Book of Joshua, Josue約書亞記,若蘇埃

General Information 一般信息

Joshua is the sixth book of the Old Testament of the Bible. It is named for the leader who succeeded Moses and led Israel in the successful conquest of Canaan, the Promised Land.約書亞是第六書舊約聖經。它被命名為領導人誰成功摩西帶領以色列在成功征服迦南樂土。 The book is divided into three parts: the conquest of Canaan during Joshua's three major campaigns (chaps. 1 - 12), including the fall of Jericho (chap. 6), the siege of Gibeon, and Joshua's victory while the sun and moon stood still (chap. 10); the division of Canaan by tribes (chaps. 13 - 22); and Joshua's farewell speeches and death (chaps. 23 - 24).這本書分為三部分:征服迦南在約書亞的三大運動(第1 - 12 ) ,其中包括屬於傑里科(第6 ) ,圍困基遍,和Joshua的勝利,而太陽和月亮的主張仍然(第10 ) ;司迦南的部落(第13 - 22 ) ;和Joshua的告別演說和死亡(第23 - 24 ) 。

The Book of Joshua forms part of the Deuteronomistic History, the collective name given by scholars to the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, all of which appear to have been compiled by the same editor or editors.該約書亞記組成部分Deuteronomistic歷史,集體名義給予的學者的書申命記約書亞,法官, 1和撒母耳記下,和第1和第2國王,所有這一切似乎已經由同一編輯器或編輯。 This history was recorded during the time of Josiah (c. 640 - 609 BC) and revised around 550 BC.這在歷史上記錄的時間約書亞(角640 - 609年)和經修訂的約550年。 Joshua is based on earlier sources, however; some parts of the text date from the premonarchial period.約書亞是基於先前來源,但是,一些地方的文字日premonarchial時期。 The book was edited almost 600 years after the conquest of Canaan (c. 1225 BC).該書的編輯近600年後,征服迦南(約公元前1225年) 。

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Bibliography 參考書目
P Enns, Joshua: Bible Study Commentary (1981); L Greenspoon, Textual Studies in the Book of Joshua (1983); JA Soggin, Joshua, A Commentary (1972). P恩斯,約書亞:聖經研究評述( 1981年) ; L Greenspoon ,文字學約書亞記( 1983年) ;茉莉Soggin ,約書亞,評( 1972年) 。


Book of Joshua, Josue約書亞記,若蘇埃

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Conquest of Canaan (1-12)征服迦南( 1月12日)
  2. Apportionment of territory to tribes (13-22)分攤領土部落( 13日至22日)
  3. Joshua's farewell address (22-24)約書亞的告別演說( 22-24 )


Josh'ua

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Joshua, Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour.約書亞,耶和華是他的幫助,或耶和華救世主。 The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel.的兒子尼姑的部落埃弗拉伊姆,繼承摩西的領導以色列。 He is called Jehoshua in Num.他被稱為Jehoshua在數。 13:16 (AV), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (RV, Joshua).十三時16分(視頻) ,以及耶穌在7:45和希伯來行為。 4時08分(風疹病毒,約書亞) 。 He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated.他出生於埃及,可能是時代的凱萊布,與他通常是相關聯的。 He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-16).他贊同在所有的事件外流,並舉行了地方指揮官的東道國以色列人在他們的偉大鬥爭中的亞瑪力Rephidim (例如17:8-16 ) 。 He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Ex. 32:17).他成為摩西部長或受僱人,並陪同他的一部分的方式,當他登上西乃山收到兩個表(例如32:17 ) 。 He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Num. 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report.他也是一個12誰被送往由摩西探討土地迦南( Num. 13時16分, 17歲) ,只有他和凱萊布了一個令人鼓舞的報告。 Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deut. 31:23).的指導下上帝,摩西,他去世之前,投資約書亞在公開和莊嚴地行使權力的人作為他的繼任者( Deut. 31:23 ) 。

The people were encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command (Josh. 1:1); and crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by the Captain of the Lord's host, who spoke to him encouraging words (1:1-9).紮營的人,他在Shittim擔任指揮( Josh. 1:1 ) ;和跨越約旦,他們在Gilgal營地,在那裡,有割包皮的人,他不停的逾越節,並參觀了船長的上帝主辦,誰給他以鼓勵的話( 1:1-9 ) 。 Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name.現在開始了征服戰爭的約書亞進行多年,記錄的是在這本書是他的名字命名。 Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Josh. 11:18-23; 12:24). 6個國家和31國王征服他( Josh. 11:18-23 ; 12時24分) 。 Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua divided the land among the tribes, Timnath-serah in Mount Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance.從而抑制了迦南,約書亞劃分土地各部落, Timnath - serah山埃弗拉伊姆被分配到自己作為自己的繼承權。 His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan.他正在從事的工作,他死了,在年齡一百一年,二十五年後,越過了約旦。

He was buried in his own city of Timnathserah (Josh. 24); and "the light of Israel for the time faded away."他被安葬在他自己的城市Timnathserah ( Josh. 24 ) ;和“鑑於以色列的時間逐漸消失。 ” Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Heb. 4:8) in the following particulars:, (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law.約書亞已被視為一種基督( Heb.四時08 )在以下各點: ( 1 )的名義共同的; ( 2 )約書亞使人們擁有的樂土,因為耶穌帶來他的人民天上迦南;和( 3 )摩西約書亞成功,所以成功的福音法。 The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:, "Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Ex. 17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod.'約書亞的性質,因此也勾畫了愛德生: “出生在埃及的奴隸,他必須是40歲的時候,出走。附加的人的摩西,他領導的以色列第一決定性打擊亞瑪力(例如, 17時09分, 13個) ,而摩西在信心的禱告舉行天堂上帝賦予'棒。 It was no doubt on that occasion that his name was changed from Oshea, 'help,' to Jehoshua, 'Jehovah is help' (Num. 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and work.這是毫無疑問,在那個場合,他的名字是由Oshea , '幫助' ,以Jehoshua , '耶和華是幫助' ( Num. 13點16 ) 。這個名字的關鍵是他的生活和工作。

Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last address, he was the embodiment of his new name, 'Jehovah is help.'都使人們迦南,在他的戰爭,並在分配土地各部落,從神奇穿越約旦和傑里科採取的最後解決,他體現了他的新名稱, '耶和華是幫助。 To this outward calling his character also corresponded.這個外向要求也符合他的性格。 It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and decision......它的特點是單一的目的,直接因果關係,並決定...... He sets an object before him, and unswervingly follows it" (Bible Hist., iii. 103)他樹立了一個物體在他面前,堅定不移地遵循它“ (聖經組織胺。 ,三。 103 )

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Josh'ua書Josh'ua

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Joshua contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua.該約書亞記包含的歷史,以色列人死亡的摩西說,約書亞。 It consists of three parts:, (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12).它由三部分組成: ( 1 。 )的歷史,征服的土地( 1月12日) 。 (2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. ( 2 。 )分配土地的不同部落,任命了城市的避難所,提供了利( 13日至22日) ,並解僱東部部落的家園。 This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest.本節已經比較,末日審判書的諾曼征服。 (3.) The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23,24). ( 3 。 )告別地址約書亞,並到他去世( 23,24 ) 。 This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament.這本書首的第二個分三個部分, ( 1 )法, ( 2 )的先知, ( 3 ) “其他著作” = Hagiographa ,將其分為猶太人教會舊約。 There is every reason for concluding that the uniform tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand.我們完全有理由的結論是,統一的傳統猶太人是正確的分配時,作者的書,約書亞,所有除最後一節;最後詩句( 24:29-33 )增加了一些另一方面。

There are two difficulties connected with this book which have given rise to much discussion, (1.) The miracle of the standing still of the sun and moon on Gibeon.有兩個困難,與這本書已經引起了廣泛的討論, ( 1 。 )的奇蹟的原地踏步,在太陽和月亮的基遍。 The record of it occurs in Joshua's impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted (Josh. 10:12-15) from the "Book of Jasher" (qv). There are many explanations given of these words.的記錄出現在約書亞的激情祈禱信念,引( Josh. 10:12-15 )從“周易Jasher ” ( qv ) 。有很多解釋,這些詞。 They need, however, present no difficulty if we believe in the possibility of God's miraculous interposition in behalf of his people.他們需要,但目前沒有任何困難,如果我們認為有可能在上帝的奇蹟般的干預在代表他的人民。 Whether it was caused by the refraction of the light, or how, we know not.它是否造成的折射光,或如何,我們不知道。 (2.) Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. ( 2 。 )另一個困難產生的命令由上帝完全滅絕迦南。 "Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" “不得法官所有的地球做正確的? ” It is enough that Joshua clearly knew that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous government of this world.這是不夠的約書亞清楚地知道,這是上帝的意志,誰擁有了可怕的機構,飢荒,瘟疫,戰爭,正義的政府在這個世界上。

The Canaanites had sunk into a state of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword.迦南已陷入一個國家的不道德和腐敗行為,使犯規和有辱人格的,他們必須植根出土地邊緣的劍。 "The Israelites' sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of the world." “以色列人劍,在其血腥處決,造成工作的憐憫所有國家的地球非常世界末日。 ” This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and variety of historical incidents it records, and in its many references to persons and places; and as in the latter case the epistles of Paul (see Paley's Horce Paul.) confirm its historical accuracy by their incidental allusions and "undesigned coincidences," so in the former modern discoveries confirm its historicity.這本書類似於使徒行傳在數量和種類的歷史事件有記錄,並在許多人提到的人員和場所,以及在後一種情況下,保羅的書信(見佩利的Horce保羅。 )確認其歷史準確性其附帶的典故和“非故意的巧合, ”所以前現代發現證實其歷史性。 The Amarna tablets are among the most remarkable discoveries of the age.在阿瑪爾納片是最顯著的年齡發現。

Dating from about BC 1480 down to the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite, Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest.歷史可以追溯到大約公元前1480年到時間約書亞,並組成的官方通報亞摩利人,腓尼基人和庸俗酋長國王的埃及,他們提供一個展示的實際狀況之前,巴勒斯坦希伯來入侵,並說明和確認歷史上的征服。 A letter, also still extant, from a military officer, "master of the captains of Egypt," dating from near the end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of the country at that time.一封信,也仍然現存的,由一名軍官, “船長船長埃及, ”歷史可以追溯到接近尾聲,拉美西斯二世統治。 ,給出了好奇到的旅程,也許官員,他在通過巴勒斯坦向北以阿勒頗,並深入了解社會狀況,國家在那個時候。 Among the things brought to light by this letter and the Amarna tablets is the state of confusion and decay that had now fallen on Egypt.在揭示事物的本函及阿瑪爾納片是國家的混亂和衰敗了現在落在埃及。 The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now been withdrawn.埃及兵營已擁有巴勒斯坦舉行之時起的Thothmes三。 ,一些二百年前,現在已經被撤銷。

The way was thus opened for the Hebrews.的方式,因此打開的猶太人。 In the history of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having encountered any Egyptian force.歷史上的征服沒有提到約書亞有遇到任何埃及部隊。 The tablets contain many appeals to the king of Egypt for help against the inroads of the Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been sent.藥片含有許多呼籲埃及國王為幫助對進展的希伯來人,但似乎都沒有幫助已發送。 Is not this just such a state of things as might have been anticipated as the result of the disaster of the Exodus?這難道不是這樣一個國家的事情可能是預期的結果的災難外流? In many points, as shown under various articles, the progress of the conquest is remarkably illustrated by the tablets.在許多要點可以看出,在不同的文章,所取得的進展是顯著征服說明了藥片。 The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been thus well described: "The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly increased. The outcome of recent excavations and explorations is altogether against it.現代的價值發現的關係舊約歷史已經從而很好的描述: “難以確定的指控缺乏歷史信譽,對作證的舊約,最近幾年大大增加。成果最近的挖掘和探索,是完全反對。

As long as these books contained, in the main, the only known accounts of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach moral lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events.只要這些圖書內容,主要是目前唯一已知的帳戶的事件,他們提到,有一些可信的理論,也許這些帳戶的書面,而道德教育的經驗教訓,而不是維護一個精確的知識的活動。 It was easy to say in those times men had not the historic sense.這是很容易說,在這些次男子沒有歷史性的意義。 But the recent discoveries touch the events recorded in the Bible at very many different points in many different generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples, events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond question that these were strictly historic.但是,最近發現觸摸事件記錄在聖經上的許多不同點,在許多不同的幾代人,提同樣的人,國家,人民,事件中提到的聖經,而且顯示出了毫無疑問的是,這些嚴格的歷史。 The point is not that the discoveries confirm the correctness of the Biblical statements, though that is commonly the case, but that the discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had the historic sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they touch are narratives of actual occurrences."問題不在於該發現證實是正確的聖經報表,雖然這是常見的情況,但該發現表明,人民的年齡了歷史性的意義,並特別指出,聖經是他們接觸的說明說明實際發生的。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Josue (Joshua)若蘇埃(約書亞)

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books.的名稱,八人在舊約和一個聖書。

('Oseé), a Bethsamite in whose field the ark stood on its way back from the land of the Philistines to Juda (1 Samuel 6:14, 18). ( ' Oseé ) ,一個Bethsamite在其領域方舟站在道路上回從土地的非利士人向猶大(撒母耳記上六時十四分, 18 ) 。

('Iesoûs), governor of Jerusalem whose idolatrous altars were destroyed by King Josias, during the latter's attempts to undo the evil wrought by his father Amon and grandfather Manasses (2 Kings 22:8). ( ' Iesoûs ) ,總督耶路撒冷的盲目崇拜的祭壇被摧毀國王Josias ,在後者的努力來消除邪惡所造成他的父親和祖父Manasses阿蒙(列王紀下22時08分) 。

('Iesoûs), the son of Josedec and the high-priest who returned with Zorobabel from the Babylonian Captivity to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7; 21:1). ( ' Iesoûs )的兒子, Josedec和高神父誰一起返回Zorobabel從圈養到耶路撒冷巴比倫(以斯拉二時零二分;尼希米記七點07 ; 21時01分) 。 In I and II Esd.在第一和第二可持續發展教育。 the Vulgate calls him Josue; in Agg.他的武加大呼籲若蘇埃;在Agg 。 and Zach., Jesus.和扎克。耶穌。 He assisted Zorobabel in rebuilding the Temple, and was most zealous for the restoration of the religion of Israel (Ezra 3:2, 8; 4:3; 5:2).他協助Zorobabel重建寺,並於最熱心為恢復宗教以色列(以斯拉3:2 , 8 ; 4:3 ; 5點02分) 。 It was he whom Zacharias saw in vision stripped of filthy garments and clothed in clean robes and mitre, while the angel of the Lord proclaimed the high-priest the type of the coming Messias (Zechariah 3).這是他看到的人撒迦利亞遠景剝奪臟衣服和乾淨的衣物和邁特長袍,而主的使者宣布高神父的類型來弭賽亞(撒迦利亞3 ) 。

('Iesoué, 'Iesoû), a head of the family of Phahath Moab, one of the families named in the list of Israelites that returned from the Babylonian Exile (Ezra 2:6; Nehemiah 7:11). ( ' Iesoué , ' Iesoû ) ,一個一家之主的Phahath莫阿布,一個家庭名單上的猶太人返回從巴比倫流亡(以斯拉2時06分;尼希米記7時11分) 。

('Iesoî 'Iesoû), a head of the priestly family of Idaia, maybe the high-priest Josue mentioned above (Ezra 2:36; Nehemiah 7:39). ( ' Iesoî ' Iesoû ) ,一個主管司鐸家族的Idaia ,也許是高神父若蘇埃如上所述(以斯拉2時36分;尼希米記7點39分) 。

('Iesoûs, 'Iesoû), the name of a priestly family descended from Oduia, as also of various heads of that family after the Exile (Ezra 2:40; 3:9; 8:33; Nehemiah 3:19; 7:43; 8:7; 9:4, 5; 12:8, Vulg. Jesua; 12:24). ( ' Iesoûs , ' Iesoû )的名稱祭司家族的後裔Oduia ,這也是各種元首家庭後流亡(以斯拉2時40 ; 3點09分, 8點33分;尼希米記3點19 ; 7 : 43 ; 8時07 ; 9時04分, 5個; 12時08分, Vulg 。 Jesua ; 12時24 ) 。

