Book of Jonah約拿書

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Jonah, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is one of the works of the Minor Prophets.該約拿書,在舊約聖經,是一個工程未成年人的先知。 Unlike the other prophetic books, it is not a book written by a prophet but is a narrative about a prophet.與其他預言書,它不是一本書撰寫的先知,而是一個敘述一個先知。 Jonah seems to be the prophet mentioned in 2 Kings 14:25 who lived during the reign of Jeroboam II (c. 785 BC).約拿似乎是預言中提到的列王紀下14:25誰住時期的耶羅波安二世(約公元前785 ) 。 The book is anonymous and was probably composed during the 4th century BC.這本書是匿名的,可能是由在公元前4世紀。

A short novella, the book describes how Jonah sought to evade God's command to go to Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, to preach repentance.短中篇小說,這本書介紹了如何約拿試圖逃避上帝的命令去尼尼微,亞述的首都,宣講悔改。 He booked passage on a ship to Tarshish, only to have his flight brought to an end by a divinely ordained storm.他通過對預定的船舶Tarshish ,只有將其飛行結束了神祝風暴。 Thrown overboard and swallowed by a great fish, Jonah was vomited up on shore after three days and nights.扔到海裡,並吞噬了巨大的魚,喬納是嘔吐了岸上後,三天三夜。 He then obeyed God's command and preached in Nineveh.然後,他服從了上帝的命令,並鼓吹在尼納瓦。 When the population responded to his preaching and repented, God changed his plan to destroy the city. Divine mercy was thus shown to possess a distinctly universal dimension.當人口答复了他的說教和懺悔,上帝改變了他的計劃,以摧毀的城市。神聖慈悲的,因此顯示出擁有獨特的普遍問題。 The purpose of the book, then, was primarily didactic, dramatizing God's care for Jews and Gentiles alike.的目的,這本書,那麼,主要是教學,渲染上帝的照顧猶太人和外邦人一樣的。 It was a polemic against the exclusivism that was beginning to dominate Judaic theology, depicted so clearly by Jonah himself.這是一個爭論的排外主義的開始主宰猶太教神學,描繪如此明確的約拿自己。

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Bibliography 參考書目
J Ellul, The Judgment of Jonah (1971); A / P La Cocque, Jonah (1990); H Martin, The Prophet Jonah (1952). J埃呂爾,該判決約拿( 1971年) ;甲/峰香格里拉Cocque ,約拿( 1990年) ; H馬丁,先知約拿( 1952年) 。


Book of Jonah約拿書

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Jonah's commission, disobedience, and punishment (1:1-16)約拿的委員會,不服從命令,並處罰( 1:1-16 )
  2. Jonah's deliverance (1:17-2:10)約拿的解脫( 1:17-2:10 )
  3. Jonah preaches, Nineveh repents and is spared (3)約拿宣揚,尼尼微懺悔和倖免( 3 )
  4. God's mercy defended (4)上帝的憐憫辯護( 4 )


Jo'nah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Jonah, a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher.約拿,鴿子的兒子Amittai的迦特- hepher 。 He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom.他是以色列的先知,並預測恢復古老的界限(列王紀下14:25-27 )王國。 He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess.他行使了部很早就在耶羅波安二世統治時期。 ,因而是當代與何西阿和Amos ;或可能他之前,並因此可能是非常古老的所有先知的著作我們擁有。 His personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name.他個人的歷史,主要是將收集到的書,他的名字命名。 It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the "Son of man."主要是有趣的雙重性格在他看來, ( 1 )作為一個傳教士異教徒尼納瓦,和( 2 )作為一種類型的“人子” 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Jo'nah書Jo'nah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet.這本書自稱交代實際發生的經驗先知。 Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history.一些批評人士試圖解釋這本書作為一個比喻或寓言,而不是作為一個歷史。 They have done so for various reasons.他們這樣做的原因是多方面的。 Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history.因此, ( 1 )一些拒絕,理由是奇蹟般的要素,以便在很大程度上進入到它,這不是預言,但說明其形式; ( 2 )他人,剝奪奇蹟的可能性完全舉行,因此,不能真實的歷史。 Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39, 40; Luke 11:29), a fact to which the greatest weight must be attached.喬納和他的故事所提到的是我們的上帝(太12:39 , 40 ;盧克11時29分) ,這一事實的最大重量必須附上。 It is impossible to interpret this reference on any other theory.這是不可能解釋這一提法上任何其他的理論。 This one argument is of sufficient importance to settle the whole question.這一個論點是足夠的重視解決整個問題。 No theories devised for the purpose of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such a proof that the book is a veritable history.沒有理論,設計的目的是擺脫困難,可以隨時對這種證明,這本書是名副其實的歷史。

There is every reason to believe that this book was written by Jonah himself.我們完全有理由相信,這本書的作者是約拿自己。 It gives an account of (1) his divine commission to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following (1:1-17); (2) his prayer and miraculous deliverance (1:17-2:10); (3) the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing mercy toward them (ch. 3); (4) Jonah's displeasure at God's merciful decision, and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet (ch. 4).它敘述了( 1 )他的神聖委員會去尼尼微,他不服從,和懲罰以下( 1:1-17 ) ; ( 2 )他的祈禱和神奇解脫( 1:17-2:10 ) ; ( 3 )第二委員會向他發出的,他迅速服從提供的信息來自上帝,其結果在懺悔的尼尼微,上帝的長期保留憐憫對他們(第三章) ; ( 4 )約拿的不滿上帝的仁慈的決定,並指責招標的不耐煩先知(章4 ) 。 Nineveh was spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century.尼納瓦倖免後約拿的使命了一個多世紀。 The history of Jonah may well be regarded "as a part of that great onward movement which was before the Law and under the Law; which gained strength and volume as the fulness of the times drew near.", Perowne's Jonah.約拿的歷史很可能被視為“作為一個偉大的一部分,這是向前運動在法律面前和法律;上漲強度和數量的豐富的時代臨近。 ”掃的喬納。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Jonah約拿書

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

There is only one instance of Jonah's prophesying to his own people of Israel, 2 Kings 14:25.只有一個實例約拿的預言他自己的人民的以色列,列王紀下14:25 。 There he made a prediction concerning the restoration of the coasts of israel, which was fulfilled in the reign of Jeroboam II about 800 BC, showing that he lived earlier than that date.在那裡,他作出了預測關於恢復以色列的海岸,這是符合時代耶羅波安二世約公元前800年,表明他生活早於該日期。 Of his personal history nothing further is known than what is found in this book.他的個人歷史沒有進一步被稱為比什麼是發現在這本書。

Chapter 1第1章

Nineveh (2) was the capital of Assyria, and the reason Jonah sought to avoid the divine command against it (3) arose from his patriotism.尼納瓦( 2 )首都亞述,原因約拿試圖避免的神聖命令反對( 3 )是由他的愛國精神。 As a student of the earlier prophets he knew what was to befall his nation at the hands of Assyria, and he shrank from an errand which might result favorably to that people, and spare them to become the scourge of Israel.作為一名學生的早期先知,他知道什麼是降臨在他的國家手中的亞述,他從辦事下跌可能導致積極的人,和備件他們成為禍害的以色列。 The contents of the rest of this chapter require no comment till the last verse, where it is interesting to note that it is not said that a whale swallowed Jonah, but "a great fish" which "the Lord had prepared."的內容,其餘本章要求沒有發表評論,直到去年詩,其中值得注意的是,這不是說,鯨魚吞食約拿,但“偉大的魚”的“上帝已經準備好了。 ”

Chapter 2第2章

Is self-explanatory, but it is interesting to observe Jonah's penitence under chastisement (2), the lively experiences he underwent (3-6), his hope and expectation even in the midst of them (4), his unshaken faith (5), the lessons he learned (8), and the effect of it all on his spiritual life (9).不言自明,但有趣的是,觀察約拿的懺悔下責罰( 2 ) ,他接受了生動的經驗( 3-6 ) ,他的希望和期望,即使在他們之中( 4 ) ,他以堅毅的信念( 5 ) ,他的經驗教訓( 8 ) ,和它的影響,所有關於他的精神生活( 9 ) 。 God could now afford to set him at liberty (10).上帝現在可以承受一套他自由( 10 ) 。 Is This Historic?是這一歷史性? The question will not dawn, "Is this chapter historic?"這個問題將不會到來, “這是歷史性的章? ”

The evidence for it is found: (1) In the way it is recorded, there being not the slightest intimation in the book itself, or anywhere in the Bible, that it is a parable. (2) In the evidence of tradition, the whole of the Jewish nation, practically, accepting it as historic.的證據被發現: ( 1 )的方式記錄,存在沒有絲毫暗示在這本書本身,或任何地方的聖經,這是一個寓言。 ( 2 )在證據的傳統,整個猶太民族,實際上,接受它的歷史。 (3) The reasonableness of it (see the remarks under chapter 3.) (4) The testimony of Christ in Matthew 12:38, and parallel places. ( 3 )它的合理性(見備註根據第3章。 ) ( 4 )的證詞耶穌在馬太12點38分,和平行的地方。 There are those who read these words of the Saviour in the light of the argument of which they form a part, and say that they allude only to what He knew to be a parable, or an allegory, but I am not of their number.有那些誰讀這些話的救世主根據的論點,他們作為其中一部分,並暗示說,他們只知道他是一個寓言,或諷喻,但我不是他們的號碼。 Jesus would not have used such an illustration in such a connection, in my judgment, if it were not a historic fact.耶穌就不會用這樣的例子在這樣一個方面,根據我的判斷,如果不是歷史事實。 (5) The symbolic or prophetic character of the transaction (see the remarks under chapter 4.) ( 5 )象徵性或預言性質的交易(見備註根據第4章。 )


