Book of Job約伯記

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Job, in the Old Testament of the Bible, is a complex wisdom writing that uses a blend of prose and poetry in dramatic form to explore the perennial problem of innocent suffering and God's justice.該約伯記,在舊約聖經,是一項複雜的智慧編寫,利用混合的散文和詩歌的戲劇形式,探討長期存在的無辜痛苦和上帝的正義。 The principal figure of the book is Job, a pious Jew afflicted with disease and stripped of all his goods.主要數字是這本書是就業,一個虔誠的猶太人患有疾病,並剝奪他的所有貨物。 The free and imaginative transformations of the Job figure are literarily and intellectually comparable to Shakespeare's treatment of Hamlet and Goethe's use of Faust.免費的和富有想像力的轉變就業數字是literarily和智力比較莎士比亞的治療哈姆雷特和歌德的浮士德使用。 The identity of the author, usually dated 600 - 400 BC, is completely unknown.作者的身分,通常月600 -公元前400年,完全是未知的。

Throughout the drama, Job asserts his innocence of wrong, thereby rejecting the traditional view that suffering is the result of sin.在整個戲劇,就業聲稱自己是無辜的錯誤,從而拒絕了傳統的觀點,即痛苦的原因是罪過。 The humble and patient Job who bears his sufferings as proofs of piety, however, becomes the raging and insistent Job pressing relentlessly for divine vindication in the dialogue that forms the main part of the book (chaps. 3 - 31).謙虛和耐心的工作誰承擔他的痛苦作為證明的虔誠,然而,成為肆虐和堅持工作的緊迫無情地證明了神的對話形式的主要部分,這本書(第3 - 31 ) 。 The argument is pursued through three cycles of speeches in which Job's three friends - Eliphaz, Bilbad, and Zophar - chide the hero and he, in answering them, challenges God.其論點是通過三個階段的演講中,就業的三個朋友- Eliphaz , Bilbad ,並Zophar -責備他的英雄,在回答他們,挑戰上帝。 Job's final self defense and call upon the deity is answered by God's speech from a whirlwind in which Job is invited to trust in the divine omniscience and power.工作的最後自衛,並呼籲神的答案是上帝的講話從一個旋風,其中的工作是信任的請神全知和力量。

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This direct experience of the mysteries of God leaves Job at peace with himself.這種直接的經驗,神秘的上帝葉工作,和平與本人。 Although no final solution to the problem is offered, the author clearly rejects traditional explanations of suffering.雖然沒有最終解決問題提供,作者明確反對傳統解釋的痛苦。 It is a moot point whether he offers a positive answer to questions about suffering and divine justice.這是一個模擬點他是否提供了一個積極的回答問題的苦難和神聖的正義。

The unity of the book is debated.團結,這本書是辯論。 Many interpreters assign the prologue and epilogue to an earlier or later hand, and it is widely assumed that the poem on wisdom (chap. 28) and the speeches (chaps. 32 - 37) of a fourth friend (Elihu) inserted after the dialogues were added later, because they interrupt the flow of the argument.許多口譯指派序幕和尾聲,以較早或較晚的手,這是普遍認為,這首詩的智慧(第28章)和演講(第32 - 37 )的四分之一朋友(伊萊休)對話後插入後來又增加了,因為他們打斷的論點。

Norman K Gottwald諾曼K哥特瓦爾德

Bibliography 參考書目
R Gordis, The Book of God and Man (1965); LD Johnson, Out of the Whirlwind: The Major Message of Job (1971); H Morris, Remarkable Record of Job (1988). R Gordis ,這本書的上帝和人類( 1965年) ;勞工處不過,今天的旋風:主要訊息的工作( 1971年) ; H莫里斯顯著的記錄工作( 1988年) 。


Book of Job約伯記

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Prologue (1-2)序章( 1-2 )
  2. Job's complaint (3)工作的投訴( 3 )
  3. Debates between Job and three friends (4-31)辯論的工作和三個朋友( 4月31日)
  4. Speech of Elihu (32-37)講話伊萊休( 32-37 )
  5. Voice of God (38-41)語音神( 38-41 )
  6. Job's submission and restoration (42)工作提交和恢復( 42 )