('Iesía), one of the sons of Herem who were ordered to put away their wives taken from the land of the stranger (Ezra 10:31). ( ' Iesía ) ,一個兒子的Herem誰被命令放棄他們的妻子,從土地的陌生人(以斯拉10:31 ) 。

(First called Osee; Septuagint 'Iesoûs, first A&úsé), the son of Nun; the genealogy of the family is given in I Par., vii, 20-27; it belonged to the tribe of Ephraim. (第一所謂Osee ;七十' Iesoûs ,首先是與使用)的兒子,尼姑;的家譜的家庭是在I標準桿。 ,七, 20日至27日,它屬於部落埃弗拉伊姆。 Josue commanded the army of Israel, after the Exodus, in its battle with Amalec (Exodus 17:9-13), was called the minister of Moses (xxiv, 13), accompanied the great lawgiver to and from Mount Sinai (xxxi, 17) and into the tabernacle of the covenant (xxxiii, 11), and acted as one of twelve spies whom Moses sent to view the land of Chanaan (Numbers 13:9).若蘇埃指揮以色列軍隊後,外流,在其戰Amalec (出埃及記17:9-13 ) ,被稱為部長摩西( 24 , 13 ) ,伴隨著偉大的立法者和從西乃山(三十一, 17 ) ,並納入幕盟約(三十三, 11人) ,並擔任其中一個12人的間諜,以查看摩西發出的土地Chanaan (數字13時09分) 。 On this occasion Moses changed his servant's name from Osee to Josue (Numbers 13:17). The new name most likely means "Jahweh is salvation".在此之際改變了他的僕人摩西的名字Osee到若蘇埃(民數記13:17 ) 。新的名稱最有可能的手段“ Jahweh是救贖” 。 Josue and Caleb alone spoke well of the land, even though the people wished to stone them for not murmuring and these two lived on (Numbers 14:38).若蘇埃和凱萊布單獨以良好的土地,儘管人們希望石他們沒有淙淙和這兩個生活在(數字14時38分) 。 Josue was chosen by God to succeed Moses.若蘇埃是上帝選定的成功摩西。 The words of the choice show the character of the chosen (Numbers 27:17-18).的話,選擇查看的性質,所選擇的(民數記27:17-18 ) 。 Before Eleazar and all the assembly of the people Moses laid hands on Josue.前埃萊亞薩和所有人民大會奠定摩西雙手若蘇埃。 Later this soldier was proposed by Moses to the people to lead them into the land beyond the Jordan (Deuteronomy 31:3), and was ordered by the Lord to do so (xxxi, 23).後來這名士兵提出了摩西的人帶領他們到土地之外的約旦(申命記31:3 ) ,並下令上帝這樣做(第31 , 23 ) 。 After the death of Moses, Josue was filled with the spirit of wisdom and was obeyed by the children of Israel (Deuteronomy 34:9).逝世後,摩西,若蘇埃充滿了智慧和精神,服從的是兒童的以色列(申命記34:9 ) 。 The rest of story of Josue is told in the Book of Josue.剩下的故事,若蘇埃是在這本書中說的若蘇埃。

THE BOOK OF JOSHUA在約書亞記

The sixth book of the Old Testament; in the plan of the critics, the last book of the Hexateuch (see PENTATEUCH).第六屆圖書舊約;在該計劃的批評,最後書Hexateuch (見摩西五) 。 In the Fathers, the book is often called "Jesus Nave".在父親,這本書常常被稱為“耶穌海軍” 。 The name dates from the time of Origen, who translated the Hebrew "son of Nun" by uìòs Nauê and insisted upon the Nave as a type of a ship; hence in the name Jesus Nave many of the Fathers see the type of Jesus, the Ship wherin the world is saved.名稱日期從時間的奧利,誰翻譯希伯來語“兒子尼姑”的uìòs Nauê和堅持中殿作為一個類型的船舶;因此,耶穌的名義海軍許多的父親見的類型,耶穌,船舶wherin世界上保存。

(1) Contents ( 1 )目錄

The Book of Josue contains two parts: the conquest of the promised land and the division thereof.書若蘇埃包含兩個部分:征服樂土和司不足。 (a) The Conquest (i- xii). (一)征服(一至十二) 。 Josue enters the land of promise, after being assured by spies that the way is safe.若蘇埃進入土地的許諾,保證後,間諜的方式是安全的。 It is the tenth day of the first month, forty-one years since the Exodus.這是第十天的第一個月,四十一年以來外流。 The channel of the Jordan is dry during the passage of Israel (i-iii) A monument is erected in the midst of the Jordan, and one at Galgal, to commemorate the miracle.該頻道的約旦是乾燥的流逝,以色列(一至三)是石碑豎立在中間的約旦,和一個在Galgal ,以紀念奇蹟。 Josue camps at Galgal (iv).若蘇埃營地Galgal (四) 。 The Israelites born during the wandering are circumcised; the pasch is eaten the first time in the land of promise; the manna ceases to fall; Josue is strengthened by the vision of an angel (v).以色列人流浪期間出生的割禮;是吃的pasch首次許諾的土地上的甘露不再下降;若蘇埃是加強了理想的天使(五) 。 The walls of Jericho fall without a blow; the city is sacked; its inhabitants are put to death; only the family of Rahab is spared (vi).傑里科的牆上沒有下降的打擊;城市解僱;其居民都被處死,只有家庭的拉哈伯倖免(六) 。 Israel goes up against Hai.以色列升高對海。 The crime of Achan causes defeat.犯罪的Achan原因失敗。 Josue punishes that crime and takes Hai (vii-viii, 29); sets up an altar on Mount Hebal; subjugates the Gabaonites (viii, 30-ix), defeats the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jerimoth, Lachis, and Eglon; captures and destroys Maceda, Lebna, Lachis, Eglon, Hebron, Dabir, and the South even to Gaza; marches North and defeats the combined forces of the kings at the waters of Meron (x-xii).若蘇埃懲罰這種犯罪行為,並考慮海(七至八, 29 ) ;提出了一個祭壇山Hebal ; subjugates的Gabaonites (八, 30九) ,國王隊的耶路撒冷,希伯倫, Jerimoth , Lachis ,和Eglon ;捕捉馬塞達破壞, Lebna , Lachis , Eglon ,希伯倫, Dabir ,甚至南方和加沙;遊行北和失敗的聯合部隊的國王在水域梅龍(第十至十二) 。 (b) The Division of the Land among the Tribes of Israel (xiii-xxii). ( b )該司的土地各部落的以色列( 13 - 22 ) 。 Epilogue: last message and death of Josue (xxiii and xxiv).後記:最後的信息和死亡的若蘇埃(二十三和二十四) 。

(2) Canonicity ( 2 )正規

(a) In the Jewish canon Josue is among the Early Prophets Josue, Judges, and the four Books of Kings. (一)在猶太佳能若蘇埃是早期先知若蘇埃,法官,以及四本書的國王。 It was not grouped with the Pentateuch, chiefly because, unlike Exodus and Leviticus, it contained no Torah, or law; also because the five books of the Torah were assigned to Moses (see PENTATEUCH).這是未與摩西五,主要是因為,與流亡和利未記,但沒有律法,或法律;還因為五本書的律法被分配到摩西(見摩西五) 。 (b) In the Christian canon Josue has ever held the same place as in the Jewish canon. ( b )在基督教佳能若蘇埃有史以來同一地點舉行的猶太人作為佳能。

(3)Unity ( 3 )統一

Non-Catholics have almost all followed the critics in the question of the "Hexateuch"; even the conservative Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", ed.非天主教徒都遵循了幾乎所有的批評中的問題“ Hexateuch ” ;即使是保守的黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經” ,教育署。 1909, takes it for granted that Josue (Joshua) is a post-Exile patchwork. 1909年,理所當然認為若蘇埃(約書亞)是一個後流亡拼湊。 The first part (i-xii) is made up of two documents, probably J and E (Jehovistic and Elohistic elements), put together by JE and later revised by the Deuterocanonical editor (D); to this latter is assigned all of the first chapter.第一部分(第一至十二部分)是由兩個文件,可能J和é ( Jehovistic和Elohistic內容) ,再加上日本腦炎,後來修訂Deuterocanonical編輯器( d )項;這一後者是分配的所有第一第二章。 Very little of this portion is the work of P (the compiler of the Priestly Code).很少這部分是工作的P (編譯的祭司碼) 。 In the second part (xiii-xxii) the critics are uncertain as to whether the last editing was the work of the Deuteronomic or the Priestly editor; they agree in this that the same hands those of J, E, D, and P are at work in both parts, and that the portions which must be assigned to P have characteristics which are not at all found in his work in the Pentateuch.在第二部分( 13 - 22 )的批評不確定是否是最後的編輯工作的Deuteronomic或祭司編輯;他們同意在此,同樣的人手中的J ,電子商務, D和P的在工作在這兩個地區,而且部分,必須分配到P的特徵,不是所有在工作中發現的摩西五。 The final redaction is post-Exilic a work done about 440-400 BC Such in brief is the theory of the critics, who differ here as elsewhere in the matter of the details assigned to the various writers and the order of the editing, which all assume was certainly done.最後編輯是後一項工作做Exilic約公元前440-400如此短暫的是理論的批評,誰不同這裡與其他地方一樣在這個問題上的詳細分配給各種作家和秩序的編輯,這一切承擔當然要做。 (See GA Smith and Welch in Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", large and small editions respectively, sv "Joshua"; Moore in Cheyne, "Encyc. Bibl."; Wellhausen, "Die Composition des Hexateuchs und der historischen Bücher des AT", Berlin, 1889; Driver, "Introd. to Lit. of OT", New York, 1892, 96.) (見大會史密斯和韋爾奇在黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經” ,大國和小版分別希沃特“約書亞” ;摩爾在進益, “ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ” ;豪森, “模具之Hexateuchs成分與德國historischen Bücher萬國的“ ,柏林, 1889年;驅動程序” , Introd 。至25,823 。對催產素“ ,紐約, 1892年, 96 。 )

The Jews knew no such Hexateuch, no such six books set together by a final editor; they always kept a marked distinction between the Pentateuch and Josue, and rather linked Josue with Judges than with Deuteronomy.猶太人知道沒有這樣的Hexateuch ,沒有這樣的六本書共同確定了最後的編輯,他們一直保持著明顯的區別摩西五和若蘇埃,而是與法官聯繫若蘇埃比申命記。 The well-known preface to Ecclesiasticus (Septuagint) separates the "Law" from the "Prophets". The Samaritans have the Torah entirely separate from the recently discovered Samaritan Josue.眾所周知序Ecclesiasticus (七十)分離“法”的“先知” 。撒瑪利亞有律法完全分開最近發現撒瑪利亞若蘇埃。

Catholics almost universally defend the unity of Josue.幾乎普遍捍衛天主教徒的團結若蘇埃。 It is true that before the decree of the Biblical Commission on the question of the multiple authorship of the Pentateuch, some Catholics assigned Josue, as well as the five Mosaic books, to J, E, D, and P. Catholic Biblical scholars favour the pre-Exilic unity of composition of Josue and its editorial independence of the Pentateuch.的確,之前的法令聖經委員會問題上的多重著作權的摩西五,一些天主教徒指派若蘇埃,以及五個花葉書籍,至J ,電子商務, D和體育天主教聖經學者贊成前Exilic統一組成若蘇埃和編輯工作的獨立性摩西五。 This independence is shown by the completeness and originality of the plan of the book.這種獨立性是所表現出的完整性和原創性的計劃書。 We have seen the unity of this plan Josue's conquest and division of the promised land.我們已經看到了這一計劃若蘇埃的征服和司樂土。 The purpose is clear to carry on the history of the chosen people after the death of Moses.這樣做的目的是清楚地進行歷史選擇的人去世後,摩西。 The purpose of the Pentateuch was very different to codify the laws of the chosen people as well as to sum up their primitive history.的目的是非常不同的摩西五編纂的法律選擇的人以及他們的原始總結歷史。 No laws are codified in Josue.沒有法律的編纂若蘇埃。 The critics argue that the death of Moses leaves a void to be filled up, ie the conquest of the land of promise, and therefore postulate this conquest for the historical, if not for the legal, completeness of the Pentateuch.批評者認為,摩西去世留下了空白有待填補了,即征服的土地上的承諾,因此,假設這個征服的歷史,如果不是合法的,完整的摩西五。 Such an hypothesis would justify one in postulating also that the history of the conquest after the death of Josue be needed for the historical completeness of the Pentateuch.這種假說將在假定的理由之一也認為,歷史上的征服死亡後若蘇埃需要的歷史完整性的摩西五。 Again, the completeness of Josue's narrative of the conquest of the promised land is clear from the fact that it repeats data which are already given in the Pentateuch and are details of that conquest.同樣,若蘇埃的完整性的敘事的征服土地的承諾是明確的事實是重複數據已經給出了摩西五和細節征服。 The orders of Moses to the children of Ruben and of Gad are clear cut in the Pentateuch (Numbers 32:20 sqq.); so, too, is the execution of these orders by the Rubenites and Gadites in the lands of the Amorrhites and of Basan (Numbers 32:33-38).命令摩西的兒童魯文和谷氨酸脫羧酶是明確的摩西五(民數記32:20 sqq 。 ) ;如此,也是執行這些命令的Rubenites和Gadites在土地的Amorrhites和巴桑(民數記32:33-38 ) 。 If Josue is part of the composite and late composition which the critics make the Mosaic books out to be, how comes it that these very data concerning the children of Ruben and of Gad are repeated by the supposititious Deuteronomic D¹ or D² when he comes to set together the J and E and P of Josue?如果若蘇埃是綜合和晚期組成的批評作出了馬賽克書籍是,如何來認為這些數據的孩子魯文和谷氨酸脫羧酶重複的冒充Deuteronomic D或D ² ¹當他來到集共同的J和E和P的若蘇埃? Why does he break in upon his continued narrative (see Joshua 1:12; 13:15-28)?為什麼他打破了他繼續敘述(見約書亞1:12 ; 13:15-28 ) ? Why this useless repetition of the same names, if not because of the unity of composition of Josue?為什麼這樣無用的重複同樣的名字,如果不是因為統一組成若蘇埃? Why are the cities of refuge given again (cf. 20:8; Deuteronomy 4:41 sqq.)?為什麼城市避難給予再次(參見20點08分;申命記4時41分sqq 。 ) ? To answer these and similar difficulties, the critics have recourse to an uncritical subterfuge D¹ or D² was not brought up in the school of modern criticism; hence his blunderings.要回答這些和類似的困難,但批評者訴諸批評托詞D或D ² ¹不是提出了在學校的現代批評,因此他blunderings 。 We cannot accept so uncritical and free-handed a writer as the God-chosen and inspired editor of the Pentateuch and Josue.我們不能接受這樣盲目和自由交給一個作家為上帝選擇和激勵編輯摩西五和若蘇埃。 For a full refutation of the critics, see Cornely, "Introd. Specialis in Hist. VT Libros", II (Paris, 1887, 177).充分駁斥了批評,見Cornely , “ Introd 。特別在組織胺。佛蒙特州Libros ” ,第二章(巴黎, 1887年, 177 ) 。

(4) Authorship ( 4 )作者

(a) The Book of Josue was certainly written before the time of David, for the Chanaanite still dwelt in Gazer (xvi, 10), the Jebusite in Jerusalem (xv, 63), and Sidon held supremacy in Phoenicia (xiv, 28); whereas, before the time of Solomon, the Egyptians had driven the Chanaanite from Gazer (1 Kings 9:16), David had captured Jerusalem in the eighth year of his reign (2 Samuel 5:5), and Tyre (twelfth century BC) had supplanted Sidon in the supremacy of Phoenicia. Moreover, in David's time, no writer could have set down his allies the Phoenicians among the peoples to be destroyed (xiii, 6). (一)若蘇埃書之前,當然是書面的時候大衛,為Chanaanite仍然住在凝視( 16 , 10 ) , Jebusite在耶路撒冷(十五, 63歲)和西頓舉行的至高無上的腓尼基( 14 , 28 ) ;而之前,所羅門群島的時候,埃及人已經推動了Chanaanite從凝視(列王紀上九時16分) ,大衛已佔據耶路撒冷的第8個年頭在位(撒母耳記下五點05分) ,和提爾(公元前12世紀)已取代西頓至高無上的腓尼基。此外,在大衛的時候,沒有作家可以規定,他的盟友,腓尼基人人民之間被摧毀(十三, 6 ) 。