Jonah約拿

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The fifth of the Minor Prophets.第五未成年先知。 The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the complaining words of the Prophet (Jonah 4), it is not unlikely that the name is derived from the root Yanah = to mourn, with the signification dolens or "complaining".這個名字通常是指“鴿派” ,但鑑於該抱怨的話先知(約拿4 ) ,這不是不可能,這個名字源於根Yanah =悼念,與意義dolens或“抱怨“ 。 This interpretation goes back to St. Jerome (Comm. on Jonah, iv, 1).這種解釋可以追溯到聖杰羅姆( Comm.的約拿,四, 1 ) 。 Apart from the book traditionally ascribed to him, Jonah is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, 2 Kings 14:25, where it is stated that the restoration by Jeroboam II (see Jeroboam) of the borders of Israel against the incursions of foreign invaders was a fulfillment of the "word of the Lord the God of Israel, which he spoke by his servant Jonah the son of Amathi, the prophet, who was of Geth, which is in Opher".除了傳統的圖書歸咎於他,約拿是只提到一次在舊約,列王紀下14:25 ,其中指出,恢復了耶羅波安二世(見耶羅波安)的邊界以色列對外國侵略者的入侵是履行“字的主神以色列,他談到了他的僕人的兒子喬納Amathi ,先知,誰是Geth ,這是在Opher ” 。 This last is but a paraphrastic rendering of the name Gath-Hepher, a town in the territory of Zabulon (Josephus, "Antiq.", XIX, xiii), which was probably the birthplace of the Prophet, and where his grave was still pointed out in the time of St. Jerome.最後這只不過是paraphrastic繪製的名稱迦特- Hepher鎮在其境內的Zabulon (約瑟夫, “ Antiq 。 ”十九,十三) ,這是可能的誕生地先知,並在他的墳墓仍然指出在時間的聖杰羅姆。 Mention is made of Jonah in Matthew 12:39 sqq., and in 16:4, and likewise in the parallel passages of Luke (xi, 29, 30, 32), but these references add nothing to the information contained in the Old Testament data.提到了約拿在馬太12:39 sqq 。 ,並在16時04 ,同樣的平行通道的盧克( 11 , 29 , 30 , 32 ) ,但這些提法添加任何中所載的資料舊約全書數據。 According to an ancient tradition mentioned by St. Jerome (Comm., in Jonas, Prol., PL, XXV, 118), and which is found in Pseudo-Epiphanius (De Vitis Prophetarum, xvi, PL, XLIII, 407), Jonah was the son of the widow of Sarephta whose resuscitation by the Prophet Elias is narrated in 1 Kings 17, but this legend seems to have no other foundation than the phonetic resemblance between the proper name Amathi, father of the Prophet, and the Hebrew Emeth, "truth", applied to the word of God through Elias by the widow of Sarephta (1 Kings 17:24).根據一項古老的傳統提到的聖杰羅姆( Comm. ,在文海峽。 ,特等, 25 , 118 ) ,這是在偽埃皮法尼烏斯(者葡萄Prophetarum ,十六,特等,四十三, 407 ) ,約拿是兒子的遺孀Sarephta其復甦的先知埃利亞斯講述在列王紀上17 ,但這個傳說似乎已經沒有其他基礎語音的相似性比之間的適當的名稱Amathi ,父親的先知,和希伯來文Emeth , “真相” ,適用於上帝的話,通過埃利亞斯的遺孀Sarephta (列王紀上17:24 ) 。

The chief interest in the Prophet Jonah centres around two remarkable incidents narrated in the book which bears his name.首席興趣先知約拿中心圍繞兩個顯著的事件的敘述書,他的名字命名。 In the opening verse it is stated that "the word of the Lord came to Jonah the son of Amathi, saying: Arise and go to Ninive, the great city, and preach in it: for the wickedness thereof is come up before me."在開幕詩指出, “這個詞的上帝來到約拿的兒子Amathi ,他說:出現去Ninive ,這個偉大的城市,並在它鼓吹:為邪惡人是在我面前來。 ” But the Prophet, instead of obeying the Divine command, "rose up to flee into Tharsis from the face of the Lord" that he might escape the task assigned to him.但先知,而不是服從上帝的命令, “奮起逃到塔爾西斯從面對上帝” ,他可能逃生的任務指派給他。 He boards a ship bound for that port, but a violent storm overtakes him, and on his admission that he is the cause of it, he is cast overboard.他登上駛往港口,而是一個暴風驟雨超越了他,他承認他的原因是,他是演員海裡。 He is swallowed by a great fish providentially prepared for the purpose, and after a three day's sojourn in the belly of the monster, during which time he composes a hymn of thanksgiving, he is cast upon dry land.他吞下了一個偉大的魚providentially準備的目的,經過三天的逗留在腹部的怪物,在這期間,他撰寫一歌感恩節,他是演員根據旱地。 After this episode he again receives the command to preach in Ninive, and the account of his second journey is scarcely less marvellous than that of the first.經過了這小小的插曲,他再次接到命令,以鼓吹在Ninive ,並到他的第二次旅程幾乎不到了不起比第一。 He proceeds to Ninive and enters "after a day's journey" into it, foretelling its destruction in forty days.他的收益Ninive並進入“經過一天的旅程” ,然後將其預示其銷毀在四十天。 A general repentance is immediately commanded by the authorities, in view of which God relents and spares the wicked city.一般懺悔立即指揮當局,鑑於上帝relents和零部件惡人城市。 Jonah, angry and disappointed, wishes for death.約拿,憤怒和失望,希望死亡。 He expostulates with the Lord, and declares that it was in anticipation of this result that on the former occasion he had wished to flee to Tharsis.他expostulates的主,並宣布說,它正在期待這一結果是對前一次他希望逃往塔爾西斯。 He withdraws from Ninive and, under a booth which he has erected, he awaits the destiny of the city.他退出Ninive ,並在攤位豎立他,他正在等待命運的城市。 In this abode he enjoys for a time the refreshing shade of a gourd which the Lord prepares for him. Shortly, however, the gourd is stricken by a worm and the Prophet is exposed to the burning rays of the sun, whereupon he again murmurs and wishes to die.在這享有居留權,他有一段時間的清新色調葫蘆其中主準備了。不久,然而,葫蘆是遭受蠕蟲和先知暴露在燃燒陽光,於是他再次雜音和希望死去。 Then the Lord rebukes him for his selfish grief over the withering of a gourd, while still desiring that God should not be touched by the repentance of a city in which "there are more than a hundred and twenty thousand persons that know not how to distinguish between their right hand and their left, and many beasts." Apart from the hymn ascribed to Jonah (ii, 2-11) the contents of the book are prose.然後主指責他自私悲痛的枯萎的葫蘆,同時仍然希望上帝不應被感動了懺悔的城市中, “有100多個,並二點○○萬者不知道如何區分之間的右手和左手,許多野獸。 “除了讚美詩歸咎於約拿(二, 2月11日)的內容,這本書是散文。

HISTORICITY歷史性

Catholics have always looked upon the Book of Jonah as a fact-narrative.天主教徒一直期待的約拿書的事實說明。 In the works of some recent Catholic writers there is a leaning to regard the book as fiction.在最近的一些作品天主教作家有一種傾向把書作為小說。 Only Simon and Jahn, among prominent Catholic scholars, have clearly denied the historicity of Jonah; and the orthodoxy of these two critics may no longer be defended: "Providentissimus Deus" implicitly condemned the ideas of both in the matter of inspiration, and the Congregation of the Index expressly condemned the "Introduction" of the latter.只有西蒙和雅恩,除著名的天主教學者,已明確否認了歷史性約拿;和正統這兩個批評可能不再辯護: “ Providentissimus上帝”含蓄譴責的想法都在這件事的啟發,並聖座指標明確譴責“導言”後者。

Reasons for the traditional acceptance of the historicity of Jonah:原因傳統接受的歷史性喬納:

I. Jewish Tradition一猶太傳統

According to the Septuagint text of the Book of Tobias (xiv, 4), the words of Jonah in regard to the destruction of Ninive are accepted as facts; the same reading is found in the Aramaic text and one Hebrew manuscript.根據七十文圖書的托拜厄斯( 14 , 4 ) ,喬納的話在關於銷毀Ninive被接受的事實;相同的閱讀中發現的阿拉姆語文字和一個希伯來手稿。 The apocryphal III Mach., vi, 8, lists the saving of Jonah in the belly of the fish along with the other wonders of Old Testament history.三是未經馬赫。 ,六,八,列出了節能約拿腹部魚連同其他奇觀舊約歷史。 Josephus (Ant. Jud., IX, 2) clearly deems the story of Jonah to be historical.約瑟夫( Ant.珠德。 ,九, 2 )明確認為約拿的故事成為歷史。

II.二。 The Authority of Our Lord監督我們的主

This reason is deemed by Catholics to remove all doubt as to the fact of the story of Jonah.為此,被認為是天主教徒,以消除所有疑問的事實,約拿的故事。 The Jews asked a "sign" -- a miracle to prove the Messiahship of Jesus.猶太人問一個“登錄” -一個奇蹟證明Messiahship耶穌。 He made answer that no "sign" would be given them other than the "sign of Jonah the Prophet. For as the Jonah was in the whale's belly three days and three nights: so shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. The men of Ninive shall rise in judgment with this generation and shall condemn it: because they did penance at the preaching of Jonah. And behold a greater than Jonah here" (Matthew 12:40-1; 16:4; Luke 11:29-32).他回答說,沒有“簽署”將給予他們以外的“符號約拿先知。對於作為喬納是在鯨魚的肚子三天三夜:所以應人子在心臟地球三天三夜。 Ninive男人的判決應增加與這一代人,並應譴責:因為他們懺悔的說教約拿。而且看哪大於約拿在這裡“ (馬太12:40-1 ; 16 : 4 ;路加福音11:29-32 ) 。 The Jews asked for a real miracle; Christ would have deceived them had He presented a mere fancy.猶太人要求一個真正的奇蹟;基督會欺騙人,他提出了一個單純的喜歡。 He argues clearly that just as Jonah was in the whale's belly three days and three nights even so He will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.他說清楚,就像約拿在鯨魚的肚子三天三夜即便如此,他將在地球核心的三天三夜。 If, then, the stay of Jonah in the belly of the fish be only a fiction, the stay of Christ's body in the heart of the earth is only a fiction.如果,然後,停留在腹中約拿的魚類只是小說,中止的基督身體的心臟,地球只是一個虛構。 If the men of Ninive will really not rise in judgment, neither will the Jews really rise.如果男人真的不Ninive將上升的判斷,也不會猶太人真的上升。 Christ contrasts fact with fact, not fancy with fancy, nor fancy with fact.基督事實與事實的對比,不喜歡與幻想,也沒有想像的事實。 It would be very strange, indeed, were He to say that He was greater than a fancy-formed man.這將是非常奇怪的,事實上,是他說他是大於花式形成男子。 It would be little less strange were he to berate the Jews for their real lack of penance by rating this lack in contrast with the penance of Ninive which never existed at all.這將是少一些奇怪的是他對譙呵猶太人他們真正缺乏懺悔的評價缺乏對比與懺悔的Ninive從未存在的。 The whole force of these striking contrasts is lost, if we admit that the story of Jonah is not fact-narrative.整個部隊的這些鮮明的對照是失去了,如果我們承認,約拿的故事並非事實的敘述。 Finally, Christ makes no distinction between the story of the Queen of Sheba and that of Jonah (see Matthew 12:42).最後,耶穌沒有區分的故事和示巴女王的約拿(見馬太12時42分) 。 He sets the very same historical value upon the Book of Jonah as upon the Third Book of Kings.他規定了同樣的歷史價值的約拿書作為的第三本書的國王。 Such is the very strongest argument that Catholics offer for the firm stand they take upon the ground of the fact-narrative of the story of Jonah.這是非常強烈的論點,即天主教徒提供的堅定的立場,他們的理由的事實說明約拿的故事。

