的問題附錄中的22頁。 Hawkins and Zahn come to the same conclusion. Hawkins和贊恩得出相同的結論。 The latter observes (Einl., II, 427): "Hobart has proved for everyone who can appreciate proof that the author of the Lucan work was a man practised in the scientific language of Greek medicine--in short, a Greek physician" (quoted by Harnack, op. cit.).後者指出( Einl. ,二, 427 ) : “霍巴特證明大家誰可以欣賞證明的作者盧坎工作是一個人實行科學語言希臘醫學-簡言之,一個希臘醫生” (引用哈爾納克,同前。前。 ) 。

In this connection, Plummer, though he speaks more cautiously of Hobart's argument, is practically in agreement with these writers.在這方面,盧默,但他講的霍巴特更為謹慎的觀點,實際上是同意這些作家。 He says that when Hobart's list has been well sifted a considerable number of words remains.他說,當霍巴特的名單已篩選以及相當數量的話仍然存在。 "The argument", he goes on to say "is cumulative. Any two or three instances of coincidence with medical writers may be explained as mere coincidences; but the large number of coincidences renders their explanation unsatisfactory for all of them, especially where the word is either rare in the LXX, or not found there at all" (64). “論點” ,他接著說: “是累積性的。任何兩個或三個實例巧合醫療作家可能被解釋為單純的巧合,但大量的巧合使他們的解釋不能令人滿意的所有這些,特別是在這個詞是不是罕見的LXX ,或有沒有發現在所有“ ( 64 ) 。 In "The Expositor" (Nov. 1909, 385 sqq.), Mayor says of Harnack's two above-cited works: "He has in opposition to the Tübingen school of critics, successfully vindicated for St. Luke the authorship of the two canonical books ascribed to him, and has further proved that, with some few omissions, they may be accepted as trustworthy documents. . . . I am glad to see that the English translator . . . has now been converted by Harnack's argument, founded in part, as he himself confesses, on the researches of English scholars, especially Dr. Hobart, Sir WM Ramsay, and Sir John Hawkins."在“ Expositor ” ( 1909年11月, 385 sqq 。 ) ,市長說的哈爾納克的兩個上述作品: “他已經在反對蒂賓根大學學院的批評,證明為成功的作者聖盧克的兩個典型的書籍歸因於他,並進一步證明了,有一些少數疏漏,他們可能被接納為可信賴的文件。 。 。 。我很高興地看到,英文翻譯。 。 。現已轉化哈爾納克的論點成立的部分,正如他自己承認,在研究英語學者,特別是霍巴特博士,主席先生西醫拉姆齊爵士和約翰霍金斯。 “ There is a striking resemblance between the prologue of the Gospel and a preface written by Dioscorides, a medical writer who studied at Tarsus in the first century (see Blass, "Philology of the Gospels").有一個驚人的相似之處序幕的福音和Dioscorides寫的前言,一個醫療研究作家誰在塔爾蘇斯在第一世紀(見布拉斯, “學的福音” ) 。 The words with which Hippocrates begins his treatise "On Ancient Medicine" should be noted in this connection: 'Okosoi epecheiresan peri iatrikes legein he graphein, KTL (Plummer, 4).字與希波克拉底開始他的論文“論古代醫學”應當指出在這方面: ' Okosoi epecheiresan圍iatrikes legein他graphein , KTL (盧默, 4 ) 。 When all these considerations are fully taken into account, they prove that the companion of St.當所有這些因素都充分考慮到,他們證明了同伴的街 Paul who wrote the Acts (and the Gospel) was a physician.保羅誰寫的行為(和福音)是一名醫生。 Now, we learn from St.現在,我們學習街 Paul that he had such a companion.保羅說,他這樣的同伴。 Writing to the Colossians (iv, 11), he says: "Luke, the most dear physician, saluteth you."書面形式向歌羅西書(四, 11人) ,他說: “盧克,最親愛的醫生, saluteth你。 ” He was, therefore, with St. Paul when he wrote to the Colossians, Philemon, and Ephesians; and also when he wrote the Second Epistle to Timothy.他,因此,在聖保羅,他寫信給歌羅西書,腓利門書和以弗所書;並在他寫來的第二次書信蒂莫西。 From the manner in which he is spoken of, a long period of intercourse is implied.從以何種方式,他談到,在長期的交往是不言而喻的。

(2) The Author of Acts was the Author of the Gospel ( 2 )作者的行為是一個作者的福音

"This position", says Plummer, "is so generally admitted by critics of all schools that not much time need be spent in discussing it." “這一立場” ,說盧默, “如此普遍承認的批評,並非所有的學校都需要大量的時間花費在討論這個問題。 ” Harnack may be said to be the latest prominent convert to this view, to which he gives elaborate support in the two books above mentioned.哈爾納克可以說是最新的突出轉換這一觀點,他讓擬訂支持上述兩本書。 He claims to have shown that the earlier critics went hopelessly astray, and that the traditional view is the right one.他聲稱,他們已經表明,早些時候批評無可救藥了歧途,而傳統的觀點是正確的。 This opinion is fast gaining ground even amongst ultra critics, and Harnack declares that the others hold out because there exists a disposition amongst them to ignore the facts that tell against them, and he speaks of "the truly pitiful history of the criticism of the Acts".這種意見是迅速紮根甚至超之間的批評,並哈爾納克宣布,其他人,因為存在著處置其中忽視的事實告訴他們,他說的是“歷史上真正的可憐的批評行為“ 。 Only the briefest summary of the arguments can be given here.不僅總結了這一問題的爭論可以考慮這裡。 The Gospel and Acts are both dedicated to Theophilus and the author of the latter work claims to be the author of the former (Acts 1:1).福音和行為都是致力於西奧菲勒和作者的工作,後者聲稱是作者前(使徒1:1 ) 。 The style and arrangement of both are so much alike that the supposition that one was written by a forger in imitation of the other is absolutely excluded.的風格和佈局都還是那麼多的假設,一個寫了偽造的模仿其他絕對排除在外。 The required power of literary analysis was then unknown, and, if it were possible, we know of no writer of that age who had the wonderful skill necessary to produce such an imitation.所需要的功率文學分析當時未知的,如果有可能,我們不知道這個年齡的作家誰的精彩技巧才能產生這樣的模仿。 It is to postulate a literary miracle, says Plummer, to suppose that one of the books was a forgery written in Imitation of the other.這是假設的文學奇蹟,說盧默,假定之一是偽造的書籍寫的模仿其他。 Such an idea would not have occurred to anyone; and, if it had, he could not have carried it out with such marvellous success.這種想法就不會發生的任何人;和,如果它有,他不能進行出來這種奇妙的成功。 If we take a few chapters of the Gospel and note down the special, peculiar, and characteristic words, phrases and constructions, and then open the Acts at random, we shall find the same literary peculiarities constantly recurring.如果我們採取一些章節的福音,並記下的特殊的,獨特,特點字詞,短語和結構,然後打開行為隨機,我們會發現同樣的文學特點不斷發生。 Or, if we begin with the Acts, and proceed conversely, the same results will follow. In addition to similarity, there are parallels of description, arrangement, and points of view, and the recurrence of medical language, in both books, has been mentioned under the previous heading.或者,如果我們開始的行為,並著手反之,相同的結果將隨之而來。除了相似,有相似之處的描述,安排和觀點,並再次發生醫療語言,在兩本書,已經被先前提到的標題。

We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Paul and St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case.我們自然應該期望長期交往聖保羅和聖盧克將相互影響他們的詞彙,他們的著作表明,這是真的如此。 Hawkins (Horæ Synopticæ) and Bebb (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", sv "Luke, Gospel of") state that there are 32 words found only in St.霍金斯( Horæ Synopticæ )和Bebb ( Hast. , “快譯通。聖經”希沃特“路加福音,福音” )指出,有32個字僅見於街 Matt.馬特。 and St. Paul; 22 in St. Mark and St. Paul; 21 in St. John and St. Paul; while there are 101 found only in St. Luke and St. Paul.和聖保羅; 22日在聖馬克和聖保祿; 21日在聖約翰和聖保祿;雖然有101只發現在聖盧克和聖保羅。 Of the characteristic words and phrases which mark the three Synoptic Gospels a little more than half are common to St. Matt.特徵的單詞和詞組標誌著三個天氣福音的一半以上是常見的聖馬特。 and St. Paul, less than half to St. Mark and St. Paul and two-thirds to St. Luke and St. Paul.和聖保羅,不到一半,以聖馬克和聖保羅和三分之二到聖盧克和聖保羅。 Several writers have given examples of parallelism between the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles.一些作家已經例子並行關係福音和波利娜書信。 Among the most striking are those given by Plummer (44).其中最引人注目的是那些由盧默( 44 ) 。 The same author gives long lists of words and expressions found in the Gospel and Acts and in St. Paul, and nowhere else in the New Testament.同一作者提供長期名單詞語中發現的福音和行為,並在聖保羅和無處在新約。 But more than this, Eager in "The Expositor" (July and August, 1894), in his attempt to prove that St. Luke was the author of Hebrews, has drawn attention to the remarkable fact that the Lucan influence on the language of St. Paul is much more marked in those Epistles where we know that St. Luke was his constant companion.但超過此,渴望在“ Expositor ” ( 7月和8月, 1894年) ,在他試圖證明,聖盧克是希伯來書的作者,已提請注意的顯著事實,即盧坎影響語言的聖。保羅更標誌著在這些書信在那裡,我們知道,聖盧克,他不斷的同伴。 Summing up, he observes: "There is in fact sufficient ground for believing that these books. Colossians, II Corinthians, the Pastoral Epistles, First (and to a lesser extent Second) Peter, possess a Lucan character."總結,他指出: “事實上,足夠的理由相信,這些書籍。歌羅西書哥林多,田園書信,第一(並在一定程度二)彼得,擁有盧坎性質。 ” When all these points are taken into consideration, they afford convincing proof that the author of the Gospel and Acts was St. Luke, the beloved physician, the companion of St. Paul, and this is fully borne out by the external evidence.當所有這些點是考慮到,他們承受了令人信服的證據,作者的福音和行為的聖盧克,親愛的醫生,在同伴的聖保羅,這是充分證明了的外部證據。