(b) Internal evidence favours the view that the author lived not long after the death of Josue. ( b )內部證據贊成認為,住不長作者去世後,若蘇埃。 The territory assigned to each tribe is very exactly described.領土分配給每個部落是非常準確描述。 Only the land allotted to Ephraim is set down (xvi, 5), since occupation was delayed (xvii, 16); on the other hand, we are told not only the portion of land allotted to Juda and Benjamin, but the cities they had captured (xv, 1 sqq.; xviii, 11 sqq.); as for the other tribes, the progress they had made in winning the cities of their lot is told us with an accuracy which could not be explained were we to admit that the narrative is post-Exilic in its final redaction.只有土地分配給以法蓮是規定( 16 , 5 ) ,因為被佔領被推遲( 17 , 16 ) ;另一方面,我們被告知不僅部分土地分配給猶大和Benjamin ,但他們的城市抓獲(十五, 1 sqq 。 ;十八, 11 sqq 。 ) ;至於其他部落,他們的進展作出了獲獎城市的很多是告訴我們,精度不能解釋的,我們承認,敘述後Exilic在其最後編輯。 Only the inadmissible bungling of the uncritical D¹ or D² will serve to explain away this argument.只有受理笨拙的批評D或D ² ¹將有助於解釋了這一論點。

(c) The question remains: Did Josue write all save the epilogue? Catholics are divided. (三)問題仍然是:是否所有的若蘇埃收件保存尾聲?天主教徒分裂。 Most of the Fathers seem to have taken it for granted that the author is Josue; still there have ever been Catholics who assigned the work to some one shortly after the death of the great leader.大多數的父親似乎已經採取它理所當然地認為,作者是若蘇埃;仍然存在過天主教徒誰指派的工作後不久,有一個人死亡的偉大領袖。 Theodoret (In Jos., q. xiv), Pseudo-Athanasius (Synopsis Sacr. Scrip.), Tostatus (In Jos., i, q. xiii; vii), Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia", Antwerp, 1574), Haneberg ("Gesch. der bibl. Offenbarung", Ratisbon, 1863, 202), Danko ("Hist. Rev. Div. VT", Vienna, 1862, 200), Meignan ("De Moïse à David", Paris, 1896, 335), and many other Catholic authors admit that the Book of Josue contains signs of later editing; but all insist that this editing was done before the Exile. Theodoret (在聖何塞,問: 14 ) ,偽亞他那修(概要聖。票據。 ) Tostatus (在聖何塞,我問:十三;七) ,梅斯( “若蘇埃Imperatoris史” ,安特衛普, 1574年) , Haneberg ( “ Gesch 。河畔bibl 。啟示” , Ratisbon , 1863 , 202 ) ,照剛( “組織胺。牧師股利。佛蒙特州” ,維也納, 1862年, 200 ) , Meignan ( “者莫伊茲大衛” ,巴黎, 1896年, 335 ) ,和其他許多天主教作者承認這本書的跡象,若蘇埃包含稍後編輯;但堅持認為,這一修改是前流亡。

(5) Historicity ( 5 )歷史性

The Biblical Commission (15 Feb., 1909) has decreed the historicity of the primitive narrative of Genesis 1-3; a fortiori it will not tolerate that a Catholic deny the historicity of Josue.聖經委員會( 2月15日, 1909年)頒布的歷史性原始敘事的成因1-3 ;更何況它不會容忍一個天主教否認歷史性若蘇埃。 The chief objection of rationalists to the historical worth of the book is the almost overwhelming force of the miraculous therein; this objection has no worth to the Catholic exegete.首席反對理性主義的歷史價值的書幾乎是壓倒性的力量的奇蹟般的情況;這一反對沒有價值的天主教exegete 。 Other objections are forestalled in the treatment of the authenticity of the work. Full answer to the rationalistic objections will be found in the standard works of Catholics on introduction.其他反對阻止治療的真實性的工作。全答案的理性反對將發現在標準工程的天主教徒引種。 Saints Paul (Hebrews 11:30-31; 13:5), James (ii, 25), and Stephen (Acts 7:45), the tradition of the Synagogue and of the Church accept the Book of Josue as historical.聖徒保羅(希伯來書11:30-31 ; 13時05分) ,詹姆斯(二25 ) ,和Stephen (使徒7:45 ) ,傳統的猶太教堂和教會接受書若蘇埃的歷史。 To the Fathers Josue is an historical person and a type of the Messias.父親若蘇埃是一個歷史的人,一類的弭賽亞。 As an antidote to accusations that Josue was cruel and murderous, etc., one should read the Assyrian and Egyptian accounts of the almost contemporary treatment of the vanquished.作為解毒劑指責若蘇埃是殘忍和血腥的,等等,一應改為亞述和埃及的帳目幾乎當代治療失敗者。 St. Augustine solved the rationalistic difficulty by saying that the abominations of the Chanaanites merited the punishment which God, as Master of the world, meted out to them by the hand of Israel (In Hept., III, 56; PL, XXXIV, 702, 816).聖奧古斯丁的理性解決的困難時說,惡劣的Chanaanites值得上帝的懲罰,因為碩士的世界男子向他們的手,以色列( Hept 。 ,三, 56 ;特等,三十四, 702 , 816 ) 。 These abominations of phallic worship and infant sacrifice have been proven by the excavations of the Palestine Exploration Fund at Gazer.這些惡劣的陽具崇拜和嬰兒犧牲已被證明的挖掘巴勒斯坦探索基金凝視。

(6) Text ( 6 )文字

The Septuagint is preserved in two different recensions the Alexandrian (A) and Vatican (B) and varies considerably from the Masorah; the Vulgate often differs from all three (iii, 4; iv, 3, 13; v, 6).該譯本是保存在兩個不同的recensions的亞歷山大( A )和梵蒂岡( B )和差別很大從Masorah ;的武加大往往不同於所有三個(三,四;四, 3 , 13 ;五,六) 。 The Samaritan Josue recently discovered, resembles the Sept. more closely than the Masorah.撒瑪利亞若蘇埃最近發現,類似9月更密切比Masorah 。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Fathers: ORIGEN, Eclectum in Jesum Nave in PG, XII, 819-825); AUGUSTINE, Quæstiones in Heptateuchum in PL, XXXIV, 547).父親:奧利, Eclectum在Jesum轂的指引,十二, 819-825 ) ;奧古斯丁Quæstiones在Heptateuchum在特等,三十四, 547 ) 。 Modern writers: MAES, op.現代作家: MAES ,同前。 cit.; CALMET, Comm.前。 ; CALMET ,商業。 Lit.里拉。 in Omnes Libros N. et V. Test.在這三者的Libros北路等五測試。 (Würzburg, 1788); SERARIUS, Josue, etc. (Mainz, 1610); BONFRÈRE, Josue, Judices, Ruth (Paris, 1733); also works mentioned in body of article. (維爾茨堡, 1788年) ; SERARIUS ,若蘇埃等(美茵茨, 1610年) ;邦弗雷雷,若蘇埃, Judices ,露絲(巴黎, 1733年) ;還提到在機構的文章。 Protestant: SPEAKER's Bible, II (London, 1872); KÖNIG, Alttest Studien, i.新教:一位發言者的聖經,二, (倫敦, 1872年) ; KÖNIG , Alttest Studien島 Authentie des Buches Josua (1836). Authentie萬Buches Josua ( 1836年) 。


Book of Joshua約書亞記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Part I., ch.第一部分,甲烷。 i-xii.第一至十二。

Crossing of Jordan.穿越約旦。

The Confederacy Against Joshua.該聯合會反對約書亞。

Part II., ch.第二部分。 ,甲烷。 xiii.-xxi. xiii. - 21 。

Appendix, ch.附錄,甲烷。 xxii.-xxiv. xxii. - 24 。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Views as to Authorship.看法作者。

Comparison with Judges.比較同法官。

Redaction.編輯。

Historical Character of the Book.歷史人物的書籍。

The Hexateuch.該Hexateuch 。

The Text.案文。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua.撒瑪利亞約書亞記。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The first book of the second greater division in the Hebrew canon, the "Nebi'im," and therefore also the first of the first part of this division, the "Nebi'im Rishonim."第一本書的第二次更大的司在希伯來語佳能的“ Nebi'im ” ,因此也是第一個在第一部分司, “ Nebi'im Rishonim 。 ” It bears in Hebrew the superscription ; in the Septuagint, using the post-exilic form of the name (; Neh. viii. 17), Ἰησοῦς (in some manuscripts with the addition of υἱὸς Ναυῆ); in the Peshiṭta, "Ketaba de-Yeshu' bar-Nun Talmideh de-Mushe" (Book of Joshua, son of Nun, the Disciple of Moses).值得希伯來文的superscription ;在七十,使用後放逐形式的名稱( ; Neh 。八。 17 ) , Ἰησοῦς (在一些手稿加上υἱὸς Ναυῆ ) ;在Peshiṭta , “ Ketaba日椰樹'酒吧,尼姑Talmideh去Mushe “ (約書亞記,兒子尼姑門徒摩西) 。 It belongs to the historical books of the Old Testament, its theme being the invasion and conquest under Joshua of west-Jordanic Palestine and its apportionment among the tribes, with an account of the closing days and death of the great leader. The book, which comprises twenty-four chapters, readily falls into two main parts and an appendix, which may be summarized thus: (1) the events following Moses' death; the invasion and capture of the land; (2) the division of the country; (3) the conduct of the Reubenites, etc.; two hortatory addresses by Joshua shortly before his death, followed by a brief gloss on his burial-place and the disposition made of the bones of Joseph.它屬於歷史的書籍舊約,其主題就是入侵和征服下約書亞西部Jordanic巴勒斯坦及其分配各部落,與一個帳戶的關閉時間和死亡的偉大領袖。該書包括24章,容易陷入兩個主要部分和一個附錄,這可以概括為: ( 1 )後的事件摩西死亡;入侵和佔領的土地; ( 2 )分裂的國家; ( 3 )進行Reubenites等;兩個地址,約書亞勸告前不久去世,隨後進行了簡短的光澤,他埋葬地點和處置作出的骨頭約瑟夫。 In detail the contents are as follows:詳細內容如下:

Part I., ch.第一部分,甲烷。 i-xii.第一至十二。

i.: After Moses' death, Joshua, by virtue of his previous appointment as Moses' successor, receives from Yhwh the command to cross the Jordan.一:在摩西死亡,約書亞,由於他以前被任命為摩西的繼任者,收到Yhwh命令穿越約旦。 In execution of this order Joshua issues the requisite instructions to the stewards of the people for the crossing of the Jordan; and he reminds the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half of Manasseh of their pledge given to Moses to help their brethren.在執行這項命令約書亞問題的必要指示幹事的人的穿越約旦,他提醒Reubenites , Gadites ,和一半的瑪其質押給摩西,幫助他們兄弟。

ii.: Joshua sends out from Shittim two spies to explore the city of Jericho.二。 :約書亞發出來自Shittim兩個間諜探討城市傑里科舉行。 They are saved from falling into the hands of the king by the shrewd tactics of Rahab.他們免於落入國王的精明策略拉哈伯。 The spies return and report. Crossing of Jordan.間諜返回和報告。穿越約旦。

iii.-iv.: Camp is broken at Shittim. iii.-iv. : Camp是打破Shittim 。 A halt is made at the Jordan.停止了在約旦。 Joshua addresses the people; assuring them that Yhwh, the living God, is in the midst of them, that He will drive out the Canaanites, and that the Ark will cross the Jordan, whereupon a miraculous change will be worked in the waters of the river.約書亞涉及人民;保證他們Yhwh ,生活上帝,正處於他們,他將驅逐迦南,而且方舟將穿越約旦,在這種情況下奇蹟般的變化將是工作的水域河。 The predicted miracle takes place as soon as the priests with the Ark wade into the water.預測奇蹟發生盡快祭司的方舟韋德進入水中。 In commemoration of the event, Joshua orders two monuments to be erected: one in the river-bed; the other on the west bank, at Gilgal.在慶祝活動,約書亞命令兩個紀念碑豎立:一個在河床;其他對約旦河西岸,在Gilgal 。 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half of Manasseh number 40,000 warriors.該Reubenites的Gadites ,和一半的梅納西索人數40000勇士。 The priests are bidden to come up out of the river's bed after the people have crossed over.祭司是bidden拿出了河流的床後,人越過。 This happens on the tenth day of the first month; and the camp is pitched at Gilgal.這發生在第10天的第一個月;和難民營是投在Gilgal 。

v.: Joshua is bidden to make flint knives wherewith to circumcise the Israelites, for those born in the desert had not been circumcised. This is done; Pesaḥ is celebrated; and the manna ceases.五:約書亞是bidden以燧石刀wherewith向circumcise以色列人,對於那些出生在沙漠中沒有割禮。這項工作; Pesaḥ慶祝;和甘露停止。 Joshua in front of Jericho receives the visit of a "captain of the host of the Lord" in the guise of a man, who declares that the soil on which Joshua is standing is holy ground.約書亞在傑里科接受訪問的“隊長東道國的上帝”的幌子下一個男人,誰宣布的土壤約書亞是常設的聖地。

vi.: The siege and capture of Jericho; after thirteen circuits-one every day for six days, and seven circuits on the seventh day-with seven priests blowing seven rams' horns and the people shouting, the walls cave in. Jericho is put under the ban; but Rahab is excepted.六。 :圍困和佔領傑里科;後13電路,一個每天都在為6天, 7個電路第七天- 7祭司吹7公羊'喇叭和人民的呼喊,洞穴的牆壁是把英寸傑里科根據該禁令,但拉哈伯是例外。 A curse is pronounced against any one who should rebuild the city. Joshua becomes famous throughout the whole land.詛咒是明顯針對任何一個誰應該重建的城市。約書亞成為著名整個土地。

vii.: The miscarriage of the expedition against Ai, undertaken, upon the counsel of spies, with a very small force, strikes terror into the heart of the people and brings Joshua to the verge of despair.七。 :流產的遠征對愛,開展後,律師的間諜,以非常小的力量,打擊恐怖活動的核心和人民帶來了約書亞瀕臨絕望。 But Yhwh announces that the people have sinned.但是Yhwh宣布,人民犯了罪。 As stated in the first verse, Achan has not respected the ban.正如在第一詩, Achan不尊重這一禁令。 The people must be reconsecrated.人民必須reconsecrated 。 The sinner must be discovered by the casting of Yhwh's lot.的罪人,必須發現了鑄造Yhwh的命運。 This is done.這是許多工作要做。 By a process of elimination the guilt is limited to the tribe of Judah, then to the clan of the Zarhites, then to the sept of Zabdi; the individual members of Zabdi are then brought forward, man by man, and finally Achan is detected as the culprit.進程的消除有罪僅限於部落的猶太,然後家族的Zarhites ,然後到9月的Zabdi ;成員個人Zabdi ,然後提出,人的男子,並最終發現作為Achan匪徒。 He admits having taken a costly Babylonian garment, besides silver and gold; and his confession is verified by the finding of the treasure buried in his tent.他承認,採取了代價高昂的巴比倫服裝,除金,銀和他的供詞,驗證了這一發現的財寶埋在他的帳篷。 Achan is taken into the valley of Achor, and there stoned to death. Achan是考慮到谷Achor ,並用石頭打死。

viii.: Expedition against Ai, this time with the whole army.八。 :遠征對愛,這一次與全軍。 The city is taken by clever strategy, 30,000 men being placed overnight in an ambush.城市是採取聰明的戰略, 30000人被置於一夜之間在一次伏擊。 The attacking force feigning flight, the King of Ai is drawn far away from the city; Joshua points with his lance toward the city; whereupon the men in ambush rush into it, while Joshua and the army with him face about.攻擊力假裝飛行,王愛注意遠離城市;光點與他的槍向城市;在這種情況下男子伏擊湧入,而約書亞和軍隊面臨著與他有關。 Thus the pursuing enemy is taken between the two sections of Israel's array.因此,追求的敵人是採取兩節之間的以色列的陣列。 Not one man escapes; the city is burned; 12,000 inhabitants are killed, and the spoils are taken.沒有一個人逃跑;城市燒毀; 12000居民被殺害,並正在採取的戰利品。 The King of Ai is hanged to a tree until nightfall, when his body is thrown into a pit, where on a stone heap is raised.王愛是吊死在樹上,直到夜幕降臨,當他的身體是扔進場內,其中一塊石頭堆在提高。 Joshua erects an altar on Mount Ebal as Moses had commanded, offering to Yhwh holocausts and sacrificing peace-offerings.On the stones of the altar he engraves a copy of the law of Moses; the people being ranged in two sections-one facing Ebal; the other, Gerizim-while the blessings and curses are read as ordained by Moses.約書亞架設壇山Ebal如摩西曾指揮,提供給Yhwh大屠殺和犧牲和平offerings.On的石頭祭壇他engraves一份摩西律法;人民正在為在兩節一面臨Ebal ;另一方面, Gerizim ,而祝福和詛咒都改為祝由摩西。