III.三。 The Authority of the Fathers權威的父親

Not a single Father has ever been cited in favor of the opinion that Jonah is a fancy-tale and no fact-narrative at all.沒有一個單一的父親曾經引用的青睞認為約拿是一個幻想故事,沒有事實說明在所有。 To the Fathers Jonah was a fact and a type of the Messias, just such a one as Christ presented to the Jews.父親約拿是一個事實和一種類型的弭賽亞,就是這樣一個為基督提交給猶太人。 Saints Jerome, Cyril, and Theophilus explain in detail the type-meaning of the facts of the Book of Jonah.聖徒杰羅姆的Cyril ,並奧菲勒斯詳細解釋型的意義的事實,約拿書。 St. Cyril even forestalls the objections of the Rationalists of today: Jonah flees his ministry, bewails God's mercy to the Ninivites, and in other ways shows a spirit that ill becomes a Prophet and an historical type of Christ.聖西里爾forestalls甚至反對的理性主義的今天:約拿逃離他的部, bewails上帝的憐憫的Ninivites ,並以其他方式表明的精神虐待成為先知和歷史類型的基督。 Cyril admits that in all this Jonah failed and is not a type of Christ, but does not admit that these failures of Jonah prove the story of his doings to have been a mere fiction.西里爾承認,在所有這一切喬納拉海失敗,不是一個類型的救世主,但不承認這些失敗的約拿的故事證明他的所作所為已經僅僅是虛構。

To the Rationalist and to the advanced Protestant Biblical scholar these arguments are of no worth whatsoever.對理性和先進新教聖經學者這些論點是沒有價值的。 They find error not only in Jewish and Christian tradition but in Christ Himself.他們發現的錯誤不僅在猶太教和基督教的傳統,但在耶穌。 They admit that Christ took the story of Jonah as a fact-narrative, and make answer that Christ erred; He was a child of His time and represents to us the ideas and errors of His time.他們承認,基督了約拿的故事作為一個事實說明,並回答基督錯誤;他是一個孩子的時間,並代表我們的思想和錯誤的時間。 The arguments of those who accept the inerrancy of Christ and deny the historicity of Jonah are not conclusive.的論點是誰接受無誤基督和否認的歷史性約拿不是決定性的。

Christ spoke according to the ideas of the people, and had no purpose in telling them that Jonah was really not swallowed by the fish.基督以根據想法的人,也沒有任何的目的告訴他們,約拿真的沒有吞下的魚。 We ask: Did Christ speak of the Queen of Sheba as a fact?我們要問:難道基督講的示巴女王的事實? If so, then He spoke of Jonah as a fact -- unless there be some proof to the contrary.如果是這樣,然後他談到約拿的事實-除非有一些與此相反的證據。

Were the book historical in its narrative, certain details would not be omitted, for instance, the place where the Prophet was vomited forth by the sea-monster, the particular sins of which the Ninivites were guilty, the particular kind of calamity by which the city was to be destroyed, the name of the Assyrian king under whom these events took place and who turned to the true God with such marvellous humility and repentance.是這本書的歷史敘述中,某些細節不會被遺漏,例如,地方的先知是嘔吐提出的海怪,特別是罪惡的,而Ninivites有罪,特定類型的災害,其中城市被摧毀的名稱下亞述國王的人這些事件發生,誰變成真正的上帝這種奇妙的謙卑和懺悔。

We answer, these objections prove that the book is not an historical account done according to later canons of historical criticism; they do not prove that the book is no history at all.我們的答案,這些反對意見證明,這本書是不是一個歷史的帳戶,按後來炮的歷史批評;他們沒有證明,這本書是沒有歷史的。 The facts narrated are such as suited the purpose of the sacred writer.敘述的事實是,如適合的目的神聖作家。 He told a story of glory unto the God of Israel and of downfall to the gods of Ninive.他說的故事,你們的榮耀上帝以色列和衰敗的神Ninive 。 It is likely that the incidents took place during the period of Assyrian decadence, ie, the reign of either Asurdanil or Asurnirar (770-745 BC).可能是事件發生期間,亞述人頹廢,即統治要么Asurdanil或Asurnirar ( 770-745年) 。 A pest had ravaged the land from 765 till 759 BC Internal strife added to the dismay caused by the deadly disease.害蟲有蹂躪的土地從公元前765到759添加到內部紛爭所造成的沮喪的致命的疾病。 The king's power was set at naught.國王的權力被定為一事無成。 Such a king might seem too little known to be mentioned.這樣的國王似乎太少已知提及。 The Pharaoh of Mosaic times is not deemed to have been a fiction merely because his name is not given.法老時期的馬賽克是不是被視為小說只是因為他的名字沒有得到。

Jewish tradition assumed that the Prophet Jonah was the author of the book bearing his name, and the same has been generally maintained by the Christian writers who defend the historical character of the narrative.猶太傳統假定先知約拿是本書的作者同時他的名字,並同已得到普遍維持的基督教作家誰捍衛歷史特徵的說明。 But it may be remarked that nowhere does the book itself claim to have been written by the Prophet (who is supposed to have lived in the eighth century BC), and most modern scholars, for various reasons, assign the date of the composition to a much later epoch, probably the fifth century BC As in the case of other Old Testament personages, many legends, mostly fantastic and devoid of critical value, grew up around the name Jonah.但可以說,沒有這本書本身也聲稱已撰寫的先知(誰理應生活在公元前八世紀) ,和最現代的學者,由於種種原因,指定日期的組成為更晚時代,大概是公元前五世紀的情況一樣其他舊約人物,許多傳說,其中大部分是荒唐的和缺乏臨界值時,長大的名稱喬納。 They may be found in the "Jewish Encyclopedia".他們可能會發現在“猶太百科全書” 。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息作者詹姆斯F德里斯科爾。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由安東尼基林。 Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.永恆非caduca的天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Book of Jonah約拿書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Age and Origin.年齡和起源。

Inclusion in Canon.列入佳能。

Purpose and Teachings.宗旨和教義。

Details of the Story.細節的故事。

Later Uses and Interpretation.後來利用和解釋。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The Book of Jonah stands unique in the prophetical canon, in that it does not contain any predictions, but simply relates the story of its hero, beginning for that reason with "wa-yeḥi," like a passage taken from history.該約拿書站在獨特的預言佳能,因為它不包含任何預測,只是涉及的故事,它的英雄,開始由於這一原因與“瓦yeḥi , ”像一個通道從歷史。 The contents may be summarized as follows:其內容可概括如下:

Ch.總。 i.: Jonah is commanded by Yhwh to prophesy against Nineveh. Hoping to escape from this commission by flight into another country, he goes down to Joppa to take ship for Tarshish (Tartessus in Spain).一:約拿是由Yhwh到預言對尼納瓦。為了擺脫這一委員會的飛行到另一個國家,他去到約帕採取船舶Tarshish ( Tartessus在西班牙) 。 Yhwh then sends a terrible storm, and the pious heathen mariners, after all their labors to lighten the ship and all their prayers prove vain, cast lots to find out on whose account this misfortune has come upon them (comp. Achan in Josh. vii. and Jonathan in I Sam. xiv.).耶和華然後發出了一個可怕的風暴,和虔誠的異教徒水手,畢竟他們的勞動力,以減輕他們的船隻和所有證明徒勞的祈禱,投下大量找出對這個不幸的帳戶已經到來給他們( comp. Achan在喬希。 ㈦ 。與喬納森在I山姆。十四。 ) 。 The lot falls upon Jonah, and upon being questioned he answers that he is a Hebrew and worships Yhwh, the God of Heaven; he admits his guilt and requests that he be thrown into the sea.在很多落在約拿,並受到質疑時,他回答說,他是一個希伯來文和崇拜Yhwh ,上帝的天堂;他承認他的罪行,並要求他將被扔進大海。 After having prayed to Yhwh the mariners comply with his wish, and when the storm has subsided they give thanks to Yhwh with sacrifices and vows.後祈禱Yhwh水手符合他的願望,當風暴平息他們的感謝, Yhwh的犧牲和承諾。

Ch.總。 ii.: Yhwh prepares a great fish to swallow Jonah, who remains for three days and three nights in the monster's belly; after having there praised Yhwh, Jonah is cast up by the fish upon the dry land.二。 : Yhwh準備了巨大的魚吞下約拿,誰仍然為三天三夜在Monster的肚子;之後,有讚揚Yhwh ,喬納是投下了魚的旱地。

Ch.總。 iii.: Yhwh's command being repeated, Jonah goes to Nineveh, and announces to the city that it shall be destroyed within forty days. Then all the inhabitants, following the example of the king and the nobles, repent in sackcloth and ashes; even the flocks and herds fast and are covered with sackcloth.三。 : Yhwh的命令正在重演,喬納去尼尼微,並宣布該城,它應銷毀四十天。那麼所有的居民,以下的例子,國王和貴族,懺悔的喪服和骨灰;甚至家禽和牲畜快速和覆蓋喪服。 Yhwh, repenting of the punishment He had intended for them, permits the Ninevites to go free.耶和華,悔過的處罰,他本來打算對他們來說,允許尼尼微去自由。