B. External Evidence B.外部證據

The proof in favour of the unity of authorship, derived from the internal character of the two books, is strengthened when taken in connection with the external evidence.證明有利於團結的作者,來自內部性質的兩本書,是在採取加強與外部的證據。 Every ancient testimony for the authenticity of Acts tells equally in favour of the Gospel; and every passage for the Lucan authorship of the Gospel gives a like support to the authenticity of Acts.每一個古老的證詞的真實性行為告訴同樣贊成福音;和每個通道的盧坎作者福音給出了類似的支持行為的真實性。 Besides, in many places of the early Fathers both books are ascribed to St. Luke.此外,在許多地方的早期教父兩本書是屬於聖盧克。 The external evidence can be touched upon here only in the briefest manner.外部證據可以在這裡只談到了這一問題的方式中。 For external evidence in favour of Acts, see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.外部證據支持的行為,見行為的使徒。

The many passages in St. Jerome, Eusebius, and Origen, ascribing the books to St.許多段落在聖杰羅姆,優西比烏,和奧利,愛國者的圖書街 Luke, are important not only as testifying to the belief of their own, but also of earlier times.盧克,是重要的不僅是證明自己的信仰,也是較早次。 St. Jerome and Origen were great travellers, and all three were omniverous readers.聖杰羅姆和奧利是偉大的旅行者,和這三個人都是雜食性讀者。 They had access to practically the whole Christian literature of preceding centuries; but they nowhere hint that the authorship of the Gospel (and Acts) was ever called in question.她們獲得幾乎整個基督教文學百年前,但他們沒有暗示作者的福音(行為)是以往任何時候都要求有問題。 This, taken by itself, would be a stronger argument than can be adduced for the majority of classical works.為此,採取的本身,將是一個更強有力的論據可以舉出比的大部分經典作品。 But we have much earlier testimony.但是,我們必須要早得多的證詞。 Clement of Alexandria was probably born at Athens about AD 150.克萊門特亞歷山大可能是出生在雅典約公元150 。 He travelled much and had for instructors in the Faith an Ionian, an Italian, a Syrian, an Egyptian, an Assyrian, and a Hebrew in Palestine.他走訪了很多導師的信仰中的愛奧尼亞海,意大利,敘利亞,埃及,一對亞述和希伯來文在巴勒斯坦。 "And these men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed teaching directly from Peter and James, John and Paul, the holy Apostles, son receiving it from father, came by God's providence even unto us, to deposit among us those seeds [of truth] which were derived from their ancestors and the Apostles". “這名男子,保持真正的傳統祝福教學直接從彼得和詹姆斯,約翰和保羅,聖使徒,兒子收到來自父親,來到了上帝的普羅維登斯甚至告訴我們,在我們中間那些存款種子[真相]這是從他們的祖先和使徒“ 。 (Strom., I, i, 11: cf. Euseb., "Hist. Eccl.", V, xi). ( Strom. ,我,我, 11 :比照。 Euseb 。 “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ” ,五,十一) 。 He holds that St. Luke's Gospel was written before that of St. Mark, and he uses the four Gospels just as any modern Catholic writer.他認為,聖盧克福音寫在此之前,聖馬可,他使用了4個福音就像任何現代天主教作家。 Tertullian was born at Carthage, lived some time in Rome, and then returned to Carthage.良出生於迦太基,住在羅馬一段時間,然後返回迦太基。 His quotations from the Gospels, when brought together by Rönsch, cover two hundred pages.他引用福音,當聚集的Rönsch ,包括200頁。 He attacks Marcion for mutilating St. Luke's Gospel.他攻擊馬吉安的殘害聖盧克福音。 and writes: "I say then that among them, and not only among the Apostolic Churches, but among all the Churches which are united with them in Christian fellowship, the Gospel of Luke, which we earnestly defend, has been maintained from its first publication" (Adv. Marc., IV, v).並寫道: “我說的那麼它們之間的,並不僅是使徒教會,但在所有的教會是美國與它們在團契,福音路加,我們真誠地捍衛,一直保持到第一次出版“ ( Adv.馬克。 ,四,五) 。

The testimony of St. Irenæus is of special importance.的證詞街Irenæus具有特殊的重要性。 He was born in Asia Minor, where he heard St. Polycarp give his reminiscences of St. John the Apostle, and in his numerous writings he frequently mentions other disciples of the Apostles.他出生於小亞細亞,在那裡他聽到聖波利卡普使他回憶聖約翰使徒,並在他的許多著作,他經常提到其他門徒使徒。 He was priest in Lyons during the persecution in 177, and was the bearer of the letter of the confessors to Rome.他是牧師在里昂在迫害的177 ,是無記名的信告到羅馬。 His bishop, Pothinus, whom be succeeded, was ninety years of age when he gained the crown of martyrdom in 177, and must have been born while some of the Apostles and very many of their hearers were still living.他的主教, Pothinus ,誰是成功,是90年的年齡時,他獲得了冠,殉道的177 ,而且必須已經出生,而一些使徒和非常多的聽眾仍然生活。 St. Irenæus, who was born about AD 130 (some say much earlier), is, therefore, a witness for the early tradition of Asia Minor, Rome, and Gaul.聖Irenæus ,誰出生約公元130 (有些人說要早得多) ,因此,證人早日傳統小亞細亞,羅馬,和高盧。 He quotes the Gospels just as any modern bishop would do, he calls them Scripture, believes even in their verbal inspiration; shows how congruous it is that there are four and only four Gospels; and says that Luke, who begins with the priesthood and sacrifice of Zachary, is the calf.他引用了福音就像任何現代主教將盡,他呼籲他們聖經,認為即使是在他們的口頭靈感;顯示一致,那就是有四個,只有4個福音;並說,盧克,誰首先鐸和犧牲的扎卡里,是小腿。 When we compare his quotations with those of Clement of Alexandria, variant readings of text present themselves.當我們比較他的報價與克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,變讀的文字介紹自己。 There was already established an Alexandrian type of text different from that used in the West.人們已經設立了一個亞歷山大類型的文字不同,在西方使用。 The Gospels had been copied and recopied so often, that, through errors of copying, etc., distinct families of text had time to establish themselves.福音已複製和recopied往往是,通過錯誤的複製等,不同家庭的文字有時間建立自己。 The Gospels were so widespread that they became known to pagans.福音是非常普遍,被稱為對異教徒。 Celsus in his attack on the Christian religion was acquainted with the genealogy in St. Luke's Gospel, and his quotations show the same phenomena of variant readings.塞爾蘇斯在他的攻擊基督教是熟悉家譜在聖盧克福音,他的報價表現出同樣的現象變讀數。

The next witness, St. Justin Martyr, shows the position of honour the Gospels held in the Church, in the early portion of the century.下一個證人,聖賈斯汀烈士,表明的立場,謹福音教會舉行的,在早期部分世紀。 Justin was born in Palestine about AD 105, and converted in 132-135.賈斯汀出生在巴勒斯坦有關廣告105條,並轉換在132-135 。 In his "Apology" he speaks of the memoirs of the Lord which are called Gospels, and which were written by Apostles (Matthew, John) and disciples of the Apostles (Mark, Luke).在他的“道歉” ,他的回憶錄中提到的上帝被稱為福音,而且寫的使徒(馬太,約翰)和門徒使徒(馬克,路加) 。 In connection with the disciples of the Apostles he cites the verses of St. Luke on the Sweat of Blood, and he has numerous quotations from all four.與門徒使徒他引用的詩句的聖盧克上的汗水血,他有無數的報價從所有四個。 Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels. Westcott表明,沒有任何痕跡的賈斯汀使用任何書面文件的生活,除非我們的基督福音。 "He [Justin] tells us that Christ was descended from Abraham through Jacob, Judah, Phares, Jesse, David--that the Angel Gabriel was sent to announce His birth to the Virgin Mary--that it was in fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah . . . that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius--that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. (Westcott, "Canon", 104). “他[上]告訴我們,耶穌是亞伯拉罕的後裔通過雅各布,猶太, Phares ,傑西,大衛-即天使加布里埃爾被送往宣布他的出生的聖母-這是在履行預言以賽亞書。 。 。 ,他的父母去那邊[伯利恆]後果的入學根據Cyrinius -這是他們不能找到一個住在村里,他們居住在一個洞穴關閉它,在基督誕生,並奠定了瑪麗在馬槽“等( Westcott , ”佳能“ , 104 ) 。 There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. Matthew and St. Luke.大家不斷地混合在賈斯汀的報價的說明聖馬太和聖盧克。 As usual in apologetical works, such as the apologies of Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian, and Eusebius, he does not name his sources because he was addressing outsiders.像往常一樣在apologetical工程,如歉意塔蒂安,那哥拉,西奧菲勒,良,克萊門特的亞歷山大,塞浦路斯和優西比烏,他並沒有他的消息來源的名字,因為他處理外人。 He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament.他說,然而,這些所謂的回憶錄被閱讀福音教會在週日與著作的先知,換句話說,他們被安置在一個同等級別的舊約。 In the "Dialogue", cv, we have a passage peculiar to St. Luke.在“對話” ,簡歷,我們有一個通過特有的聖盧克。 "Jesus as He gave up His Spirit upon the Cross said, Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit' [Luke, xxiii. 46], even as I learned from the Memoirs of this fact also." “耶穌,他放棄了精神的十字架說,爸爸,把你的手我讚揚我的靈魂' [路加福音,二十三。 46 ] ,即使我從回憶錄這一事實也。 ” These Gospels which were read every Sunday must be the same as our four, which soon after, in the time of Irenæus, were in such long established honour, and regarded by him as inspired by the Holy Ghost.這些福音被改為逢星期日必須相同,我們的四個,這之後不久,在規定的時間內的Irenæus ,在這種長期建立的榮譽,並認為他的靈感來自聖靈。 We never hear, says Salmon, of any revolution dethroning one set of Gospels and replacing them by another; so we may be sure that the Gospels honoured by the Church in Justin's day were the same as those to which the same respect was paid in the days of Irenæus, not many years after.我們從來沒有聽到說,鮭魚,任何革命dethroning一套福音,代之以另一; ,以便我們可以肯定的是,福音榮幸教會在賈斯汀的一天是一樣的那些同樣的尊重支付的天Irenæus ,而不是許多年之後。 This conclusion is strengthened not only by the nature of Justin's quotations, but by the evidence afforded by his pupil Tatian, the Assyrian, who lived a long time with him in Rome, and afterwards compiled his harmony of the Gospels, his famous "Diatessaron", in Syriac, from our four Gospels.這一結論不僅加強的性質上的報價,但所提供的證據,他的學生塔蒂安,亞述人,誰住了很長時間與他在羅馬,然後編譯他的和諧的福音,他的著名的“ Diatessaron ”在敘利亞,從我們的四個福音。 He had travelled a great deal, and the fact that he uses only those shows that they alone were recognized by St.他來到了大量,而且事實上,他只使用這些結果表明,它們本身都承認街 Justin and the Catholic Church between 130-150.賈斯汀和天主教會的130至150之間。 This takes us back to the time when many of the hearers of the Apostles and Evangelists were still alive; for it is held by many scholars that St. Luke lived till towards the end of the first century.這使我們回到當時許多聽眾的使徒和福音仍然活著,因為它是由許多學者說,聖盧克住到快要結束時的第一個世紀。

