Book of Judges圖書法官

General Information 一般信息

Judges, the seventh book of the Old Testament of the Bible, traces Israel's history from the death of Joshua, the lieutenant and successor of Moses, to the beginning of the monarchy under Saul.法官,第七本書的舊約聖經,痕跡以色列歷史上死亡約書亞,中尉和繼承摩西的開頭君主制下索爾。 Its title is derived from the figures who serve as the protagonists in most of the book.其名稱源於數字誰擔任主角大部分書。 Their Hebrew designation is normally translated "judge," but the word has a broader meaning and should perhaps be translated "ruler."他們通常是希伯來指定翻譯“法官” ,但這個詞具有更廣泛的意義和也許應該翻譯“的統治者。 ” Where sufficient information is related about individual "judges," they consistently appear in the role of war leader or ruler, not judge.在具備足夠信息相關的個人“法官” ,他們始終出現在戰爭中的作用的領導人或統治者,而不是法官。 Deborah, the prophetess, however, may be an exception, and some scholars hold that the minor judges, mentioned only in lists, were officials of the tribal league with judicial functions quite distinct from the role of the major figures like Gideon and Samson.黛博拉的預言家,但是,可能是一個例外,一些學者認為,輕微的法官,只提到名單中,有官員的部落聯盟與司法職能截然不同的作用主要數字基甸和參孫一樣。

These major figures appear to have been of only regional importance and may have overlapped chronologically; the neat chronological structure of the book based on their succession is certainly late and artificial.這些重大的數字似乎已經只有區域的重要性和可能有重疊的時間順序;的整潔順序結構的基礎上他們的書肯定是繼承已故和人工。 Judges is part of the Deuteronomistic History, the name given by scholars to the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, all of which appear to share the same complex history of composition.法官是Deuteronomistic歷史,所給予的名稱學者的書申命記約書亞,法官, 1和撒母耳記下,和第1和第2國王,所有這一切都共享相同的複雜的歷史構成。 Many early oral and written sources, including the premonarchical song of Deborah, were incorporated into the general editorial framework provided by the final editor of the history in the time of Josiah (c. 640 - 609 BC).許多早期的口頭和書面的來源,包括premonarchical歌黛博,被納入一般的編輯提供的框架的最後的編輯歷史時代的約書亞(角640 - 609年) 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
JJM Roberts JJM羅伯茨

Bibliography 參考書目
M Bal, Death and Dissymetry (1988); J Gray, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth (1967). M平衡,死亡和Dissymetry ( 1988年) ; J灰,約書亞,法官和露絲( 1967年) 。


Book of Judges圖書法官

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Introduction (1:1-2:10)導言( 1:1-2:10 )
  2. Main body of book, describing cycles of failure, oppression and relief by judges.正文本書,描述循環衰竭,壓迫和救濟的法官。 Activities of 13 judges are described (2:11-16:31)活動的13名法官介紹( 2:11-16:31 )
  3. Appendix (17-21)附錄( 17-21 )


Book of Judges圖書法官

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Judges is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges."圖書法官所謂的,因為它包含的歷史,解脫和以色列政府的男人誰承擔的標題“法官。 ” The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about AD 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon.這本書的露絲原來的組成部分,這本書,而是公元450是分開,並放置在希伯來聖經後立即雅歌。

The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books."這本書載有: ( 1 。 )導言( 1-3:6 ) ,連接它與以前的說明約書亞,作為一個“環節的書籍。 ” (2.) The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-ch. 16:31) in the following order: ( 2 。 )的歷史, 13名法官( 3時07分路。 16點31 ) ,按下列順序:

In all 410 years.在所有四一○年。

Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation under Samuel (1 Sam. 7:2-6).大力士的漏洞可能同步期間緊接國家懺悔和改造下塞繆爾( 1山姆。 7:2-6 ) 。 After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge.在大力士來到禮,誰既是大祭司和法官。 He directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it for twenty years.他執導的公民權利和宗教事務的人民四十年,結束時的非利士人再次侵略和壓迫的土地為二十年。 Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king.塞繆爾有人提出了提供從這個壓迫人民,他判斷以色列一些十二年,當方向事務落入掃羅,誰是受膏者國王。 If Eli and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges.如果禮和Samuel列入,但當時15名法官。 But the chronology of this whole period is uncertain.但年表這整個期間是不確定的。 (3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (17-21), which has no formal connection with that which goes before. ( 3 。 )的歷史性部分圖書其次是一個附錄( 17-21 ) ,其中沒有正式與那些不用之前。 It records (a) the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and (b) the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21).它記錄(一)征服( 17日, 18日)的Laish的一部分部落丹;和( b )幾乎完全滅絕的部落本傑明的其他部落,因而他們的協助男子Gibeah ( 19-21 ) 。

This section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death of Joshua.這一節屬於正常的時期只有幾年去世後約書亞。 It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people.它顯示了宗教和道德簡的人。 The author of this book was most probably Samuel.的作者,這本書是最有可能塞繆爾。 The internal evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion.內部證據,雙方的第一次16章和附錄權證這一結論。 It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning of David's.這可能是由在掃羅的統治地位,或在一開始就大衛。 The words in 18:30, 31, imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (1 Sam. 21).在18:30的話, 31日,意味著它寫在考慮的方舟的非利士人,在它成立於Nob ( 1山姆。 21 ) 。 In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon (1 Chr. 16:39)在大衛的統治方舟是在基遍( 1染色體。 16時39分)

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Judges法官

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The seventh book of the Old Testament, second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon.第七屆圖書舊約,第二早期先知希伯來佳能。

I. TITLE一,標題

The Hebrew name of the book was transliterated by Origen Safateím, and by St. Jerome Sophtim; it was translated by Melito and Origen Kritaí, by the Septuagint ì tôn kritôn bíblos or tôn kritôn, so, too, by the Greek Fathers; the Latins translated liber Judicum or Judicum.希伯萊名字的書是由奧利Safateím譯音,和聖杰羅姆Sophtim ;這是翻譯的美利托和奧利Kritaí ,由七十ì tôn kritôn bíblos或tôn kritôn ,何嘗不是如此,希臘父親的拉丁人翻譯書Judicum或Judicum 。

The Hebrew verb meant originally "to act as a Divine judge", and was applied to God (Genesis 18:25), and to Moses acting as the specially inspired lawgiver and judge of Israel (Exodus 18:13, 16).希伯來文動詞意味著原先“作為神聖的法官” ,並適用於神(創18:25 ) ,並摩西作為專門啟發立法者和法官的以色列(出埃及記18時13分, 16 ) 。 In time the elders of the people became the "judges" (vv. 25, 26).在時間長者的人成為了“法官” ( vv. 25日, 26日) 。 In this book the term judges (shôphatîm) is applied to the leaders of Israel, and would seem to indicate that their right was Divine (Judges 10:2, 3).在這本書的任期法官( shôphatîm )適用於以色列領導人,並似乎表明,他們的權利是神聖的(法官10時02分, 3 ) 。 The office of judge differed from that of king only in the absence of hereditary succession (xii, 7-15).法官職務不同於國王只有在沒有世襲(十二, 7月15日) 。 It is worth noting that the Phoenicians, according to Livy, called their chief magistrate suffetes (XXVIII, xxxvii), and gave to the suffetes of Carthage a power analogous to that of the Roman consul (XXX, vii; XXXIV, lxi).值得一提的是,腓尼基人,據李維,要求其首席法官suffetes (二十八, XXXVII )號決議,並賦予suffetes的迦太基權力類似於羅馬領事(三十,七;三十四, LXI聯盟) 。

II.二。 CONTENTS目錄

(1) Introduction (i-xx, 5). ( 1 )導言(一至二十, 5 ) 。 A summary of the conquest of Chanaan (i, 1-36).綜述征服Chanaan (一, 1-36 ) 。 The angel of Jahweh reproves the tribes that made league with the stranger (ii, 1-5).天使Jahweh reproves ,使各部落聯盟的陌生人(二, 1月5日) 。 (2) The history of Israel under the judges (ii, 6-xvi), introduced by a summary of its contents -- Israel's forsaking of Jahweh, turning to Baal and Astaroth, defeat by her enemies, and deliverance by Jahweh (ii, 6-iii, 6). ( 2 )以色列歷史上的法官(二,六16 ) ,簡要介紹了其內容-以色列放棄的Jahweh ,談到巴爾和Astaroth ,打敗她的敵人,並解救了Jahweh (二, 6三, 6 ) 。 Then follow the wonderful deeds of the judges, of whom Gedeon and Samson are the chief heroes; to them are devoted seven chapters.然後按照美好的事蹟,法官,其中Gedeon和大力士是行政英雄;他們專門七章。 (3) Two more stories of the times of the judges -- the migration of Dan and their idolatrous worship of the idol of Michas (xvii-xviii), the crime of the Benjamites and their punishment by Israel (xix-xxi). ( 3 )另外兩個故事的時代法官-丹移民和他們的盲目崇拜崇拜的偶像Michas (十七,十八) ,犯罪的Benjamites和懲罰以色列( 19 - XXI )號決議。 For fuller analysis see Cornely, "Introd. Spec. in Hist. VT Lib.", I, Paris, 1887, 109-14.更全面的分析見Cornely , “ Introd 。規格。在組織胺。佛蒙特州庫。 ”我,巴黎, 1887年, 109-14 。

III.三。 CANONICITY正規

The Book of Judges is admitted by all to belong to the canons of the Jews of Palestine, the Jews of the Dispersion (the Alexandrian canon), and the Christians.圖書法官承認所有屬於大砲的猶太人的巴勒斯坦人,猶太人的色散(在亞歷山大佳能) ,和基督徒。 Only the authority of the infallible Church can determine the canon of Sacred Scripture, and define the inspired meaning of the Books.唯一的權威,可靠的教會可以確定佳能聖經,並確定了啟發意義的書籍。 Hence Catholics may not go the way of Rationalists and of Protestants in the matter of the so-called late and manifold redaction of Judges.因此,可能不會去天主教徒的方式理性主義和新教在這個問題上所謂的後期和多方面的編輯法官。