Ch.總。 iv.: Yhwh's action displeases Jonah exceedingly; he prays Yhwh to let him die.四。 : Yhwh的行動displeases約拿極其;他祈禱Yhwh讓他死去。 Yhwh comforts him by preparing a "ḳiḳayon" (castor-oil plant?) to spring up beside his booth, which gives Jonah great pleasure.耶和華安慰他,編寫了一份“ ḳiḳayon ” (蓖麻? )湧現的展台旁,使約拿非常高興。 But Yhwh prepares a worm to smite the plant, so that it withers; the sun beating upon the head of Jonah causes him to faint; and again be begs for death.但是Yhwh編寫了蠕蟲撾植物,因此它凋謝;太陽擊敗後,頭部約拿他昏倒的原因,並再次請求死亡。 Yhwh then says that if Jonah is sorry for the gourd, which sprang up of itself in one night, and withered also in one night, how much more must Yhwh feel sorrow for the mighty city which contains more than twelve myriads of innocent people besides much cattle.EGHKB耶和華然後說,如果喬納是抱歉的葫蘆,它的興起本身在一個晚上,和枯萎也有一天晚上,多少必須Yhwh感到悲痛強大的城市,包含超過12無數無辜的人除了多cattle.EGHKB

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The text on the whole has been fairly well preserved.案文總體上已經相當完好。 The following variants of the Septuagint deserve notice: i.以下兩種型號的七十值得通知:一, 2: , probably a combination of two variants, being placed side by side with (comp. Gen. xviii. 21, xix. 13); i. 2 :可能的組合兩個備選案文,放在並肩( comp.將軍十八。 21 , 19 。 13 ) ;島 4: is lacking and not needed; verse 16: instead of ; iii. 4 :缺乏和沒有必要;詩16 :不是;三。 2: κατὰ τὸ κήρεγμα τὸ ἔμπροσΘεν ὃ ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα, equivalent to , probably correct, since only absolute obedience to the first command would agree with the context; iii. 2 : κατὰ τὸ κήρεγμα τὸ ἔμπροσΘεν ὃ ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα ,相當於,可能正確的,因為只有絕對服從的第一個命令會同意的範圍內;三。 4: instead of , but probably only an error following verse 3, end; iii. 4 :不是,但大概只有一個錯誤下列詩句3月底;三。 7: instead of ; iii. 7 :不是;三。 9: is lacking, probably correctly so in view of the following ; iv. 9 :缺乏,可能正確,以便鑑於以下;四。 2: is lacking; iv. 2 :缺乏;四。 6: ; iv. 6 : ;四。 11: instead of -hardly the original reading, but a possible one. H. 11 :不是,幾乎是原來的閱讀,但有可能的。閣下 Winckler ("Altorientalische Forschungen," ii. 260 et seq.), especially, has proposed important emendations of the text that are all worthy of careful examination. Winckler ( “古代Forschungen , ”二。 260起。 ) ,特別是提出了重要的emendations的文字,都值得認真研究。 He transposes i.他轉而一 13 to come directly after i. 13後直接來一 4, which makes a better connection at both places. Again, he transposes i. 4 ,這使得更好的連接兩地。此外,他轉而一 10 to follow immediately i. 10日至緊接一 7, at the same time striking out in verse 8 the words and (like many other emendators and critics) to , besides 10b entirely. 7 ,同時突出了詩8字和(像其他許多emendators和評論家)的,除10B條完全。 This will not do, however, as verse 10a, depicting the fright of the men, with their exclamation, "Why hast thou done this?"這不會做,但是,正如詩句10A條,描繪了驚嚇的男子,他們感嘆: “為什麼你你這樣做? ” is intelligible only after Jonahhas told the men why he was on the ship.是可理解之後才Jonahhas男子告訴他為什麼船舶上。 Still this explanation should not have been given in 10b, but rather either in 9ba (which would then read ) or as an addition to verse 9 (ie, ). If this phrase be inserted here it is necessary merely to delete the corresponding phrase in verse 10 (ie, 10b), and to omit also 8aβ, which disturbs the context.不過這種解釋不應該得到的10B條,而是無論在9ba (然後讀)或作為除了詩9 (即) 。如果這句話放在這裡,有必要只是刪除了相應的短語詩10 (即, 10B款) ,並省略也8aβ ,它擾亂了背景。 Winckler also transposes iv. Winckler也轉而四。 5 to follow iii. 5遵循三。 4, which is at the first glance a simple and entirely obvious emendation. 4 ,這是在乍看之下簡單,完全顯而易見的校正。 The verse could follow ch.詩歌可遵循總。 iii.三。 only with the introduction , and even then would have to precede iv.只有在引進,而且即便如此,就必須先四。 1. 1 。 Ch.總。 iv.四。 4 must be stricken out (as Böhme has proposed), being a poor repetition of iv. 4必須受災(視伯梅建議) ,是一個貧窮的重複四。 9, which probably came in with the erroneous interpolation of iv. 9 ,這可能是在同錯誤的插值四。 5. 5 。 Ch.總。 iv.四。 3 connects closely with iv. 3連接與四。 6. 6 。 In the latter verse Wellhausen, and after him Nowack, strike out ; Winckler strikes out instead because Jonah was protected by the booth (iv. 5).在後者的詩豪森後,他Nowack ,剔除; Winckler罷工了,因為約拿是不是保護的展台( iv. 5 ) 。 Winckler furthermore says that the sun could not have stricken Jonah if he had been protected by the booth; he therefore proposes to insert the statement in verse 8 that the east wind blew down the booth. Winckler再者說,太陽不可能受災約拿如果他被保護的展位;因此,他建議增加聲明詩句8東部風吹下來的攤位。 This is a happy conjecture; for could have easily been corrupted to form the enigmatical (even Cheyne's , "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 2566, is unsatisfactory).這是一個令人高興的猜想;為可以輕易地被破壞,形成陰陽怪氣(甚至進益的“ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ”二。 2566年,是不能令人滿意) 。 It must be remarked, however, that this would duplicate the motive, while verse 9 mentions the gourd only.必須指出,然而,這將重複的動機,而詩句中提到的葫蘆9只。 It may be questioned therefore whether the mention of the booth is not a later interpolation, in which case iv.它可能因此受到質疑是否提到展位不是後來插值,在這種情況下,四。 5 should not be transposed after iii. 5不應移調後三。 4, but should be simply stricken out together with iv. 4 ,但應只是飽經了一起四。 4 and the mention of the east wind in iv. 4 ,提到東風在四。 8, so that the text would read simply: . 8 ,從而使案文簡單: 。 Verse 6 would then remain unchanged.新詩6將保持不變。

The last-named considerations, which were touched upon by Hitzig and Böhme, lead to the question whether Böhme (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," vii. 224 et seq.; for earlier attempts see Cheyne, lcp 2565, note) is correct in attempting to trace the Book of Jonah to various sources.過去命名的考慮,其中所涉及希齊格和伯梅,導致是否伯梅(在體育場的“雜誌, ”七。 224起。 ;較早嘗試見潮,液晶2565年,注)是正確的企圖追查約拿書各種來源。 Since his attempt the question has been answered everywhere in the negative, probably correctly.由於他的企圖的問題都已經回答是否定的,可能正確。 This popular story, in its present state, rather creates the impression that extraneous matter has been added here and there, as in the cases of the Book of Daniel and that of Esther, or that such additions were transferred to the Masoretic text from manuscripts going more into detail.這種頗受歡迎的故事,在目前的狀態,而造成的印象是不相干的問題已添加在這裡和那裡,如在案件但以理書和以斯帖,或者,這種增加被轉移到馬所拉文本手稿會更多的細節。 To this might be due the grotesque detail in ch.為了這可能是由於荒唐細節,在CH 。 iii.三。 that even the flocks and herds should take part in Nineveh's general penitence, by fasting in sackcloth, and perhaps also by uttering loud cries (verse 8).即使是羊群和牛群應參與尼納瓦的一般性懺悔,通過絕食喪服,也許還發出響亮的哭聲(詩8 ) 。 Yet the words (iii. 8) must not be simply stricken out as an addition, as Böhme, Wellhausen, and Nowack propose; for they now fit in admirably with the legendary tone of the whole.然而,關鍵詞( iii. 8 )絕不能簡單地打擊了作為此外,伯梅,豪森,以及Nowack建議;因為他們現在適合欽佩與傳奇色彩的基調整體。 Cheyne rightly refers to what Herodotus (ix. 24) recounts of the Persians.陳正確是指什麼希羅多德( ix. 24 )回憶的波斯人。 The psalm (ii. 3-10) was in any case added to the original composition later (comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, p. 42).禮讚(白介素3月10日)是在任何情況下,添加到原來的組成後( comp.體育場的“雜誌” , 1892年,第42頁) 。 As a prayer of thanks it is undeniably in the wrong place, since Jonah is still in the belly of the fish.作為一個禱告感謝它不可否認是放錯了地方,因為約拿還在肚子的魚。 That it was added at this point is probably due to the fact that the words (verse 2) offered a convenient connection, the interpolator wishing to give the exact words of the prayer.這是說在這一點上很可能是由於這樣一個事實,即詞(詩2 )提供了一個方便的方面,插值希望給予準確的話祈禱。 Originally verse 2 was immediately followed by verse 11 thus: "Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God out of the fish's belly; and the Lord spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land."原來詩2緊接著詩句11因此: “那麼喬納拉海祈禱上帝上帝了他的魚的腹部;和上帝spake你們的魚,它嘔吐了約拿的旱地。 ” The psalm certainly seemed appropriate, because it speaks, even if only metaphorically, of Jonah being cast into the midst of the seas, and of the salvation which is of the Lord.禮讚肯定似乎是適當的,因為它講,即使只是比喻,約拿被拋入海中,和救贖是上帝。 And it was perhaps added also partly because the book contained no connected speech of the prophet.這也許是部分原因也說這本書沒有連接講話先知。 The time at which this interpolation was added can be conjecturally fixed only after the sources and the origin of the book have been discussed.時間在這插值可以增加後,才conjecturally固定的來源和原產地的圖書進行了討論。