Irenæus, Clement, Tatian, Justin, etc., were in as good a position for forming a judgment on the authenticity of the Gospels as we are of knowing who were the authors of Scott's novels, Macaulay's essays, Dickens's early novels, Longfellow's poems, no. Irenæus ,克萊門特,塔蒂安,賈斯汀等人一樣好位置形成了判決的真實性福音,因為我們知道誰是作者斯科特的小說,麥考利的散文,狄更斯早期的小說,朗費羅的詩,否。 xc of "Tracts for the Times" etc. But the argument does not end here.坐標的“大港的時報”等說法,但並沒有到此為止。 Many of the heretics who flourished from the beginning of the second century till AD 150 admitted St. Luke's Gospel as authoritative.許多異端誰從一開始蓬勃發展的第二個世紀到公元150承認聖盧克福音是權威性的。 This proves that it had acquired an unassailable position long before these heretics broke away from the Church.這證明,它已收購立於不敗之地這些異端早就脫離了教會。 The Apocryphal Gospel of Peter, about AD 150, makes use of our Gospels.對未經彼得福音,大約公元150個,利用我們的福音。 About the same time the Gospels, together with their titles, were translated into Latin; and here, again, we meet the phenomena of variant readings, to be found in Clement, Irenæus, Old Syriac, Justin, and Celsus, pointing to a long period of previous copying.大約在同一時間福音,連同他們的圖書,被翻譯成拉丁文;在這裡,我們再次見面的現象變讀,可在克萊門特, Irenæus ,老敘利亞文,賈斯汀,和塞爾蘇斯,指著一個長期期前複製。 Finally, we may ask, if the author of the two books were not St. Luke, who was he?最後,我們可能會問,如果作者的兩本書沒有聖盧克,誰是他?

Harnack (Luke the Physician, 2) holds that as the Gospel begins with a prologue addressed to an individual (Theophilus) it must, of necessity, have contained in its title the name of its author.哈爾納克(路加醫生, 2 )認為,作為一開始就福音開場白給個人(奧菲勒斯)必須,必要時,載有在其標題的名字及其作者。 How can we explain, if St. Luke were not the author, that the name of the real, and truly great, writer came to be completely buried in oblivion, to make room for the name of such a comparatively obscure disciple as St. Luke?我們如何解釋,如果聖盧克沒有作者,這個名字的真實的,真正偉大的作家後來被完全埋在遺忘,使房間的名稱這樣一個相對模糊的聖盧克門徒? Apart from his connection, as supposed author, with the Third Gospel and Acts, was no more prominent than Aristarchus and Epaphras; and he is mentioned only in three places in the whole of the New Testament.除了從他的方面,如支持作者,第三福音和行為,沒有更突出的比阿里斯和Epaphras ;和他只提到了三地在整個新約全書。 If a false name were substituted for the true author, some more prominent individual would have been selected.如果用假名取代真正的作者,一些更加突出的個人將被選中。

III.三。 INTEGRITY OF THE GOSPEL完整性的福音

Marcion rejected the first two chapters and some shorter passages of the gospel, and it was at one time maintained by rationalistic writers that his was the original Gospel of which ours is a later expansion.馬吉安駁回了前兩章和一些短傳福音,這是在同一時間所保持理性的作家,他是原來的福音,其中我們是一個後來擴大。 This is now universally rejected by scholars.這是現在普遍拒絕學者。 St. Irenæus, Tertullian, and Epiphanius charged him with mutilating the Gospel; and it is known that the reasons for his rejection of those portions were doctrinal.聖Irenæus ,良,和埃皮法尼烏斯指控他殘害的福音;和眾所周知的原因,他拒絕了理論上的那些部分。 He cut out the account of the infancy and the genealogy, because he denied the human birth of Christ.他剪下到嬰兒和家譜,因為他剝奪了人權耶穌誕生。 As he rejected the Old Testament all reference to it had to be excluded.因為他拒絕了所有舊約提到它必須被排除在外。 That the parts rejected by Marcion belong to the Gospel is clear from their unity of style with the remainder of the book.這部分拒絕馬吉安屬於福音是清楚的從他們的統一風格,其餘的書籍。 The characteristics of St. Luke's style run through the whole work, but are more frequent in the first two chapters than anywhere else; and they are present in the other portions omitted by Marcion.的特點,聖盧克的作風貫穿於整個工作,但更經常地在頭兩章的地方,他們都存在的其他部分省略了馬吉安。 No writer in those days was capable of successfully forging such additions.沒有作家在那些日子裡是能夠成功地建立這樣的補充。 The first two chapters, etc., are contained in all the manuscripts and versions, and were known to Justin Martyr and other competent witnesses.頭兩章等,均載於所有的手稿和版本,據了解,賈斯汀烈士和其他主管證人。 On the authenticity of the verses on the Bloody Sweat, see AGONY OF CHRIST.的真實性詩句的血腥汗水,看到痛苦基督。

IV.四。 PURPOSE AND CONTENTS目的及目錄

The Gospel was written, as is gathered from the prologue (i, 1-4), for the purpose of giving Theophilus (and others like him) increased confidence in the unshakable firmness of the Christian truths in which he had been instructed, or "catechized"--the latter word being used, according to Harnack, in its technical sense.寫的福音,這是收集到的序幕(一, 1月4日) ,目的是讓奧菲勒斯(和其他像他一樣)增加信心不可動搖的堅定基督教的真理,他已經指示,或“ catechized “ -後者被用來一詞,根據哈爾納克,在其技術意義。 The Gospel naturally falls into four divisions:福音自然分為四個部分:

Gospel of the infancy, roughly covered by the Joyful Mysteries of the Rosary (ch. i, ii);福音的嬰兒中,大約涵蓋的喜悅之謎的玫瑰(章一,二) ;

ministry in Galilee, from the preaching of John the Baptist (iii, 1, to ix, 50);加利利部,從宣揚施洗約翰(三, 1 ,以九, 50 ) ;

journeyings towards Jerusalem (ix, 51-xix, 27); journeyings對耶路撒冷(九, 51 - 19 , 27 ) ;

Holy Week: preaching in and near Jerusalem, Passion, and Resurrection (xix, 28, to end of xxiv).聖週:說教和耶路撒冷附近,熱情和復活( 19 , 28 ,至24月底) 。

We owe a great deal to the industry of St. Luke.我們非常感激業界的聖盧克。 Out of twenty miracles which he records six are not found in the other Gospels: draught of fishes, widow of Naim's son, man with dropsy, ten lepers, Malchus's ear, spirit of infirmity.在20的奇蹟,他記錄6頃中找不到其他福音:吃水魚類的遺孀納伊姆的兒子,男子水腫, 10麻風病人, Malchus的耳朵,精神衰弱。 He alone has the following eighteen parables: good Samaritan, friend at midnight, rich fool, servants watching, two debtors, barren fig-tree, chief seats, great supper, rash builder, rash king, lost groat, prodigal son, unjust steward, rich man and Lazarus, unprofitable servants, unjust judge, Pharisee and publican, pounds.他就有了以下18寓言:好心的撒瑪利亞人,朋友在午夜,豐富的傻瓜,公務員看,兩個債務人,貧瘠圖樹,長席,偉大的晚飯,皮疹建築工地,皮疹國王失去groat ,浪子,不公正的管家,財主和拉撒路,無利可圖的公務員,不公正的法官,法利賽人和酒館,磅。 The account of the journeys towards Jerusalem (ix, 51-xix, 27) is found only in St. Luke; and he gives special prominence to the duty of prayer.帳戶的旅程對耶路撒冷(九, 51 - 19 , 27 ) ,發現只有在聖盧克,他給予了特別突出的責任祈禱。

V. SOURCES OF THE GOSPEL; SYNOPTIC PROBLEM五,來源福音;天氣問題

The best information as to his sources is given by St. Luke, in the beginning of his Gospel.最好的信息,以他的消息來源是由聖盧克,在開始他的福音。 As many had written accounts as they heard them from "eyewitnesses and ministers of the word", it seemed good to him also, having diligently attained to all things from the beginning, to write an ordered narrative.正如許多人書面賬戶,他們聽到他們“目擊者和部長單詞” ,似乎對他也很好,達到了認真的所有的事情從一開始就寫命令說明。 He had two sources of information, then, eyewitnesses (including Apostles) and written documents taken down from the words of eyewitnesses.他有兩個來源的信息,然後,目擊者(包括使徒)和書面文件採取從目擊者的話。 The accuracy of these documents he was in a position to test by his knowledge of the character of the writers, and by comparing them with the actual words of the Apostles and other eyewitnesses.的準確性,這些文件,他的位置,以測試他的知識的性質作家,並通過比較它們的實際的話使徒和其他目擊者。