IV.四。 AUTHENTICITY真實性

The chief arguments for the authenticity of Judges are given below under Historicity and Sources.首席論點的真實性法官以下是根據歷史性和來源。 We now appeal to:現在,我們呼籲:

The canonizing of the book by Jews and Christians as an authentic narrative of part of Israel's history;該封為本書的猶太人和基督徒作為一個真實的說明以色列的一部分的歷史;

the life-like style of the work;生活類的工作作風;

the minute and accurate details of the narrative;分鐘和準確詳細的說明;

the evident purpose of the narrator to give a history of the things whereof he knows.明顯的目的敘述者給歷史上的事情什麼的,他知道。

V. PURPOSE五,用途

Although the purpose of the narrator is evidently to give a history of the events that took place in Israel between the days of Josue and of Samuel, yet that purpose is rather epic and didactic than historical in the modern sense of the word.雖然目的敘述者顯然是給歷史上發生的事件在以色列之間的天若蘇埃和薩穆埃爾,但這一目的是史詩和說教,而不是歷史的一所現代意義上的字詞。

(1) The narrator does not purpose history in the modern sense; he does not narrate in historical order all the important events of the period. ( 1 )敘述者沒有目的的歷史所現代意義上,他不鋪陳歷史秩序的所有重要事件的時期。 This fact is clear from the appendixes (xvii-xxi), which give very important events outside their proper historical order.這一事實是清楚的附錄(十七- XXI )號決議,使非常重要的事件以外的適當的歷史秩序。

(2) The historian of Judges has an epic purpose, as early historians (eg Herodotus) often had. ( 2 )歷史學家法官史詩般的目的,早歷史學家(例如希羅多德)往往。 The epos, or theme, of the historian of Judges is evolved in the summary (ii, 6-iii, 6), wherewith he introduces the history proper; he has it ever in mind to unfold why Jahweh allowed the foe to abide so long in the promised land, and even to defeat the chosen people, and why He raised up the judges.的電子銷售點,或主題的歷史學家法官演變的簡要(二6三, 6人) , wherewith他介紹了歷史上適當;他永遠銘記它展開為什麼Jahweh允許敵人遵守只要在所承諾的土地,甚至打敗選擇人民,以及為什麼他提出了法官。 The idolatry of Israel is the reason.以色列的偶像崇拜的原因。

(3) The didactic purpose of the book is to teach Israel that the commandments of Jahweh should be obeyed (iii, 4). ( 3 )教學目的,這本書是教以色列的誡命的Jahweh應服從(三,四) 。 When Israel leaves Jahweh, Jahweh leaves Israel, at least for the while; the foes of Israel triumph (cf. Aug., "De Civ. Dei", xvi, 43).當以色列葉片Jahweh , Jahweh離開以色列,至少在同時,以色列的敵人的勝利(參見8月, “德文明。上帝” ,本篤十六世, 43 ) 。

VI.六。 SOURCES

The problem is complicated.問題是複雜的。 Most contradictory theories have been proposed. According to Moore (see "Internat. Crit. Comm." on "Judges", also art. in "Encycl. Bibl."), the body of the book (ii, 6-xvi, 33) is Deuteronomistic; the general setting of the stories and the purpose of that setting show characteristics of the seventh and sixth centuries, the influence of Deuteronomy and of the great Prophets Jeremias and Ezechiel.最矛盾的理論已提出。根據摩爾(見“ Internat 。危重。通信。 ”對“法官” ,也是藝術。在“ Encycl 。 Bibl 。 ” ) ,該機構的書籍(二,六16 , 33 )是Deuteronomistic ;一般設置的故事的目的,設置顯示特性的第七和六世紀的影響,申命記和偉大的先知赫雷米亞斯和Ezechiel 。 The stories of the book, out of their setting and apart from their set purpose in the Book of Judges, are pre-Deuteronomic; they show no Deuteronomic traces except in the introductions and the links that chain the various stories together.故事中的這本書,在其制定和除了設置目的在這本書中的法官,是預先Deuteronomic ;他們沒有任何的痕跡,除非Deuteronomic的介紹和鏈接,鏈在一起的各種故事。 Indeed, Moore would have it that this redaction and unification of the sources was the work of a pre-Deuteronomic editor; this editor is not admitted by Kittel.事實上,摩爾會認為這纂和統一的來源是工作的先決Deuteronomic編輯;這個編輯器是不承認的基特爾。 To sum up, then, the opinion of Moore, one of the most eminent Protestant students of Judges, the book itself (ie ii, 6-xvi, 31) is made up of two strands (J and E), united not later than 621 BC by a pre-Deuteronomic redactor (RJE), and re-edited shortly thereafter, during the Deuteronomic reform of Josias and the influence of Jeremias, by the Deuteronomic editor of the Hexateuch (D).概括起來,然後,摩爾的意見,其中最傑出的新教學生法官,圖書本身(即二, 6 - 16 , 31 )是由兩個股( J和E節) ,聯合國不得遲於公元前621前Deuteronomic redactor ( RJE ) ,並重新編輯此後不久,在Deuteronomic改革Josias和赫雷米亞斯的影響,由Deuteronomic編輯Hexateuch ( d )項。 Many critics refuse to assign any strata of Judges to the Hexateuchal fictions -- J, E, JH, P or R, and D, even though they postulate many and late sources for the book in its present state.許多評論家拒絕指定任何階層的法官Hexateuchal小說- J ,英,華,磷或R和D ,即使他們假設許多後期來源的圖書在目前的狀態。 Among Catholic scholars a few, who wrote before the Biblical Commission issued its decrees about the Pentateuch, have accepted the late redaction.在天主教學者少數,誰寫的聖經委員會之前發表了法令的摩西五,接受了後期編輯。 Most Catholic scholars, however, are unanimous against these few who have left the traditional positions of Catholic Bible-study.大多數天主教學者,但都一致反對這些少數誰離開了傳統的立場天主教聖經研究。 In the matter of historical criticism of Judges, as of the Pentateuch, Catholic scholars do not deny the use of various sources by the inspired writer, but postulate that these documents shall have been written and put together very much earlier than the Rationalists wish.在這個問題上的歷史批評法官的摩西五,天主教學者並不否認使用各種來源的靈感的作家,但假設,這些文件應已書面和整理非常早於理性主義的願望。 There is no proof whatsoever of the late and manifold redactions of these documents in our present book.沒有任何證據表明任何已故和多方面的刪節這些文件在我們目前的圖書。 Cornely (loc. cit., 214-22) and Hummelauer (In Lib. Jud. et Ruth, 27) both consider that the writer of Judges was probably Samuel; and both admit that the work shows signs of the use of pre-existing documents. Cornely (如上。 , 214-22 )和Hummelauer (在庫。珠德。與露絲, 27歲)都認為,法官的作者可能是塞繆爾;都承認,工作有跡象顯示使用預先存在的文件。 Such is the opinion also of Kaulen ("Einleitung in die heilige Schrift", 3rd ed., Freiburg, 1890, 181).就是這種意見也Kaulen ( “導論中死亡神聖Schrift ” ,第3版。 ,弗賴堡, 1890年, 181 ) 。

(1) Judges, in its present state, cannot have been written before Israel had a king. ( 1 )法官在其目前的狀態,不能被寫入了前以色列國王。 Only in the time of a king could the writer have said: "In those days there was no king in Israel, but every one did that which seemed right to himself" (xvii, 6; cf. xviii, 1; xxi, 24).只有在規定的時間內的國王可以有作家說: “在那些日子裡,沒有國王在以色列,但每個人都這樣做似乎對自己的權利” (十七, 6 ;比照。十八, 1 ; 21 , 24 ) 。 These words appear only in the appendix (xvii-xxi), which we admit to be later than some of the sources used by the sacred writer; this apendix is generally admitted to be part of the work done by the last editor of Judges.這些話只會出現在附錄中( 17 - XXI )號決議,我們承認,應在不遲於一些消息來源使用的神聖作家;這是普遍承認apendix的一部分所開展的工作最後編輯法官。 This editor, then, wrote while Israel had a king.此編輯器,然後寫道,而以色列有一個國王。

(2) The book was not written after Solomon had done evil. ( 2 )這本書不寫所羅門群島後做了邪惡。 The writer deems the lack of a king to be the explanation of the idolatry of the Danites and the misdeeds of the tribe of Benjamin.筆者認為,缺乏一個國王是解釋偶像崇拜的Danites和不端行為的部落本傑明。 Such an explanation would have been out of the question had the writer known either of the idolatry brought in by Jeroboam and encouraged by Solomon or of the separation of Juda from Israel.這樣的解釋就這一問題進行了著名的作家之一的偶像崇拜所帶來的耶羅波安和鼓勵所羅門或分離的猶大由以色列。

(3) This last editor must have written before David had reigned seven years. ( 3 )這最後的編輯必須有書面統治之前,大衛已經七年。 For Jerusalem was still called Jebus and was occupied by the Jebusites (xix, 11); whereas, in the seventh year of his reign, David took the citadel of Sion, called it the city of David, and destroyed the Jebusites (2 Samuel 5).耶路撒冷仍然是所謂的Jebus和被佔領的耶布斯人( 19 , 11 ) ;而在第七個年頭,他在位期間,貝克漢姆在錫永的堡壘,把它稱為城市大衛,並摧毀了耶布斯人(撒母耳記下5 ) 。