Age and Origin.年齡和起源。

The book does not bear the least evidence of having been written by the prophet or even during his time; and its age must be gathered from different indications.這本書不承擔至少證明了書面的先知,甚至在他的時間,其年齡必須收集來自不同的跡象。 It has long since been held that it is one of the latest books of the Hebrew canon.長期以來一直認為,這是一個最新的書籍希伯來佳能。 This is proved in the first place by the language, as considered lexically, grammatically, and stylistically (comp. on this point the commentaries, and books like SR Driver's "Introduction").這是證明擺在首位的語言,作為審議詞彙,語法和風格( comp.在這一點上的評注,書籍像簡驅動的“導言” ) 。 Only Esther, Chronicles, and Daniel are of later date.只有愛,編年史,和丹尼爾是稍後的日期。 Again, the way in which Nineveh is referred to shows that the city had long since vanished from the face of the earth and had faded into legend (comp. iii. 3).同樣地,以何種方式尼納瓦是指表明,城市早已消失在地球表面,並逐漸變成傳奇( comp.三。 3 ) 。 The King of Nineveh, also (iii. 6), could have been referred to only in a late myth; and the legendary atmosphere of the whole story, from beginning to end, is in accord with the length of time that had elapsed since the events recounted took place.國王的尼納瓦,還( iii. 6 ) ,可能已被提到只有在後期的神話和傳奇色彩的氣氛的故事,從開始到結束,是符合的時間長度,因為已經過去了事件敘述發生。 This becomes evident both in the episode of the fish which swallows a man and then casts him up alive after three days, and in that of the plant which in one night grows high enough to overshadow Jonah.這很明顯無論是在節目的魚燕子一個人,然後蒙上他活著後三天,在這其中的植物生長在一個晚上不夠高,掩蓋喬納。 These things might, it is true, be considered as divine miracles; but such an explanation can not be offered for the three days' time that it takes to pass through Nineveh (iii. 3), nor for the fasting, sackcloth, and penitent cries of the animals (iii. 7 et seq.), much less for the conception that an Israelitish prophet could preach penitence to the city of Nineveh, and that the king and the citizens would listen to him.這些事情都有可能,這是真的,被視為神聖的奇蹟,但這樣的解釋不能提供三天的時間,它需要通過尼納瓦( iii. 3 ) ,也為空腹,喪服,和懺悔呼聲動物( iii. 7起。 ) ,更不用說為概念,一個可以Israelitish先知講道懺悔的城市尼納瓦,而國王和公民將聽他的。 Everything about the story is, and was intended to be, miraculous and legendary.一切的故事,並打算,奇蹟和傳奇。

The Book of Jonah is a midrash.該約拿書是米德拉士。 The book must undoubtedly be placed in this class; and it remains only to see whether a more definite position can be assigned to it in the Midrashic literature.這本書無疑必須放置在這個類,它仍然只是為了查看是否有更明確的立場可以分配給它的Midrashic文獻。 The writer of this article has attempted to do this (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, pp. 40 et seq.), suggesting that the Book of Jonah is a section from the Midrash of the Book of the Kings mentioned in II Chron.筆者本文試圖做到這一點(在體育場的“雜誌” , 1892年,頁。 40起。 ) ,這表明約拿書是科從米德拉士的圖書中提到的王二專欄。 xxiv.二十四。 27, which in all probability was the chief source used by the author of the Chronicles. 27日,在所有可能的主要來源是使用作者的編年史。 The suggestion is supported by the simple fact that the prophet Jonah ben Amittai is referred to in no other place except in II Kings xiv.這一建議得到了一個簡單的事實,先知約拿本Amittai是指在任何其他地方,除非二國王十四。 25. Furthermore, it is highly improbable that at the time of the earliest Midrashic literature any other notice of him could have existed; and, finally, since the Book of Jonah begins without any superscription-it begins not simply with the word "wayehi," which introduces a period of time (comp.Ruth i. 1; Esth. i. 1), but with the phrase , which certainly assumes a previous mention of Jonah-the suggestion proposed is the most natural one. 25 。此外,它是極不可能的是,在時間上的最早Midrashic文學任何其他通知,他可能已經存在,以及最後,因為約拿書開始沒有任何superscription ,它開始不只是改為“ wayehi , “介紹了一段時間( comp.Ruth一1 ; Esth 。一, 1 ) ,但一語,這當然假設先前提到約拿,提出的建議是最自然的。 If this be correct, then Chronicles of course omitted the passage found in its source and mentioning the prophet, a circumstance that is explained by the fact that the scene is laid in the Northern Kingdom, with which Chronicles has nothing to do.如果這是正確的,那麼當然省略納尼亞通過在其來源和提先知,這種情況是由於這一事實,現場是埋設在英國北部,與歷代沒有任何關係。

The suggestion would be invalid if Winckler (see, however, Jonah, Biblical Data, end) and Cheyne were correct in maintaining that the Jonah of the story is a different person from that mentioned in the Book of Kings.該建議將是無效的,如果Winckler (見,但是,約拿,聖經數據,結束)和陳中保持正確的約拿的故事是一個不同的人說,在這本書中提到的國王。 It is impossible, however, to refute the suggestion by referring to the distinctive character of that midrash, as König (Introduction, p. 379) and Smend ("Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch." 1st ed., p. 409) have done.這是不可能的,然而,反駁的建議,指的是顯著特徵的米德拉士,因為柯尼格(導言,第379條)和Smend ( “ Alttestamentliche Religionsgesch 。 ”第1版。 ,第409 )有許多工作要做。 If extensive stories of personal events happening to Elijah have been included in the Book of Kings (eg, I Kings xvii., xix.), why should not the same have occurred (against König) in the case of Jonah?如果廣泛的故事的個人事件發生在以利亞已包括在圖書的國王(例如,我國王十七。 ,十九。 ) ,為什麼不應該發生的相同(對柯尼格)如約拿? And Smend's assertion that, compared with the Book of Jonah the Midrash of the Book of the Kings was "a work of such a different character that its (Jonah's) author would not have buried his book therein," can not be substantiated.和Smend的斷言,與約拿書的米德拉士的圖書國王是“一個這樣的工作性質不同,它(喬納)的作者不會埋葬他的著作有”無法得到證實。

On the contrary, just the passage in the midrash referring to Jonah seems to be closely related to the Book of Jonah as regards the contents.相反,只是通過在米德拉士提到約拿似乎是密切相關的約拿書至於內容。 The author of the Book of Kings puts into Yhwh's mouth warm words of mercy toward the sinful Northern Kingdom (II Kings xiv. 26 et seq.).本書的作者王投入Yhwh的嘴熱情洋溢的憐憫對罪孽深重北方英國(二國王十四。 26起。 ) 。 It is easy to see how a midrash could be added showing that this mercy was extended even to an alien, heathen empire.不難看出如何米德拉士可以增加顯示,這憐憫延長甚至外國人,異教徒帝國。 If there were any reasons for assuming the existence of another Midrash of the Book of the Kings than the one mentioned in Chronicles, the Book of Jonah might have been taken from the latter; but at present the writer of this article does not see what reasons could be brought forward in support of such a theory.如果有任何理由假設存在的另一個米德拉士書國王比編年史中提及的約拿書可能已經採取了從後者;但目前的作者本文沒有什麼理由可以提出,以支持這種理論。 In any case the connection of the book with II Kings xiv.在任何情況下,有關的書籍,二國王十四。 25 must be insisted upon. 25 ,必須堅持。 In agreement with the view here expressed, the date of the book would fall some time toward the end of the fourth or in the fifth century; such a date is supported by other considerations.在協議的看法,在這裡表示,日期的圖書將下降一段時間快要結束的第四或第五世紀;這一日期的支持,其他方面的考慮。

Inclusion in Canon.列入佳能。

The inclusion of the Book of Jonah among the Minor Prophets is paralleled by the inclusion of II Kings xviii.-xx.列入約拿書的小調平行的預言是列入二國王xviii. - XX元。 in the Book of Isaiah (ch. xxxvi.-xxxix.), but with this exception that in the latter (as also in Jer. lii.) historical passages are added to an already existing prophetical book, while an entirely new personality and an entirely new book are added to the canon of the Prophets with the Book of Jonah.在以賽亞書(章xxxvi. -三十九。 ) ,但這個例外,在後一種(如哲也。崇禮。 )歷史段落被添加到已經存在的預言書,而一個全新的個性和一個全新的圖書添加到佳能先知與約拿書。 How may this have happened?怎麼可能有這種事? Smend's assumption (lc), that the author wrote the book with the intention of adding it to the "Twelve Minor Prophets," may be set aside, for the styles of the two differ too widely, as noted above; nor, if that had been the intention, would it have been necessary to introduce a psalm in order to make the book fit into its surroundings: there are numerous examples to show that the writers of later periods knew how to reproduce the style of the Prophets when they desired to do so. Smend的假設(立法會) ,作者寫這本書的意圖添加到“十二小先知, ”可能會被撤銷,以風格不同的兩個太廣泛,如上所述;也不,如果有的意圖,如果有必要引入詩篇,以使這本書融入周圍環境:有許多例子表明,作家後期知道如何複製的樣式先知當他們想要做因此。 On the other hand, it can not have been the intention of inserting stories of the Prophets in the books of the Prophets; for if it had been, the "Earlier Prophets" would have offered the right place therefor.另一方面,它不能被插入的意圖故事先知的書籍先知;如果已為“早期先知”將提供合適的地點的說明。 This is proved in the case of I Kings xiii., a story, relating to a prophet, which has many points of similarity to the story of Jonah and is of about the same length.這是證明的情況下王十三。 ,一個故事,有關先知,其中有許多相似點的故事和喬納是相同的長度。 It likewise is probably derived from the Midrash of the Book of the Kings (comp. Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1892, xii. 49 et seq.) and was added later to the canonical Book of Kings.它也可能是來自米德拉士書國王( comp.體育場的“雜誌” , 1892年,十二。 49起。 )以及後來加入的典型書國王。 The reasons for the inclusion of Jonah in the "Twelve Minor Prophets" must be sought in the book itself. The fixing of the number of the "Minor Prophets" at twelve was certainly intentional, and the Book of Jonah must have been included in order to make up that number, although it does not harmonize with the other books, and originally belonged elsewhere.的原因,列入約拿在“十二小先知”必須尋求在這本書本身。確定了一些“小預言家”在12肯定是故意的,和約拿書必須已列入秩序來彌補這個數字,雖然沒有統一的其他書籍,原來屬於其他地方。 The necessity for including it arose, perhaps, only in later times; for the enumeration (without Jonah) of precisely eleven books in the canon is not entirely self-evident.必須包括它產生的,也許,只有在以後的時間;的枚舉(不約拿)的11本書正是在佳能並非完全不言自明的。 It need only be pointed out that Zech. ix.-xi.它僅需要指出的是, Zech 。 ix.-xi. and xii.-xiv.和xii.至十四。 are added very loosely to Zechariah, and may equally well have been regarded as independent books; that Malachi, on the contrary, at first probably had no superscription (comp. Mal. iii. 1), and might have been added as an appendix to Zechariah. According as these matters were arranged, it might occur that there were only eleven books found where formerly twelve had been counted. The passage in Num.增加非常鬆散的,以撒迦利亞,並可能同樣被視為獨立的書籍,這瑪拉基,相反,在第一個可能沒有superscription ( comp.條。三。 1 ) ,並有可能被添加作為附錄撒迦利亞。根據這些事情安排了,它可能會發生,有11本書只在那裡發現了原12個。該通道數。 R. xviii.河十八。 seems in fact to refer to a time when the Book of Jonah was not included in the twelve Prophets.似乎實際上指的時候,約拿書中不包括12先知。