Job工作

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Job, persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (qv). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him.就業,迫害,一個阿拉伯居住在主教誰的土地烏茲( qv ) 。雖然生活在一片巨大的繁榮,他突然受到了一系列的疼痛審判落在他。 Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity.在他所有的痛苦他堅持他的完整性。 Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before.上帝再次看望了他的豐富的憑證,他的善良,甚至更大的繁榮,他得到了比前。 He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11).他存活期間的審判一百四年,並死在一個良好的年老,一個例子後代的完整性( Ezek. 14時14分, 20歲)和耐心的順從下sorest災害(詹姆斯5時11分) 。 His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.他的歷史,到目前為止,因為它是已知的,記錄在他的著作。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Job約伯記

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon.偉大的各種不同的意見存在的作者這本書。從內部證據,如相似的情緒和語言的人的詩篇和諺語(見聚苯乙烯。 88和89 ) ,流行的想法, “智慧, “和的風格和個性的組成,它是假定一些人已在規定的時間內書面大衛和所羅門。 Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22).其他人則認為這是自己寫的作業,或由伊萊休,或以賽亞,或者更可能是通過摩西,誰是“學到的所有的智慧,埃及人,和強大的言行” (使徒行7點22分) 。 He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related.他有機會在米甸獲取的知識,有關的事實。 But the authorship is altogether uncertain.但作者是完全不確定的。 As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature.至於這本書的特點,它是一個歷史的詩,最偉大的詩歌和sublimest的所有文獻。 Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious.工作是一個歷史的人,以及地方和名字是真正的而不是虛構的。 It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-replenished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology.這是“一個偉大的部分靈感聖經,一個天上,補給倉庫的舒適和指示,重男輕女聖經和珍貴古蹟的原始神學。

It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form. This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, BC 600 (Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19). The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age.這是舊約什麼書信的羅馬書是新的。 “這是一個教學敘事在戲劇性的形式。這本書顯然是眾所周知的天厄澤克爾,公元前600 ( Ezek. 14時14分) 。它形成了部分聖經教導我們的主用和他的使徒,和被稱為部分靈感字( Heb. 12時05 ; 1心病。 3時19分) 。這個問題的書是審判就業,其時機,性質,耐力,和問題。該展覽的和諧的真理啟示和交易的普羅維登斯,這被認為是一次不可思議的,公正和仁慈的。它顯示了幸福的真正虔誠,甚至因疼痛苦難,因此,部長們安慰,並希望審判信徒每個年齡。

It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).這是一本書的多方面指導,並實現盈利的原則,為責備,改正,並指示在正義( 2蒂姆。 3:16 ) 。 It consists of, (1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).它包括, ( 1 ) 。歷史簡介散文(章1,2 ) 。 (2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6). Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. ( 2 。 )的爭議及其解決方案,在詩歌(章3-42:6 ) 。職位的desponding訴苦(第三章)是爭議之際,這是進行中的三門課程之間的對話和他的三個項目朋友們。 The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27).第一期培訓班開始給爭議(章4月14日) ;第二次增長的爭議( 15-21 ) ;和第三的高度爭議( 22-27 ) 。 This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly.其次是解決爭議的發言伊萊休和地址耶和華,其次是工作的謙卑懺悔( 42:1-6 ) ,他自己的過錯和愚蠢。 (3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15). ( 3 。 )丙級是歷史的結論,在散文( 42:7-15 ) 。 Sir JW Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."京華道森爵士的“ Expositor ”說: “現在看來,語言和神學約伯記可以更好地解釋假定這是一個部分Minean [南方沙特阿拉伯]文學獲得了摩西在米甸比任何其他方式。也同意這一觀點比任何其他的參考自然物體,藝術的挖掘,以及其他事項。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Job工作