(4) Finally, it is likely that Judges antedates even the first seven years of David's reign and the last years of Saul's. ( 4 )最後,很可能是法官antedates甚至頭七年大衛的統治,並在過去幾年的掃羅的。 The book purposes to keep the children of Israel from idolatry and from the Divine punishments thereof.這本書的目的,以保持以色列從兒童崇拜和神的懲罰不足。 In the beginning of David's and the end of Saul's reign there was no need of such purpose: Saul had "rooted out the magicians and soothsayers from the land" (1 Samuel 28:9).在大衛的開始和結束掃羅的統治地位,沒有必要這樣的目的:索爾貝了“紮根了魔術師和soothsayers從土地” (撒母耳記上28:9 ) 。 Moreover, in that period the writer would have seen that even a "king in Israel" did not prevent the tribal and internal dissensions of the days of the judges.此外,在這一時期,作家就會看到,即使是“國王”以色列並沒有阻止部落和內部糾紛的天法官。

(5) Since, then, Judges was most likely written in the first years of Saul's reign, there is no more probable writer thereof than Samuel. ( 5 )自,然後,法官寫的最有可能的頭幾年,掃羅的統治地位,也沒有更多的作家有可能比塞繆爾。 He had yielded to Israel's clamours, and set up Saul as king.他取得了對以色列的clamours ,並設立了掃羅國王。 A new war was impending.一場新的戰爭已迫在眉睫。 There was none in Israel more likely to make the people ready for that war by driving home to them the thesis of Judges -- that fidelity to Jahweh meant success against the foe of Israel.有沒有在以色列更有可能使人民作好準備戰爭給他們開車回家的論文法官-這意味著忠實於Jahweh成功對敵人以色列。

(6) The use of previous documents by Samuel sufficiently explains the varied literary style on account of which the Rationalists frame their various hypotheses. ( 6 )使用前文件塞繆爾充分說明了不同文體的帳戶,其中的理性主義框架的各種假說。 The song of Debbora (v) is archaic by contrast with the language of its setting.這首歌的Debbora (五)是過時的,與語言的設置。 The story of Gedeon is originally from a different hand than that of the first writer of Samson's history.這個故事的人Gedeon最初是從一個不同的手比第一大力士作家的歷史。 spirit of the Lord rushed [xxxxxx] upon Samson" (xiv, 6, 19; xv, 14).精神的上帝送往[ xxxxxx號]經大力士“ ( 14 , 6 , 19 ;十五14 ) 。

Catholic commentators of old assigned the Book of Judges to many hands.天主教評論家舊指定圖書法官許多手中。 So Maldonatus (Comm. in Matt., ii, 23), Pineda (In Job, præf., iii), Clair (p. 10), and many others.所以Maldonatus ( Comm.在馬特。 ,二, 23歲) ,帕尼達(在就業, præf 。 ,三) ,克萊爾(第10頁) ,以及其他許多人。 Hummebauer (In Jud., 27) argues that the longer narratives -- those of Aod (iii, 15-30), Barac (iv and v), Gedeon (avi-viii), Abimelech (ix), Jephte (xi, 1-xii, 7), and Samson (xiii-xvi) -- are distinct accounts, written by separate authors, who were contemporary or almost contemporary with the events they narrated. Hummebauer (在珠德。 , 27歲)認為,從長遠的敘述-那些Aod (三15-30 ) ,巴拉克(四和五) ,人Gedeon (的AVI八) , Abimelech (九) , Jephte (十一, 1至十二, 7 )和大力士(第十三至十六) -是不同的帳戶,單獨撰寫的作者,誰是當代或幾乎當代的事件,他們敘述。 These varied narratives Samuel incorporated much as he found them; he drew from tradition for the minor details which he gives about the lesser judges.這些不同的敘述塞繆爾納入多,他發現他們;他提請從傳統的細節,他給法官的較輕。 While setting these stories together, Samuel was inspired in regard to the complete thoughts he culled from others, as well as the introductions, links, and remarks he superadded.雖然這些故事設置在一起,塞繆爾的靈感是在完成他的想法從其他宰殺,以及引進,鏈接和備註他superadded 。

VII.七。 HISTORICITY歷史性

(1) Internal Evidence ( 1 )內部證據

The writer of Judges was contemporary with some of the events which he narrated; used documents written by those who were contemporary, or all but contemporary, with the deeds they told; and shows every sign of sincerity, care, and truth. The very concern of the writer to give the truth explains the manifold literary style of the book.作者當代法官的一些事件,他敘述;用書面文件誰是這些當代,或全部,但當代,他們的事蹟告訴;和一切跡象表明誠意,護理和真理。非常關注作家讓真理解釋的多方面文體的圖書。 He has preserved to us unchanged the style of the song of Debbora and that of the fable of Joatham.他保留了我們不變的風格的歌曲,並在Debbora的寓言Joatham 。 He has transmitted sayings peculiar to place and to person (ii, 5; iv, 5; vi, 24, 32; xv, 19; xviii, 12, 29).他轉交了諺語所特有的地方,人(二, 5 ;四,五;六, 24 , 32 ;十五, 19 ; 18 , 12 , 29 ) 。 The nationalistic objections to the miraculous in the stories of Gedeon and Samson are generally accepted by Protestant writers, who look upon these portions of Judges as legendary; to Catholics these are as historical as any other portion of the work.民族主義反對神奇故事中Gedeon和大力士普遍接受的新教作家,誰把這些部分法官傳奇;天主教徒這些都是歷史的任何其他部分的工作。 The enemies to the historicity of the book in vain insist that these stories are set down as legends to please the Israelites.敵人的歷史性圖書徒勞堅持認為,這些故事傳說的規定,作為取悅以色列人。 The writer of Judges so berates the Israelites for idolatry and inter-tribal dissension that it is unscientific to accuse him of truckling to their pride in their heroes.作者的法官斥責以色列人的崇拜和部落間的意見分歧,這是不科學的,指責他truckling他們感到自豪,他們的英雄。

(2) External Evidence ( 2 )外部證據

(a) Catholic tradition is clear. (一)天主教的傳統是很清楚的。 The Fathers look upon the narrative of Judges as fact-narrative; their unanimity is admitted by all who deem that unanimity worth consideration.父親看待的說明法官的事實說明;他們一致承認所有誰一致認為,值得考慮。

(b) O.-T. (二) O.-T. testimony is manifold.證詞是多方面的。 The opening summary (i, 1-ii, 5) gives details the historical value of which is attested by Josue: Juda's siege of Dabir (1:10-15; Joshua 15:14-19), the Jebusites in Jerusalem (1:21; Joshua 15:63), the Chanaanite in Gazer along with Ephraim (1:29; Joshua 16:10), the Chanaanite dwelling with Manasses (1:27; Joshua 17:11).開幕摘要(一, 1 - 2 , 5 )詳細的歷史價值,這是證明了若蘇埃:猶大的圍困Dabir ( 1:10-15 ;約書亞15:14-19 ) ,在耶路撒冷的耶布斯人( 1 : 21 ;約書亞15:63 ) ,在凝視的Chanaanite一起埃弗拉伊姆( 1時29分;約書亞16:10 ) ,在Chanaanite住宅與Manasses ( 1時27分;約書亞17:11 ) 。 Like details are the death of Josue (2:6-9; Joshua 24:28-31), the capture of Lesem by Dan (17:18; Joshua 19:47).像詳情死亡若蘇埃( 2:6-9 ;約書亞24:28-31 ) ,捕獲Lesem由丹( 17:18 ;約書亞19:47 ) 。 The Books of Kings tell us as facts much that we read in Judges.國王的書告訴我們的事實很多,我們在法官宣讀。 Israel's forgetfulness of Jahweh, her defeat by the foe and salvation by the judges (1 Samuel 12:9-11); the death of Abimelech, son of Gedeon (9:53; 2 Samuel 11:21). The Psalms dwell proudly on the deeds of the judges: the fate of Sisara, Jabin, Oreb, Zeb, Zebee, and Salmana (vii, 22, 25; iv, 15; viii, 21; Ps. lxxxii, 10-12); the entire history of Judges in outline (Ps. cv, 34-46).以色列的遺忘Jahweh ,她擊敗的敵人和救贖的法官(撒母耳記上12:9-11 ) ;死亡Abimelech的兒子,人Gedeon ( 9時53分;撒母耳記下11:21 ) 。詳談自豪的詩篇上事蹟法官:命運的Sisara , Jabin , Oreb ,瑞伯, Zebee ,並Salmana (第七章,第22 ,第25 ;四, 15 ;八, 21 ;聚苯乙烯。 lxxxii , 10月12日) ;的整個歷史中法官在大綱( Ps.簡歷, 34-46 ) 。 The Prophets refer to real facts given in Judges: the defeat of Madian by Gedeon (Isaiah 9:4; 10:26); the crime at Gabaa (Hosea 9:9; 10:9).先知是指真正的事實給予法官:打敗馬店的人Gedeon (以賽亞9點04分; 10點26分) ;的犯罪GABAA受體(何西阿9時09分, 10時09分) 。

(c) In the New Testament, St. Paul mentions the judges in their proper place between Josue and Samuel (Acts 13:20); praises some of the judges along with certain kings (Hebrews 11:32). (三)在新約,聖保羅提到法官在其應有的地位和Samuel之間若蘇埃(使徒13:20 ) ;讚揚一些法官連同某些國王(希伯來書11時32分) 。

VIII.八。 TEXT文字

(1) Hebrew. ( 1 )希伯來語。 Kittel's edition shows that the Masoretic text is in very good condition.基特爾版表明,馬所拉文是在非常好的條件。 "It is better preserved than any other of the historical books" (Moore, "Judges", 43). “這是更好的維護比任何其他的歷史書籍” (摩爾, “法官” , 43 ) 。 The only serious difficulties are in the song of Debbora.唯一的嚴重困難,是宋代的Debbora 。