The Confederacy Against Joshua.該聯合會反對約書亞。

ix.: Confederacy of the native kings to fight Joshua.九。 :邦聯的本土國王鬥爭約書亞。 The Gibeonites by craft obtain a treaty from the Israelites, which even after the detection of the fraud practised upon the invaders is not abrogated. They are, however, degraded to be "hewers of wood and drawers of water" for the altar of Yhwh.該工藝獲得Gibeonites的條約由以色列人,這即使在檢測欺詐的侵略者實行不廢止。然而,它們退化為“ hewers木材和抽屜裡的水”的祭壇Yhwh 。

x.: Adoni-zedek brings about an alliance between the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon, and they ("the five kings of the Amorites") besiege Gibeon.十: Adoni - zedek帶來的同盟關係國王耶路撒冷,希伯倫, Jarmuth , Lachish ,並Eglon ,他們( “五個國王的阿莫里特” )圍攻基遍。 In their distress the Gibeonites implore Joshua's help.在危難的Gibeonites懇求約書亞的幫助。 Joshua, assured by Yhwh of victory, comes up from Gilgal by a forced night march and attacks the allies suddenly. Thrown into confusion, the Amorites flee as far as the ascent of Beth-horon.約書亞,保證Yhwh的勝利,是從Gilgal被迫晚上由3月和突然襲擊的盟國。扔進混淆,阿莫里特逃離至於上升的貝絲, horon 。 To this battle is referred a song from the Book of Jashar, commanding the sun to be still at Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon.此戰是指一首歌曲從書中的Jashar ,指揮太陽仍然在基遍和月亮山谷中的Ajalon 。 The five kings are captured, first being incarcerated in the cave where they had hidden for safety, then, after the pursuit had been discontinued,-scarcely one of the enemies escaping-being by order of Joshua humiliated and hanged.五個國王被俘,第一次被關押在那裡的洞穴,他們的安全隱患,那麼,在已經停止的追求, ,幾乎沒有一個敵人逃跑的福祉的命令約書亞羞辱和絞死。 Then follows a detailed enumeration of the cities captured and put under ban.接著列舉了詳細的城市抓獲,並根據禁令。 Joshua becomes master of the whole land-the hill-country, the southland, the lowland, and the slopes-leaving not one king alive, and banning all men from Kadesh-barnea unto Gaza, and all the district of Goshen unto Gibeon.約書亞成為掌握整個土地的山國,南國,低地,以及斜坡,沒有一個離開國王還活著,並禁止所有男子卡迪什-巴爾內亞給加沙地帶,以及所有區戈申告訴基遍。 After this expedition he returns to Gilgal.在這之後,他返回遠征Gilgal 。

xi.: Jabin, King of Hazor, and his allies rendezvous at Merom.十一。 : Jabin ,國王Hazor ,和他的盟友交會在Merom處理器。 Joshua is assured by Yhwh of their total defeat, which in fact is brought about by a sudden attack on the part of Joshua.約書亞是保證Yhwh他們的徹底失敗,而這事實上是所帶來的突然襲擊的一部分約書亞。 Pursuing them to a great distance (the cities are named), he hamstrings their horses and burns their chariots, capturing Hazor, killing all of its people, and burning the town.追求他們很遠(城市命名) ,他削弱他們的馬匹和燒傷的戰車,捕捉Hazor ,殺死所有的人,並燒毀該鎮。 Other royal residences he takes by the sword, putting them under the ban.其他王室住所他的劍,將他們的禁令。 The spoils are taken, and the men are put to death.採取的戰利品,以及男子處死。 The cities on the hill are allowed to stand. Joshua drives the Anakim from the mountains, from Hebron, and from other places.城市在山上被允許立場。約書亞驅動Anakim從山區,從希伯倫撤軍,並從其他地方。 Only in Gaza some remain.僅在加沙地帶的一些仍然存在。 Finally the land has peace.最後,土地的和平。

xii.: Recapitulation of Joshua's conquests, with statistical details of the number of the kings (30) captured and subdued.十二。 :概述約書亞的征服,統計資料的數量,國王( 30歲)抓獲,並制服。

Part II., ch.第二部分。 ,甲烷。 xiii.-xxi. xiii. - 21 。

xiii.: After an enumeration of the places still unconquered (mainly the coast districts of the Philistines) Joshua is bidden to apportion the land, the unconquered as well as the conquered (verse 6b), among nine and one-half tribes of Israel, the other two and one-half tribes having under Moses been given their portion on the east of the Jordan (verses 14b-32).十三。 :在列舉的地方仍然unconquered (主要是海岸地區的非利士人)約書亞是bidden由土地, unconquered以及被征服(詩型) ,在9個半部落的以色列,其他兩個半部落下了摩西得到他們的部分,東部的約旦(經文第14B - 32 ) 。

xiv.: Résumé of the foregoing reference to Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh, with a gloss concerning Levi's non-inheritance save as regards detached cities, while Joseph receives a double heritage (verses 1-5).十四。 :簡歷上述提到魯本,蓋德,和一半的瑪,以掩飾有關的Levi 's非繼承保存至於離城市,而約瑟夫收到雙重遺產(詩句1-5 ) 。 Caleb's claim to Hebron is allowed.凱萊布聲稱希布倫是允許的。

xv.: The "lot" of Judah (verses 1-12).十五。 :在“很多”的猶太(詩句1月12日) 。 Caleb's share (13).卡萊布的份額( 13 ) 。 Expulsion by him of the three Anakim (14).驅逐他的三個Anakim ( 14 ) 。 Story of Kirjath-sepher (16).故事Kirjath - sepher ( 16 ) 。 Othniel takes it and wins, as promised, Caleb's daughter for wife (17). Othniel需要它,贏了,按照承諾,卡萊布的女兒為妻子( 17 ) 。 Her successful plea for the gift of wells (18).她成功地懇求的禮物井( 18 ) 。 Catalogue of the heritage of Judah (20 et seq.).目錄的遺產猶太( 20起。 ) 。 Gloss on the continued dwelling of the Jebusites in Jerusalem (63).光澤的持續的耶布斯人居住在耶路撒冷( 63 ) 。

xvi.: Lot of the Josephites (1-3).十六。 :很多Josephites ( 1-3 ) 。 The Ephraimites own cities in the territory of Manasseh (9).該Ephraimites自己的城市在其境內的瑪( 9 ) 。 Gloss to the effect that the Canaanites dwelling in Gezer had not been driven out, but had been reduced to slavery (10).光澤,其大意是迦南人住在Gezer沒有被趕出,但已淪為奴隸( 10 ) 。

xvii.: Lot of Manasseh, Machir as a warrior taking for his prize Gilead and Bashan (1).十七。 :地段的梅納西索, Machir作為一個戰士,他同時是Gilead和巴山獎( 1 ) 。 Delimitation of Manasseh (7).劃定瑪( 7 ) 。 Manasseh's assignments in Issachar and Asher (11).索加瓦里的任務薩迦和阿舍爾( 11 ) 。 Gloss stating that these cities had not been captured (12).光澤指出,這些城市還沒有被抓獲( 12 ) 。 Protest of the Josephites against receiving one share only (14).抗議Josephites對接收的份額只有1 ( 14 ) 。 Joshua advises them to conquer the wooded hill-land (15).約書亞建議他們征服岵土地( 15 ) 。 Plea on their part that the mountain is not extensive enough, while the plains are held by Canaanites equipped with iron chariots (16).辯訴交易他們說,山區沒有足夠廣泛,而平原是由迦南配備了鐵戰車( 16 ) 。 Joshua's consolatory encouragement (17).約書亞的consolatory鼓勵( 17 ) 。

xviii.: Erection of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (1).十八。 :架設在會幕夏伊洛( 1 ) 。 Seven tribes without allotment. 7個部落沒有撥款。 Joshua urges these to appoint commissions of three men out of each tribe to go and take the land and to report to him, when, after dividing it into seven portions, he will cast the lot (2-7).約書亞敦促這些任命委員會的三名男子從每個部落去,並採取土地和向他報告時,在劃分成7個部分,他將投下很多( 2-7 ) 。 The commissions carry out the errand and lay their book of record before Joshua, who then casts the lot (8-10).該委員會的使命進行奠定其書的記錄,然後約書亞,然後蒙上誰的命運( 8月10日) 。 Benjamin's share (11).本傑明的份額( 11 ) 。 The boundaries (12-20).界限( 12月20號) 。 List of the cities (21-28).名單的城市( 21-28 ) 。

xix.: Simeon's share, in the territory of Judah.十九。 :西蒙的市場份額,在其境內的猶太。 List of the cities (1-8). Reason why Simeon's lot was in Judean territory (9).名單的城市( 1-8 ) 。原因西梅昂的命運是在朱迪亞領土( 9 ) 。 Zebulun's share; its boundaries (10-14). Zebulun的市場份額,其界限( 10月14日) 。 Twelve cities not specified (15b). Issachar's share; its cities and boundaries (17-23). 12個城市未指定(第15B ) 。薩迦的市場份額,其城市和邊界( 17-23 ) 。 Asher's lot; its boundaries; summary gives twenty-two as the number of its cities (24-31).阿舍爾的命運;其界限;簡要使2002年的一些城市( 24-31 ) 。 Naphtali's share; its boundaries and fortified cities (32-39).拿弗他的市場份額,其邊界和強化城市( 32-39 ) 。 Dan's share; its cities enumerated (40-46).丹中的份額;城市列舉( 40-46 ) 。 Why the Danites took Leshem = Dan (47).為什麼Danites了萊謝姆=丹( 47歲) 。 Joshua receives as his own share Timnath-serah (49-50).約書亞收到作為自己的份額Timnath - serah ( 49-50 ) 。 Eleazar and Joshua had assigned the lots before Yhwh at the gate of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (51).埃萊亞薩和Joshua已指派Yhwh的手在門口的幕在夏伊洛( 51 ) 。 Cities of refuge established (51b-xx.).城市避難成立( 51b-xx. ) 。

xxi.: The Levites' assignment (1-8).二十一。 :在利'轉讓( 1-8 ) 。 Concluding paragraph, emphasizing God's fulfilment of His promise to the fathers (43-45).最後一段,強調上帝的履行其承諾的父親( 43-45 ) 。

Appendix, ch.附錄,甲烷。 xxii.-xxiv. xxii. - 24 。

xxii.: Dismissal to their homes of Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh with Joshua's blessing and an admonition to take heed of Yhwh's Law as commanded by Moses.二十二。 :解僱家園魯本,蓋德,和一半的梅納西索與約書亞的祝福,並告誡須注意的Yhwh的法指揮的摩西。 Now that they have become rich in cattle, silver, gold, iron, and garments they are to divide the booty with their brethren (1-8).現在,它們已成為豐富的牛,銀,金,鐵,及成衣他們分裂戰利品其兄弟( 1-8 ) 。 Return of the east-Jordanic tribes; they build an altar at the stone-heap on the bank of the Jordan; the Israelites desire to punish them for this act; but they first send Phinehas and ten princes to the Reubenites, etc., to censure them, recalling the Peor episode and advising them to remove to Palestine.返回東Jordanic部落,他們建立一個祭壇在石頭堆的銀行約旦;以色列人希望懲罰他們的這一行為,但他們第一次派出10 Phinehas和王子的Reubenites等,訓斥他們,回顧Peor插曲,並建議他們移除巴勒斯坦。 The Reubenites explain that in building the altar their intention was to show their fidelity to Yhwh,that their descendants might not be taunted with being untrue to Him.該Reubenites解釋說,在建設的祭壇其意圖是要顯示他們的忠誠Yhwh ,他們的後代可能不被嘲弄與不真實給他。 The delegation rejoices at the explanation, and upon their report the Israelites abandon the projected punitive expedition (9-34).該代表團感到高興的解釋,並根據他們的報告以色列人放棄預測討伐( 9-34 ) 。

xxiii.: Joshua, now old, calls an assembly of all Israel, at which he admonishes the people to remain loyal to the Torah of Moses.二十三。 :約書亞,現在歲,大會呼籲所有的以色列,在他admonishes人民仍然忠於律法的摩西。

xxiv.: An account of a gathering of Israel at Shechem, at which Joshua delivers an impressive address, reviewing the past, and makes the people vow to remain faithful.二十四。 :一個帳戶的收集以色列在示劍,在約書亞提供了一個令人印象深刻的地址,回顧過去,使人民的誓言:在繼續忠實。 He erects a great stone as a witness to the promise (1-28).他架設大石頭作為證人的承諾( 1月28日) 。 Joshua dies (29).約書亞去世( 29 ) 。 Joseph's bones are buried in Shechem (32).約瑟夫的骨頭埋在示劍( 32 ) 。 Eleazar dies and is buried (33).埃萊亞薩死亡和被埋葬( 33 ) 。 EGH歐洲加沙醫院

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The Rabbis ascribe the authorship of the book, as of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, to Joshua (BB 14b); the account of Joshua's death (Josh. xxiv. 29-32) was added, according to them, by Eleazar, the son of Aaron (BB 15a), and that of Eleazar's demise (Josh. xxiv. 33) by Phinehas (BB lc).拉比賦予的作者的書,因為在過去的8申命記詩句,以約書亞( BB心跳14B條) ;帳戶約書亞的死亡( Josh.二十四。 29-32 )已表示,據他們說,由埃萊亞薩,該兒子亞倫( BB心跳15A條) ,而埃萊亞薩的滅亡( Josh.二十四。 33 )的Phinehas ( BB心跳信用證) 。 But this view has been rejected by Isaac Abravanel (see preface to his commentary on the Earlier Prophets), who correctly observes that the use of the phrase = "unto this day" (Josh. iv. 9, vii. 26, ix. 27, xiv. 14, xv. 62, xvi. 10) controverts this assumption, and that certain events mentioned in the Book of Joshua are recorded in the Book of Judges (xix. 45) as occurring "long after the death of Joshua" (Abravanel, "Comm. in Prophetas Priores," pp. 2b, col. 2; 3a, col. 1; Leipsic, 1686).但這種觀點已被拒絕艾薩阿布拉瓦內爾(見前言他的評注早些時候先知) ,誰正確指出,這一用語的使用= “你們這一天” ( Josh.四。 9日,七。 26日,九。 27 ,十四。 14 ,十五。 62 , 16 。 10 ) controverts這一假設,而且某些事件中所提到的約書亞記都記錄在這本書中的法官( xix. 45 )存在的“長去世後約書亞” (阿布拉瓦內爾, “商業。 Prophetas Priores在”頁。 2b干擾素山口。 2 ; 3A條山口。 1 ; Leipsic , 1686年) 。

Views as to Authorship.看法作者。

Christian commentators have for similar reasons contended that the book was by a later author, who had access to documents composed by Joshua or by contemporaries of his (Theodoret, "In Josue Quæst." xiv.).基督教評論家出於類似的原因,認為這本書是作者通過以後,誰能夠獲得文件組成約書亞或同時代人,他( Theodoret , “在若蘇埃Quæst 。 ”十四。 ) 。 In the "Synopsis Sacræ Scripturæ" (xxviii., col. 309), attributed to St. Athanasius, the title of the book is explained not as the name of the author, but as indicating the hero of the events. Alphonsus Tostat ("Opera," Cologne, 1613; "In Josue I. Quæst." xiii.) rejects the authorship of Joshua, and advances the theory that the book is the work of King Solomon, while Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia," Antwerp, 1574) ascribes it to Ezra, who had access to ancient Hebrew archives.在“概要Sacræ Scripturæ ” ( xxviii.山口。 309 ) ,歸因於聖亞他那修,圖書的書名是解釋而不是作者姓名,但說明英雄的事件。阿Tostat ( “歌劇, “科隆, 1613年; ”在若蘇埃一Quæst 。 “十三。 )拒絕作者約書亞和進步的理論,這本書的工作,所羅門王,而梅斯( ”若蘇埃Imperatoris歷史, “安特衛普, 1574年)賦予它以斯拉,誰能夠獲得古代希伯來檔案。 These and modern Catholic critics also (Cardinal Meignan, "De Moïse à David," Paris, 1896) thus make the book posterior to the time of Joshua, but, for the greater part, pre-exilic and always based on documents coeval with the events reported.這些與現代天主教批評也(紅衣主教Meignan “者莫伊茲大衛, ”巴黎, 1896年) ,從而使這本書後的時間約書亞,但是,對於大部份,前放逐和文件的基礎上始終與同時代事件報告。