That he used written documents seems evident on comparing his Gospel with the other two Synoptic Gospels, Matthew and Mark.他用書面文件顯然他的福音的比較與其他兩個天氣福音,馬修和馬克。 All three frequently agree even in minute details, but in other respects there is often a remarkable divergence, and to explain these phenomena is the Synoptic Problem.所有這三個經常同意即使在微小的細節,但在其他方面往往存在顯著差異,並解釋這些現象是天氣問題。 St. Matthew and St. Luke alone give an account of the infancy of Christ, both accounts are independent. But when they begin the public preaching they describe it in the same way, here agreeing with St. Mark.聖馬太和聖盧克單獨交代的嬰兒基督,這兩個帳戶是獨立的。但當他們開始公開宣揚他們描述它以同樣的方式,在這裡同意聖馬克。 When St. Mark ends, the two others again diverge.當聖馬克結束後,另外兩人再次分歧。 They agree in the main both in matter and arrangement within the limits covered by St.他們同意在雙方的主要問題和安排的範圍內涵蓋的街 Mark, whose order they generally follow.馬克,他的命令,他們普遍遵循。 Frequently all agree in the order of the narrative, but, where two agree, Mark and Luke agree against the order of Matthew, or Mark and Matthew agree against the order of Luke; Mark is always in the majority, and it is not proved that the other two ever agree against the order followed by him.經常都同意在該命令的說明,但是,如果兩個同意,馬克和盧克同意對馬修的順序,或標記和馬修同意對秩序的盧克;馬克總是在多數,因此無法證明,其他兩個都同意針對該命令隨後他。 Within the limits of the ground covered by St. Mark, the two other Gospels have several sections in common not found in St. Mark, consisting for the most part of discourses, and there is a closer resemblance between them than between any two Gospels where the three go over the same ground.範圍內的地面覆蓋聖馬克,另外兩個福音有幾個章節中找不到共同的聖馬克,包括大部分的論述,並有一個更密切它們之間的相似性比任何兩個之間在福音三個去同地面。 The whole of St. Mark is practically contained in the other two.整個聖馬克實際上是包含在其他兩個。 St. Matthew and St. Luke have large sections peculiar to themselves, such as the different accounts of the infancy, and the journeys towards Jerusalem in St. Luke.聖馬太和聖盧克有很大的部分,以自己特有的,如不同賬戶的起步階段,和旅行對耶路撒冷聖盧克。 The parallel records have remarkable verbal coincidences.平行的記錄,出色的口頭巧合。 Sometimes the Greek phrases are identical, sometimes but slightly different, and again more divergent.有時,希臘詞語是相同的,但有時略有不同,又更不同。 There are various theories to explain the fact of the matter and language common to the Evangelists.有各種不同的理論來解釋事實和語言共同的福音。 Some hold that it is due to the oral teaching of the Apostles, which soon became stereotyped from constant repetition.有的認為它是由於口語教學的使徒,這很快成為定型從不斷重複。 Others hold that it is due to written sources, taken down from such teaching.其他人認為這是因為書面資料來源,採取了這種教學。 Others, again, strongly maintain that Matthew and Luke used Mark or a written source extremely like it.其他人,再次強烈地堅持認為,馬太和路加福音使用標誌或書面來源極其喜歡它。 In that case, we have evidence how very closely they kept to the original.在這種情況下,我們有證據顯示他們如何保持非常密切的原始。 The agreement between the discourses given by St.之間的協議所提供的論述街 Luke and St. Matthew is accounted for, by some authors, by saying that both embodied the discourses of Christ that had been collected and originally written in Aramaic by St. Matthew.盧克和聖馬太核算,有些作者,說,這兩個體現了論述基督已收集和原來的亞拉姆語寫的聖馬太。 The long narratives of St. Luke not found in these two documents are, it is said, accounted for by his employment of what he knew to be other reliable sources, either oral or written.長期說明聖盧克沒有發現在這兩個文件,這是說,佔了他的就業機會,他知道什麼是其他可靠來源,無論是口頭或書面。 (The question is concisely but clearly stated by Peake "A Critical Introduction to the New Testament", London, 1909, 101. Several other works on the subject are given in the literature at the end of this article.) (現在的問題是簡明扼要,但明確地說明了皮克“批判導言新約全書” ,倫敦, 1909年, 101 。其他一些作品的主題,給出了文獻中在本月底的文章。 )

VI.六。 SAINT LUKE'S ACCURACY聖路加的準確性

Very few writers have ever had their accuracy put to such a severe test as St. Luke, on account of the wide field covered by his writings, and the consequent liability (humanly speaking) of making mistakes; and on account of the fierce attacks to which he has been subjected.很少有作家有過其準確性等提出了嚴峻的考驗的聖盧克,就考慮到廣泛的領域涵蓋他的著作,以及由此產生的賠償責任(對人來說)的決策失誤;和對帳戶的激烈攻擊他一直受到。

It was the fashion, during the nineteenth century, with German rationalists and their imitators, to ridicule the "blunders" of Luke, but that is all being rapidly changed by the recent progress of archæological research.這是時尚,在十九世紀,德國理性主義和他們的模仿,嘲笑的“失誤”的路,但是這一切正在迅速改變了近年來的考古研究的進展。 Harnack does not hesitate to say that these attacks were shameful, and calculated to bring discredit, not on the Evangelist, but upon his critics, and Ramsay is but voicing the opinion of the best modern scholars when he calls St. Luke a great and accurate historian.哈爾納克不猶豫地說,這些攻擊是可恥的,並計算帶來詆毀,而不是福音,但他的批評,不過是和拉姆齊表示的意見,最好的現代學者,他呼籲聖路加一個偉大和準確歷史學家。 Very few have done so much as this latter writer, in his numerous works and in his articles in "The Expositor", to vindicate the extreme accuracy of St. Luke.很少有人這樣做了後者的作家,在他的許多作品,並在他的文章在“ Expositor ” ,以維護極端準確性聖盧克。 Wherever archæology has afforded the means of testing St. Luke's statements, they have been found to be correct; and this gives confidence that he is equally reliable where no such corroboration is as yet available.只要提供了考古學的手段測試聖盧克發言,他們被認為是正確的,這使人相信他是同樣可靠的情況下沒有這樣的佐證是尚未提供。 For some of the details see ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, where a very full bibliography is given.對於其中的一些細節見行為的使徒,在一個非常完整的書目給出。

For the sake of illustration, one or two examples may here be given:為了舉例說明,一個或兩個例子可以在這裡得到:

(1) Sergius Paulus, Proconsul in Cyprus ( 1 )塞爾吉烏斯保盧斯, Proconsul在塞浦路斯

St. Luke says (Acts 13) that when St. Paul visited Cyprus (in the reign of Claudius) Sergius Paulus was proconsul (anthupatos) there.聖盧克說(使徒13 ) ,當聖保羅訪問了塞浦路斯(在統治克勞迪烏斯)塞爾吉烏斯保盧斯是proconsul ( anthupatos )有。 Grotius asserted that this was an abuse of language, on the part of the natives, who wished to flatter the governor by calling him proconsul, instead of proprætor (antistrategos), which he really was; and that St. Luke used the popular appellation.格羅提斯斷言,這是一種濫用語言,是對本地人,誰願意奉承總督打電話proconsul ,而不是proprætor ( antistrategos ) ,這是他真的;和聖盧克使用了流行的稱謂。 Even Baronius (Annales, ad Ann. 46) supposed that, though Cyprus was only a prætorian province, it was honoured by being ruled by the proconsul of Cilicia, who must have been Sergius Paulus.即使Baronius (年鑑,廣告安。 46 )假定,儘管塞浦路斯只是prætorian省,這是榮幸被統治的proconsul齊亞,誰一定是塞爾吉烏斯保盧斯。 But this is all a mistake.但是,這一切是錯誤的。 Cato captured Cyprus, Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia and Cyprus in 52 BC; Mark Antony gave the island to Cleopatra; Augustus made it a prætorian province in 27 BC, but in 22 BC he transferred it to the senate, and it became again a proconsular province.卡托抓獲塞浦路斯,西塞羅是proconsul齊亞和塞浦路斯52年;馬克安東尼給島內克利歐佩特拉;奧古斯都使它成為prætorian省27年,但在22年他移交給參議院,成為再次proconsular省。 This latter fact is not stated by Strabo, but it is mentioned by Dion Cassius (LIII).後者實際上是沒有說明的斯特拉博,但它提到了翁卡( LIII )號。 In Hadrian's time it was once more under a proprætor, while under Severus it was again administered by a proconsul.在哈德良當時再次下proprætor ,而這是根據塞弗拉斯再次由一個管理proconsul 。 There can be no doubt that in the reign of Claudius, when St. Paul visited it, Cyprus was under a proconsul (anthupatos), as stated by St. Luke.毫無疑問,在統治的克勞狄斯,當聖保羅訪問它,塞浦路斯是一個proconsul ( anthupatos ) ,如聖盧克。 Numerous coins have been discovered in Cyprus, bearing the head and name of Claudius on one side, and the names of the proconsuls of Cyprus on the other.眾多的硬幣被發現在塞浦路斯,同時頭部和名稱克勞迪烏斯一方和姓名proconsuls塞浦路斯問題。 A woodcut engraving of one is given in Conybeare and Howson's "St. Paul", at the end of chapter v. On the reverse it has: EPI KOMINOU PROKAU ANTHUPATOU: KUPRION--"Money of the Cyprians under Cominius Proclus, Proconsul."阿木刻版畫的一個是在科尼比爾和豪森的“聖保羅”結束時,第五章的反面有:計劃免疫KOMINOU PROKAU ANTHUPATOU : KUPRION - “錢的Cyprians下Cominius Proclus , Proconsul 。 ” The head of Claudius (with his name) is figured on the other side.負責克勞迪烏斯(與他的名字)是佔有的另一邊。 General Cesnola discovered a long inscription on a pedestal of white marble, at Solvi, in the north of the island, having the words: EPI PAULOU ANTHUPATOU--"Under Paulus Proconsul."一般Cesnola發現了一個長期碑文上的白色大理石基座上Solvi ,在該島北部,有話:計劃免疫PAULOU ANTHUPATOU - “根據保盧斯Proconsul 。 ” Lightfoot, Zochler, Ramsay, Knabenbauer, Zahn, and Vigouroux hold that this was the actual (Sergius) Paulus of Acts, xiii, 7.萊特富特, Zochler ,拉姆齊, Knabenbauer ,贊恩,並Vigouroux認為這是實際的(塞爾吉烏斯)保盧斯的行為,十三, 7 。