(2) Greek. ( 2 )希臘。 We have two distinct Septuagint forms (cf. Lagarde, "Septuaginta-Studien", 1892, 1-72): one is seen in the Alexandrinus (A), Coislinianus (P), Basiliano-Vaticanus (V), and many cursives; the other version is represented by the Vatican (B), and a considerable number of cursives.我們有兩個不同的譯本形式(參見拉嘉德, “ Septuaginta - Studien ” , 1892年1-72 ) :一個是在頸(一) , Coislinianus (規劃) , Basiliano - Vaticanus (五) ,而且許多cursives ;其他版本的代表是梵蒂岡( b )和相當數量的cursives 。

(3) Latin. ( 3 )拉丁美洲。 St. Jerome's version is one of his most careful efforts at translation of the Masorah, and is of the greatest exegetical importance.聖杰羅姆的版本是他最認真的努力,翻譯Masorah ,是最大的訓詁的重要性。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Fathers: THEODORET, Quæstiones in Librum Judicorum in PG, LXXX, 485; PROCOPIUS OF GAZA, Comm.父親: THEODORET , Quæstiones在Librum Judicorum的指引, LXXX , 485 ;普羅科匹厄斯加沙,商業。 in Judices in PG, LXXXVII, 1041; ST.在Judices的指引, LXXXVII , 1041年,意法半導體。 AUGUSTINE, Quæstiones in Heptateuchium in PL, XXXIV, ;701.奧古斯丁Quæstiones在Heptateuchium在特等,三十四, ; 701 。 Modern commentators mentioned in the body of the article.現代評論中所提到的機構的文章。 See also BONFRÈRE, Comm.又見邦弗雷雷,商業。 in Jos., Jud., et Ruth (Paris, 1631); SERARIUS, Jud.在聖何塞,珠德。 ,等露絲(巴黎, 1631年) ; SERARIUS ,珠德。 et Ruth explanati (Mainz, 1609); CLAIR, Les Juges et Ruth (Paris, 1878).與露絲explanati (美茵茨, 1609年) ;克萊爾,法國Juges等露絲(巴黎, 1878年) 。 Protestant commentators of worth are MOORE, KEIL, BUDDE, BERTHEAU.新教評論家的價值是摩爾, Keil公司,布德, BERTHEAU 。


Book of Judges圖書法官

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

§ I. Name: §一,名稱:

§ II. §二。 Synopsis of Contents:簡介內容:

Sections of Book.部分圖書。

§ III. §三。 Sources: The Main Text, iii.來源:正文,三。 7-xvi. 7十六。 31: 31日:

Song of Deborah.宋的德博拉。

Account of Gideon.到吉迪恩。

Original Book.原著。

The Priest of Micah.牧師的米卡。

§ IV. §四。 Combination and Revision of The Sources:組合和修訂資料來源:

Additions by Deuteronomist.增加了Deuteronomist 。

§ V. Age of the Sources: §五,年齡的來源:

Story of Samson.故事大力士。

§ VI. §六。 Literary Characteristics:文學特色:

In the Hebrew canon, the second book of the Earlier Prophets, placed between Joshua and Samuel.在希伯來文佳能的第二本書的早期先知,放在約書亞和Samuel 。

§ I. Name: §一,名稱:

The book derives its name from the fact that it deals with the "Judges," a term which, according to the statements found in the book (comp. ii. 11-19 and the constantly recurring formulas in iii. 7, vi. 1; iii. 12, iv. 1, x. 6, xiii. 1; iii. 8, iv. 2, 9, x.7), designates men who dealt out justice to the oppressed people (comp. , Ps. x. 18); hence it is used in the sense of = "rescuer" (ii. 16, 18).這本書的名字源自於這樣一個事實,這個問題涉及的“法官”一詞,根據報表中發現這本書( comp.二。 11月19日和不斷反复出現的公式三。 7 ,六。 1 ;三。 12日,四。 1 ,十,六,十三。 1 ;三。 8四。 2日, 9日,十.7 ) ,指定男子誰處理正義的被壓迫人民( comp. ,聚苯乙烯。十18 ) ;因此,使用的意義= “救援” (白介素16 , 18 ) 。 The word, however, means more than this and more than the modern "judge": it means the leaders or rulers (comp. the Suffetes [= ] in Carthage) who took charge of the affairs of the several tribes in case of war with the Canaanites or other neighboring peoples, and who also assumed leadership of their respective tribes in the succeeding times of peace.這個詞,然而,意味著超過這一點,並超過了現代的“法官” :它是指領導者或統治者( comp.的Suffetes [ = ]在迦太基)誰負責的事務的情況下一些部落戰爭迦南或其他鄰國的人民,誰也承擔領導各自部落接替和平時期。 In accordance with the needs of the time, their functions were primarily judicial (iv. 5).根據需要的時間,其職能主要是司法( iv. 5 ) 。 The book itself announces that it will deal with the time of the Judges from the death of Joshua; but the description of Joshua's death at the beginning of the book is doubtless a later addition, and the introduction repeats (i. 1-ii. 5) the theme of the Book of Joshua, namely, the conquest of the country west of the Jordan.這本書本身宣布,它將處理的時候,法官死亡約書亞;但說明約書亞之死開始的時候,本書無疑是稍後此外,採用重複(一1二。 5 )的主題約書亞記,即征服該國西部的約旦。 Nor does the Book of Judges give the conclusion of the history of the Judges; for the two stories appended to the book in its present form belong not to the end of that period, but to its beginning, and the narratives forming the kernel of the book break off before the period of the Judges ends.也不圖書法官給予的結論,歷史上的法官;為這兩個故事附在書以其目前的形式不屬於該期間結束,但它的開端,說明形成的內核本書之前,中斷期間的法官目的。 The thread is taken up again in the Book of Samuel.線程是再次在這本書中的塞繆爾。 It may be assumed, however, that the original Book of Judges was carried down to the end of the period and concluded with the story of Eli and Samuel, which forms the beginning of I Samuel.可以設想,但是,原來預訂的法官進行到結束期間和結束時的故事,禮和Samuel ,形成開始我塞繆爾。

§ II. §二。 Synopsis of Contents:簡介內容:

Before discussing the several parts and their origin, it may be well to note the peculiar composition of the book.在討論若干地區和它們的來源,它可能是很好地說明的特殊組成的這本書。 The introduction and additions may clearly be separated from the main text, giving the following three divisions: (1) introduction; (2) Book of Judges proper; and (3) appendixes.引進和增加可明確是分不開的正文,提供以下三個部門: ( 1 )導言; ( 2 )圖書的法官適當;和( 3 )附錄。

(1) Introduction: ( 1 )簡介:

(a) i. (一)一, 1-ii. 1 - 2 。 5, a general view of the conquest of Canaan. 5 ,一般認為征服迦南。 The story is evidently intended to portray the great tribulations of the time of the Judges, which God inflicted because the Israelites partially spared the Canaanites in spite of His command to the contrary (see ii. 1-5, especially verse 3).這個故事顯然是打算把偉大磨難的時候,法官,這是上帝對以色列人的迦南部分倖免,儘管他的命令與此相反的(見二。 1月5日,特別是詩3 ) 。

(b) ii. (二)二。 6-iii. 6三。 6, a general description of the conditions obtaining at the time of the Judges. 6 ,一般說明的條件,取得時的法官。 The chief characteristic of this time is found in the recurring change from apostasy and punishment to repentance and deliverance.首席特點這一次被發現在該週期性變化叛教和懲罰悔改和解脫。 The account forms the introduction to the following stories, which are, as it were, summarized in ii. 11-19.該帳戶的形式介紹了以下的故事,這是,因為它是,總結了二。 11月19日。

Sections of Book.部分圖書。

(2) The Book of Judges Proper, iii. ( 2 )圖書的法官正確,三。 7-xvi. 7十六。 31: This describes Israel's delivery, through divinely appointed judges, from the subjugation to the Canaanites and the neighboring peoples which it had brought upon itself. 31 :此描述以色列的交付,通過神任命的法官,從征服的迦南和鄰國人民帶來了它根據本身。 The accounts of the activities of the several judges vary considerably in length; only the five so-called "Great Judges" are treated in detail.該帳戶的活動,一些法官有很大的不同長度,只有5個所謂的“偉大的法官”的處理細節。 The narratives may be summarized as follows:說明可歸納如下:

(a) iii. (一)三。 12-30, account of the Benjamite Ehud, who overthrew the tyranny of the Moabites; 12月30號,到Benjamite胡德,誰推翻暴政的莫亞比特人;

(b) iv.-v., story of Barak (and Deborah), who overthrew the tyranny of the Canaanites (but see § III.); (二) iv.-v. ,故事巴拉克(和德博拉) ,誰推翻暴政的迦南(見§三。 ) ;

(c) vi. (三)六。 1-viii. 1至第八。 32, story of Gideon of western Manasseh, who overthrew "the Midianites and the Amalekites and all the children of the East"; 32 ,故事基甸西方梅納西索,誰推翻“米甸人和亞瑪力和所有兒童的東方” ;

(d) x. (四)十 6-xii. 6十二。 7, story of Jephthah the Gileadite of the tribe of Gad, who vanquished the Ammonites; 7 ,故事Jephthah的Gileadite部落谷氨酸脫羧酶,誰戰敗國的菊石;

(e) xiii.-xvi., account of the Danite Samson, who vanquished the Philistines; (五) xiii. -十六。 ,到Danite大力士,誰打敗了非利士人;

(f) iii. ( F )的三。 7-11, story of the Kenazite Othniel, from the tribe of Judah, who vanquished Chushan-rishathaim (iii. 10); together with various incidental remarks relating to the so-called Minor Judges: 7月11日,故事Kenazite Othniel ,從部落的猶大,誰戰敗國竹山- rishathaim ( iii. 10 ) ;以及各種附帶備註有關所謂本土法官:

(g) iii. ( g )項三。 31, story of Shamgar; 31 ,故事Shamgar ;