Purpose and Teachings.宗旨和教義。

It becomes necessary to inquire into the purpose and teaching of the book, because of the fact that it is not a historical narrative, but a midrash, and also because of its conclusion.有必要進行調查的目的和教學的書籍,因為這樣一個事實,即它不是一個歷史敘事,而是一種米德拉士,還因為它的結論。 The whole story ends with the lesson received by Jonah, the purpose of the book having thus been accomplished; and as one can not follow the effects of this lesson on Jonah's further career (unlike the story of Elijah in I Kings xix.), the lesson itself is in reality addressed to the reader, ie, to the Jewish congregation.整個故事的最後一課收到約拿,其目的有這樣的書已經完成,並不能作為一個後續的影響,這個教訓對約拿的進一步的職業生涯(不同於以利亞的故事在王十九。 )中,教訓本身實際上是在給讀者,即猶太人聚集。 It is not probable that the story was carried on further in its original place in the Midrash of the Book of the Kings.這不是可能的,這個故事是關於進一步在其原產地在米德拉士書國王。

This short story, as Wellhausen has best expressed it, is directed "against the impatience of the Jewish believers, who are fretting because, notwithstanding all predictions, the antitheocratic world-empire has not yet been destroyed;-because Yhwh is still postponing His judgment of the heathen, giving them further time for repentance. Yhwh, it is hinted, is hoping that they will turn from their sins in the eleventh hour; and He has compassion for the innocent ones, who would perish with the guilty."這個簡短的故事,因為最好的豪森已表示它,是針對“對不耐煩的猶太信徒,誰是擔心,因為,儘管所有的預測,該antitheocratic世界帝國尚未被摧毀; ,因為Yhwh仍然推遲他的判斷的異教徒,使他們有更多時間進行懺悔。 Yhwh ,這是暗示,是希望他們會從他們的罪孽在最後一刻,他也同情無辜的,誰滅亡的有罪。 “ In agreement with this synopsis of the purpose, the book is closely akin to and emphasizes the basic passage, II Kings xiv.同意這一大綱的目的,這本書是相近,並強調基本通行,二國王十四。 26 et seq., which also shows, and as it were explains, how it is possible that Yhwh can grant a prophecy of good things to come to the disloyal Northern Kingdom and to a king who, according to verse 24, persists in all the sins of all his predecessors, and can then fulfil what He has promised. 26起。 ,這也表明,作為它的解釋,它如何可能Yhwh可以授予一個預言的好事來英國北部的不忠和國王誰,根據詩句24 ,堅持一切罪孽所有他的前任,然後履行他的承諾。 This purpose harmonizes perfectly with the idealized description of the piety of the heathenmariners (ch. i.) and of the king and the inhabitants of Nineveh (ch. iii.).為此和諧完美的理想化描述虔誠的heathenmariners (章一)和國王和居民尼納瓦(章第三節。 ) 。 The book is therefore in a way the negative pole to the positive pole in the Book of Ruth.這本書,因此在某種程度上的負極的正極在路得記。 The first shows why Yhwh does not destroy the heathen; the second, why and how He can even accept them among His people and bring them to high honor.首先說明為什麼Yhwh不摧毀異教徒;第二,為什麼以及如何他甚至可以接受他的人,將他們的榮譽。 Both these tendencies became apparent in Israel after the puristic reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah, which rigorously drew a sharp line between Israel and the pagan world.這兩種傾向很明顯,以色列在簡約改革以斯拉和尼希米記,其中嚴格提請急劇線和以色列之間的異教世界。 The opposition to this dominating doctrine was clothed in the unassuming but all the more effective garb of poetry and of story, as has happened time and again in similar cases.反對這一理論是主導溫飽的謙遜,但所有的更有效的外衣的詩歌和故事,因為發生了一次又一次地在類似案件。 Cheyne rightly points to the parable of the good Samaritan in the New Testament and to the story of the three rings in Lessing's "Nathan der Weise."陳正確地指出了寓言的好心的撒瑪利亞人在新約,並在故事的三個環萊辛的“彌敦道之魏澤。 ”

Details of the Story.細節的故事。

All the details of the book are subordinated and made subservient to this one purpose; and there is every probability that it was invented only for that purpose, whereby of course appeal to other, well-known motives also is not excluded.所有的細節,這本書是服從並屈從於這一目的之一;和有各種可能性,這是唯一的發明用於這一目的,其中當然呼籲其他,眾所周知的動機還沒有被排除在外。 The story of Elijah on Horeb (I Kings xix.) furnished the model for the general outline, and for the lesson taught the prophet, who was filled with doubts and was weary of his office.以利亞的故事在何烈(王十九。 )提供了模型的總體綱要,並為教訓先知,誰是充滿了懷疑和厭倦了他的辦公室。 No search was necessary for the name of the hero, which was given in I Kings xiv.沒有搜索是必要的名稱的英雄,這是由於在王十四。 25. 25 。 The fact that "Jonah" means "dove" is a coincidence which must not be interpreted allegorically, as Cheyne has done.事實上, “約拿”是指“鴿子”是一個巧合,必須不能被解釋allegorically ,因為陳有許多工作要做。 Nor must the fact that Israel is spoken of as a prophet in Deutero-Isaiah and is called "Servant of Yhwh" be used in order to attenuate the personality of Jonah to an allegory of the people of Israel; nor that he was swallowed by the sea, to an allegory of the Exile.也不能一個事實,即以色列正在談到作為一個先知在Deutero -以賽亞和被稱為“僕人Yhwh ”使用,以減輕人的人格,約拿的寓言以色列人民的,也不說,他吞下了海,一個寓言的流亡生活。 All these are comparisons, it is true, which may easily be made and which are fully justified as secondary considerations, but they must not be allowed to confuse the simplicity of the original story.所有這些都是比較,這是事實,這可能很容易地取得的,哪些是完全有道理的是次要的考慮,但他們決不允許混淆簡單原始的故事。

Nor must mythological motives, although they may easily be deduced from the story, be regarded as constitutive elements that were introduced consciously.也不能神話動機,雖然他們可能很容易地推導出的故事,被視為構成要素,介紹了自覺。 This applies to the Andromeda myth as well as to that of Oannes, of Nineveh as the "Fish City" ("nun"), etc., and to the chaotic dragon Tiamat, which has recently become a favorite myth with scholars (comp. Cheyne, lc, sv "Jonah," for details).這一規定適用於仙女座神話以及與Oannes ,尼尼微稱之為“魚市” ( “尼姑” )等,以及混沌龍Tiamat ,最近成為最喜愛的神話學者( comp.陳術,希沃特“約拿”的細節) 。 The author of the story was of course familiar with all the current conceptions regarding the sea; and he probably had in mind, whether consciously or not, the myths and sagas clinging to it (comp. the rich collection of material relating to these myths in Hermann Usener, "Die Sintfluthsagen," 1899).作者的故事當然是熟悉所有當前的觀念有關海上,他可能已經考慮到,無論是自覺或不,神話和傳奇抱住它( comp.富國收集有關的材料在這些神話赫爾曼Usener , “模具Sintfluthsagen , ” 1899年) 。 It was probably the intention of the author, however, to confine himself to the narration of a story which, dealing with the prophet Jonah known to tradition, should be a vehicle for the lesson he meant to teach.這可能是作者的意圖,但是,僅限於敘述一個故事,處理先知約拿已知的傳統,應該是一種手段,教訓他的意思任教。

Later Uses and Interpretation.後來利用和解釋。

In the New Testament Jesus (Luke xi. 29-32) makes use of the book in its original sense, referring to the people of Nineveh as examples of the faith and repentance that he missed among his contemporaries, while refusing them the miracle that they were asking at his hands. The endeavor to find more than this simple reference in the "sign of Jonas," which is akin to the tendency of the artificial inter pretations mentioned above, has led in the parallel passage (Matt. xii. 39-41) to the interpolation (verse 40), according to which Jonah's three days in the belly of the fish are a prophecy of the three days that Jesus would spend in the grave.在新約耶穌(路加福音十一。 29-32 )利用本書,其原始意義上說,指的是人民的尼納瓦作為例子的誠意和懺悔,他錯過了他的同時代人,而拒絕他們,他們的奇蹟被要求在他的手中。事業找到超過這個簡單提及“跡象文” ,這是類似的傾向,人工間pretations如上所述,已導致在平行通道(太十二。 39 - 41 )的插值(詩40 ) ,根據該約拿的三天腹部魚是一種預言的三天,耶穌將花費在嚴重。 The early Christian Church more correctly elevates Jonah's rescue from the belly of the fish into the standing type of the resurrection from the grave, a type which is found in all the plastic representations that decorate the early Christian sarcophagi and other monuments.早期基督教會更正確地提升約拿的救援從肚子的魚到常設型的復活的嚴重,這是一種存在於所有的塑料表述裝飾基督教早期石棺和其他紀念物。