Among modern Jewish critics L. Wogue ("Histoire de la Bible," Paris, 1881) defends the traditional view, with reference to BB 14b and 15a.在現代猶太人批評研究Wogue ( “史聖經” ,巴黎, 1881年)的傳統觀點辯護,並提及至BB第14B及15A條。 More recently the passage in Ecclus.最近通過在Ecclus 。 (Sirach) xlvi. ( Sirach )四十六。 1 has been invoked in proof of the authorship of Joshua; προΦητεῖαι in Ecclesiasticus means "books," so that Joshua being designated (ib.) as διάδόχος Μωϋσῆ ἔν προΦητείαίς would imply that he was the "author" of the "book." 1已經被援引證明作者約書亞; προΦητεῖαι在Ecclesiasticus意思是“書籍” ,使約書亞被指定( ib. )作為διάδόχος Μωϋσῆ ἔν προΦητείαίς將意味著,他是“作者”的“的書。 ” The Hebrew text, however, has (see Israel Lévi, "L'Ecclésiastique," Paris, 1898), but this has also been construed, with reference to II Chron.希伯來文,但是, (見以色列列維“歐萊雅Ecclésiastique , ”巴黎, 1898年) ,但是這也被解釋,並提及二專欄。 ix.九。 29, where means "book," as supporting the traditional view. 29日,在那裡的意思是“書”作為支持的傳統觀點。

Keil in his commentary has endeavored to defend this view by urging the force of = "until we had passed over" (Josh. v. 1) as demonstrating that the narrative must have been written by an eyewitness; but the ancient versions show this reading to be erroneous. Keil公司在他的評注已竭力捍衛這一觀點,敦促力量= “直到我們已通過了” ( Josh.訴1 )表明,說明必須是書面的目擊者,但古老的版本顯示此閱讀是錯誤的。 Nor is xviii.也不是十八。 9 conclusive: at the utmost it proves that the catalogue of cities (xviii. 11-xix. 46) was abstracted from a document contemporary with Joshua. 9結論:在盡力證明目錄城市( xviii. 11 - 19 。 46 )是抽象從文件當代與約書亞。 In the same way xxiv.以同樣的方式二十四。 26 may be taken as evidence only that xxiv. 5月26日被視為證據只有二十四。 1-25 is by him, though upon closer inspection even this passage is seen to be merely the honest opinion of a later writer. 1月25日是他,但經仔細檢查,就連這個通道被認為是誠實的只是認為以後的作家。 The objections by Abravanel have not been answered.反對的阿布拉瓦內爾還沒有得到答复。

Comparison with Judges.比較同法官。

Later Biblical books exhibit incidents which demonstrate that the situation assumed in Joshua could not have been that of the period of invasion.後來聖經圖書展覽的事件表明,在假定的情況約書亞不可能的入侵時期。 For instance, Jericho, represented in Joshua as completely overthrown and upon the rebuilding of which a solemn curse is invoked, is found to exist at a much later date, even as a city of the Prophets (see Elisha; comp. Josh. vi. 2-27, xvi. 1; Judges iii. 12-30; II Sam. x. 5; II Kings ii. 5, 15; v. 19-22; I Chron. xix. 5; for the curse see I Kings xvi. 34).例如,傑里科,約書亞為代表的完全推翻後重建這是一個莊嚴的詛咒援引,被發現存在一個更晚的日期,甚至成為一個城市的先知(見以利沙;補償。喬希。六。 2月27日,十六。 1 ;法官三。 12月30號;二山姆。十5 ;二王二。 5日, 15日;五, 19日至22日,我專欄。十九。 5 ;的詛咒見王十六。 34 ) 。 Ai, reported burned, is known to Isaiah (as "Aiath"; Isa. x. 28).愛,報告燒毀,是眾所周知的以賽亞(如“ Aiath ” ;赫伊薩。十28 ) 。 Gezer (Josh. xvi. 10), described as being reduced to vassalage, is not rendered tributary until the time of Solomon (I Kings ix. 16). Gezer ( Josh.十六。 10 ) ,被描述為減少到vassalage ,是不是變得支流時為止所羅門(王九。 16 ) 。 But a comparison with the Book of Judges suffices to discredit the theory that the Book of Joshua is an autobiography of its eponymous hero. The narrative in Judges reveals the fact that the invasion was not directed by a general-in-chief, nor undertaken at one time by the tribes united under a national commander, nor accomplished in the lifetime of one man, much less in two decades.但是,相對於圖書的法官足以詆毀理論,即約書亞記是其同名自傳英雄。法官的敘述揭示這樣一個事實,即入侵不是針對一個一般總司令,也不進行一時間,美國的部落指揮官根據一個國家,也完成了一生的一個人,更不用說在二十年。

Nor is the book the work of one man.也不是這本書的工作,一名男子。 Contradictions abound, eg, in the chronology: in iii.矛盾比比皆是,例如在年表:在三。 1 the crossing is set for the next day; iii. 2, three days intervene; iii. 1過境設置為第二天;三。 2 ,三天干預;三。 5, the start is again delayed one day; comp. 5 ,開始再次推遲一天;補償。 v. 10 with iv.五, 10四。 19 and v. 2-9. 19日和訴2-9 。 In xi.在西安。 21 the Anakim are expelled by Joshua, while in xv. 21 Anakim被驅逐的光,而在十五。 13 Caleb is reported as having performed this feat. 13凱萊布是報告為完成這一壯舉。 Double and variant versions are given, as, for instance, the explanation of the name Gilgal (iv. 20; comp. v. 9 and xiv. 6 et seq. with xv. 13 et seq.).雙和變異版本給出,例如,該解釋的名稱Gilgal ( iv. 20 ;補償。訴9和14 。 6起。與十五。 13起。 ) 。

The Book of Joshua must be regarded as a compilation; and analysis of its contents makes it certain that its sources are of the same character as those of the Pentateuch.該約書亞記必須被視為彙編;和分析其內容使它確信,其來源是相同的性質是摩西五。 This, to a certain degree, was the impression of the Rabbis.這在一定程度上,是這樣的印象的拉比。 According to Mak.據麥。 11a, the chapter (xx.) concerning the cities of refuge was taken from the Pentateuch. The Book of Joshua was regarded by them as written in the light of the Deuteronomic legislation (Gen. R. vi. 14). 11A條,這一章( xx. )關於城市避難是從摩西五。在約書亞記被視為他們的書面鑑於Deuteronomic立法(將軍河六。 14 ) 。 At all events, Joshua and the Pentateuch are treated as of one character in the saying that the sins of Israel alone necessitated the adding of other books to these (Ned. 22b).總之,約書亞和摩西五被視為一個性質的話說,以色列的罪過必須單獨添加其他書籍這些( Ned. 22B款) 。 Joshua is often compared with Moses (Ta'an. 20a; Soṭah 36a; BB 75a; Sanh. 20a; Mak. 9b).約書亞往往與摩西( Ta'an 。 20A條; Soṭah 36A條; BB心跳75A條; Sanh 。 20A條;麥。 9B條) 。

While modern critics generally are agreed that the Book of Joshua is a compilation from sources that have been utilized in the Pentateuch (J, E, JE, D, and P), with additions by the editor (R = Redactor), they differ very widely as regards the details.雖然現代評論家一般都同意,約書亞記彙編的來源被用來在摩西五( J ,英,乙腦, D和規劃) ,並增加了編輯器(註冊商標= Redactor ) ,他們非常不同廣泛至於細節。 According to Steuernagel ("Joshua," in Nowack's"Hand-Kommentar"), Albers' attempt in his "Die Quellenberichte in Josua," i-xii., 1891, to separate the components of J from E in part i.據Steuernagel ( “約書亞” ,在Nowack的“手Kommentar ” ) ,阿爾伯斯企圖在他的“模具Quellenberichte在Josua , ”第一至十二。 , 1891年,以單獨組件的J從E在第一部分 (i.-xii.) is unsatisfactory. (一至十二。 )是不能令人滿意的。 In fact, Steuernagel assumes that J and E combined as JE never were accessible to the compiler of Joshua, the two being then still uncombined.事實上, Steuernagel假定J和é合併乙腦從未獲得編譯約書亞,兩個正在然後仍然uncombined 。 A few fragments from J (after Budde, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," vii.), parallel with passages in Judges i., and others somewhat more numerous from E, are all that he finds in Joshua.有幾個片段的J某(後布德,在體育場的“雜誌, ”七。 )平行通道法官島,以及其他較許多來自E ,都是他認為在約書亞。 He insists that for i.-xii.他堅持認為,為一至十二。 another work, D, was the main source.另一個工作,開發,是主要來源。 This D is not identical with the author of Deuteronomy, but is rather D2 (= the author of Deut. i.-iii.), and is on the whole an independent elaboration of E. The few fragments of J and E in Joshua he concedes were added by R, and only after D2 had been combined with P (mostly in part ii.).這個D是不等同於申命記的作者,而是在D2 ( =作者Deut 。一至三。 ) ,是對整個獨立擬訂體育的幾個片段的J和E在約書亞他承認又增加了由R ,只有後D2類已被合併與P (主要是在第二部分。 ) 。

Steuernagel's analysis has not been accepted by Holzinger ("Josua," in Marti's "KHC"), who rejects D2 and works out a scheme on the basis of J, E, and JE, with a pronounced Deuteronomic coloring: Deuteronomist, Priestly Code, and Redactor. Steuernagel的分析,不被接受的Holzinger ( “ Josua , ”在馬蒂的“ KHC ” ) ,誰拒絕了D2和工程計劃的基礎上的J , E和乙腦,以突出Deuteronomic色彩: Deuteronomist ,祭司典,和Redactor 。 Contrary to the Pentateuchal R, who makes P the original document, in Joshua JED is the basis, supplemented by extracts from P. Still later additions are noticeable as well as changes in phraseology (eg, the use of in vii. 13, 19 et seq.; viii. 30; ix. 18, 20; x. 40, 42; xiii. 14, 33; xiv. 14; xxii. 16, 24; xxiii.; xxiv. 2, 23).相反, Pentateuchal研究,誰使P原始文件,在約書亞JED是基礎,輔之以摘錄體育再後來是明顯的增加,以及變化的用語(例如,使用在七。 13日, 19日等以下。 ;八。 30 ;九。 18日, 20日;十, 40 , 42 ;十三。 14 , 33 ;十四。 14 ; 22 。 16 , 24 ;二十三。 ;二十四。 2 , 23 ) 。 For a detailed analysis on this basis see Holzinger, "Das Buch Josua," pp. xvii.-xxi.為了詳細分析,在此基礎上見Holzinger , “達斯圖書Josua , ”頁。 xvii. - 21 。

Steuernagel in his translation prints the different sources in different types. Steuernagel打印在他翻譯的不同來源的不同類型。 WH Bennett in "The Book of Joshua" (in "SBOT" 1895) indicates the various documents by the use of different colors.武漢貝內特在“約書亞記” (在“ SBOT ” 1895年)的各種文件表明,通過使用不同的顏色。

Redaction.編輯。

Summing up, these various analyses have certainly demonstrated that, on the whole, in the narrative portion of the book (i.-xii.) the introduction (i.) is Deuteronomic, as is the conclusion of the whole book (xxi. 43-xxii. 6, xxiii.), and that Deuteronomic coloring is to be found in both parts, naturally in a greater degree in the narrative chapters.總括來說,這些不同的分析無疑表明,從總體上看,在敘述部分的書(一至十二。 )的導言(一)是Deuteronomic ,這是完成了整本書( xxi. 43 - 22 。 6 ,二十三。 ) ,而且是Deuteronomic著色中可以找到兩個部分,自然有更大程度的敘述章節。 The basis of the book was a Deuteronomic history of Joshua, founded on material from J and E perhaps not as yet combined as JE, thus excluding Rje (=Redactor of JE).根據這本書是一個歷史的約書亞Deuteronomic ,成立於材料J和é也許尚未合併,如乙腦,從而排除Rje ( = Redactor的乙腦) 。 The main current of the narrative is not originally Deuteronomic, the Deuteronomic editor heightening its coloring, and dwelling on the moral and religious implications of the story.目前的主要的敘述不是原先Deuteronomic ,提高編輯的Deuteronomic其著色,和住宅的道德和宗教影響的故事。 The narrative is not always consistent.說明並非總是一致的。 In xiii.-xix.在xiii. - 19 。 many fragments are for the most part parallels to Judges i., which make it appear that the conquest was a slow, laborious process, the tribes acting without concerted plan and nowhere under united central command.許多碎片大部分是法官一相似之處,這使得征服似乎是一個緩慢的,艱難的進程,該部落的代理如果沒有協調的計劃,並沒有按照美國中央司令部。 These belong to J. But even in the narrative portion, strictly so-called, as distinct from the statistical, a twofold account is almost always discernible: one apparently older and more prosy; the other, with a clear tendency to magnify the importance of the events and the absolute annihilation of the inhabitants (though this may be set down as by Rd), and to emphasize the miraculous.這些屬於學者但是,即使是在敘述部分,嚴格所謂,有別於統計,雙重帳戶幾乎總是辨:一個顯然老年人,更prosy ;另一方面,一個明顯的趨勢放大的重要性事件和絕對湮沒的居民(雖然這可能是所訂下路) ,並強調奇蹟。 The older recalls the method of J in the Pentateuch; the younger, that of E. P's share in the narrative section is very limited.老年人回顧法的J在摩西五;年輕,即大腸桿菌P的份額部分的敘述是非常有限的。 Additions of a few verses may be ascribed to it.添置幾個詩句可能是歸因於它。 In xiii.-xxii.在xiii. - 22 。 the contributions from P are much more extensive.從P的貢獻更為廣泛。 The boundaries and the lists of the cities of refuge and of the Levitical towns belong to it.的分界及名單的城市避難和Levitical城鎮屬於它。 The combining of the Deuteronomic Joshua (Rd, J, E, perhaps JE [Rje]) with P was the work of R, who made verbal changes to suit his ends.結合的Deuteronomic約書亞(路,強中,英,也許乙腦[ Rje ] )與P是工作的研究,誰口頭修改,以適應他的目的。 But even after this additions were made, eg, xxii.但即使在這增加了,如二十二。 9-24 (comp. Num. xxxii.-xxxiii.; Judges xx.). 9月24日( comp.數。 xxxii. -三十三。法官二十。 ) 。 Ch.總。 xvi.十六。 and xvii.和十七。 have come down in mutilated form. When they were abridged can not be determined.已經在肢解形式。當他們資產無法確定。 The duplication of Joshua's farewell also is by a later hand; or it is possible that one account of it (xxiv.) is from E, while the other is clearly Deuteronomistic, resembling Deut.重複約書亞的告別也就是後來的手;或可能是一個帳戶的IT ( xxiv. )是由英,而其他顯然是Deuteronomistic ,類似Deut 。 iv.四。 29-30. 29-30 。