(2) The Politarchs in Thessalonica ( 2 ) Politarchs在塞薩洛尼卡

An excellent example of St. Luke's accuracy is afforded by his statement that rulers of Thessalonica were called "politarchs" (politarchai--Acts 17:6, 8).一個很好的例子聖盧克精度提供了他的聲明,統治者塞薩洛尼卡被稱為“ politarchs ” ( politarchai -行為的17點06分, 8 ) 。 The word is not found in the Greek classics; but there is a large stone in the British Museum, which was found in an arch in Thessalonica, containing an inscription which is supposed to date from the time of Vespasian.這個詞沒有找到在希臘經典;但有一個大石頭在大英博物館,它被發現在一個拱塞薩洛尼卡,其中載有題詞是要日時間維斯帕先。 Here we find the word used by St. Luke together with the names of several such politarchs, among them being names identical with some of St. Paul's converts: Sopater, Gaius, Secundus.在這裡,我們找到這個詞使用的聖盧克連同姓名幾個這樣的politarchs ,其中包括姓名相同的一些聖保祿轉換: Sopater ,蓋, Secundus 。 Burton in "American Journal of Theology" (July, 1898) has drawn attention to seventeen inscriptions proving the existence of politarchs in ancient times.伯頓在“美國雜誌神學” ( 7月, 1898年)已提請注意17銘文證明存在politarchs在遠古時代。 Thirteen were found in Macedonia, and five were discovered in Thessalonica, dating from the middle of the first to the end of the second century. 13個被發現在馬其頓和五個中發現塞薩洛尼卡以來,來自中東的第一個結束的第二個世紀。

(3) Knowledge of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe ( 3 )知識Pisidian安提阿, Iconium , Lystra ,並Derbe

The geographical, municipal, and political knowledge of St. Luke, when speaking of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, is fully borne out by recent research (see Ramsay, "St. Paul the Traveller", and other references given in GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE).地理,城市,和政治知識的聖盧克,在談到Pisidian安提阿, Iconium , Lystra ,並Derbe ,充分證實了最近的研究(見拉姆齊, “聖保羅旅行” ,和其他參考資料中給出加拉太,書信對) 。

(4) Knowledge of Philippian customs ( 4 )知識Philippian海關

He is equally sure when speaking of Philippi, a Roman colony, where the duumviri were called "prætors" (strategoi--Acts 16:20, 35), a lofty title which duumviri assumed in Capua and elsewhere, as we learn from Cicero and Horace (Sat., I, v, 34).他同樣是確保在談到立,羅馬的殖民地,那裡的duumviri被稱為“ prætors ” ( strategoi -行為16:20 , 35 ) ,一個崇高的名稱duumviri中假設卡普阿和其他地方,我們學習西塞羅和賀拉斯(週六,第一,第五,第34段) 。 They also had lictors (rabsouchoi), after the manner of real prætors.他們還lictors ( rabsouchoi ) ,之後的方式真正prætors 。

(5) References to Ephesus, Athens, and Corinth ( 5 )參考以弗所,雅典和科林斯

His references to Ephesus, Athens, Corinth, are altogether in keeping with everything that is now known of these cities.他提到以弗所,雅典,科林斯,是完全符合一切,現在已經知道這些城市。 Take a single instance: "In Ephesus St. Paul taught in the school of Tyrannus, in the city of Socrates he discussed moral questions in the market-place. How incongruous it would seem if the methods were transposed! But the narrative never makes a false step amid all the many details as the scene changes from city to city; and that is the conclusive proof that it is a picture of real life" (Ramsay, op. cit., 238).採取單一實例: “以弗所聖保祿學校講授的Tyrannus ,市的蘇格拉底他討論道德問題在市場上。如何不協調,看來如果方法換位!但從未作出說明虛假的所有步驟中的許多細節的場景變化,城市,這是確鑿的證據,這是一個圖片的真實生活“ (拉姆齊,同前。前。 , 238 ) 。 St. Luke mentions (Acts 18:2) that when St. Paul was at Corinth the Jews had been recently expelled from Rome by Claudius, and this is confirmed by a chance statement of Suetonius.聖盧克提到(使徒18點02分) ,當聖保羅是科林斯的猶太人遭到驅逐出羅馬最近的克勞迪烏斯,並證實了這一點機會聲明蘇維托尼烏斯。 He tells us (ibid., 12) that Gallio was then proconsul in Corinth (the capital of the Roman province of Achaia).他告訴我們(同上, 12 )的加利奧當時proconsul在科林斯(首都羅馬省的亞該亞) 。 There is no direct evidence that he was proconsul in Achaia, but his brother Seneca writes that Gallio caught a fever there, and went on a voyage for his health.沒有直接證據表明,他是在亞該亞proconsul ,但他的弟弟塞涅卡寫道,加利奧發現有發燒,繼續航程為他的健康。 The description of the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19) brings together, in the space of eighteen verses, an extraordinary amount of knowledge of the city, that is fully corroborated by numerous inscriptions, and representations on coins, medals, etc., recently discovered.說明的防暴以弗所(使徒19 )匯集,在短短的18詩句,非常多的知識城市,這是完全證實了許多碑文,申述錢幣,獎章等,最近發現。 There are allusions to the temple of Diana (one of the seven wonders of the world), to the fact that Ephesus gloried in being her temple-sweeper her caretaker (neokoros), to the theatre as the place of assembly for the people, to the town clerk (grammateus), to the Asiarchs, to sacrilegious (ierosuloi), to proconsular sessions, artificers, etc. The ecclesia (the usual word in Ephesus for the assembly of the people) and the grammateus or town-clerk (the title of a high official frequent on Ephesian coins) completely puzzled Cornelius a Lapide, Baronius, and other commentators, who imagined the ecclesia meant a synagogue, etc. (see Vigouroux, "Le Nouveau Testament et les Découvertes Archéologiques", Paris, 1890).有典故的廟戴安娜(一個世界七大奇觀) ,這樣一個事實,即在以弗所gloried被她的廟,她清掃看守政府( neokoros ) ,劇院作為大會的地點為人民,鎮書記( grammateus ) ,向Asiarchs ,以褻瀆( ierosuloi ) ,以proconsular會議,工匠等教會(通常一詞在以弗所大會的人)和grammateus或城鎮辦事員(標題的一位高級官員經常對以弗所硬幣)完全困惑哥尼流1 Lapide , Baronius ,和其他評論家,誰想到的教會意味著一座猶太教堂等(見Vigouroux , “新世界之約等Découvertes Archéologiques ” ,巴黎, 1890年) 。

(6) The Shipwreck ( 6 )船

The account of the voyage and shipwreck described in Acts (xxvii, xxvii) is regarded by competent authorities on nautical matters as a marvellous instance of accurate description (see Smith's classical work on the subject, "Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul" (4th ed., London, 1880). Blass (Acta Apostolorum, 186) says: "Extrema duo capita habent descriptionem clarissimam itineris maritimi quod Paulus in Italiam fecit: quæ descriptio ab homine harum rerum perito judicata est monumentum omnium pretiosissimum, quæ rei navalis ex tote antiquitate nobis relicta est. V. Breusing, 'Die Nautik der Alten' (Bremen, 1886)." See also Knowling "The Acts of the Apostles" in "Exp. Gr. Test." (London, 1900).該帳戶的航程和沉船中所描述的行為(二十七, XXVII )號決議是由主管當局對海裡的事項作為一個了不起的實例準確的描述(見史密斯的經典工作的主題, “沉船的航程和聖保祿” (第4次教育署。 ,倫敦, 1880年) 。布拉斯(獸類宗徒, 186 )說: “極值鐸人均habent descriptionem clarissimam itineris maritimi狴保盧斯在Italiam fecit : quæ descriptio抗體homine冒失事物貝利托案件市盈率monumentum Omnium公司pretiosissimum , quæ物navalis前手提包antiquitate諾比斯relicta站五Breusing ,模具Nautik之老' (不來梅, 1886年) 。 “又見Knowling ”的使徒行傳“中的”進出口。石墨。試驗。 “ (倫敦, 1900年) 。

VII.七。 LYSANIAS TETRARCH OF ABILENE LYSANIAS TETRARCH的ABILENE

Gfrörer, B. Bauer, Hilgenfeld, Keim, and Holtzmann assert that St. Luke perpetrated a gross chronological blunder of sixty years by making Lysanias, the son of Ptolemy, who lived 36 BC, and was put to death by Mark Antony, tetrarch of Abilene when John the Baptist began to preach (iii, 1). Gfrörer灣鮑爾, Hilgenfeld ,凱姆和Holtzmann斷言,聖盧克犯下了嚴重錯誤的時間六十年使Lysanias的兒子托勒密,誰住36年,並把死亡的馬克安東尼, tetrarch的阿貝利娜時施洗約翰開始鼓吹(三, 1 ) 。 Strauss says: "He [Luke] makes rule, 30 years after the birth of Christ, a certain Lysanias, who had certainly been slain 30 years previous to that birth--a slight error of 60 years."斯特勞斯說: “他[路加福音]讓規則, 30年後,耶穌誕生,一定Lysanias ,誰肯定被殺害30年前到出生-輕微錯誤的60歲。 ” On the face of it, it is highly improbable that such a careful writer as St.從表面上看,這是極不可能,這樣一個認真的作家作為街 Luke would have gone out of his way to run the risk of making such a blunder, for the mere purpose of helping to fix the date of the public ministry. Fortunately, we have a complete refutation supplied by Schürer, a writer by no means over friendly to St. Luke, as we shall see when treating of the Census of Quirinius.盧克,我們不會去了他的方式運行的風險,使這樣一個大錯,因為僅僅是為了幫助解決的日期,公共事務部。幸運的是,我們有一個完整的反駁所提供的Schürer ,作家並不多友好的聖盧克,我們將看到在治療普查Quirinius 。 Ptolemy Mennæus was King of the Itureans (whose kingdom embraced the Lebanon and plain of Massyas with the capital Chalcis, between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon) from 85-40 BC His territories extended on the east towards Damascus, and on the south embraced Panias, and part, at least, of Galilee. Lysanias the older succeeded his father Ptolemy about 40 BC (Josephus, "Ant.", XIV, xii, 3; "Bell Jud.", I, xiii, 1), and is styled by Dion Cassius "King of the Itureans" (XLIX, 32).托勒密Mennæus是國王Itureans (其英國接受了黎巴嫩和平原Massyas與資本Chalcis之間,黎巴嫩和反黎巴嫩)從85-40年他的領土上的東延長對大馬士革,並在南部接受Panias和一部分,至少加利利。 Lysanias接替他的老父親托勒密約40公元前(約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。 ,十四,十二, 3 ; “貝爾珠德。 ”我,十三, 1 ) ,是風格由翁卡“國王Itureans ” ( XLIX , 32 ) 。 After reigning about four or five years he was put to death by Mark Antony, at the instigation of Cleopatra, who received a large portion of his territory (Josephus, "Ant.", XV, iv, 1; "Bel. Jud.", I, xxii, 3; Dion Cassius, op. cit.).衛冕後約4年或5年,他被處死的馬克安東尼,在其唆使克利歐佩特拉,誰收到了他的大部分領土(約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”十五,四, 1 ; “勒哈。珠德。 ” ,我, 22 , 3 ;翁卡,同前。前。 ) 。