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

One of the books of the Old Testament, and the chief personage in it.一個書籍舊約和首席人物了。 In this article it is primarily the book which is treated.在這篇文章主要是這本書是治療。 As opportunity, however, occurs, and so far as is permissible, Job himself will be considered.為契機,然而,發生,到目前為止這是允許的,就業也將予以考慮。 The subject will be discussed under the following heads: I. Position of the Book in the Canon; II.這一主題將討論以下元首:一位置的圖書在佳能;二。 Authority; III.管理局;三。 The Characters of the Poem; IV.的字詩;四。 Contents; V. Arrangement of the Main, Poetic Portion of the Book; VI.內容;五,安排的主要,詩歌部分圖書;六。 Design of the Book; VII.設計書;七。 Teaching as to the Future Life; VIII.教學至於將來的生活;八。 Integrity of the Book; IX.完整的圖書;九。 Condition of the Text; X. Technical Skill of the Author and the Metre; XI.條件文本;十,技術技能的作者和米;十一。 Time of its Composition.當時其組成。

I. POSITION OF THE BOOK IN THE CANON一,立場書,佳能

In the Hebrew Bible Psalms, Proverbs, and Job are always placed together, the Psalms coming first, while Job is put between the other two or, at times, comes last.在希伯來文聖經詩篇,諺語,就業始終放在一起,第一次來的詩篇,而之間的工作是把其他兩個或兩個,有時是最後一次。 The three books form a part of the Hagiographa (Kethubim), having sometimes the first place among the Hagiographa, while again they may be preceded by Ruth, or Paralipomenon, or Paralipomen with, Ruth (cf. lists in Ginsburg, "Introduction to Heb. Bible", London, 1897, 7).三本書的形式的一部分Hagiographa ( Kethubim ) ,有有時首先Hagiographa之間,而他們可能再次之前露絲,或Paralipomenon ,或Paralipomen的,露絲(參見清單金斯伯格,介紹“希伯來。聖經“ ,倫敦, 1897年, 7 ) 。 In the Greek Bible and the Vulgate Job now stands before Psalms and follows directly after the historical books.在希臘聖經和拉丁文聖經現在的任務面前詩篇和如下的歷史後直接書籍。 The old Greek and the Latin manuscripts, however, assign it the most varied positions; see, for exemple, the list of Melito of Sardis, and that of Origen as given by Eusebius, "Hist. Eccle.", IV, iv, 26, and vi, 25 (in PG, XX., 398, 582).在古希臘和拉丁手稿,但是,它指定的各種職務;例如,見清單的美利托的薩爾蒂斯,而奧利給出的優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccle 。 ”四,四, 26 ,和六, 25 (中前列腺素,二十。 , 398 , 582 ) 。 In the Syriac Bible Job is placed directly after the Pentateuch and before Josue (cf. the lists in Hodius, "De Bibliorum textibus", Oxford, 1705, 644 sqq.; Samuel Berger, "Hist. de la Vulgate", Paris, 1893, 331-39).在敘利亞聖經的工作是直接放在後,摩西五之前若蘇埃(見名單Hodius “者Bibliorum textibus ” ,牛津, 1705年, 644 sqq 。 ;塞繆爾伯傑, “組織胺。德拉薩拉丁文聖經” ,巴黎, 1893年, 331-39 ) 。