Historical Character of the Book.歷史人物的書籍。

After eliminating the pragmatic elements and toning down the Deuteronomic coloring, the critical study of the Book of Joshua penetrates to a bed of traditions that in a more or less confused way reflect actual occurrences; but these did not take place in the sequence here assumed, nor in the manner detailed.在消除了務實的要素和淡化色素的Deuteronomic ,關鍵研究約書亞記滲透在床上的傳統,在或多或少地混淆的方式反映實際發生,但這些並沒有發生在這裡的順序承擔,也沒有詳細的方式。 The division of the land is, on the whole, the work of a theorist who utilizes actual conditions to a certain extent, but always to bring into prominence his priestly program.該司的土地,就整體而言,工作的理論家誰利用誰實際情況在一定程度上,但總是攜帶突出他祭司計劃。 Local legends, snatches of folk-lore and folk-songs, the tendency to concentration in one man of the experiences of tribes and generations (always characteristic of legend), have had a decisive share in the shaping of the original material.當地傳說,攫取的民俗學和民間歌曲,往往集中在一個人的經驗,部落和後代(總是特徵傳說) ,產生了決定性的份額形成的原始材料。 Explanations of names (Achor, Gilgal), old local shrines, and reminiscences of former religious usages are also detectable as the raw data upon which popular fancy had been at work long before the various literary sources had leaped into existence.解釋的名稱( Achor , Gilgal ) ,老地方聖地,並回憶前宗教慣例也覺察作為原始數據賴以流行花式已很久以前在工作中的各種文學來源已躍升到存在。 To deny in toto, with Eduard Meyer (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," i.), the historical character of the book is dogmatic.在全盤否認,與愛德華邁耶(在體育場的“雜誌, ”島) ,歷史特點,本書是教條。 It may, however, be noticed that, in contrast with Judges, the Book of Joshua has no chronological scheme (comp. xi. 18, xiv. 10, xxiii. 1, xxiv. 31).然而,可能是注意到,在與法官,約書亞記沒有順序計劃( comp.十一。 18日,十四。 10 ,二十三。 1 , 24 。 31 ) 。

The Hexateuch.該Hexateuch 。

In view of the identity of its sources, and also of the fact that throughout the Pentateuch the conquest of the land is presupposed and emphasized as the goal (Gen. xiii. 14-17, xv. 13-16, xxvi. 3, xxviii. 13-15; Ex. iii. 8, 17; xxxii. 13; xxxiii. 1-3; Num. xiii. 17 et seq., xiv., xxxii.; Deut. i. 38, iii. 21, xxxi. 3-6; P Gen. xvii. 6-8, xxviii. 3; Num. xxvii. 18-23, xxxiii. 50-54, xxxiv., xxxv.; Deut. xxxiv. 9), critics have held that Joshua at one time formed with the Pentateuch the so-called Hexateuch.鑑於身份的來源,也是一個事實,即在整個五經征服土地的先決條件,並強調為目標(將軍十三。 14-17 ,十五。 13-16 , 26 。 3 ,二十八。 13-15 ;惠。三。 8日, 17日;三十二。 13 ;三十三。 1-3 ;序號。十三。 17起。 ,十四。 ,三十二。 ; Deut 。一38 ,三。 21日,三十一。 3月6日; P將軍十七。 6月8日,二十八。 3 ;序號。二十七。 18-23 ,三十三。 50-54 ,三十四。 ,三十五。 ; Deut 。三十四。 9 ) ,批評者認為,光在一時間形成與摩西五所謂Hexateuch 。 If this was the case, it must have been at a time anterior to the separation of the Samaritans from the Jews, as the Samaritans have only the Pentateuch; but the books of Ezra and Nehemiah give no intimation of the existence of a hexateuch.如果這樣,它必須一直處於前一次的分離撒瑪利亞的猶太人,因為撒瑪利亞只有摩西五;但書籍的以斯拉和尼希米記給予任何暗示的存在hexateuch 。 In all probability the sources J, E, as well as D and P, carried the narrative to the conquest of the land; but in their present forms the Pentateuch and Joshua were never combined.所有可能的來源J ,電子商務,以及D和P ,進行說明,以征服的土地;但在其目前形式的摩西五和Joshua從未總和。 Volck (in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc." ix. 390), assuming that P is older than JE and D, argues that before D was incorporated into the present Pentateuch, Joshua (i.-xxiv.) formed a part of a work composed of P, JE, and Deut. Volck (在赫爾佐格,克, “實時Encyc 。 ”九。 390人) ,假設P是以上乙腦和D認為,在D組納入本摩西五,約書亞(一- 24 。 )建制的一部分組成一個工作的P ,乙腦,並Deut 。 xxxi.三十一。 14-23, xxxii. 1-44, 48-52, xxxiii., xxxiv.1-9, and that it was when Deut. v.-xxviii. 14日至23日,三十二。 1-44 , 48-52 ,三十三。 , xxxiv.1 - 9 ,它是當Deut 。訴,二十八。 was incorporated that Joshua was made a separate book. This theory, while not convincing, helps to make plain that the sources must have contained the story of the conquest.被納入該約書亞是一個單獨的圖書。這個理論,而沒有說服力的,有助於使平原的來源必須有載的故事征服。 That Hosea, Amos, and Micah knew this Hexateuch (minus Deuteronomy) is not proved by such passages as Micah vi.這何西阿阿莫斯納曼和米卡知道這Hexateuch (零下申命記)不是證明了這種通道的米卡六。 5 et seq. 5起。 (or Hosea ix. 10, xii. 4 et seq., and Amos ii. 10, v. 25, vii. 4). (或霍齊亞九。 10 ,十二。 4起。 ,和Amos二。 10 ,五25 ,七。 4 ) 。 The traditions at the base of the histories were known to these early prophets.在傳統的基礎上的歷史據了解,這些早期的先知。 More than this can not be inferred from their references to Shittim and Gilgal (eg, in Micah vi. 5 et seq.).超過此不能推斷其提到Shittim和Gilgal (例如,在米卡六。 5起。 ) 。

The Text.案文。

The fact that in Joshua the Pentateuchal archaic forms ( for or for ) are not found is not evidence against the Hexateuchal hypothesis.一個事實,即在光的Pentateuchal過時的形式(或為)是不是沒有找到證據, Hexateuchal假設。 This circumstance merely indicates that at the time (post-exilic) when the consonantal text was fixed Joshua was not one work with the Pentateuch.這種情況只是表明,在時間(後放逐)當consonantal文本是固定的約書亞沒有一個與摩西五。 Jericho is pointed for Pent.傑里科是指出的壓抑。 . The text is in fairly good condition.案文是在比較好的條件。 The Septuagint is without some of the glosses (v. 4-7, vi. 3-5, xx. 4-6).該譯本是沒有一些粉飾(五, 4月7日,六。 3月5日,二十。 4月6日) 。 The omissions in the Hebrew (in xv. 59, names of eleven cities; in xxi., a passage between verses 35 and 36) are supplied in the Greek.遭剔除者在希伯來文(在十五。現年59歲, 11名的城市;在二十一。 ,通道之間的詩句35和36 )的供應在希臘。 At the end of xxiv.在結束二十四。 the Septuagint presents additions of interest.提出了七十的興趣增加。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua.撒瑪利亞約書亞記。

The Samaritan Book of Joshua, an extracanonical book written in Arabic, pretends to be a translation from the Hebrew ("Chronicon Samaritanum CuiTitulus Est Liber Josuæ," ed. Juynboll, Leyden, 1848).撒瑪利亞約書亞記,一個extracanonical用阿拉伯文寫的書,假裝是從希伯來文翻譯( “ Chronicon Samaritanum CuiTitulus市盈率書Josuæ ”版。 Juynboll ,萊頓, 1848年) 。 It relates the consecration of Joshua (Deut. xxxi.), the Balaam episode, and the war under Joshua as general against the Midianites; then, with a new title ("Book of Joshua the Son of Nun"), the conquest of the land and its division, continuing the story from Joshua's demise to Eli's death.它涉及的神聖約書亞( Deut.三十一。 ) ,在巴蘭事件,戰爭的一般根據約書亞對米甸人;然後,用一個新的標題( “約書亞記的兒子尼姑” ) ,征服了土地及其部門,繼續從約書亞的故事的消亡,以禮死亡。 Interpolations (xxvi.-xxxvii.) deal with other personages, and in the concluding chapters Nebuchadnezzar, Alexander, and Hadrian are the heroes.插值( xxvi. -三十七。 )處理其他人士,並在最後的章節尼布甲尼撒,亞歷山大和哈德良的英雄。 This book is a medieval compilation of the time when the Samaritans were under Mohammedan rule, but contains also old haggadic material (see Shobach).這本書是中世紀彙編時撒瑪利亞正在伊斯蘭教統治,但也包含舊haggadic材料(見Shobach ) 。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米爾灣赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

The introductions of Driver, Cornill, König, Baudissin, Reuss, Bleek-Wellhausen, Schrader-De Wette, and Kuenen; the histories of Israel by Guthe, Stade, Piepenbring, Kittel, Winckler; the Bible dictionaries of Cheyne and Black, Hastings, Riehm (2d ed.), Schenckel, Hamburger, Winer (3d ed.); Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.在引進的驅動程序, Cornill ,柯尼格, Baudissin , Reuss , Bleek -豪森,施拉德德Wette ,並Kuenen ;歷史的以色列Guthe ,體育場, Piepenbring ,基特爾, Winckler ;聖經字典進益和黑色,黑斯廷斯, Riehm (二維版。 ) Schenckel ,漢堡,溫納(三維版。 ) ;赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 viii.; Vigouroux, iii.; L.八。 ; Vigouroux ,三。 ;研究 König, Alttest.柯尼格, Alttest 。 Studien, i.; idem, Die Authentie des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1836; Keil, Kommentar über das Buch Josua, Erlangen, 1847; J. Studien島;同上,模具Authentie萬Buches Josua ,米爾斯, 1836年; Keil公司, Kommentar黚er之書Josua埃爾蘭根, 1847年的J. Hollenberg, Die Deuteronomischen Bestandtheile des Buches Josua, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1874; idem, Die Alexandrinische Uebersetzung des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1876; Wellhausen, Die Komposition des Hexateuchs (originally in Jahrbuch der Theologie, 1876-77); Budde, Richter und Josua, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1877, pp. Hollenberg ,模具Deuteronomischen Bestandtheile萬Buches Josua ,在神學Studien與Kritiken , 1874年;同上,模具Alexandrinische Uebersetzung萬Buches Josua ,米爾斯, 1876年;豪森,模具Komposition萬Hexateuchs (最初在年鑑之神學, 1876年至1877年) ;布德,里希特和Josua ,在體育場的雜誌, 1877 ,頁。 93 et seq.; JS Black, The Book of Joshua, Cambridge, 1891; E. 93起。 ;爵士黑,該約書亞記,劍橋, 1891年;大腸桿菌 Albers, Die Quellenberichte in Josua (Josh. i.-xii.), Bonn, 1891;阿爾伯斯,模具Quellenberichte在Josua ( Josh.一至十二。 ) ,波恩, 1891年;

Dillmann, Numeri, Deuteronomium, und Josua, in the Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, Leipsic, 1886; Oettli, commentary to the book in Deuteronomium, Josua, Richter (Strack-Zöckler, Komment. zum AT 1893); Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 4th ed.; Holzinger, Einleitung in den Hexateuch, 1893; idem, Das Buch Josua, Tübingen and Leipsic, 1901; Steuernagel, Das Buch Josua, 1900; WH Bennett, The Book of Joshua, in SBOT Leipsic and Baltimore, 1895.EGH Dillmann , Numeri , Deuteronomium ,與Josua ,在Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊, Leipsic , 1886年;歐特列,評注本書Deuteronomium , Josua ,里希特(施特拉克- Zöckler , Komment 。 zum在1893年) ;豪森,緒論,第4版。 ; Holzinger導論在2007 Hexateuch , 1893年;同上,達斯圖書Josua ,蒂賓根大學和Leipsic , 1901年; Steuernagel ,達斯圖書Josua , 1900 ;武漢貝內特,該約書亞記,在SBOT Leipsic和巴爾的摩, 1895.EGH


Joshua約書亞

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Appointed Moses' Successor.任命摩西的繼任者。

Conquest of Jericho.征服傑里科。

Division of the Land.司的土地。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

His Faithful Service.他的忠誠的服務。

The Change in His Name.變化在他的名字。

Married to Rahab.結婚拉哈伯。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Leader of Josephites.領導人Josephites 。

Name of several Biblical personages.姓名幾個聖經人士。

In Hebrew (Deut. iii. 21; Judges ii. 7) and commonly (Judges ii. 7a; Ex. xvii. 9; Josh. i. 1) correspond to = "helped by Yhwh," the shorter form being = "help" or "one who helped" (Num. xiii. 8; Deut. xxxii. 44; here probably an error for ).希伯來文( Deut.三。 21 ;法官二。 7 )和一般(法官二。 7A條;前。十七。 9 ;喬希。島1 )符合= “幫助Yhwh , ”在較短的形式= “幫助“或”一誰幫助“ ( Num.十三。 8 ; Deut 。三十二。 44 ;這裡可能是一個錯誤的) 。 The Septuagint has Ἰησους; the Vulgate, usually "Josue," but "Jesus" in Ecclus. (Sirach) xlvi.該譯本已Ἰησους ;的武加大,通常是“若蘇埃” ,但“耶穌”在Ecclus 。 ( Sirach )四十六。 1; I Macc. 1 ,我Macc 。 ii.二。 55; II Macc. 55 ;二Macc 。 xii.十二。 15, identical with , the post-exilic form of the name. 15日,相同的,後放逐形式的名稱。

1. Biblical Data: The son of Nun; servant and successor of Moses. 1 。聖經數據:兒子尼姑;僕人和繼承摩西。 An Ephraimite (Num. xiii. 8), the grandson of Elishama, he is described as the chief of his tribe (I Chron. vii. 26, 27).一個Ephraimite ( Num.十三。 8 )的孫子Elishama ,他被描述為行政長官的他的部落(一專欄。七。 26日, 27日) 。 At first named "Hoshea" (Num. xiii. 8 [AV "Oshea"]; Deut. xxxii. 44), he was called by Moses "Jehoshua" (Num. xiii. 16).起初名為“ Hoshea ” ( Num.十三。 8 [影音“ Oshea ” ] ; Deut 。三十二。 44 ) ,他是所謂的摩西“ Jehoshua ” ( Num.十三。 16 ) 。 Joshua first leaps into notice in the account of the defeat of the Amalekites in the desert, where he leads the picked troops of the Israelites (Ex. xvii. 8-14). Afterward he appears successively at the side of Moses as his servant (ib. xxiv. 13; xxxii. 17, 18); as the guardian of the Tabernacle (ib. xxxiii. 11); and as the zealous defender of Moses' prestige on the occasion of Eldad's and Medad's prophesying in the camp (Num. xi. 27-29).第一次飛躍中約書亞通知帳戶打敗亞瑪力人在沙漠中,在那裡他領導的部隊挑選的以色列人(例如十七。 8月14日) 。隨後,他先後出現在一旁為他的僕人摩西( B節。 24 。 13 ;三十二。 17 , 18 ) ;作為監護人的幕( ib.三十三。 11 ) ;和作為後衛的摩西熱心的威信之際伊利達和Medad的預言在該難民營( Num.十一。 27-29 ) 。 He is one of the spies sent to explore Canaan (ib. xiii. 9, 17).他是一個間諜發送探索迦南( ib.十三。 9日, 17日) 。 Returning from this errand, it is he who with Caleb allays the apprehension of the excited people, bravely taking the risk of being stoned to death (ib. xiv. 6-10).返回這個差事,誰是他的凱萊布前車之鑑逮捕激發人民,勇敢地考慮可能被用石頭砸死( ib.十四。 6月10日) 。 For this fidelity he and Caleb, alone of all the Israelites twenty years old and upward at the time of this episode, are to enter the promised land (ib. xiv. 30-38, xxvi. 65, xxxii. 12).他的這種信念和凱萊布,單獨的所有以色列人和20歲向上的時候,這個事件,是進入樂土( ib.十四。 30-38 , 26 。 65 ,三十二。 12 ) 。