As the latter and Porphyry call him "king", it is doubtful whether the coins bearing the superscription "Lysanias tetrarch and high priest" belong to him, for there were one or more later princes called Lysanias.因為後者和斑岩都叫他“王” ,這是值得懷疑的硬幣是否承擔superscription “ Lysanias tetrarch和大祭司”屬於他的,因為有一個或多個後來王子呼籲Lysanias 。 After his death his kingdom was gradually divided up into at least four districts, and the three principal ones were certainly not called after him.他去世後他的王國正逐漸分為至少四個區,三個主要的被稱為後,肯定不是他。 A certain Zenodorus took on lease the possessions of Lysanias, 23 BC, but Trachonitis was soon taken from him and given to Herod.某Zenodorus了對租賃的財產Lysanias , 23年,但Trachonitis很快從他給希律王。 On the death of Zenodorus in 20 BC, Ulatha and Panias, the territories over which he ruled, were given by Augustus to Herod.該死刑就的Zenodorus在20年, Ulatha和Panias ,該地區超過而他統治,是由於以奧古斯塔斯赫羅德的。 This is called the tetrarchy of Zenodorus by Dion Cassius.這就是所謂的tetrarchy的Zenodorus的翁卡。 "It seems therefore that Zenodorus, after the death of Lysanias, had received on rent a portion of his territory from Cleopatra, and that after Cleopatra's death this 'rented' domain, subject to tribute, was continued to him with the title of tetrarch" (Schürer, I, II app., 333, i). “因此,似乎是Zenodorus ,去世後Lysanias ,已收到的租金部分的領土從克利歐佩特拉,而且後克婁巴特拉的死亡這一'租用'域,但以敬意,是繼續他的標題tetrarch ” ( Schürer ,一,二吧。 , 333 ,一) 。 Mention is made on a monument, at Heliopolis, of "Zenodorus, son of the tetrarch Lysanias".提到了一個紀念碑,在赫利奧波利斯的“ Zenodorus ,兒子tetrarch Lysanias ” 。 It has been generally supposed that this is the Zenodorus just mentioned, but it is uncertain whether the first Lysanias was ever called tetrarch.人們普遍假定,這是Zenodorus剛才提到的,但目前尚不能確定是否是第一次Lysanias不斷呼籲tetrarch 。 It is proved from the inscriptions that there was a genealogical connection between the families of Lysanias and Zenodorus, and the same name may have been often repeated in the family.證明從銘文,有家譜連接的家庭成員之間的Lysanias和Zenodorus ,和相同的名稱可能是經常重複的家庭。 Coins for 32, 30, and 25 BC, belonging to our Zenodorus, have the superscription, "Zenodorus tetrarch and high priest.'硬幣32 , 30 ,和25年,屬於我們的Zenodorus ,有superscription , “ Zenodorus tetrarch和大祭司。 After the death of Herod the Great a portion of the tetrarchy of Zenodorus went to Herod's son, Philip (Jos., "Ant.", XVII, xi, 4), referred to by St. Luke, "Philip being tetrarch of Iturea" (Luke 3:1). Another tetrarchy sliced off from the dominions of Zenodorus lay to the east between Chalcis and Damascus, and went by the name of Abila or Abilene. Abila is frequently spoken of by Josephus as a tetrarchy, and in "Ant.", XVIII, vi, 10, he calls it the "tetrarchy of Lysanias". Claudius, in AD 41, conferred "Abila of Lysanias" on Agrippa I (Ant., XIX, v, 1). In a. D. 53, Agrippa II obtained Abila, "which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias" (Ant., XX., vii, 1). "From these passages we see that the tetrarchy of Abila had belonged previously to AD 37 to a certain Lysanias, and seeing that Josephus nowhere previously makes any mention of another Lysanias, except the contemporary of Anthony and Cleopatra, 40-36 BC .逝世後,大希律王的部分tetrarchy的Zenodorus去希律王的兒子,菲利普(聖何塞, “螞蟻。 ” ,十七,十一, 4 ) ,所提到的聖盧克, “菲利普正在tetrarch的Iturea ” (路加福音3:1 ) 。另一個tetrarchy切片,從自治領的Zenodorus奠定東部和大馬士革之間Chalcis ,並進入的名稱Abila或阿貝利娜。 Abila經常談到的約瑟夫作為tetrarchy ,並在“螞蟻。 “十八,六, 10日,他將其稱為的” tetrarchy的Lysanias “ 。克勞迪烏斯,在公元41 ,授予” Abila的Lysanias “關於阿格里帕口( Ant. ,十九,五, 1 ) 。在答: 4 53 ,獲得Abila阿格里帕二“ ,這過去一直是tetrarchy的Lysanias ” ( Ant. ,二十。 ,七, 1 ) 。 “從這些經文,我們看到, tetrarchy的Abila屬於以前至公元37至某Lysanias ,並沒有看到約瑟夫先前作出任何提及的另一個Lysanias ,除了當代的安東尼與克莉奧佩特拉, 40-36年。 . . criticism has endeavoured in various ways to show that there had not afterwards been any other, and that the tetrarchy of Abilene had its name from the older Lysanias.批評一直努力以多種方式顯示,之後一直沒有任何其他,而且tetrarchy的阿貝利娜了它的名字從老Lysanias 。 But this is impossible" (Schürer, 337). Lysanias I inherited the Iturean empire of his father Ptolemy, of which Abila was but a small and very obscure portion. Calchis in Coele-Syria was the capital of his kingdom, not Abila in Abilene. He reigned only about four years and was a comparatively obscure individual when compared with his father Ptolemy, or his successor Zenodorus, both of whom reigned many years. There is no reason why any portion of his kingdom should have been called after his name rather than theirs, and it is highly improbable that Josephus speaks of Abilene as called after him seventy years after his death. As Lysanias I was king over the whole region, one small portion of it could not be called his tetrarchy or kingdom, as is done by Josephus (Bel. Jud., II, xii, 8). "It must therefore be assumed as certain that at a later date the district of Abilene had been severed from the kingdom of Calchis, and had been governed by a younger Lysanias as tetrarch" (Schürer, 337). The existence of such a late Lysanias is shown by an inscription found at Abila, containing the statement that a certain Nymphaios, the freedman of Lysanias, built a street and erected a temple in the time of the "August Emperors". Augusti (Sebastoi) in the plural was never used before the death of Augustus, AD 14. The first contemporary Sebastoi were Tiberius and his mother Livia, ie at a time fifty years after the first Lysanias. An inscription at Heliopolis, in the same region, makes it probable that there were several princes of this name. "The Evangelist Luke is thoroughly correct when he assumes (iii, 1) that in the fifteenth year of Tiberius there was a Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene" (Schürer, op. cit., where full literature is given; Vigouroux, op. cit.).但是,這是不可能的“ ( Schürer , 337 ) 。 Lysanias我Iturean帝國繼承了他父親托勒密,其中Abila只是一小部分,非常模糊。 Calchis在Coele和敘利亞的首都是他的王國,而不是Abila在阿貝利娜。他在位僅四年,是一個相對模糊的個體相比,他的父親托勒密,或他的繼任者Zenodorus ,兩人統治多年。沒有理由的任何部分,他的英國應該被稱為後,他的名字,而超過他們,這是極不可能的約瑟夫談到阿貝利娜要求七十年後,他去世後。作為Lysanias我是國王在整個地區,一小部分,它不能被稱為他tetrarchy或英國,就是這樣做由約瑟夫( Bel.珠德。 ,二,十二, 8 ) 。 “因此,它必須承擔一定的,在稍後的日期區阿貝利娜已將從英國的Calchis ,已經由一個年輕Lysanias作為tetrarch “ ( Schürer , 337 ) 。存在這樣一個已故Lysanias表明題詞發現Abila ,其中載有聲明,一定Nymphaios ,在弗里德曼的Lysanias ,建立了街道,設置了寺廟的時間” 8月皇帝“ 。 Augusti ( Sebastoi )複數從未使用過死亡的奧古斯都,公元14 。第一當代Sebastoi的厄斯和他的母親家,即在50年後的時間第一Lysanias 。題詞在赫利奧波利斯,在同一地區,使得有可能有幾個王子這個名字。 “福音路加是徹底糾正他出任(三, 1 ) ,在第十五年的厄斯有Lysanias tetrarch的阿貝利娜” ( Schürer ,同前。前。 ,在充分考慮文學; Vigouroux ,同前。前。 ) 。

VIII.八。 WHO SPOKE THE MAGNIFICAT?世界衛生組織講MAGNIFICAT ?