(h) x. (高)十 1-5, stories of Tola of Issachar and Jair of Gilead (eastern Manasseh); and 1月5日,故事的托拉的薩迦和賈爾的吉利德(東部梅納西索) ;和

(i) xii. (一)十二。 8-15, stories of Ibzan of Beth-lehem, Elon the Zebulonite, and Abdon the Pirathonite of the tribe of Ephraim. 8月15日,故事Ibzan的貝絲, lehem ,伊隆的Zebulonite和阿夫東的Pirathonite部落的埃弗拉伊姆。 With the exception of the priestly tribe of Levi and the two tribes of Reuben and Simeon, which soon became extinct, each of the tribes is represented by at least one judge.除了祭司部落列維和兩個部落的魯本和西蒙,這很快就消失,每一個部落的代表至少有一名法官。 The section viii.在第八節。 33-ix. 33九。 57, dealing with the leadership of Abimelech, is not strictly of the same order as the rest. 57 ,處理領導Abimelech ,不嚴格的順序的休息。

(3) Appendixes: Two stories from the time of the Judges: ( 3 )附錄:從兩個故事的時候,法官:

(a) xvii. (一)十七。 and xviii., the campaign of the Danites, and the transference to Dan (Laish) of the sanctuary of Micah the Ephraimite;和十八。 ,該運動的Danites ,並轉移至丹( Laish )的聖殿米卡的Ephraimite ;

(b) xix.-xxi., the outrage at Gibeah, and the resultant punitive war against Benjamin, which is almost destroyed; the measures taken for the preservation of the tribe. (二) xix. - 21 。 , Gibeah的憤慨,以及由此產生的懲罰性戰爭的本傑明,幾乎摧毀;所採取的措施,以保存該部落。

§ III. §三。 Sources: The Main Text, iii.來源:正文,三。 7-xvi. 7十六。 31: 31日:

The earliest sources are found in the stories relating to the five Great Judges:最早的來源的故事中找到有關的五個大法官:

(1) The account of Ehud, iii. ( 1 )帳戶的埃胡德,三。 12-30, which, with the exception of the Deuteronomistic framework (verses 12-15 and 30), is a uniform story, based doubtless on ancient tradition. 12月30號,其中,除Deuteronomistic框架(詩12月15日和30日) ,是一個統一的故事,無疑是基於對古老的傳統。

Song of Deborah.宋的德博拉。

(2) The story of Barak and Deborah, iv. ( 2 )的故事,巴拉克和德博拉,四。 and v., in which must be distinguished:和訴中,必須加以區分:

(a) the Song of Deborah, v. 2-31, describing the sufferings and the victory of the people, and which was doubtless composed by an eye-witness. (一)歌黛博,五, 2月31日,描述的痛苦和勝利的人,這是毫無疑問的組成見證人。 It is uncertain, however, whether Deborah herself composed this.這是不確定的,但是,她是否德博拉組成本。 Doubt arises from the exhortation (v. 12) "utter a song," and from the fact that the introduction does not say that she composed it, but only that Deborah and Barak sang it (ib. verse 1). Nor does it follow absolutely from the word (verse 7) that Deborah composed the Song.毫無疑問源自告誡(五12 ) “說出一首歌曲, ”從這樣一個事實,即導言不說,她組成,但只有德博拉和巴拉克相它( ib.詩1 ) 。也沒有後續絕對的詞(詩七日)德博拉組成宋代。 Although is probably intended as the first person and has been so interpreted down to recent times, yet it may also have been intended as an address to Deborah, as the second person feminine singular (= ; comp. , Jer. ii. 33) - "until thou hast arisen, Deborah!"雖然可能是打算作為第一人,並一直這樣解釋到最近時期,但它也可能作為一個地址黛博,作為第二個人女性奇異( = ;補償。 ,張哲。二。 33 ) - “直到你出現,德博拉! ” And even its interpretation as the third person feminine singular (= , old form of , in which the甚至其解釋為第三人女性奇異( = ,舊形式的,其中 would be secondary, conditioned by the traditional conception, according to which the expression is in the first person) is not excluded, and the reading may be, "until Deborah arose."將是次要的,受制於傳統觀念,根據這種表達是第一人)是不排除,並閱讀可能“ ,直到黛博出現。 ” Nor is the first person in verse 3 decisive, as it may refer to any poet.也不是第一個人詩3決定性的,因為它可以指任何詩人。 The exhortation in verse 12, "Awake, awake, Deborah: awake, awake, utter a song," formerly considered a direct proof of Deborah's authorship, really excludes this possibility, unless it is assumed that it is a poetic address of the author to herself.叮嚀詩12 , “醒來,醒來,德博拉:清醒,清醒,說出一首歌曲, ”以前認為是一個直接證據黛博的作者,真正排除了這種可能性,除非它認為這是一個詩意的地址作者她自己。 Aside from these doubtful arguments, the context, with its striking references to the deeds and thoughts of women (Deborah, Jael, Sisera's mother and her "wise women"), might point to apoetess as the author.除了這些令人懷疑的論點,背景下,其突出提到的事蹟和思想的婦女(黛博, Jael , Sisera的母親和她的“聰明女人” ) ,可能指向apoetess的作者。 Even if the Song was not composed by Deborah, it was at least the work of a contemporary; and as such it is the earliest source for the history of Israel, and a historical document of supreme value.即使沒有宋組成的德博拉,但至少在工作的現代;因此,它是最早的來源,以色列歷史上,和一個歷史文件的最高值。 It not only recounts a historical fact, but breathes the wild spirit of a heroic age, and with elemental force portrays especially the pitiless delight in battle and bloodshed, and the joy of deliverance from the yoke of tyranny.它不僅敘述歷史事實,但呼吸野生英雄精神的年齡,以及與元素力量描繪特別是無情的喜悅在戰鬥和流血事件,並解救的喜悅從暴政的枷鎖。

(b) The prose historical account in ch. (二)散文的歷史記錄,在CH 。 iv.四。 stands in a peculiar relation to the Song, inasmuch as the poetical account has been clearly changed into a historical narrative, which presents various contradictions to and exaggerations of the Song in regard to numbers and events.站在特殊關係宋代,因為詩歌的帳戶已被明確地變為歷史敘述,介紹各種矛盾和誇張的宋在關於數字和事件。 This prose account based upon the Song of Deborah is, however, only a part of the story told in ch.這散文帳戶根據宋的德博拉是,但是,只有部分講述在CH 。 iv.; for, in the first place, the story of the victory of Barak and the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali over King Jabin of Hazor (iv. 10) is joined to it, and, in the second place, there are other details which are not found in the Song, and which therefore were derived from independent tradition, especially the reference to the attack made by the Israelites from Mount Tabor.四。 ;的,擺在首位,故事的勝利,巴拉克和各部落的Zebulun和拿弗他在國王Jabin的Hazor ( iv. 10 )加入到它,並在第二位,還有其他細節這是中找不到首歌曲,因此來自獨立的傳統,尤其是提及襲擊以色列人所作的山塔博爾。 The story in ch.這個故事在CH 。 iv., taken for the most part from the Song, and which may be called the story of Sisera in contrast to the story of Jabin, narrates the victory of Deborah and of Barak of Issachar over Sisera at the Kishon, and the death of the last-named at the hands of Jael.四。 ,採取其中多數是從宋代,其中可稱為故事Sisera相反的故事Jabin ,敘述了勝利德博拉和巴拉克的薩迦超過Sisera在基雄,死亡的去年命名的手中Jael 。 In consequence of the fusion of the stories, Sisera in the account in ch.因此融合的故事, Sisera中的帳戶,在CH 。 iv.四。 does not appear as the head of a coalition of the Canaanite kings, as he is represented in the Song, where he is the chief personage, but merely as the general of King Jabin.似乎並不為龍頭的聯合的迦南國王,因為他所代表的宋,他是首席的人物,而只是作為一般的國王Jabin 。 The stories are so closely fused that they can no longer be separated, this being doubtless due to the confounding of two heroes of the name of Barak (= "lightning"; comp. the surname in "Hamilcar Barcas"); namely, Barak of Kedesh of the tribe of Naphtali (iv. 5 [AV 6]) and Barak of Issachar (v. 15).這些故事是如此緊密融合,他們再也不能分開,這是毫無疑問,由於混雜的兩位英雄的名字,巴拉克( = “閃電” ;補償。姓的“ Hamilcar Barcas ” ) ;即巴拉克Kedesh的部落拿弗( iv. 5 [影音6 ] )和巴拉克的薩迦(五15 ) 。

Account of Gideon.到吉迪恩。

(3) The account of Gideon, vi.-viii., consisting of two separate narratives brought into harmony by the passages vii. ( 3 )帳戶基甸, vi.八。組成兩個單獨的說明帶入和諧的通道七。 25 and viii. 10. 25和第八。 10 。 According to the main text, including vi.根據主要內容,包括六。 2-6, 11-24, 33 et seq., vii. 2月6日, 11月24日, 33起。 ,七。 1, and vii. 1 ,和第七。 9-25 (except verse 12), as well as the passages vi. 9月25日(除詩12 ) ,以及通道六。 35; vii. 35 ;七。 2-8, 14, 16-22, preserved only in revised form, Gideon delivered the whole of Israel from the inroads of the Midianites, whose camp on Mount Gilboa he surprised. 2月8日, 14日, 16日至22日,只有在經修訂的保存形式,基甸交付整個以色列從進軍的米甸人的營山吉勒博阿他感到驚訝。 The Ephraimites then captured and killed the fugitives together with their kings Oreb and Zeeb at the fords of the Jordan (comp. especially vii. 24). According to another account, which forms a connected series of additions to the main text (ie, to vi. 2-viii. 3), and which includes vi.該Ephraimites然後捕獲並殺死逃犯連同其國王Oreb和Zeeb在福特的約旦( comp.特別是七。 24 ) 。根據另一個帳戶,它形成了一個連接的一系列增加的主要內容(即六。 2 -八。 3 ) ,其中包括六。 7-10, 25-32, 36-40 as well as the Deuteronomically revised passage viii. 7月10日, 25-32 , 36-40 ,以及Deuteronomically修訂通過八。 4-27, Gideon with 300 men captured the Midianite kings Zebah and Zalmunna beyond the Jordan, whither he had pursued them. 4月27日,基甸抓獲300名男子的Midianite國王Zebah和Zalmunna超出了約旦,向何處,他推行了他們。