Appointed Moses' Successor.任命摩西的繼任者。

Nevertheless, during the following thirty-eight years of the desert migration no further mention is made of him.然而,在下面的三十八年沙漠移徙沒有進一步提到了他。 But when Moses is apprised of his own impending death, Joshua is pointed out as the one man to carry to completion the great leader's unfinished task. Moses is bidden to lay his hand upon him-"a man in whom is the spirit"-and thus to give him charge as his successor; which command is carried out (ib. xxvii. 16 et seq.).但是,當摩西是了解自己即將死亡,約書亞指出作為一名男子攜帶完成的偉大領袖的未完成的任務。摩西是bidden奠定他的手給他, “一個人在其中的是精神” ,和因此,讓他負責為他的繼任者;其中的命令是進行( ib.二十七。 16起。 ) 。 Joshua is to preside over the division of the land (ib. xxxiv. 17), but must keep the compact entered into with Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh (ib. xxxii. 28).約書亞是主持該司的土地( ib.三十四。 17 ) ,但必須保持緊湊的進入與魯本,蓋德,和一半的瑪( ib.三十二。 28 ) 。 God assures Joshua of success in the leadership (Deut. xxxi. 14, 23); and he as the designated successor is with Moses when the great prophet addresses his last counsel to the people (ib. xxxii. 44).上帝保證成功的約書亞的領導( Deut.三十一。 14 , 23 ) ;和他指定的繼任者是與摩西的偉大先知當他最後一次律師處理的人( ib.三十二。 44 ) 。

At Moses' death Joshua was filled with "the spirit of wisdom" (ib. xxxiv. 9).在摩西死亡約書亞都充滿了“智慧的精神” ( ib.三十四。 9 ) 。 Upon him devolved a twofold duty: to conquer the land, and to apportion it among the tribes (Josh. i. 1-5).他移交了雙重責任:征服的土地,由它各部落( Josh.島1-5 ) 。 Yhwh Himself encouraged him to be strong and to cling to the Law, which was never to "depart out of his mouth."耶和華親自鼓勵他要堅強,並堅持法律,這是從來沒有的“離開了他的嘴。 ” After enlisting the cooperation of the kindred east-Jordanic tribes (ib. i. 6-18), his first concern was to spy out Jericho (ib. ii. 1).入伍後的合作,類似東Jordanic部落( ib.島6月18日) ,他的第一個問題是間諜了傑里科( ib.二。 1 ) 。 On receiving the report of his emissaries (ib. ii. 23, 24) he gave the necessary instructions for the crossing by the Israelites of the Jordan (ib. iii. 1-13).在收到的報告,他的使者( ib.二。 23日, 24日)他的必要指示過境的以色列人的約旦( ib.三。 1月13日) 。 With the Ark of the Covenant carried by the priests in the van, on the tenth day of the first month of the forty-first year after the Exodus the Israelites set out to conquer the land.隨著約櫃的祭司進行的麵包車,在第十天的第一個月,第四十一一年後外逃以色列人去征服的土地。 The river, miraculously divided as long as the priests with the Ark remained in its bed, was crossed north of Adam; and in memory of this occurrence Joshua erected over the place where the priests had been stationed a monument of twelve stones (ib. iv. 9).河流,奇蹟般地分為只要牧師與方舟仍然在床,是越過北亞當;和紀念這一事件約書亞豎立的地方神職人員已駐紮的豐碑12結石( ib.四。 9 ) 。 He also ordered that one man from each tribe should take each another stone from that spot and deposit it on the western bank as a memorial (ib. iv. 1-8, xx. 24). Here, at Gilgal, Joshua pitched his camp and remained for some time; and in order that all might be able to participate in the Passover, he directed that every Hebrew that had been born in the desert should be circumcised (ib. v. 2-8).他還下令,一名男子從每個部落應採取相互石頭從現場和存款上,西方銀行作為紀念( ib.四。 1月8日,第XX號。 24 ) 。在這裡,在Gilgal ,約書亞投他營並保持了一段時間,並為了所有可以參加逾越節,他指示,每一個希伯來已出生在沙漠中應割禮( ib.五, 2月8日) 。

Conquest of Jericho.征服傑里科。

Jericho was the first city captured.傑里科是第一個城市被俘。 After exploring it by spies Joshua invested it, finally capturing it in a miraculous manner (ib. v. 13-vi.).在探索它的間諜約書亞投資它,終於捕捉它的神奇的方式( ib.五13六。 ) 。 The ban was pronounced over the ruins, and all the inhabitants were destroyed save Rahab and her paternal family; they being spared because she had shown hospitality to the spies.這項禁令是明顯的廢墟,所有的居民被摧毀保存拉哈伯和她父親的家庭,他們正在不遺餘力,因為她表現出熱情好客的間諜。 Joshua became famous by this victory, but met a reverse at Ai in consequence of Achan's misdeed; however, after visiting condign punishment upon the offender he made himself master of the town, which was the key to the mountains rising west of the plain of Jericho.約書亞成為國際知名的這場勝利,但是遇到了扭轉在愛的後果Achan的不端行為;不過,在訪問condign懲罰罪犯,他把自己掌握的城市,這是關鍵,高山聳立西部平原傑里科。 The Gibeonites made their peace with him, gaining advantageous terms by means of a clever ruse (ix. 3 et seq.).他們的Gibeonites和平與他,獲得有利的條件通過一個巧妙的詭計( ix. 3起。 ) 。 On Ebal and Gerizim he caused the blessings and the curses to be read (comp. Deut. xxvii.).論Ebal和Gerizim他造成的祝福和咒罵來閱讀( comp. Deut 。二十七。 ) 。

While Joshua was thus engaged in the north, five of the southern rulers made an alliance to punish Gibeon; but they were completely routed at Makkedah by Joshua, who had hastened to the assistance of the Gibeonites.雖然從事光,因此在北部,南部的5個統治者作出了聯盟,以懲罰基遍;但他們在Makkedah完全改為由約書亞,誰曾趕緊的協助下Gibeonites 。 It was during this battle that a furious hail-storm set in, proving more deadly than the sword (Josh. x. 11), and on this occasion also, at Joshua's command, the sun stood still upon Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon (ib. x. 12-13a).正是在這一戰役,一個憤怒的冰雹,風暴規定,更致命的證明比劍( Josh.十11 ) ,並在此之際也,在光的指揮,太陽停步時基遍和月亮山谷中的Ajalon ( ib.十12 - 13A條) 。 The fugitive five kings were discovered hiding in a cave at Makkedah.逃犯5國王被發現藏在一個山洞在Makkedah 。 By Joshua's orders the cave was closed with huge stones until the pursuit was over, when it was reopened and the kings, after having been thoroughly humiliated, were slain, their bodies being hanged on trees until the evening, when they were taken down and cast into the cave.由約書亞的命令洞穴被關閉,直到巨大石塊的追求了,辦公時和國王後,已徹底羞辱,被殺害,他們的屍體被掛在樹上,直到晚上,當他們被帶到下跌及演員進入洞穴。 Then followed the conquest of Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron, and Debir.然後征服Libnah , Lachish , Eglon ,希伯倫,並Debir 。 In the south Joshua penetrated as far as Kadesh-barnea; in the west as far as Gaza (ib. x. 29 et seq.).在南部的約書亞侵入至於卡迪什-巴爾內亞;在西方至於加沙( ib.十, 29起。 ) 。 Later onhe routed the allied kings of the north at Lake Merom-Hazor being the head of these kingdoms-killing the inhabitants and burning the city of Hazor (ib. xi.).後來onhe路由盟軍國王湖以北的Merom - Hazor頭部被這些演義殺死居民和焚燒城市Hazor ( ib.十一。 ) 。

Division of the Land.司的土地。

In this manner Joshua within a few years (ib. xiv. 7; comp. verse 10) had made himself master of the whole country with the exception of the Philistine and Phenician coasts.以這種方式約書亞在幾年之內( ib.十四。 7 ;補償。詩句10 )提出了自己的船長全國唯一的例外是庸俗和Phenician海岸。 Still he continued to guard in Gilgal his fortified camp; thence he governed the land (ib. xiv. 6), and there he began to allot the districts to the various tribes. Judah, Ephraim, and the half of Manasseh were the first to be settled, Caleb being allowed to take Hebron (ib. xiv. 12, xv.-xvii.).他仍然繼續他的警衛森嚴的營地Gilgal ;然後他管轄的土地( ib.十四。 6 ) ,並在那裡,他開始配發地區的各個部落。猶太,以法蓮和瑪一半是第一個得到解決,凱萊布被允許採取希布倫( ib.十四。 12 xv. - 17 。 ) 。 After this, Joshua removed the Tabernacle and the Ark from Gilgal to Shiloh, and took up his residence there (ib. xviii.). Here he continued the work of apportioning the rest of the land by lot according to the families (ib. xviii.-xix.).在此之後,約書亞取消幕和方舟從Gilgal到希洛,並討論了他的住所有( ib.十八。 ) 。在這裡,他繼續工作的分配,其餘的土地由抽籤根據家庭( ib.十八.- 19 。 ) 。 Cities of refuge, in accordance with the Law, were appointed (ib. xx.).城市避難,依照法律規定,被任命( ib.二十。 ) 。 Joshua himself received the city of Timnath-serah in Ephraim for an inheritance (ib. xix. 49, 50; xxiv. 30).約書亞自己收到了城市Timnath - serah在埃弗拉伊姆的繼承( ib.十九。 49 , 50 ; 24 。 30 ) 。 Having thus completed his task, he gave Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh permission to return to their east-Jordanic territory (ib. xxii. 1-9).從而完成了他的任務,他給了魯本,蓋德,和一半的梅納西索允許返回他們的東西Jordanic領土( ib.二十二。 1月9日) 。

When he was "old and stricken in age" Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population (ib. xxiii.).當他的“老和受災年齡”約書亞召開長老和酋長的以色列人,並叮囑他們沒有獎學金的本地人口( ib.二十三。 ) 。 At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, who had been so mightily manifested in the midst of them (ib. xxiv.).在大會的部族在示劍,他離開的人,告誡他們忠於自己的上帝,誰如此強烈地體現在他們中間( ib.二十四。 ) 。 As a witness of their promise to serve Yhwh, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of Yhwh (ib. xxiv. 26-28).作為證人的承諾服務Yhwh ,約書亞設立了一個巨大的石頭下的橡樹的庇護所Yhwh ( ib.二十四。 26-28 ) 。 Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, and was buried in Timnath-serah (ib. xxiv. 29-30).EGH此後不久,他死了,在110歲,是埋在Timnath - serah ( ib.二十四。 29-30 ) 。歐洲加沙醫院

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Joshua is regarded as the type of the faithful, humble, deserving, wise man.約書亞被視為類型忠實,謙虛的,值得的,明智的人。 Biblical verses illustrative of these qualities and of their reward are applied to him.聖經的經文說明了這些素質和他們的獎勵適用於他。 "He that waiteth on his master shall be honored" (Prov. xxvii. 18) is construed as a reference to Joshua (Num. R. xii.), as is also the first part of the same verse, "Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof" (Yalḳ., Josh. 2; Num. R. xii. 21). “他說,在他的主人waiteth應榮幸” (省二十七。 18 )是解釋為提述約書亞( Num.河十二。 )一樣,也是第一部分相同詩句, “ Whoso keepeth的圖樹應吃的水果有“ ( Yalḳ. ,喬希。 2 ;序號。河十二。 21 ) 。 That "honor shall uphold the humble in spirit" (Prov. xxix. 23) is proved by Joshua's victory over Amalek (Num. R. xiii.).說: “榮譽應堅持謙卑的精神” (省第29屆。 23 )證明了約書亞戰勝亞瑪力( Num.河十三。 ) 。 Joshua was a wise man; hence in him was verified the saying, "With me [wisdom] kings shall rule" (Prov. viii. 15, Hebr.).約書亞是一個明智的人,因此在他的核實,他說: “與我[智慧]國王應規則” (省八。 15 Hebr 。 ) 。 Not the sons of Moses-as Moses himself had expected-but Joshua was appointed successor to the son of Amram (Num. R. xii.). Moses was shown how Joshua reproved Othniel (Yalḳ., Num. 776). Joshua's manliness recommended him for this high post.不是的兒子摩西,摩西本人的預期,但光被任命為繼任者的兒子阿姆拉姆( Num.河十二。 ) 。摩西是表明約書亞責備Othniel ( Yalḳ. ,序號。 776 ) 。約書亞的氣概建議他的這一崇高職務。 David referred to him in Ps.大衛提到他在PS 。 lxxxvii. lxxxvii 。 25, though without mentioning the name, lest dissensions should arise between his sons and those of his brothers (Yalḳ., quoting Sifre, lc). 25日,但沒有提及姓名,以免糾紛應他的兒子之間產生和他的兄弟( Yalḳ.引述Sifre術) 。

His Faithful Service.他的忠誠的服務。

Joshua was always at the front of the army, and did not, as other generals, remain in the rear (ib.) or in his tent.約書亞一直在前線的軍隊,並沒有其他的將軍,留在後方( ib. ) ,或在他的帳篷。 Moses in his lifetime appointed Joshua as his interpreter ("meturgeman"), in order to forestall the possibility of his being looked upon as an upstart after Moses' death (Yalḳ., lc).摩西在他有生之年,他任命約書亞口譯( “ meturgeman ” ) ,以防止他可能被視為一個暴發戶後,摩西死亡( Yalḳ. ,立法會) 。 Yet Moses' face was like the sun, and that of Joshua like the moon (ib.).然而,摩西的臉像太陽一樣,這約書亞像月球( ib. ) 。 Joshua had deserved the honor by his faithful service.約書亞了應有的榮譽,他忠實地服務。 He used to rise early in the morning and set in order the chairs in the house of assembly.他用上升清晨和設置,以便主席在眾議院的大會。

Therefore, according to some, Moses raised up Joshua from the ground and took him on his knees, and he and the whole of Israel would lift up their heads to hear Joshua's words; but Joshua in his modesty exclaimed: "Blessed be Yhwh, who gave the Torah to Israel through Moses, our master" (Yalḳ., lc, quoting the Midrash Yelammedenu). The wisdom of Joshua is emphasized also in other connections (Ex. R. xi. and parallels).因此,據一些,提出了摩西約書亞從地面和在他的膝蓋,他和整個以色列將抬起頭,聽取約書亞的話,但在他的謙虛約書亞喊道: “有福是Yhwh ,誰使律法以色列通過摩西,我們的船長“ ( Yalḳ. ,立法會,引用米德拉士Yelammedenu ) 。約書亞的智慧還強調在其他連接(如河十一。和Parallels ) 。 The prediction (Deut. xxxiii. 17) in the blessing of Moses is held to have come to pass in Joshua (Sifre, ad loc.).預測( Deut.三十三。 17 )中的祝福摩西是舉辦來傳遞約書亞( Sifre ,廣告同上。 ) 。 Moses possessed "hod" (splendor), but Joshua, only "hadar" (a lesser degree of fame; according to Friedmann, Sifre, 146b, note 11, this has reference to the fact that kingship was denied to Joshua); for if the former had been Joshua's portion he would have been absolutely irresistible.摩西有“法” (輝煌) ,但光,只有“哈達爾” (在較小程度的名利;根據弗里德曼, Sifre , 146b ,注11 ,這已提到一個事實,即王權被剝奪約書亞) ;如果前者已被約書亞的一部分,他將是絕對無法抗拒。 Joshua was given the strength of the ox but the beauty of the "re'em" (Sifre, lc; Yalḳ., Deut. 959).約書亞的力量給予的牛年,但美麗的“ re'em ” ( Sifre ,立法會; Yalḳ 。 , Deut 。 959 ) 。 When Joshua upon his return with the spies found the people ungrateful, he was the only one that was shocked to the extent of both falling on his face, like Moses and Aaron, and rending his garments, like Caleb (Yalḳ., Num. 744).當約書亞回國後發現的間諜忘恩負義的人,他是唯一感到震驚的程度都屬於在他的臉上,像摩西和亞倫,並再現他的衣服,像凱萊布( Yalḳ. ,序號。 744 ) 。

The Change in His Name.變化在他的名字。

Moses added the letter摩西說,信 to the name "Hoshea" (Num. xiii. 16) because he had prayed that God () would keep Joshua from joining the conspiracy of the spies, and also because, as Caleb's reward was a portion of the land, Joshua's compensation was to be his own allotment and that of the other ten (= "yod") spies (Soṭah 34b; Tan. ad loc.; Num. R. xvi.).名稱“ Hoshea ” ( Num.十三。 16 ) ,因為他禱告上帝( )將繼續約書亞加入陰謀的間諜,而且還因為,作為卡萊布的獎賞是一個部分的土地,光補償是是他自己的撥款和其他10 ( = “ yod ” )間諜( Soṭah 34B條;談。廣告祿。 ;序號。河十六。 ) 。 According to Yer.據也門里亞爾。 Sheb.帥。 vi.六。 1, the name "Hoshea" was changed as soon as Joshua entered the service of Moses, or at the latest after the victory over Amalek. 1 ,名稱為“ Hoshea ”改為約書亞盡快進入服務的摩西,或至遲在戰勝亞瑪力。