Lately an attempt has been made to ascribe the Magnificat to Elizabeth instead of to the Blessed Virgin.最近一個已試圖賦予的Magnificat伊麗莎白而不是聖母。 All the early Fathers, all the Greek manuscripts, all the versions, all the Latin manuscripts (except three) have the reading in Luke, i, 46: Kai eipen Mariam--Et ait Maria [And Mary said]: Magnificat anima mea Dominum, etc. Three Old Latin manuscripts (the earliest dating from the end of the fourth cent.), a, b, l (called rhe by Westcott and Hort), have Et ait Elisabeth.所有早期父親,所有的希臘手稿,所有的版本中,所有的拉丁手稿(除三)有讀路加福音,我, 46 :啟eipen馬瑞維-乙基阿伊特瑪麗亞[和瑪麗說] : Magnificat靈魂測量Dominum等三座舊拉丁手稿(最早可追溯到結束的第四次左右。 )的A , B ,升(稱為rhe的Westcott和園藝) ,有菌阿伊特伊麗莎白。 These tend to such close agreement that their combined evidence is single rather than threefold.這些往往如此密切,他們的合併協議的證據,而不是單一的三倍。 They are full of gross blunders and palpable corruptions, and the attempt to pit their evidence against the many thousands of Greek, Latin, and other manuscripts, is anything but scientific.他們充分的嚴重失誤和明顯的腐敗,並試圖進站的證據,有成千上萬的希臘文,拉丁文,和其他手稿,是任何東西,但科學。 If the evidence were reversed, Catholics would be held up to ridicule if they ascribed the Magnificat to Mary.如果證據逆轉,天主教徒將舉行長達嘲笑如果他們歸咎於Magnificat瑪麗。 The three manuscripts gain little or no support from the internal evidence of the passage.這三個手稿很少或根本沒有獲得支持,內部證據通道。 The Magnificat is a cento from the song of Anna (1 Samuel 2), the Psalms, and other places of the Old Testament.該Magnificat是琴從宋安娜(撒母耳記上2 ) ,詩篇,和其他地方的舊約。 If it were spoken by Elizabeth it is remarkable that the portion of Anna's song that was most applicable to her is omitted: "The barren hath borne many: and she that had many children is weakened."如果是講伊麗莎白值得注意的是,部分安娜的歌曲是最適合她的省略: “荒蕪規勸承擔很多:她說,有許多兒童被削弱。 ” See, on this subject, Emmet in "The Expositor" (Dec., 1909); Bernard, ibid.見,關於這個問題,埃米特在“ Expositor ” ( 12月, 1909年) ;貝爾納米耶,同上。 (March, 1907); and the exhaustive works of two Catholic writers: Ladeuze, "Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique" (Louvain, Oct., 1903); Bardenhewer, "Maria Verkündigung" (Freiburg, 1905). ( 3月, 1907年) ;和詳盡的工程兩個天主教作家: Ladeuze “雜誌歷史ecclésiastique ” (盧, 10月, 1903年) ; Bardenhewer , “瑪麗亞Verkündigung ” (弗賴堡, 1905年) 。

IX.九。 THE CENSUS OF QUIRINIUS普查QUIRINIUS

No portion of the New Testament has been so fiercely attacked as Luke, ii, 1-5. Schürer has brought together, under six heads, a formidable array of all the objections that can he urged against it.沒有部分新約全書已如此激烈的攻擊路加福音,二, 1月5日。 Schürer匯集,在6頭,一項艱鉅的所有反對意見,可他敦促反對。 There is not space to refute them here; but Ramsay in his "Was Christ born in Bethlehem?"沒有空間,駁斥他們這裡,但拉姆齊在他“是耶穌誕生在伯利恆? ” has shown that they all fall to the ground:--已經表明,他們都倒在地上: -

(1) St. Luke does not assert that a census took place all over the Roman Empire before the death of Herod, but that a decision emanated from Augustus that regular census were to be made. ( 1 )聖盧克並不主張進行了一次人口普查各地的羅馬帝國去世前希律王,但這一決定來自奧古斯,定期普查要作出。 Whether they were carried out in general, or not, was no concern of St. Luke's.他們是否進行了一般情況下,或沒有,沒有關注的聖盧克。 If history does not prove the existence of such a decree it certainly proves nothing against it.如果歷史不能證明存在這樣一項法令,這當然證明並不反對它。 It was thought for a long time that the system of Indictions was inaugurated under the early Roman emperors, it is now known that they owe their origin to Constantine the Great (the first taking place fifteen years after his victory of 312), and this in spite of the fact that history knew nothing of the matter.有人認為很長一段時間,該系統的Indictions下成立的早期羅馬的皇帝,現在已經知道,他們欠其原產地為君士坦丁大帝(第一次發生15年後他的勝利, 312 ) ,這在儘管歷史不知道此事。 Kenyon holds that it is very probable that Pope Damasus ordered the Vulgate to be regarded as the only authoritative edition of the Latin Bible; but it would be difficult to Prove it historically.肯揚認為,這是很可能教宗達馬蘇下令武加大視為唯一權威版拉丁美洲聖經;但就很難證明這一點歷史。 If "history knows nothing" of the census in Palestine before 4 BC neither did it know anything of the fact that under the Romans in Egypt regular personal census were held every fourteen years, at least from AD 20 till the time of Constantine.如果“歷史一無所知”的普查在巴勒斯坦4年前也沒有它知道一個事實,即根據羅馬人在埃及經常舉行個人普查每14年,至少從公元20到時間君士坦丁。 Many of these census papers have been discovered, and they were called apographai, the name used by St. Luke.許多這些普查文件已發現,它們被稱為apographai ,所用的名稱聖盧克。 They were made without any reference to property or taxation.他們是在沒有任何提及財產或徵稅。 The head of the household gave his name and age, the name and age of his wife, children, and slaves.戶主了他的名字和年齡,姓名和年齡,他的妻子,子女和奴隸。 He mentioned how many were included in the previous census, and how many born since that time.他提到有多少人在上一次的人口普查,以及有多少人出生自那時起。 Valuation returns were made every year.估價返回了每年。 The fourteen years' cycle did not originate in Egypt (they had a different system before 19 BC), but most probably owed its origin to Augustus, 8 BC, the fourteenth year of his tribunitia potestas, which was a great year in Rome, and is called the year I in some inscriptions.在十四年'週期並不起源於埃及(他們有不同的系統之前, 19年) ,但最有可能拖欠其原產地為奧古斯都, 8年, 14年他tribunitia potestas ,這是一個偉大的賽季,在羅馬,和被稱為今年我在一些銘文。 Apart from St. Luke and Josephus, history is equally ignorant of the second enrolling in Palestine, AD 6.除了聖盧克和約瑟夫,歷史同樣是無知的第二次招生在巴勒斯坦,公元6 。 So many discoveries about ancient times, concerning which history has been silent, have been made during the last thirty years that it is surprising modern authors should brush aside a statement of St. Luke's, a respectable first-century writer, with a mere appeal to the silence of history on the matter.如此眾多的新發現遠古時代,就一直是沉默的歷史,已經在過去的三十年,這是令人驚訝的現代作家應該摒棄的聲明聖盧克,一個體面世紀作家,與僅僅呼籲沉默的歷史問題。

(2) The first census in Palestine, as described by St. Luke, was not made according to Roman, but Jewish, methods. ( 2 )第一次人口普查在巴勒斯坦,所描述的聖盧克,不是根據羅馬,但猶太人,方法。 St. Luke, who travelled so much, could not be ignorant of the Roman system, and his description deliberately excludes it.聖盧克,誰走過這麼多,不能不了解羅馬系統,和他的描述有意排斥它。 The Romans did not run counter to the feelings of provincials more than they could help.羅馬人沒有背道而馳的感情provincials超過他們可能會有幫助。 Jews, who were proud of being able to prove their descent, would have no objection to the enrolling described in Luke, ii.猶太人,誰感到自豪的是能夠證明自己的血統,不會有任何異議,招收路加福音中所述,二。 Schürer's arguments are vitiated throughout by the supposition that the census mentioned by St. Luke could be made only for taxation purposes. Schürer的論點,囊括全國的假定普查所提到的聖盧克只可以以納稅為目的。 His discussion of imperial taxation learned but beside the mark (cf. the practice in Egypt).他討論帝國稅收的教訓,但旁邊的標誌(見的做法,埃及) 。 It was to the advantage of Augustus to know the number of possible enemies in Palestine, in case of revolt.這是有利於奧古斯都知道,一些可能的敵人在巴勒斯坦,在案件反抗。

(3) King Herod was not as independent as he is described for controversial purposes. ( 3 )希律王不作為獨立的,因為他所描述的有爭議的目的。 A few years before Herod's death Augustus wrote to him.幾年前希律王死後奧古斯都寫信給他。 Josephus, "Ant.", XVI, ix., 3, has: "Cæsar [Augustus] . . . grew very angry, and wrote to Herod sharply. The sum of his epistle was this, that whereas of old he used him as a friend, he should now use him as his subject."約瑟夫, “螞蟻。 ”本篤十六世,九。 , 3 ,具有: “愷撒[奧古斯都] 。 。 。增長非常憤怒,並寫信給希律急劇。總和他的書信是,這個古老而他用他的一個朋友,他現在應該可以使用他,他的問題。 “ It was after this that Herod was asked to number his people.正是在這一點,希律王曾要求一些他的人民。 That some such enrolling took place we gather from a passing remark of Josephus, "Ant.", XVII, ii, 4, "Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews gave assurance of their good will to Cæsar [Augustus], and to the king's [Herod's] government, these very men [the Pharisees] did not swear, being above six thousand."一些諸如入學,我們收集了從路過的約瑟夫的話, “螞蟻。 ”十七,二,四, “因此,當所有的人對猶太人並保證他們的良好意願,凱撒[奧古斯都] ,並國王的[希律王的]政府,這些非常男女[法利]沒有宣誓,正在上述6000 。 “ The best scholars think they were asked to swear allegiance to Augustus.最好的學者認為,他們被要求宣誓效忠奧古斯。