II.二。 AUTHORITY管理局

(1) Historical Accuracy ( 1 )歷史準確性

Many look upon the entire contents of the book as a freely invented parable which is neither historical nor intended to be considered historical; no such man as Job ever lived.許多看待整個這本書的內容作為一個自由發明寓言這既不是歷史,也不打算考慮歷史;沒有這樣的人都住就業。 Catholic commentators, however, almost without exception, hold Job to have actually existed and his personality to have been preserved by popular tradition.天主教評論家,但是,幾乎無例外地舉行的工作,實際上已經存在,他的個性已被保存了民間傳統。 Nothing in the text makes it necessary to doubt his historical existence.中的任何文字使得有必要懷疑他的歷史的存在。 The Scriptures seem repeatedly to take this for granted (cf. Ezekiel 14:14; James 5:11; Tobit 2:12-15, according to the Vulgate - in the Greek text of Tobias there is no mention of Job).聖經似乎一再藉此理所當然(參見厄澤克爾14時14分;詹姆斯5時11分;托比書2:12-15 ,根據拉丁文聖經-在希臘文的托拜厄斯沒有提及項目) 。 All the Fathers considered Job an historical person; some of their testimonies may be found in Knabenbauer, "Zu Job" (Paris, 1886), 12-13.所有的父親審議工作的歷史的人;他們的一些證詞中可以找到Knabenbauer , “祖工” (巴黎, 1886年) , 12月13日。 The Martyrology of the Latin Church mentions Job on 10 May, that of the Greek Church on 6 May (cf. Acta SS.' II, May, 494).該Martyrology拉丁教會提到工作於5月10日,即希臘教會於5月6日(見獸類黨衛軍。 '二, 5月, 494人) 。 The Book of Job, therefore, has a kernel of fact, with which have been united many imaginative additions that are not strictly historical.該約伯記因此,核心的事實,已聯合國許多富有想像力的增加不嚴格的歷史。 What is related by the poet in the prose prologue and epilogue is in the main historical: the persons of the hero and his friends; the region where be lived; his good fortune and virtues; the great misfortune that overwhelmed him and the patience with which lie bore it; the restoration of his Prosperity.什麼是相關的詩人散文序幕和尾聲是在主要的歷史:在人的英雄和他的朋友;所在地區的生活,他的好運氣和美德;偉大不幸壓倒他和耐心,這謊言承擔它;恢復了繁榮。 It is also to be accepted that Job and his friends discussed the origin of his sufferings, and that in so doing views were expressed similar to those the poet puts into the mouths of his characters.它也必須接受這項工作和他的朋友們討論的起源他的痛苦,而且在這樣做的意見認為,類似的詩人投入的嘴巴人物。 The details of the execution, the poetic form, and the art shown in the arrangement of the arguments in the dispute are, however, the free creation of the author.執行的詳細情況,詩的形式,以及藝術表現在安排的論點的爭端,然而,自由創造的作者。 The figures expressive of the wealth of Job both before and after his trial are imaginatively rounded.這個數字表達的豐富的工作之前和之後都對他的審判是想像力四捨五入。 Also in the narrative of the misfortunes it is impossible not to recognize a poetic conception which need not be considered as strictly historical.也說明中的不幸是不可能不承認詩意概念不需要被視為嚴格的歷史。 The scene in heaven (i, 6; ii, 1) is plainly an allegory which shows that the Providence of God guides the destiny of man (cf. St. Thomas, "In Job").現場的天堂(一, 6 ;二, 1 )顯然是一個寓言這表明普羅維登斯的上帝引導命運的人(見聖托馬斯, “就業” ) 。 The manifestation of God (xxxviii, 1) generally receives a literal interpretation from commentators.表明上帝(三十八, 1 )一般收到字面解釋從評論家。 St. Thomas, however, remarks that it may also be taken metaphorically as an inner revelation accorded to Job.聖托馬斯島,不過,話也可以考慮作為一個比喻啟示給予黨內職務。

(2) Divine Authority of the Book ( 2 )神管理局預訂

The Church teaches that the book was inspired by the Holy Spirit.教會的教導這本書的靈感來自聖靈。 Thus all that its author gives as historical fact or otherwise guarantees possesses unfailing Divine truth.因此,所有,其作者提供的歷史事實或以其他方式保證擁有始終如一的神聖真理。 The question, however, arises, what does the book guarantee?但是,問題出現,這本書什麼保證? (a) Everything in prologue or epilogue that is the comment of the author is Divine truth; nevertheless, what is perhaps poetic ornament must not be confounded with historical verity or objective dogmatic precepts. (一)中的所有內容或尾聲序幕,這是評論的作者是神聖真理;然而,也許就是詩飾品絕不能混淆真實與歷史的或客觀教條戒律。 The same authority is possessed by the utterances assigned by the poet to God.同樣的權力話語所擁有指派的詩人上帝。 The like is true of the speeches of Eliu.類似的情況也發生在發言Eliu 。 Some think the speeches of Eliu are to be judged just as are those of Job and his friends.一些人認為,講話Eliu要判斷就像是就業和他的朋友。 (b) The speeches of Job and his three friends have in themselves no Divine authority, but only such human importance as Job and his three friends are Personally entitled to. (二)演講的工作和他的三個朋友都在自己沒有任何神聖的權力,但只有這樣的人的重要性,因為工作和他的三個朋友親自有權。 They have, however, Divine authority when, and in as far as, they are approved by the author expressly or tacitly.但是,它們在神聖的權力,並在盡可能,他們批准了作者明示或默許。 In general, such tacit approbation is to be understood for all points concerning which the disputants agree, unless the author, or God, or Eliu, shows disapproval.一般情況下,這種默契的認同是可以理解的所有點關於該糾紛同意,除非作者或上帝,或Eliu ,表明不贊成。 Thus the words of Job have in large degree Divine authority, because the view be maintains against the three friends is plainly characterized by the author as the one relatively correct.這樣的話,工作在很大程度上神聖的權力,因為認為是保持對三個朋友很明顯的特點是作者作為一個相對正確的。 Yet much that the three friends say is of equal importance, because it is at least tacitly approved.然而很多,這三個朋友說的是具有同等的重要性,因為它至少是默認了。 St. Paul argues (1 Corinthians 3:19) from a speech of Eliphaz (Job 5:13) as from an inspired writing.聖保祿認為(哥林多前書3時19分)從一個講話Eliphaz (工作5時13分)從一個啟發寫作。 (c) In particular places, especially where descriptions of nature are given or other secular matters are referred to, the caution prescribed by the rules of hermeneutics should be observed. ( c )在特別的地方,尤其是在描述性質給予或其他世俗事務提到的,謹慎的規則所訂明的詮釋學應得到遵守。