As far as can be seen, the canonicity of the book has never been seriously doubted.至於可以看出,正規的書從來沒有受到嚴重懷疑。 One might rather find in the Midrash ba-Midbar and perhaps also in Ta'an.人們可能會發現,而在米德拉士托巴恩Midbar ,也許還Ta'an 。 ii.二。 a vague reference to a time when the book was classed, not with the "Nebi'im," but with the "Ketubim."一個模糊的提法的時候,這本書歸類,而不是與“ Nebi'im ” ,但與“ Ketubim 。 ” In that place it would at least find a sufficient counterpart in Ruth. This, however, is only a remote probability, and does not touch the question of the origin of the work.在該地方這樣做至少可以找到足夠對應露絲。然而,這僅僅是一個偏遠的概率,並沒有觸及問題的根源的工作。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Budde埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾布德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

The commentaries contained in Lange's Bibelwerk (Kleinert) and in the Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch; Hitzig, 4th ed., 1904, by H. Steiner; those of GA Smith in his Twelve Prophets; of J. Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, 1892, 3d ed.的評注中蘭格的Bibelwerk (萊內特)和Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊;希齊格,第4版。 , 1904年,閣下斯坦納;這些赤黴素史密斯在他的12個預言;的學者豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten , 1892年,三維教育署。 1898; and of Nowack in his Kleine Propheten, 1897, 2d ed. 1898年;和Nowack在他的克萊納Propheten , 1897年,二維版。 1904; Kalisch, Bible Studies, ii.; TK Cheyne, in Theological Review, 1877, pp. 1904年; Kalisch ,聖經研究,二。 ;傳統知識進益,在神審查, 1877年,頁。 211-217; CHH Wright, Biblical Studies, 1886; JS Bloch, Studien zur Gesch. 211-217 ; CHH賴特,聖經學, 1886年;爵士布洛赫, Studien楚Gesch 。 der Sammlung der Althebräischen Litteratur, 1875.EGHKB德國美術館之Althebräischen Litteratur , 1875.EGHKB


Jonah約拿

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Reason for Flight.原因飛行。

The Ship.該船。

The Fish.魚。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Prophet in the days of Jeroboam II.; son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He is a historical personage; for, according to II Kings xiv.先知在天耶羅波安二。 ;兒子Amittai的迦特- hepher 。他是一個歷史人物;的,根據二國王十四。 25, he predicted in Yhwh's name the extent to which Jeroboam II. 25日,他預測在Yhwh的名字在何種程度上耶羅波安二。 would restore the boundaries of the Northern Kingdom, "from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain."將恢復的邊界北王國“ ,從進入哈馬給大海的平原。 ” Thewording of the passage may also imply that Jonah's prophecy was uttered even before Jeroboam II., perhaps in the time of Jehoahaz (thus Klostermann to II Kings xiii. 4). Thewording的通行也可能意味著約拿的預言的話甚至在耶羅波安二。 ,也許在時間Jehoahaz (從而Klostermann ,以二王十三。 4 ) 。 In any case Jonah is one of the prophets who advised the house of Jehu, and it is not unlikely that with him the series of prophets that began with Elijah came to a close.在任何情況下,喬納是誰先知告訴眾議院Jehu ,也不是不可能與他的一系列先知開始的以利亞來了。 The next succeeding prophet, Amos of Tekoa, whose activity fell in the reign of Jeroboam II., begins an entirely new series, as regards not only his position toward the king and the people, but also his method of communication, in that he resorted to writing instead of the spoken word.在下一先知阿摩司的Tekoa ,其活性下降統治耶羅波安二。 ,開始一個全新的系列,至於他的立場不僅對國王和人民,而且他的通信方式,在他訴諸以書面形式,而不是口頭語言。

Jonah belongs only seemingly to the prophets who were also writers; for the book bearing his name does not afford the least evidence of having been written by the prophet himself.只屬於約拿的預言似乎誰也作家;為這本書同時他的名字不能給予至少證明了書面的先知本人。 It merely tells his history, as the Books of the Kings tell of Elijah, Elisha, Micaiah, or Yimlah ben Zimlah.它只是告訴他的歷史,作為圖書國王告訴的以利亞,以利沙, Micaiah ,或Yimlah本Zimlah 。 The book, however, doubtless refers to the same prophet Jonah as is mentioned in II Kings xiv.這本書,但是,毫無疑問是指同一先知約拿所述的二國王十四。 25; for the name of both is Jonah ben Amittai. 25 ;的名稱均是約拿本Amittai 。 This identity has recently been denied by Hugo Winckler ("Altorientalische Forschungen," 1900, ii. 260 et seq.; see also Cheyne in "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 2570), but Winckler's reasoning, however ingenious, does not suffice to make his theory more than possible.這種身份,最近被剝奪了雨果Winckler ( “古代Forschungen , ” 1900年,二。 260起。又見潮在“ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ”二。 2570年) ,但Winckler的推理,但是巧妙的,是不夠的使他的理論可能超過。 It is one and the same prophet that is mentioned in both places: in the superscription to the Book of Jonah, with the name of his father; in the historical narrative, with the name of his home also.這是同一個預言中提到的兩個地方:在superscription的約拿書,名稱的父親;在歷史敘事,以他的名字也在家。 Indeed, the account in the Book of Jonah depends on that in the Book of Kings; nor has it been proved, as some have held, that the Book of Jonah was written to account for the non-fulfilment of the predictions against Nineveh contained in the prophecy of Nahum, and that the Jonah of Kings and the Jonah of the prophetical book can consequently not be identical.事實上,該帳戶在約拿書取決於在這本書中的國王,也沒有得到證實,如一些人所持有,該約拿書被寫入帳戶不履行的預測中所載對尼納瓦內厄姆的預言,而且約拿國王和約拿的預言書可以因此不相同。 Winckler retracted his opinion in "Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung," 1903, p. Winckler收回了他的意見“匯報Evangelisch - Lutherische Kirchenzeitung , ” 1903年,第 1224.EGHKB

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The tribal affinities of Jonah constitute a point of controversy; generally assigned to Asher, he is claimed for Zebulun by R. Johanan on the strength of his place of residence (II Kings xiv. 24); these opinions were harmonized by the assumption that his mother was of Asher while his father was of Zebulun (Yer. Suk. v. 1; Gen. R. xcviii. 11; Yalḳ., Jonah, 550; Abravanel's commentary to Jonah). According to another authority his mother was the woman of Zarephath that entertained Elijah (ib.; Pirḳe R. El. xxxiii.).部落親約拿構成的爭議;通常分配給阿舍爾,他聲稱Zebulun由河Johanan的力量,他的居住地(二國王十四。 24 ) ;這些意見是統一的,前提是他的母親的阿舍爾而他的父親是Zebulun ( Yer.淑。訴1 ;將軍河xcviii 。 11 ; Yalḳ 。 ,約拿, 550 ;阿布拉瓦內爾的評注喬納) 。另據權威他的母親是女人的Zarephath的娛樂伊萊賈( ib. ; Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。三十三。 ) 。 As this prophet, who was also of priestly descent, would have profaned himself if he had touched the corpse of a Jew, it was concluded that this woman, whose son (Jonah) he "took to his bosom" and revived, was a non-Jew (Gen. R. lc).由於這先知,誰也神父後裔,將褻瀆自己感動了,如果他的屍體被一名猶太人,得出的結論是,這個女人,他的兒子(喬納) ,他“在他的懷裡”和恢復,是一個非猶太人(將軍河信用證) 。 He received his prophetic appointment from Elisha, under whose orders he anointed Jehu (II Kings ix.; Ḳimḥhi, ad loc.; and Ẓemaḥ Dawid).他獲得任命由以利沙先知,在他的命令,他受膏者Jehu (二國王九。 ; Ḳimḥhi ,廣告祿。 ;和Ẓemaḥ大衛) 。 He is said to have attained a very advanced age (more than 120 years according to Seder 'Olam; 130 according to Sefer Yuḥasin), while Ecclesiastes Rabbah viii.據說,他已達到了非常先進的年齡(超過120年來根據Seder ' Olam ; 130根據Sefer Yuḥasin ) ,而傳道書安曼八。 10 holds that the son (Jonah) of the Zarephath widow never died. 10認為,兒子(喬納)的Zarephath遺孀卻永不凋謝。 The "holy spirit" descended on him while he participated in the festivities of the last day of Sukkot (Yer. Suk. v. 1, 55a).的“聖靈”降臨在他身上,他參加了慶祝活動的最後一天(住棚Yer.清。訴1 ,第55A ) 。 His wife is adduced as an example of a woman voluntarily assuming duties not incumbent on her, for she is remembered as having made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem on the "regel" (holiday; Yer. 'Erubin x. 1, 26a; "Seder ha-Dorot"; and "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah").他的妻子是舉出一個例子,一個女人自願承擔的職責沒有義不容辭的她,因為她記得,作出了耶路撒冷朝聖的“草” (假日;層。 Erubin十1 , 26A條; “ Seder公頃- Dorot “和” Shalshelet河卡巴拉“ ) 。