(4) It is said there was no room for Quirinius, in Syria, before the death of Herod in 4 BCC Sentius Saturninus was governor there from 9-6 BC; and Quintilius Varus, from 6 BC till after the death of Herod. ( 4 )這是說,沒有餘地Quirinius ,在敘利亞,去世前在希律王廣Sentius撒端黎納4是從9月6日總督有公元前;和Quintilius翻,從6年到去世後,希律王。 But in turbulent provinces there were sometimes times two Roman officials of equal standing.但在動盪的省份有兩個羅馬時代有時官員同等的地位。 In the time of Caligula the administration of Africa was divided in such a way that the military power, with the foreign policy, was under the control of the lieutenant of the emperor, who could be called a hegemon (as in St. Luke), while the internal affairs were under the ordinary proconsul.時代的古拉的行政管理非洲分為以這樣一種方式的軍事實力,在外交政策,是控制下的中尉的皇帝,誰可以稱為霸主(如在聖盧克)而內政正在普通proconsul 。 The same position was held by Vespasian when he conducted the war in Palestine, which belonged to the province of Syria--a province governed by an officer of equal rank.同樣的立場是由維斯帕先進行時,他在巴勒斯坦的戰爭,其中屬於省的敘利亞-一個省所管轄人員的同等級別。 Josephus speaks of Volumnius as being Kaisaros hegemon, together with C. Sentius Saturninus, in Syria (9-6 BC): "There was a hearing before Saturninus and Volumnius, who were then the presidents of Syria" (Ant., XVI, ix, 1).約瑟夫談到Volumnius為Kaisaros霸主,連同角Sentius撒端黎納,在敘利亞( 9-6年) : “有一個聽證會撒端黎納和Volumnius ,誰當時敘利亞總統” ( Ant. ,本篤十六世,九, 1 ) 。 He is called procurator in "Bel. Jud.", I, xxvii, 1, 2.他呼籲檢察官在“貝爾。珠德。 ”我,二十七, 1 , 2 。 Corbulo commanded the armies of Syria against the Parthians, while Quadratus and Gallus were successively governors of Syria. Corbulo指揮軍隊的敘利亞對帕提亞,而方和雞相繼省長敘利亞。 Though Josephus speaks of Gallus, he knows nothing of Corbulo; but he was there nevertheless (Mommsen, "Röm. Gesch.", V, 382).雖然約瑟夫談到加魯斯,他什麼也不知道的Corbulo ;但他有儘管如此(莫姆森“光盤。 Gesch 。 ” ,第五章, 382 ) 。 A similar position to that of Corbulo must have been held by Quirinius for a few years between 7 and 4 BC了類似的立場,與Corbulo必須舉行了Quirinius幾年7至4年

The best treatment of the subject is that by Ramsay "Was Christ Born in Bethlehem?"最好的治療方法的主題是,通過拉姆齊“是耶穌誕生在伯利恆? ” See also the valuable essays of two Catholic writers: Marucchi in "Il Bessarione" (Rome, 1897); Bour, "L'lnscription de Quirinius et le Recensement de S. Luc" (Rome, 1897).又見寶貴撰兩個天主教作家: Marucchi在“金日成Bessarione ” (羅馬, 1897年) ;勞動, “歐萊雅lnscription日Quirinius等樂Recensement日由呂克” (羅馬, 1897年) 。 Vigouroux, "Le NT et les Découvertes Modernes" (Paris, 1890), has a good deal of useful information. Vigouroux , “樂新台幣等萊Découvertes現代” (巴黎, 1890年) ,有大量的有用信息。 It has been suggested that Quirinius is a copyist's error for Quintilius (Varus).有人建議, Quirinius是抄寫的錯誤Quintilius (翻) 。

X. SAINT LUKE AND JOSEPHUS十,聖路加及JOSEPHUS

The attempt to prove that St. Luke used Josephus (but inaccurately) has completely broken down.試圖證明,聖盧克使用約瑟夫(但不準確)已完全崩潰。 Belser successfully refutes Krenkel in "Theol. Quartalschrift", 1895, 1896. Belser成功地駁斥Krenkel在“ Theol 。 Quartalschrift ” , 1895年, 1896年。 The differences can be explained only on the supposition of entire independence.的差異可以解釋只能在假設整個獨立。 The resemblances are sufficiently accounted for by the use of the Septuagint and the common literary Greek of the time by both.有足夠的相似之處佔所使用的七十和共同文學希臘的時間都。 See Bebb and Headlam in Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", s.見Bebb和Headlam在你。 “快譯通。聖經” ,第 vv.弗拉基米爾弗拉基米羅維奇。 "Luke, Gospel of" and "Acts of the Apostles", respectively. “盧克,福音”和“使徒行傳” ,分別。 Schürer (Zeit. für W. Th., 1876) brushes aside the opinion that St. Luke read Josephus. Schürer ( Zeit. f黵總統日。 , 1876年)刷一邊認為,聖盧克閱讀約瑟夫。 When Acts is compared with the Septuagint and Josephus, there is convincing evidence that Josephus was not the source from which the writer of Acts derived his knowledge of Jewish history.當行為與七十和約瑟夫,有令人信服的證據表明約瑟夫不是來源的作者行為產生的知識猶太人的歷史。 There are numerous verbal and other coincidences with the Septuagint (Cross in "Expository Times", XI, 5:38, against Schmiedel and the exploded author of "Sup. Religion").有許多言語和其他巧合的譯本(跨在“說明性時報” ,十一, 5點38分,對Schmiedel和爆炸“的作者燮。宗教” ) 。 St. Luke did not get his names from Josephus, as contended by this last writer, thereby making the whole history a concoction. Wright in his "Some New Test. Problems" gives the names of fifty persons mentioned in St. Luke's Gospel.聖盧克沒有得到他的名字從約瑟夫,作為爭辯的這最後的作家,從而使整個歷史的捏造。賴特在他的“一些新的考驗。 ”問題提供了50人的名單中提到的聖盧克福音。 Thirty-two are common to the other two Synoptics, and therefore not taken from Josephus.有32個是共同的其他兩個Synoptics ,因此沒有採取由約瑟夫。 Only five of the remaining eighteen are found in him, namely, Augustus Cæsar, Tiberius, Lysanias, Quirinius, and Annas.只有5個,其餘十八頃他發現,即奧古斯都愷撒,厄斯, Lysanias , Quirinius ,並安納斯。 As Annas is always called Ananus in Josephus, the name was evidently not taken from him.正如安納斯總是在約瑟夫所謂Ananus的名稱顯然是沒有考慮他。 This is corroborated by the way the Gospel speaks of Caiphas.這證實了福音的方式談到了Caiphas 。 St. Luke's employment of the other four names shows no connection with the Jewish historian.聖盧克就業其他四個名字沒有顯示出與猶太人的歷史。 The mention of numerous countries, cities, and islands in Acts shows complete independence of the latter writer.提到許多國家,城市和島嶼的行為表明完全獨立的,後者的作家。 St. Luke's preface bears a much closer resemblance to those of Greek medical writers than to that of Josephus.聖盧克前言負有更密切的相似之處是希臘作家,而不是醫療的約瑟夫。 The absurdity of concluding that St. Luke must necessarily be wrong when not in agreement with Josephus is apparent when we remember the frequent contradictions and blunders in the latter writer.的荒謬的結論是,聖盧克必須是錯誤時,不同意約瑟夫很明顯,當我們忘記了頻繁的矛盾和失誤,後者作家。

APPENDIX: BIBLICAL COMMISSION DECISIONS附錄:聖經委員會的決定

The following answers to questions about this Gospel, and that of St. Mark, were issued, 26 June, 1913, by the Biblical Commission.以下問題的答案對這個福音,而聖馬克,共發出, 1913年6月26日,由聖經委員會。 That Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, and Luke, a doctor, the assistant and companion of Paul, are really the authors of the Gospels respectively attributed to them is clear from Tradition, the testimonies of the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, by quotations in their writings, the usage of early heretics, by versions of the New Testament in the most ancient and common manuscripts, and by intrinsic evidence in the text of the Sacred Books.該標記的弟子和口譯的彼得和盧克,醫生,助理和同伴的保羅,是真正的作者福音歸因於它們分別是明確由傳統,證詞的父親和教會作家,由報價在他們的著作,使用早期異端,通過版本的新約中的最古老的和共同的手稿,以及內在的證據案文中的聖書。 The reasons adduced by some critics against Mark's authorship of the last twelve versicles of his Gospel (xvi, 9-20) do not prove that these versicles are not inspired or canonical, or that Mark is not their author.所引證的原因一些批評家對馬克的著作權在過去的12 versicles他的福音(十六, 9月20日)沒有證明這些versicles啟發或不規範,或者說Mark是不是他們的作者。 It is not lawful to doubt of the inspiration and canonicity of the narratives of Luke on the infancy of Christ (i-ii), on the apparition of the Angel and of the bloody sweat (xxii, 43-44); nor can it be proved that these narratives do not belong to the genuine Gospel of Luke.這是不合法的懷疑的靈感和正規的說明盧克的嬰兒基督(一至二) ,關於幻影天使和血腥汗水( 22 , 43-44 ) ;也不能證明,這些說明不屬於真正的福音路加。

The very few exceptional documents attributing the Magnificat to Elizabeth and not to the Blessed Virgin should not prevail against the testimony of nearly all the codices of the original Greek and of the versions, the interpretation required by the context, the mind of the Virgin herself, and the constant tradition of the Church.極少數特殊文件歸咎於Magnificat伊麗莎白而不是聖母不應戰勝的證詞,幾乎所有的codices原始希臘和版本,解釋所要求的背景下,考慮到她的美屬維爾京,和不斷的傳統,教會。

It is according to most ancient and constant tradition that after Matthew, Mark wrote his Gospel second and Luke third; though it may be held that the second and third Gospels were composed before the Greek version of the first Gospel.它是按照最古老的和不斷的傳統,在馬太,馬克,寫下了福音路加福音第二和第三;雖然它可能會認為,第二次和第三次福音書是由希臘前的第一個版本的福音。 It is not lawful to put the date of the Gospels of Mark and Luke as late as the destruction of Jerusalem or after the siege had begun.這是不合法之日起實施的福音馬克和盧克才摧毀耶路撒冷或之後開始的圍困。 The Gospel of Luke preceded his Acts of the Apostles, and was therefore composed before the end of the Roman imprisonment, when the Acts was finished (Acts 28:30-31).福音路加之前他使徒行傳,因此在年底前組成的羅馬監禁,當行為完成(使徒28:30-31 ) 。 In view of Tradition and of internal evidence it cannot be doubted that Mark wrote according to the preaching of Peter, and Luke according to that of Paul, and that both had at their disposal other trustworthy sources, oral or written.鑑於傳統和內部證據不能懷疑馬克寫道根據鼓吹的彼得,並根據該路的保羅,這兩人都在它們所掌握的其他可靠來源,口頭或書面。

Publication information Written by C. Aherene.出版信息書面由C. Aherene 。 Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.轉錄的厄尼Stefanik 。天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. +約翰M Farley, Archbishop of New York法利,大主教紐約


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