A valuable remnant of the earliest Hebrew history has been preserved in the story of Abimelech, which is appended to the story of Gideon. Jotham's daring and original parable of the trees in search of a king, included in this story, was (as appears from ix. 57) probably added at a later time by an editor who took it from a source earlier than that of the main story.有價值的遺留下來的歷史上最早的希伯來文一直保存在Abimelech的故事,這是附在基甸的故事。喬薩姆大膽和原始寓言的樹木,以尋求一個國王,包括在這個故事,是(如從九。 57 )可能增加在以後的編輯誰把它從一個源早於主要故事。 This parable, one of the few remnants of purely secular writing, can not have originated in the time of Abimelech, who reigned only three years at Shechem, as its criticism of the king was evidently the result of a clearer insight than could have been possessed by a contemporary.這個比喻,是少數殘餘的純粹世俗寫作,不能有源自時間Abimelech ,誰在位只有三年在示劍,因為它的批評,顯然是國王的結果,不是可以更清楚的了解已經擁有一位當代。 It was probably a product of the Northern Kingdom, where the people had unfortunate experiences with elected kings.這可能是一個產品的北方王國,那裡的人不幸的經驗,選舉產生國王。

(4) The story of Jephthah, xi. ( 4 )的故事Jephthah ,十一。 1-xii. 1 -十二。 7, is in general uniform; the first two verses, however, are probably revised, as they do not fit in with verse 7, nor with the passage xi. 7 ,在一般的統一;頭兩個詩句,但是,很可能修訂,因為他們不符合詩7 ,也不符合通行十一。 12-29, which appears as a learned disquisition applying in no wise to the Ammonites, to whom the message was to be addressed, but to the Moabites. 12月29日,這似乎是教訓陽離子申請,任何明智的菊石,向他發出的信息是要解決,而且對莫亞比特人。 In xi.在西安。 35-40, also, the editor, intent on abbreviating, seems to have made changes in order not to dwell on the human sacrifice which must have been described in the original narrative. 35-40 ,另外,編輯器,意圖縮寫,似乎已經進行了修改,以便不談人的犧牲,必須說明了原始敘事。

(5) The story of Samson, xiii-xvi., narrating in twelve sketches his deeds and tragic death. ( 5 )的故事,大力士,第十三至十六。 ,敘述他在12草圖事蹟和不幸逝世。 This, also, is a uniform composition, with the exception of a revision in xiii.這,也,是一個統一的組成,除修訂的十三。 and xiv., and is evidently the work of a single author.和十四。 ,是明顯的工作,是唯一的作者。

In general, it may be noted in regard to these old heroic stories of the Book of Judges that there is some resemblance in language and manner of description to the narrative sources of the Pentateuch; for this reason Cornill has designated the first version of the story of Gideon, the story of Samson, and the basis of x.一般情況下,可以指出在對這些老英雄故事書的法官,有一些相似的語言和方式,說明的說明來源的摩西五,為此Cornill指定的第一個版本的故事的基甸,參孫的故事,並根據十 6-16 as Jahvistic in character, and the story of Sisera, the second version of the story of Gideon, together with the stories of Abimelech and Jephthah, as Elohistic (other scholars, however, as Budde, think differently). 6月16日作為Jahvistic的性質,以及故事Sisera ,第二個版本的基甸的故事,以及故事中的Abimelech和Jephthah ,作為Elohistic (其他學者,但是,正如布德,不同的想法) 。 These resemblances are so slight that they may be explained as contemporaneous work or imitation, rather than as a continuation of the Pentateuch sources.這些相似之處是如此微不足道,它們可以被解釋為當時的工作或仿製,而不是繼續摩西五來源。

Original Book.原著。

The main text of Judges, including the above-named stories, constituted, with the exception of later additions, the earlier book, which began therefore with ii.正文法官,其中包括上述的故事,構成,除後來增加,先前的預訂,因此開始與二。 6; and as the initial words, "And when Joshua had let the people go," correspond with the words introducing the first valedictory in Josh. 6 ;和作為初始的話來說, “當約書亞已讓人民去” ,符合的話介紹了第一個告別的喬希。 xxiii.二十三。 2, it follows that the original Book of Judges continued the original Book of Joshua. Furthermore, it follows that the second valedictory with the accompanying statements in Josh. 2 ,因此,原來預訂的法官繼續原來約書亞記。此外,它的第二如下告別附帶聲明喬希。 xxiv., and the first account of Joshua's death, in Judges ii.二十四。 ,第一批到約書亞的死亡的情況下,法官二。 8 et seq., as well as the present introduction to Judges, were added later; this is also apparent from the present beginning of Judges: "Now after the death of Joshua it came to pass." 8起。 ,以及本介紹法官,後來又增加了,這也很明顯從目前開始的法官: “現在去世後約書亞它來傳遞。 ”

The Introduction: It has been shown that the introduction is a later addition; and the fact is further proved by its contents, the story of the conquest of the country west of the Jordan, which is the theme of Joshua, being here repeated.簡介:事實證明,引進是一個後來;和事實進一步證明了它的內容,故事的征服該國西部的約旦,其中的主題是約書亞,在這裡重演。 But while the Book of Joshua narrates the story of the complete destruction of the Canaanites by the people of Israel under one commander-in-chief, the introduction to Judges says that the tribes of Israel fought singly; and it does not refer to the complete destruction of the Canaanites (comp. Judges i. 27-33, ii. 1-3).但是,雖然約書亞記敘述的故事,完全銷毀了迦南的以色列人民在一個總司令,採用法官說,以色列各部落的單獨作戰,它並非指完整的銷毀迦南( comp.法官27-33一,二。 1-3 ) 。 Ofthese two accounts the introduction to Judges is doubtless more objective, and shows a better comprehension of the actual facts, while the narrative in Joshua is founded on the Deuteronomistic revision. Ofthese兩個帳戶實行法官無疑是更客觀的,並顯示了更好地理解事實,而說明在約書亞是建立在Deuteronomistic修訂。 The introduction itself, however, is not uniform; according to i.引進本身,但是,並不統一;根據一 8, the children of Judah conquered and burned Jerusalem and killed its inhabitants, while, according to i. 21, the children of Benjamin did not drive the Jebusites out of that city, but dwelt together with them in Jerusalem "unto this day" (according to the parallel account in Josh. xv. 63, some scholars read in this passage instead of , which is derived from Josh. xviii. 28). 8 ,兒童的猶太征服並燒毀耶路撒冷並殺害其居民,同時,根據一, 21日,本傑明的兒童沒有驅動耶布斯人離開這個城市,但與他們一起住在耶路撒冷“你們這一天” (根據平行帳戶喬希。十五。 63 ,一些學者通過閱讀這不是,這是來自喬希。十八。 28 ) 。 Cornill ascribes a Jahvistic origin to the passages i.-ii. Cornill歸因於1 Jahvistic原產地為通道i.-ii. 1a, 5b, 23a; iii.一號A , 5B號, 23A條;三。 2-3, and an Elohistic origin to i. 2月3日,一個Elohistic原產地為一 la; ii. 13, 20-22a; iii.香格里拉;二。 13日, 20日, 22A條;三。 5-6. 5月6日。

The Priest of Micah.牧師的米卡。

The Appendixes: The first appendix, xvii.該附錄:第一個附錄,十七。 and xviii., is a very valuable old story.和十八。 ,是一個非常有價值的老故事。 Bertheau, Budde, Kittel, Cornill, and others assert that two accounts must be here distinguished. Bertheau ,布德,基特爾, Cornill ,和其他人斷言,這兩個帳戶,必須在這裡尊敬。 According to one, the Ephraimite Micah made an ephod and teraphim, and hired a Levite to be to him "a father and priest"; 600 Danites then persuaded the Levite to go with them and become their priest, whereupon they conquered Laish and set up there for their tribal sanctuary the image that Micah had made.據一位的Ephraimite米卡作了ephod和teraphim ,並聘請了利未將他的“父親和神父” ; 600 Danites然後說服利未去與他們同在,成為他們的牧師,在這種情況下,他們征服Laish並成立有他們的部落庇護米卡的形象了。 According to the other account, Micah made a "pesel" (graven image) and "massekah" (molten image), and engaged a young Levite as priest, whom he held as a son; but the Danites, who stole the pesel and massekah, made Jonathan, Moses' grandson, their tribal priest instead of the Levite, and through the descendants of Jonathan the priesthood was transmitted in the tribe of Dan.根據其他帳戶,米卡發了“ pesel ” (偶像)和“ massekah ” (熔融圖像) ,並聘請了一名年輕的列維特作為牧師,他的兒子舉行;但Danites ,誰偷走了pesel和massekah ,取得了喬納森,摩西的孫子,他們的部落牧師,而不是列,並通過後裔喬納森鐸轉交部落中丹。 But according to Oort, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Baudissin, and others, it is more probable that the discrepancies in the narrative may be explained on the ground of interpolations (compare and , which always follow and ).但是,根據奧爾特,豪森, Kuenen , Baudissin ,和其他人,它更可能是不一致的說明原因可能是在地面上的插值(比較,它始終遵循和) 。 The story itself is unique in that it describes a cult and a priesthood which are nowhere else found in the Old Testament.這個故事本身是獨特的,它描述了一個邪教和司鐸是在其他地方發現的舊約。 This fact itself points to an early date of composition.這一事實本身點,早日組成。