Reason for Flight.原因飛行。

Jonah was induced to flee because, after having won his reputation as a true prophet ( = "one whose words always came true") by the fulfilment of his prediction in the days of Jeroboam II.喬納是因為誘導逃離後,贏得了他的聲譽作為一個真正的先知( = “ 1的話永遠是真正的” )的履行他的預測在未來的日子的耶羅波安二。 (II Kings xiv.), he had come to be distrusted and to be called a false prophet, the reason being that when sent to Jerusalem to foretell its doom its inhabitants repented and the disaster did not come. Knowing that the Ninevites also were on the point of repenting ("ḳerobe teshubah"), he anticipated that among them, too, he would earn the reputation of being a false prophet; he therefore resolved to flee to a place where the glory of God, or His Shekinah, could not be found (Pirḳe R. El. x.; but comp. Ibn Ezra's commentary). (二國王十四。 )時,他已經到了被信任和被稱為假先知,其原因是,在送往耶路撒冷的末日預言其居民懺悔和災害沒有來。知道尼尼微也對點的懺悔( “ ḳerobe teshubah ” ) ,他預計,其中,太,他將獲得的聲譽,是一個假先知,因此他決心逃離的地方神的榮耀,或其Shekinah ,不能找到( Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。十;但補償。伊以斯拉的評注) 。 The phrase in Jonah iii.這句話在約拿三。 1, "and the word of God came unto Jonah the second time," is interpreted by Akiba, however, to imply that God spoke only twice to him; therefore the "word of Yhwh" to him in II Kings xiv. 1 , “和上帝的話,來到你們約拿的第二次” ,是解釋秋葉然而,意味著上帝以他的只有兩次,因此該“字Yhwh ”給他的二國王十四。 25 has no reference to a prophecy which Jonah delivered in the days of Jeroboam II., but must be taken in the sense that as at Nineveh Jonah's words changed evil to good, so under Jeroboam Israel experienced a change of fortune (Yeb. 98a). 25日沒有提及預言這約拿交付天的耶羅波安二。 ,但必須採取的,即在尼納瓦約拿的話改變了邪惡好,下耶羅波安以色列經歷了一個變化的財富( Yeb.第98A ) 。

When Jonah went to Joppa he found no ship, for the vessel on which he had intended taking passage had sailed two days before; but God caused a contrary wind to arise and the ship was driven back to port (Zohar, Ḥayye Sarah).當約拿到約帕,他沒有發現船舶的船隻上,他本來打算考慮通過了航行的前兩天,但上帝造成相反風力產生和推動船舶回港(佐哈爾, Ḥayye薩拉) 。 At this Jonah rejoiced, regarding it as indicating that his plan would succeed, and in his joy he paid his passage-money in advance, contrary to the usual custom, which did not require its payment until the conclusion of the voyage.在此喬納拉海歡欣鼓舞,認為這是表明他的計劃將取得成功,並在他的喜悅,他支付他的通行貨幣提前,這違背了通常的慣例,並不要求其付款,直到最後的航程。

According to some he even paid the full value of the ship, amounting to 4,000 gold denarii (Yalḳ., lc; Ned. 38a).據一些他甚至支付的全部價值的船舶,共計4000枚denarii ( Yalḳ. ,立法會;內。 38A條) 。 But all this happened to teach him the fallacy of his conclusion that God could be evaded (Yalḳ., lc; and Rashi, ad loc.), for the contrary wind affected his ship only; all others on the sea at that time proceeded uninterruptedly on their courses.但是,所有這些都發生在教導他的謬論,他的結論,即上帝可以迴避( Yalḳ. ,立法會和Rashi ,廣告同上。 ) ,為風的影響,相反他的船,僅其他所有的海面上,當時進行不間斷他們的課程。

The Ship.該船。

The storm which overtook Jonah is quoted as one of three most noteworthy storms (Eccl. R. i. 6).風暴取代約拿是引述三個最值得注意的風暴( Eccl.河一6 ) 。 After the sailors' prayers to their idols, as well as their efforts to turn about and lighten the ship, had proved futile, the crew finally was compelled to believe Jonah's statement that this calamity had befallen their craft on his account, and assented to his petition to be thrown overboard. Praying that they might not be held accountable for his death, they first lowered him far enough for the waters to touch his knees. Seeing that the storm subsided, they drew him back into the ship, whereupon the sea at once rose again.在船員的祈禱他們的偶像,以及他們的努力使約和減輕船舶,已證明是徒勞的,船員終於被迫相信約拿的說法,這場災難已降臨自己的手藝,他的帳戶,並同意他請願書是扔到海裡。祈求他們可能不會被追究責任對他的死亡,他們首先降低他遠遠不夠的水域觸摸他的膝蓋。看到風暴平息,他們把他回到船上,在這種情況下出海一旦再次上升。 They repeated this experiment several times, each time lowering him deeper, but taking him out again, and each time with the same result, until finally they threw him into the sea (Yalḳ., lc).他們反复實驗了好幾次,每次他更深的降低,但同時他又和每一次與相同的結果,直到最後,他們把他扔到大海( Yalḳ. ,立法會) 。

The Fish.魚。

The fish which swallowed Jonah had been created in the very beginning of the world in order to perform this work (Zohar, Wayaḳhel; Pirḳe R. El. x.; see also Gen. R. v. 5).該魚吞食約拿中設立了一開始的世界,以便能夠進行這項工作(佐哈爾, Wayaḳhel ; Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。十;又見將軍河五5 ) 。 Therefore this fish had so large a mouth and throat that Jonah found it as easy to pass into its belly as he would have found it to enter the portals of a very large synagogue (ib.).因此,這種魚有這麼大的嘴和喉嚨的約拿發現它很容易進入其腹部,他會發現它進入門戶網站的一個非常大的猶太教堂( ib. ) 。 It had eyes which were as large as windows, and lamps lit up its interior.它的眼睛是一樣大窗戶,電燈照亮了它的內部。 According to another opinion, a great pearl suspended in the entrails of the fish enabled Jonah to see all that was in the sea and in the abyss.另一種意見認為,一個偉大的珍珠懸在內臟的魚啟用約拿看到這一切是在海上和深淵。 The fish informed Jonah that he was to be devoured by Leviathan.魚通知約拿,他將被吞沒的利維坦。 Jonah asked to be taken to the monster, when he would save both his own life and that of the fish. Meeting Leviathan, he exhibited the "seal of Abraham," whereupon the monster shot away a distance of two days.約拿要求採取的怪物,屆時他將節省自己的生活和魚。會議利維坦,他展示了“印章的亞伯拉罕, ”在這種情況下,怪物的距離拍攝了兩天。 To reward him for this service the fish showed Jonah all the wondrous things in the ocean (eg, the path of the Israelites across the Red Sea; the pillars upon which the earth rests).以獎勵他為這項服務的魚表明喬納拉海所有令人驚奇的事情在海洋中(例如,道路的以色列人跨越紅海;支柱賴以地球在於) 。 Thus he spent three days and three nights in the belly of the fish, but would not pray.因此,他花了三天三夜的肚子的魚,但不會祈禱。 God then resolved to put him into another fish where he would be less comfortable.上帝然後決心讓他到另一個魚時,他將不舒服。 A female fish quick with young approached the male fish in which Jonah was, threatening to devour both unless Jonah were transferred to her, and announcing her divine orders to that effect. Leviathan confirmed her story at the request of both fishes, and then Jonah was ejected from one fish into the over-filled belly of the other.一位女青年與魚類快速接近雄魚在約拿是,威脅要吃掉兩個除非約拿被移交給她,並宣布她的神聖命令的效果。利維坦證實她的故事的要求,既魚,然後是喬納逐出一個魚進入了充滿腹部其他。 Cramped for room and otherwise made miserable, Jonah finally prayed, acknowledging the futility of his efforts to escape from God (Ps. cxxxix.).擁擠的房間和其他方式悲慘,喬納最後祈禱,承認是徒勞的努力,擺脫上帝( Ps. CXXXIX號。 ) 。 But he was not answered until he had promised to redeem his pledge to capture Leviathan.但他沒有回答,直到他答應兌現他的承諾捕捉利維坦。 As soon as God had his promise, He beckoned to the fish and it spat out Jonah upon the dry land, a distance of 968 parasangs.當上帝自己的諾言,他招手的魚類和它吐了約拿的旱地,距離968 parasangs 。 When the crew of the ship saw this they immediately threw away their idols, sailed back to Joppa, went to Jerusalem, and submitted to circumcision, becoming Jews (Yalḳ., lc; Tan., Wayiḳra, ed. Stettin, 1865, pp. 370 et seq.; see also Pirḳe R. El. x.).當該船船員看到這個他們就立即丟掉自己的偶像,乘船回到約帕,前往耶路撒冷,並提交給割禮,成為猶太人( Yalḳ. ,立法會;談。 , Wayiḳra ,教育署。斯德丁, 1865年,頁。 370起。又見Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。十) 。

In the Zohar (Wayaḳhel) it is related that the fish died as soon as Jonah entered, but was revived after three days.在佐哈爾( Wayaḳhel )這是有關的,這些魚死亡喬納盡快進入,但三天後恢復。 When Jonah was thrown into the sea his soul immediately left his body and soared up to God's throne, where it was judged and sent back.當約拿被扔進大海立即離開他的靈魂他的身體和飆升了上帝的寶座,那是判斷並送回。 As soon as it touched the mouth of the fish on its way back to the body, the fish died, but was later restored to life.一旦觸及口的魚的道路上回到身體,魚死亡,但後來恢復了生命。 The fish's name is given in "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah" as (ie, "cetos" = "whale").這種魚的名字是在“ Shalshelet河卡巴拉”的(即“ cetos ” = “鯨” ) 。 The fate of Jonah is allegorized in the Zohar (Wayaḳhel) as illustrative of the soul's relation to the body and to death.約拿的命運是allegorized在佐哈爾( Wayaḳhel )作為說明性的靈魂的有關機構和死亡。 In the assumption that Jonah is identical with the Messiah, the son of Joseph, the influence of Christian thought is discernible (comp. Matt. xii. 39-41).在假定喬納是相同的彌賽亞的兒子約瑟夫,基督教思想的影響是辨別( comp.馬特。十二。 39-41 ) 。

The gourd of Jonah was enormous.該葫蘆約拿是巨大的。 Before its appearance Jonah was tortured by the heat and by insects of all kinds, his clothes having been burned by the heat of the belly of the fish; he was tortured again after the worm had caused the gourd to wither.在其外觀約拿被折磨的熱量和各種昆蟲,他的衣服已被燒毀的熱腹部的魚類;他受到酷刑後再次蠕蟲造成了葫蘆至枯萎。 This brought Jonah to pray that God should be a merciful ruler, not a strict judge (Pirḳe R. El. x.; Yalḳ. 551).SSEGH這使約拿祈禱上帝應該是仁慈的統治者,而不是一個嚴格的法官( Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。十; Yalḳ 。 551 ) 。 SSEGH

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Budde, Solomon Schechter埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾布德,索羅門謝克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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