III.三。 THE CHARACTERS OF THE POEM的字詩

Apart from the prologue and epilogue, the Book of Job consists of a succession of speeches assigned to distinct persons.除序幕和尾聲,該約伯記包括繼承的講話分配給不同的人。 There are six speakers: Yahweh, Eliu, Job, and Job's three friends, Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar.有6個發言:耶和華, Eliu ,就業,就業的三個朋友, Eliphaz , Baldad ,並Sophar 。

(1) Job ( 1 )就業

The chief personage is Job.人物是行政長官職位。

(a) Name (一)名稱

He is called the "persecuted one", that is, the one tempted by (personified) suffering, the one hard beset, the patient sufferer.他是所謂的“受迫害的一個” ,這就是一個誘惑(人格化)痛苦,一個硬盤的困擾,患者患者。 persecuted one", stand to XXX.--> It is no longer possible to decide whether the name was originally different and was later changed into the expressive form in folklore on account of Job's fate. Many commentators do not accept this explanation of the name.迫害之一“ ,立場三十.-- ”現在已不再可能,以決定是否名稱最初是不同的,後來變成了民間文學藝術表現形式在相應的項目的命運。許多評論家不接受這個解釋的名稱。

(b) Age in which Job lived (二)年齡在工作生活

According to the usual and well-founded assumption, Job lived long before Moses. This is shown by the great age he attained.根據通常的和有根據的假設,長期工作生活在摩西。這是所表現出的偉大時代,他實現。 He was no longer young when overtaken by his great misfortune (xii, 12; xxx, 1); after his restoration he lived one hundred and forty years longer (xlii, 16).他已不再年輕的時候超越了他極大的不幸( 12 , 12 ;三十, 1 ) ;後恢復他所住一百四年較長(四十二, 16 ) 。 His wealth like that of the Patriarchs, consisted largely in flocks and herds (i, 3; xlii, 12).他的財富一樣的始祖,包括主要是在家禽和牲畜(一, 3 ;四十二, 12 ) 。 The kesitah or piece of money mentioned in xlii, 11, belongs to patriarchal times; the only other places in which the expression occurs are Gen., xxxiii, 19, and Jos., xxiv, 32.該kesitah或一塊錢四十二中提到, 11日,屬於父系倍;只有在其他地方發生的表達將軍,三十三,第19 ,和聖何塞, 24 , 32 。 The musical instruments referred to (xxi, 12; xxx, 31) are only those mentioned in Genesis (Gen. iv, 21; xxxi, 27): organ, harp, and timbrel.樂器提到( 21 , 12 ;三十,三十一日)只提到的那些成因(將軍四, 21 ;三十一, 27日) :機關,豎琴,及鈴鼓。 Job himself offers sacrifice as the father of the family (i, 5), as was also the custom of the Patriarchs.提供就業機會犧牲自己的父親的家庭(一, 5 ) ,也是一樣的習俗的始祖。 An actual offering for sin in the Mosaic sense he was not acquainted with; the holocaust took its place (i, 5; xlii, 8).實際提供的罪孽感的馬賽克,他並不熟悉的大屠殺了自己的位置(一, 5 ;四十二, 8 ) 。