As two dates are given in the text, xviii.作為兩個日期中給出的文字,十八。 30 and 31, the question arises which of these two statements is the original-that is, the earlier-one. 30日和31日,問題是這兩個國家是原始,這就是早期的一個。 The first statement, xviii.第一個發言,十八。 30, points to the time of the fall of Ephraim (722 BC), or at least to that of the deportation of the northern and eastern inhabitants of the country (735 BC); the second, to a time near the beginning of the royal house of Israel, as the destruction of the Temple of Shiloh probably occurred during the Philistine wars, in which the priestly house of Eli, officiating at Shiloh, perished. 30點的時候,秋天的埃弗拉伊姆( 722年) ,或至少是被驅逐的北部和東部地區居民的國家( 735年) ;第二,在時間即將開始的皇家眾議院以色列作為銷毀寺夏伊洛可能發生在非利士人的戰爭,在該司鐸眾議院禮,出席希洛,滅亡。 The first statement, also, originated at a time that had become remote to later generations, as is shown by the fact that the ascription of these deeds to a grandson of Moses caused offense to the people, and a copyist tried to remove it by interpolating a第一個發言,也起源於一次,它已成為遙遠,後世,這是表明了一個事實,即歸屬這些事蹟給孫子摩西進攻造成的人,並抄寫,設法消除它的插值字母a in so as to change the name to (this has recently been denied by Sinker).在以改變名稱(這最近已否認片) 。

The second appendix, xix.-xxi., in its main text, which can now hardly be determined with certainty, might similarly be traced back to an ancient story, as is indicated by expressions similar to those found in the first appendix; eg, the Levite sojourning as a stranger in the country (xix. 1).第二個附錄, xix. - 21 。 ,在其主要內容,現在幾乎可以肯定地確定,也許同樣可以追溯到一個古老的故事,因為有類似的表述中找到的第一個附錄;例如,該列sojourning作為一個陌生人在該國( xix. 1 ) 。 The formula common to both appendixes, "in those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes" (xvii. 6, xxi. 25; comp. xviii. 1, xix. 1), perhaps also indicates that the original text was composed before the Exile; although it is possible that in the second appendix it is a later addition, or was introduced by the author in imitation of the first appendix.公式共同的附錄, “在那些日子裡,沒有國王在以色列,但每個人也認為這是正確的,他自己的眼睛” ( xvii. 6 , 21 。 25 ;補償。十八。 1 ,十九。 1 ) ,或許還表明,最初的案文是由前流亡;雖然也有可能在第二個附錄它是一個後來此外,或介紹了作者在模仿第一附錄。 For the story as a whole dates from a very late period, since there is evidence that it is based on the Priestly Code.對於這個故事作為一個整體的日期從非常後期,因為有證據表明,它是基於祭司碼。 This is especially evident in the fact that the community of Israel is represented as a compact body pronouncing punishment upon Benjamin as with one voice, while elsewhere in Judges every tribe attends to its own affairs.這是特別明顯的是,社會對以色列的代表作為一個小巧機身發音懲罰本傑明作為同一個聲音說話,而其他地區的法官參加每一個部落,以自己的事務。 The fact that all the personages named, with the exception of Aaron's grandson Phinehas in xx.事實上,所有的人物命名,除亞倫的孫子Phinehas在二十。 28, are anonymous indicates that this is a piece of fiction and not a historical narrative. 28日,是匿名的表明,這是一部小說,而不是一種歷史敘事。 The story may have some historical foundation; for Hosea (x. 9), speaking of course quite independently of this story, also mentions the sin of Israel since the days of Gibeah.這個故事可能有一些歷史的基礎;的何西阿(十9 ) ,講的課程相當獨立的這個故事,也提到了罪惡的以色列自天Gibeah 。 Nor is it impossible that the story, as Nöldeke was the first to assume, describes the ruin of Benjamin by the war between David and Saul's son and the insurrections under David.這也不是不可能的,這個故事,因為是第一次Nöldeke承擔,描述了本傑明的廢墟之間的戰爭大衛和掃羅的兒子和叛亂根據大衛。

§ IV. §四。 Combination and Revision of The Sources:組合和修訂資料來源:

Additions by Deuteronomist.增加了Deuteronomist 。

The earlier Book of Judges, a compilation of the stories of the five Great Judges together with the additions of the redactor, was practically Judges in its present form, with the exception of the Deuteronomistic framework (together with the story of Othniel), the six Minor Judges, and some later revised additions.早先預訂的法官,彙編故事五個大法官一起增加的redactor ,實際上法官以其目前的形式,除Deuteronomistic框架(連同故事Othniel ) ,六未成年人法官,有些後來補充。 The Deuteronomistic editor added to the earlier book the following passages; namely, ii.編輯的Deuteronomistic添加到早先預訂的以下段落,即二。 6-9 and iii. 6月9日和第三。 7-11 (the account of Othniel being taken from Josh. xv. 17), all the additions by which he adapted the old material to his conception of history, and the strictly chronological arrangement taken from I Kings vi. 7月11日(該帳戶的Othniel正在採取由喬希。十五。 17 ) ,所有增加的調整,他的舊材料,他的歷史觀,並採取嚴格的時間安排由王六。 1, the 480 years being divided by him into 12x40 years or generations, 20, 40, or 80 years respectively being assigned to each of the judges. 1 ,四百八十年正在除以他12x40歲或幾代人, 20 , 40 ,或80歲,分別被分配給每個法官。 This Deuteronomistic arrangement was again supplemented by an editor following the Priestly Code, who partly revised the work, inserted passages of his own (viii. 29-31 and x. 17, 18), and added the portions relating to the five Minor Judges (x. 2-5 and xii. 8-15), in order to round out the number of the twelve judges.這再次Deuteronomistic安排輔之以編輯以下的祭司碼,誰部分修訂工作,加上他自己的通道( viii. 29-31和十17日, 18日) ,並增加了部分有關的五個小法官(十, 2月5日和第十二。 8月15日) ,以全面的數目的12名法官。 This last-named portion has been skilfully harmonized with the chronological arrangement of the Deuteronomistic editor; for the sum of the years of office of the five Minor Judges (23 + 22 + 7 + 10 + 8 = 70) is practically equal to that of the years of oppression under the five Great Judges (8 + 18 + 20 + 7 + 18 = 71).這最後一個名為部分已被巧妙地統一起來的時間安排Deuteronomistic編輯;為總結多年的辦公室五個小法官( 23 + 22 + 7 + 10 + 8 = 70 ) ,幾乎相當於多年的壓迫下的五大法官( 8 + 18 + 20 + 7 + 18 = 71 ) 。 The last editor, finally, added to iii.最後編輯,最後,增加了三。 31 the personage of Shamgar (from the Song of Deborah, v. 6) because at his time the judgeship of Abimelech caused offense, and the editor wished to remove Abimelech without disturbing the number of the judges. 31人物的Shamgar (從宋代的德博拉,五,六) ,因為他當時法官的Abimelech造成的進攻,並在編輯器中刪除Abimelech希望在不打擾一些法官。

§ V. Age of the Sources: §五,年齡的來源:

Story of Samson.故事大力士。

The sources from which the material for the various heroic stories was taken are in part very old, the Song of Deborah having originated as early as the time of the Judges.These old sources, however, were committed to writing a considerable time after the date of the events which they narrate.來源的材料的各種英雄的故事是有一部分是非常古老的,這首歌的起源德博拉了儘早的時間Judges.These歲的來源,但是,致力於寫作相當一段時間的日期後發生的事件,他們敘述。 Samson certainly lived a long time before the account of his life was written down, because it has a very evident admixture of mythic elements, as, for instance, his heroic deeds and the virtue ascribed to his hair.大力士當然生活很長一段時間之前,考慮到他的生命寫下來,因為它有一個非常明顯的外加劑神話元素,例如,他的英雄事蹟和美德歸功於他的頭髮。 His deeds remind one of the deeds of Hercules, and his name ( = "the sunny") shows a resemblance in attributes to the Phenician sun-god Melkart, the prototype of the Greek Herakles.他的事蹟提醒之一的事蹟大力士,他的名字( = “陽光” )顯示了相似的屬性的Phenician太陽神Melkart ,原型希臘赫拉克勒斯。 Although the story of Samson may be based on historical fact, it must be noted that Samson's deeds differ from those of the other warrior judges in that these latter are "saviors of their tribe" while Samson fights with the Philistines on his own account.儘管參孫的故事可根據歷史事實,必須指出的是,參孫的事蹟不同於其他戰士法官,這些後者則是“救世主的部族” ,而大力士打架的非利士人對自己的帳戶。 Hence the compilation of the stories of the five Great Judges must be dated soon after the division of the kingdom.因此,彙編的故事五個大法官必須註明日期後不久,該司王國。 Single passages, like the basis of ch.單一的通道,如總的基礎。 xvii.十七。 and xviii., may be much older.和十八。 ,可老得多。 The editor who combined his own additions with the book containing the stories, producing thereby the earlier Book of Judges, probably wrote in the last decades of the kingdom of Israel.編輯誰結合自己增添圖書載的故事,從而較早生產圖書的法官,可能寫在過去幾十年的以色列王國。 The Deuteronomistic edition was undertaken during the Exile, at which time the other additions were probably also incorporated. The two appendixes were added very much later, as appears not only from the date of composition of the second appendix (xix.-xxi.), but also from the fact that the Deuteronomistic revision, which may be traced throughout the Book of Judges down to ch.該Deuteronomistic版本是流亡期間進行,屆時其他增加的可能也納入其中。兩個附錄增加了非常後,似乎不僅之日起組成的第二附錄( xix. - 21 。 )而且也來自這樣一個事實,即Deuteronomistic修訂,這可追溯到整個圖書的法官,以總。 xvi., did not include the two appendixes.十六。 ,不包括兩個附錄。 Had they been added earlier, moreover, they would have been inserted in a different place, namely, in the beginning, where they belong, according to the dates mentioned in them (xviii. 30 and xx. 28).如果他們說的,此外,他們將被插入在不同地點,即在開始時,他們在那裡屬於,根據他們所提到的日期( xviii. 30日和xx 。 28 ) 。 Although these references to the time may be glosses, they can not have been added after the book was completed.雖然這些提法的時間可能會掩蓋,但卻不能增加了這本書後,已經完成。