Joshua was among those who, too modest to call themselves " 'ebed," were so dignified by God Himself (Sifre, Wa'etḥanan, cited in Yalḳ., Josh. 1).約書亞屬於那些誰也微薄的人稱自己是“ ' ebed , ”如此有尊嚴的上帝( Sifre , Wa'etḥanan ,引自Yalḳ 。 ,喬希。 1 ) 。 The spies whom Joshua sent to Jericho were Phinehas and Caleb (Yalḳ., lc).間諜人約書亞發送到傑里科是Phinehas和凱萊布( Yalḳ. ,立法會) 。 When Joshua commanded the sun to stand still he used the phrase (= "be still"; Josh. x. 12); for the sun kept on singing a song of praise as long as it was moving.當約書亞指揮太陽停滯不前他用詞組( = “仍然” ;喬希。十, 12 ) ;太陽不斷唱讚美歌,只要它是感動。 The sun would not obey Joshua until he had assured it that he would sing God's praises himself (Yalk., lc 22).太陽不會服從約書亞直到他保證,他將它唱上帝的讚揚自己( Yalk. ,立法會22日) 。 Joshua led and governed the people during thirty-eight years (Seder 'Olam R.; Yalḳ., lc 35).約書亞領導和管理的人在三十八年( Seder ' Olam河; Yalḳ 。術35 ) 。 Israel is represented by the Rabbis as not very eager to pay him honor at his obsequies (Yalḳ., lc).以色列的代表是拉比是不是很渴望給他的榮譽他葬禮( Yalḳ. ,立法會) 。

Married to Rahab.結婚拉哈伯。

Rahab is said to have become Joshua's wife.拉哈伯據說已成為光的妻子。 They had daughters but no son.他們的女兒,但沒有兒子。 From this union many prophets descended, and Hannah was Rahab's reincarnation.從這個聯盟的許多先知的後裔,和漢娜是拉哈伯轉世。 Rahab was ten years old when Israel left Egypt, and during the forty years intervening she was a great sinner; but when the spies visited her she became a proselyte.拉哈伯是10歲時離開埃及,以色列,並在四十年干預她是一個偉大的罪人;但是當間諜訪問她,她成為proselyte 。 There is some doubt as to her having had only daughters by Joshua(see Zeb. 116b; Mek., Yitro [beginning]; Rashi to Josh. ii.; Yalḳ., Josh. 9; Meg. 14a; Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya, "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," p. 14a). According to Pirḳe R. El.有一些疑問,她唯一的女兒不得不由約書亞(見瑞伯。 116b ; Mek 。 , Yitro [開始] ; Rashi到喬希。二。 ; Yalḳ 。 ,喬希。 9 ;梅格。 14A條; Gedaliah伊本葉海亞, “ Shalshelet公頃,卡巴拉, “第14A條) 。根據Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。 xlii., when Joshua was fighting for the Gibeonites the Sabbath was about to set in. Seeing the disinclination of his people to continue the battle at the risk of desecrating the Sabbath, and perceiving that the magicians of the heathen were inciting the constellations to help the cause of Israel's enemies, he spread out his hand toward the light of the sun and of the moon and "remembered upon them" the Ineffable Name, when both sun and moon stood still for thirty-six hours (Yalḳ., Gen. Lek Leka).四十二。 ,當約書亞是爭取Gibeonites安息日即將成立英寸不願看到他的人民繼續戰鬥的危險褻瀆安息日,並看出了魔術師的異教徒被煽動星座幫助造成以色列的敵人,他伸出手傳播對陽光和月亮和“記住他們”的無法形容的名稱,當太陽和月亮停步的三六小時( Yalḳ. ,將軍瀝Leka ) 。 The song intoned by Joshua after his victory is given in full in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (chapter on Joshua).這首歌由約書亞intoned勝利後,他給予充分的“ Sefer河亞沙爾” (章,約書亞) 。 Joshua had appealed to Israel before crossing the Jordan not, as the text has it in the literal sense, to prepare provisions for the journey-that was not necessary, since the manna had not yet ceased falling-but to repent (Pirḳe R. El. vi.).約書亞呼籲以色列前穿越約旦不會,因為它在文字的字面意義上說,編寫規定的旅程,這是沒有必要的,因為甘露尚未停止下降,但懺悔( Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。六。 ) 。

Joshua's name is associated with many "taḳḳanot," eg, the benediction upon entering the holy land (Ber. 48b); the license to graze on the plowed field of others without liability to a charge of robbery (B. Ḳ. 60b); the permission to gather wood in a neighbor's field (ib. 61b); the permission to gather grass anywhere (ib.); and seven other measures enumerated in Maimonides ("Yad," Nizḳe Mamon, viii. 5), regulating certain privileges, permitting certain natural or necessary acts (in open fields or when walking through vineyards), and assuring to the unknown dead buried by the community the undisturbed possession of his grave (see Dead, Duty to the; Bloch, "Die Institutionen des Judentums," i. 54-68, Vienna, 1879).EGH約書亞的名字與許多“ taḳḳanot , ”例如,祝福進入聖地( Ber. 48B條) ;許可證吃草的襲擊領域的其他不承擔責任的指控搶劫(灣K表。 60B章) ;允許樵在一位鄰居的外地( ib. 61b ) ;許可收集基層地方( ib. ) ;和7所列舉的其他措施邁蒙尼德( “亞德瓦” Nizḳe馬蒙,八。 5 ) ,調節某些特權,允許某些自然或必要的行為(在開闊的田野,或當走過葡萄園) ,並保證向未知死葬的社會不受干擾擁有他的墳墓(見死,工作地點的;布洛赫, “模具Institutionen萬Judentums ”一54-68 ,維也納, 1879年) 。歐洲加沙醫院

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Joshua's historical reality has been doubted by advanced critics, who regard him either as a mythological solar figure (Winckler, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," ii. 96-122; Schrader, "KAT" 3d ed., p. 225) or as the personification of tribal reminiscences crystallized around a semi-mythical hero of Timnath-serah (= "Timnat Ḥeres").約書亞的歷史事實已被懷疑的先進批評,誰把他作為一個神話太陽能數字( Winckler , “ Gesch 。沙漠Volkes以色列, ”二。 96-122 ;施拉德, “ KAT ”的3D版。 ,第225頁)或作為人格化的部落回憶結晶約一個半虛構的英雄Timnath - serah ( = “ Timnat繼承人” ) 。 Eduard Meyer, denying the historicity of the material in the Book of Joshua, naturally disputes also the actuality of its eponymous hero (Stade's "Zeitschrift," i.).愛德華邁耶否認歷史性材料約書亞記,自然也爭端現狀及其同名英雄(體育場的“雜誌, ”島) 。 These extreme theories must be dismissed.這些極端的理論必須予以駁回。 But, on the other hand, it is certain that Joshua could not have performed all the deeds recorded of him.但是,另一方面,可以肯定的是,約書亞不可能完成所有的事蹟記錄他。 Comparison with the Book of Judges shows that the conquest of the land was not a concerted movement of the nation under one leader; and the data concerning the occupation of the various districts by the tribes present so many variants that the allotment in orderly and purposed sequence, which is ascribed to Joshua, has to be abandoned as unhistorical.相對於圖書的法官表明,征服的土地並沒有協調一致的行動的下一個國家的領導人以及有關數據的佔領各地區的部落目前如此多的變種,該撥款中有秩序和專用序列,這是歸因於約書亞,必須放棄unhistorical 。

Leader of Josephites.領導人Josephites 。

Yet this does not conflict with the view that Joshua was the leader of a section of the later nation, and that he as such had a prominent part in the conquest of the districts lying around Mount Ephraim.然而,這並不衝突認為約書亞是領導人的一節,後國家,他這樣有一個突出的部分在征服的地區周圍地勢山埃弗拉伊姆。 The conquest of the land as a whole was not attempted; this final achievement was the result of several successive movements of invasion that with varied success, and often with serious reverses, aimed at securing a foothold for the Israelites in the trans-Jordanic territories.征服的土地作為一個整體並沒有企圖,這最後的成就是由於連續運動的入侵效果各不相同,而且往往是嚴重的倒退,其目的是確保一個立足點以色列人在跨Jordanic領土。 Joshua was at the head of the Josephite (Leah) tribes (comp. Judges i. 22, according to Budde; Joshua dies at the age of 110, as does Joseph), for whom the possession of the hill-country of Ephraim-Gibeon in the south and Ebal in the north-was the objective point.約書亞是在團長Josephite (莉婭)部落( comp.一法官22日,根據布德;約書亞去世,享年110一樣,約瑟夫) ,他們擁有的山國的埃弗拉伊姆,基遍在南部和Ebal在東北部的目標點。 This invasion on the part of the Josephites was probably preceded by others that had met with but little success (comp. the story of the spies, Num. xiv.).這次入侵是對Josephites可能是其他國家之前會見了,但成效甚微( comp.的故事間諜,序號。十四。 ) 。 But the very fact that while earlier expeditions had failed this one succeeded impressed for centuries the imagination of the people to such an extent that the leader of this invasion (Joshua) became the hero of folk-lore; and in course of time the plan of the conquest of the whole land and its execution were ascribed to him.但是,這一事實本身,而早先探險沒有這一次成功的印象數百年的想像力的人到這樣的程度領導人的這一入侵(約書亞)成為英雄民俗學;並隨著時間的推移,該計劃的征服整個土地和執行了歸因於他。 He thus grew to be in tradition the leader of the united people-especially in view of the supremacy enjoyed by the tribe of Joseph, in whose possession was the Ark at Shiloh-and therefore the successor of Moses, and as such the chief in authority when the land was divided among the tribes.因此,他長大要在傳統的領導者美國人民特別是考慮到所享有至高無上部落約瑟夫,在其擁有的方舟在希洛,因此繼承摩西,因此行政權力當土地被劃分各部落。

Recollections of valorous feats performed in the days of these fierce wars with the aboriginal kings were transferred to Joshua and his time; battles remembered in fable and in song were connected with his name; natural phenomena (the blocking of the waters of Jordan by rocks, the earthquake at Jericho, the hail-storm before Gibeon) which had inspired semi-mythological versions were utilized to enhance his fame, all the more since they helped to vindicate his dignity as a second Moses.回憶valorous業績表現在未來的日子,這些激烈的戰爭與原住民國王被轉移到約書亞和他的時間;戰鬥記得在寓言和宋都與他的名字;自然現象(封鎖水域的約旦的岩石,在傑里科的地震,冰雹,風暴面前基遍) ,這啟發半神話的版本,以提高利用他的名氣,更因為它們有助於維護他的尊嚴作為第二摩西。 Snatches of popular songs, no longer understood because their original mythology had become unintelligible, were applied to his feats, and in turn gave rise to new accounts of his marvelous accomplishments (eg, at Ajalon). This process is perfectly natural, and has its analogues in the stories concerning other heroes; in fact parallels between his biography and that of Jacob have been discovered (Steuernagel, "Joshua," p. 150).片段的流行歌曲,不再理解,因為他們的原始神話已成為不知所云,也適用於他的功勳,並反過來又引起了新帳戶,他非凡的成就(例如,在Ajalon ) 。這個過程是完全自然的,並有其類似的故事關於其他的英雄,實際上他的傳記相似之處和雅各布被發現( Steuernagel , “約書亞” ,第150頁) 。 But all this makes the historical reality of Joshua as the chief of a successful army of invasion all the more strongly assured.但是,所有這使得歷史現實約書亞作為主要的一個成功的軍隊的入侵更堅決的保證。 The chapters dealing with the division of the land must be dismissed as theoretical speculation, dating from a period when the tribal organization had ceased to exist; that is, from the Exile and perhaps later.章節處理該司的土地必須被視為投機的理論,歷史可以追溯到一個時期的部落組織已不復存在;即從流放,也許以後。 The epilogues (the story of Joshua's gathering the elders or the whole people at Shechem before his death, Josh. xxiii.-xxiv. 28) are clearly the work of a Deuteronomic writer; and the scenes are conceived in imitation of Jacob's blessing (Gen. xlix.) or of Moses taking leave of the people and admonishing them before his transition.該epilogues (約書亞的故事的收集長者或全體人民在示劍在他死之前,約什。 xxiii. - 24 。 28 )的工作顯然是一個Deuteronomic作家;和設想的場景是模仿雅各的祝福(根。 xlix 。 )或摩西告辭人民和告誡他們在他的過渡。 The cruelty imputed to Joshua-the ban against Jericho, for instance-is a trait corroborative of the historical kernel of the military incidents of his biography.殘酷歸罪於約書亞,禁止對傑里科,例如,是一個性狀佐證的歷史內核的軍事事件,他的傳記。

According to the Biblical accounts, Joshua had nowhere to meet a non-Canaanite power.據聖經帳戶,約書亞已無處可滿足非迦南權力。 The Flinders Petrie inscription recording Me(r)neptah's battle with Israel, located in Palestine (before 1200 BC; see Exodus), is thus not to be referred to this period. Egypt's claim to suzerainty had become merely nominal after 1250 BC The empire of theHittites (c. 1200) had become disrupted into a number of small principalities.弗林德斯皮特里的題詞記錄我(註冊商標) neptah的與以色列戰鬥,位於巴勒斯坦(公元前1200年前,見出埃及記) ,因此不能被稱為這一時期。埃及提出的宗主國已成為有名無實公元前1250年後,帝國theHittites (約1200 )已成為影響到一些小公。 This would indicate that the incursion of Joseph-Israel must have taken place about 1230-1200 BCEGH這將表明,入侵約瑟夫以色列必須發生了約1230至1200年BCEGH

2. Son of Jozadak or Josedech; high priest when the Jews returned under Zerubbabel from the Babylonian exile. 2 。兒子Jozadak或Josedech ;大祭司當猶太人下返回Zerubbabel從巴比倫放逐。 His father had died in exile, and on the return from the Captivity Joshua was the first high priest to officiate (Hag. i. 1, 12, 14; ii. 2, 4; Zech. vi. 11; Ezra iii. 2, 8; v. 2; x. 18; Neh. xii. 26).他父親死在流亡,並歸還從圈養約書亞是第一大祭司主持( Hag.一, 1 , 12 , 14 ;二。 2 , 4 ; Zech 。六。 11 ;以斯拉三。 2 , 8 ;五2 ;十18 ; Neh 。十二。 26 ) 。 Joshua was therefore born during the Exile.約書亞因此期間出生的流亡生活。 On the arrival of the caravan at Jerusalem, he naturally took part in erecting the altar of burnt offering and in laying the foundations of the Temple (Ezra iii. 2 et seq.).在抵達大篷車在耶路撒冷,他參加了自然豎立的祭壇上燔和奠定基礎的廟(以斯拉三。 2起。 ) 。 With Zerubbabel he opposed the machinations of the Samaritans (ib. iv. 3).他反對與Zerubbabel的陰謀詭計撒瑪利亞( ib.四。 3 ) 。 Several of Haggai's utterances are addressed to Joshua (Hag. i. 1, ii. 2), and his name occurs in two of the symbolical prophecies of Zechariah (iii. 1-10, vi. 11-15).一些哈的言論是給約書亞( Hag.一, 1 ,二。 2 ) ,他的名字出現在兩個象徵預言撒迦利亞( iii. 1月10日,六。 11月15日) 。 He is eulogized in Ecclus. (Sirach) xlix.他依然是在Ecclus 。 ( Sirach ) xlix 。 12, in the list of worthies, as one who "builded the house and exalted a people holy to the Lord, prepared for everlasting glory." 12日,清單中的worthies ,作為一個誰“ builded眾議院和崇高的人民神聖的主,準備永恆的榮耀。 ” In Ezra (ii., iii., iv., v., x.) and Nehemiah (vii. 7; xii. 1, 7, 10, 26) he is called "Jeshua."EGHBP在以斯拉(白介素,三。四。 ,五,十)和尼希米記( vii. 7 ;十二。 1 , 7 , 10 , 26 ) ,他被稱為“ Jeshua 。 ” EGHBP

Emil G. Hirsch, Bernhard Pick埃米爾赫斯基灣,伯恩哈匹克

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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