(c) Religion of Job (三)宗教工作

Job evidently did not belong to the chosen people.工作顯然不屬於人民的選擇。 He lived, indeed, outside of Palestine.他住,實際上,境外的巴勒斯坦。 He and the other characters betray no knowledge of the specifically Israelitic institutions.他和其他字符背叛不知道具體Israelitic機構。 Even the name of God peculiar to the chosen people, Yahweh, is carefully avoided by the speakers in the poetic part of the book, and is only found, as if accidentally, in xii, 9, and according to some manuscripts in xxviii, 28.即使以上帝的名義所選擇的特有的人,耶和華,是謹慎地避免了發言的詩意一部分書,只發現,如果不小心,在第十二章,第9條,並根據一些手稿二十八, 28 。 The sacrifice in xlii, 8, recalls the sacrifice of Balaam (Numbers 23:1), consequently a custom outside of Israel.犧牲在四十二, 8日,回顧犧牲巴蘭(人數23點零一) ,因此自定義以外的以色列。 For the solution of the problem of suffering the revelations made to the Patriarchs or even Moses are never referred to.為解決這一問題的披露作出痛苦的始祖,甚至摩西是從未提及。 Nevertheless Job and his friends venerated the one true God. They also knew of the Flood (xxii, 16), and the first man (15:7, and Hebrews 31:33).然而工作和他的朋友們崇敬的一個真正的上帝。他們也知道洪水( 22 , 16 ) ,第一批人( 15點07 ,和希伯來書31:33 ) 。

(d) Country in which Job lived (四)在哪個國家工作生活

Job belonged to the "people of the East" (i, 3).工作屬於“人民的東方” (一, 3 ) 。 Under this name were included the Arabian (Genesis 25:6) and Aramaean (Numbers 33:7) tribes which lived east of the Jordan basin and in the region of the Euphrates (Genesis 29:1).根據這個名字被列入了阿拉伯(創25:6 )和Aramaean (民數記33:7 )部落居住約旦東部的盆地和在該地區的幼發拉底河(創29:1 ) 。 Job seems to have been an Aramaean, for he lived in the land of Hus (i, I; Ausitis).工作似乎已成為Aramaean ,因為他住在土地胡斯(我,我; Ausitis ) 。 Hus, a man's name in Genesis, is always used there in close connection with Aram and the Aramaean (Genesis 10:23; 22:21; 36:28).溶血尿毒綜合症,一名男子的名字起源,總是用有緊密結合亞蘭和Aramaean (創10:23 ; 22:21 ; 36:28 ) 。 His home was certainly not far from Edom where Eliphaz lived, and it must be sought in Eastern Palestine, not too far north, although in the region inhabited by the Aramaeans.當然是他的家不遠處以東在Eliphaz生活,它必須尋求在東巴勒斯坦,北不太遠,但在該地區居住的Aramaeans 。 It was located on the border of the Syro-Arabian desert, for it was exposed to the attacks of the marauding bands which wandered through this desert: the Chaldeans (i, 17) of the lower Euphrates and the Sabeans (i, 15), or Arabs.這是位於邊界Syro -阿拉伯沙漠,因為它是暴露在攻擊的搶劫團伙的流浪通過這個沙漠:在迦勒(一, 17 )下幼發拉底河和Sabeans (我15 ) ,或阿拉伯人。 Many.許多。 following an old tradition, place the home of Job in the Hauran, in the district of Naiwa (or Neve), which is situated about 36° East of Greenwich and in almost the same latitude as the northern end of Lake Genesareth.下面的一個老傳統,把家裡的工作, Hauran ,在該地區的Naiwa (或內) ,這是大約36 °東格林威治和幾乎在同一緯度的北端湖Genesareth 。 The location is possible, but positive proof is lacking.位置是可能的,但積極的證明是缺乏。 Some seek the home of Job in Idumea, others in the land of the Ausitai, who, according to Ptolemy (Geogr., V, xix, par. 18, 2), lived in Northern Arabia near the Babylon.一些尋求就業的家中Idumea ,其他的土地Ausitai ,誰,根據托勒密( Geogr. ,五,十九,標準桿。 18日, 2 ) ,住在附近的北沙特阿拉伯巴比倫。 The land of Hus is also mentioned in Jer., xxv, 20, and Lam., iv, 21.土地胡斯也提到哲。 , 25 , 20 ,和林。 ,四, 21 。 In the first reference it is used in a general sense for the whole East; in the latter it is said that the Edomites live there.在第一次提到這是用在一般意義上對整個東;後者是說, Edomites生活在那裡。