§ VI. §六。 Literary Characteristics:文學特色:

As a result of difference in sources originating at different times, the book has no literary unity.由於來自不同的來源,在不同的時間,這本書沒有文學的團結。 Side by side with the stereotyped formulas, which reveal the historical point of view of the compiler of the earlier Book of Judges (iii. 7, vi. 1; iii. 12, iv. 1, x. 6, xiii. 1; iv. 2, 9, x. 7), and the passages added in the spirit of these formulas, there are stories popular in character, to which have been added snatches of old folk-poetry, old proverbs, descriptions of popular customs, popular etymologies, and other characteristics of naive popular composition.並肩的刻板公式,這揭示了歷史的角度來看,編譯早先預訂的法官( iii. 7六。 1 ;三。 12日,四。 1 ,十,六,十三。 1 ;四。 2日, 9日,十7 ) ,以及增加通道的精神,這些公式,有故事流行的性質,其中已添加片段的老人詩,老諺語,說明流行的習俗,流行etymologies和其他特徵的天真熱門組成。 The mythological elements, which are especially predominant in the story of Samson, are also derived from popular beliefs.神話的內容,這是尤其是佔主導地位的故事,大力士,也來自民間信仰。 Yet the historical narrative, in spite of various legendary additions, is on the whole true to fact, as appears from the frankness with which religious and moral conditions, widely differing from later customs, are discussed.然而,歷史敘事,儘管各種傳奇的增加,總體上是正確的事實,因為從坦率地的宗教和道德條件,差別很大,從海關後,進行了討論。

Emil G. Hirsch, Victor Ryssel埃米爾赫斯基灣,維克多Ryssel

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Commentaries: GL Studer, Das Buch der Richter, 2d ed.評:冰川斯圖德,達斯書裡河畔,二維版。 1842; J. 1842年的J. Bachmann, Das Buch der Richter, mit Besonderer Rücksicht auf die Gesch.巴赫曼,達斯圖書之裡,麻省理工學院Besonderer Rücksicht奧夫死於Gesch 。 Seiner Auslegung und Kirchlichen Verwendung Erklärt, vol. Seiner解釋和Kirchlichen Verwendung Erklärt ,第二卷。 i., ch.一,甲烷。 i.-v., 1868-1869; E. i.-v. , 1868年至1869年;大腸桿菌 Bertheau, Das Buch der Richter und Ruth, in Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, 1845, 1883; P. Bertheau ,達斯圖書和露絲之裡,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊, 1845年, 1883年;體育 Cassel, in Lange's Theologisch-Homiletisches Bibelwerk.卡塞爾在蘭格的Theologisch - Homiletisches Bibelwerk 。 2d ed. 1887; CF Keil, Josua, Richter, Ruth, in Biblischer Kommentar, 2d ed. 1874; S.二維版。 1887年;參看Keil公司, Josua ,里希特,露絲,在Biblischer Kommentar ,二維版。 1874年;南 Oettli, Das Deuteronomium und die Bücher Josua und Richter, in Strack and Zöckler, Kurzgefasster Kommentar, 1893; GF Moore, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges, in The International Critical Commentary, 1895; K.歐特列,達斯Deuteronomium與模具Bücher Josua和里希特,在施特拉克和Zöckler , Kurzgefasster Kommentar , 1893年;綠摩爾,關鍵和訓詁評法官,在國際的評論文章, 1895年的K. Budde, Das Buch der Richter, in KHC 1897; W.布德,達斯書裡河畔, 1897年在KHC ;總統 Nowack, Richter und Ruth, in Nowack's Hand-Kommentar, 1900. Criticism of Sources: Th. Nowack ,里克特和露絲,在Nowack的手Kommentar , 1900 。批評來源:釷。 Nöldeke, Untersuchungen zur Kritik des AT 1869, pp. Nöldeke , Untersuchungen論批判之在1869年,頁。 173-198; J. 173-198 ;學者 Wellhausen, in Bleek's Einleitung, 4th ed.豪森,在Bleek的導論,第4版。 1878, pp. 1878年,頁。 181-205; idem, Prolegomena zur Gesch. 181-205 ;同上,緒論楚Gesch 。 Israels, 4th ed.以色列,第4版。 1895, pp. 1895年,頁。 229-247; B. 229-247 ;灣 Stade, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1881, i.體育場,在體育場的雜誌, 1881年,島 339-343; SR Driver, in JQR 1889, i. 339-343 ;簡驅動,在JQR 1889年,島 258-270; K. 258-270的K. Budde, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel, Ihre Quellen und lhr Aufbau, 1890, pp.布德,模具Bücher里克特和薩穆埃爾, Ihre Quellen與lhr構造, 1890年,頁。 1-166; Rudolph Kittel, Die, Pentateuchischen Urkunden in den Büchern Richter und Samuel, in Theologische Studrien und Kritiken, 1892, pp. 44-71; G. 1-166 ;魯道夫基特爾,模具, Pentateuchischen Urkunden在2007 Büchern里希特和薩穆埃爾,在神學Studrien與Kritiken , 1892年,頁。 44-71 ;灣 Kalkoff, Zur Quellenkritik des Richterbuches (Gymnasial-Programm), Aschersleben, 1893; W. Kalkoff ,論Quellenkritik萬Richterbuches ( Gymnasial -綱領) , Aschersleben , 1893年;總統 Frankenberg, Die Composition des Deuteronomischen Richterbuches (Richter ii. 2-xvi.) Nebst einer Kritik von Richter xvii-xxi.弗蘭肯貝格,模具組成沙漠Deuteronomischen Richterbuches (芮氏二。 2 -十六。 ) Nebst領袖批判馮裡十七,二十一。 1895; G. 1895年;灣 Moore, Judges, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc.摩爾,法官在進益和黑色, Encyc 。 Bibl.; H. Bibl 。閣下; Winckler, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen, 1892, pp. Winckler , Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen , 1892年,頁。 55-59 (on Judges iii. 12-31), and 42 et seq., 93 (on vi.-ix.); and the following articles in Stade's Zeitschrift: Ed. 55-59 (關於法官三。 12月31日) ,和42起。 , 93 (上vi.-ix. ) ;和下列條款在體育場的雜誌:埃德。 Meyer, in i. 117 et seq., B. Stade, in i.邁耶在島117起。灣體育場,在一 146 et seq., and K. Budde, in vii. 93-166 and in viii. 146起。 ,和K.布德,在七。 93-166和八。 148, on Judges i. 148 ,對法官島 1-ii. 1 - 2 。 5; W. 5 ;總統 Böhme, in v. 86, 251 et seq.伯梅,在五, 86 , 251起。 on Judges vi.-ix.; B.關於法官vi.-ix. ;灣 Stade, in iv.體育場,在四。 250-256, and W. Böhme, in v. 251-274, on Judges xiii. 250-256 ,和W.伯梅,在五, 251-274 ,法官十三。 et seq.; K.起。的K. Budde, in viii.布德,在八。 285-300 on Judges xvii-xxi.; W. 285-300法官十七,二十一。 ;總統 Böhme, in v. 30-36 on Judges xxi.; Güdemann, in Monatsschrift, xviii.伯梅,在訴30-36法官二十一。 ; Güdemann ,在月刊,十八。 357 et seq. Criticism of Texts and Translations: OF Fritzsche, Liber Judicum Secundum LXX Interpretes, 1867; A. 357起。批評的文本和翻譯:在弗里切,書Judicum孔型LXX Interpretes , 1867年;答: van Doorninck, Bijdrage tot de Tekstkritick van Richteren i.-xvi. 1879; P.凡Doorninck , Bijdrage托特日Tekstkritick麵包車Richteren島-十六。 1879 ;體育 de Lagarde, Septuaginta-Studien, 1892, pp.日拉嘉德, Septuaginta - Studien , 1892年,頁。 1-72 (Abhandlungen der K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 1891, xxxvii.); A. 1-72 ( Abhandlungen之光之學問德國哥廷根祖, 1891年,三十七。 ) ;答: Mez, Die Bibel des Josephus, 1895. Mez ,模具聖經之約瑟夫, 1895年。

On the historical substance of the book see bibliography to Judges, Period of; and on the mythological elements of the story of Samson see F. Schwally, Semitische Kriegsaltertümer: I. Der Heilige Krieg im Alten Israel, 1901. For the Song of Deborah: J. Marquart, Fundamente Israelitischer und Jüdischer Gesch.歷史的實質內容,這本書見書目法官,期限;和神話元素的故事大力士見F. Schwally , Semitische Kriegsaltertümer :一德神聖戰爭即時老以色列, 1901年。對於宋的德博拉:學者馬夸特, Fundamente Israelitischer與Jüdischer Gesch 。 1896, pp. 1896年,頁。 1-10; GA Cooke, The History and Song of Deborah, 1896; C. 1月10日;大會庫克,歷史和黛博拉之歌, 1896年;角 Bruston, Le Cantique de Debora, 1901; Bruston ,樂Cantique日黛伯拉, 1901年;

and the bibliography to Deborah, The Song of. Text: edition GF Moore, in SBOTEGHV Ry.和參考書目,以黛博,這首歌的。文字:版綠摩爾,在SBOTEGHV裡。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在