(e) The Standing of Job ( e )在常委會的工作

Job was one of the most important men of the land (i, 3; xxix, 25) and had many bondsmen (xxxi, 39).工作是最重要的一個男人的土地( 1 , 3 ;第29屆,第25 )和有許多bondsmen (三十一, 39 ) 。 The same is true of the friends who visited him; in the Book of Tobias these are called "kings" (Tob., ii, 15, in Vulgate).也是一樣的朋友誰訪問了他在這本書中的托比亞斯這些被稱為“國王” ( Tob. ,二, 15日,在武加大) 。 In the Book of Job also Job seems to be described as a king with many vassals under him (xxix).在約伯記工作似乎也被稱為是一個國王有許多奴僕下他( XXIX )號決議。 That he had brothers and relations is seen in xix and in the epilogue.他的兄弟關係,是在十九和尾聲。

(f) Job and Jobab ( F )的工作和Jobab

An appendix to the Book of Job in the Septuagint identifies Job with King Jobab of Edom (Gen. xxxvi, 33).一個附錄約伯記在七十確定的工作國王Jobab的以東(將軍36 , 33 ) 。 Nothing in the book shows that Job was ruler of Edom; in Hebrew the two names have nothing in common.在這本書沒有任何顯示,工作是統治者以東;希伯來文的兩個名字沒有任何共同之處。

(2) Eliphaz, Baldad and Sophar ( 2 ) Eliphaz , Baldad和Sophar

The most important of Job's three friends was Eliphaz of Theman.其中最重要的工作的三個朋友Eliphaz的Theman 。 The name shows him to be an Edomite (Genesis 36:11, 15).顯示他的名字是一個Edomite (創36:11 , 15 ) 。 The Themanites of Edom were famous for their wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 5; Baruch 3:22 sq.).該Themanites的以東是著名的智慧(耶利米49:7 ; Obadiah 5 ;巴魯克3點22平方米) 。 Eliphaz was one of these sages (xv, 9). Eliphaz是這些先賢(十五, 9 ) 。 He was far advanced in years (xv, 10), and much older than the already elderly Job (xxx, 1).他是迄今為止先進歲(十五10 ) ,和許多以上已經年長求職者(三十, 1 ) 。 The second of Job's friends was Baidad the Suhite, who seems to have belonged to Northern Arabia, for Sue was a son of Abraham by Cetura (Genesis 25:2, 6).第二個項目的朋友是Baidad的Suhite ,誰似乎屬於北沙特阿拉伯,為休是一個兒子的亞伯拉罕的Cetura (創25:2 , 6 ) 。 He may have been of the same age as Job. The third friend, Sophar, was probably also an Arabian.他可能已被同齡就業。第三個朋友, Sophar ,很可能也是一個阿拉伯。 The Hebrew text calls him a Naamathite.希伯來文要求他Naamathite 。 Naama was a small town in the territory belonging to Juda (Joshua 15:41), but Sophar hardly lived there.納馬灣是一個小城鎮的領土屬於猶大(約書亞15:41 ) ,但Sophar很難在那裡生活。 Perhaps the preferable reading is that of the Septuagint which calls Sophar always a Minaean; the Minaeans were an Arabian tribe.也許是最好讀的七十要求Sophar總是Minaean ;的Minaeans是一個阿拉伯部落。 Sophar was far younger than Job (cf. Job's reply to Sophar, 12:11-12; 13:1-2). Sophar遠遠小於項目(見項目的答复Sophar , 12:11-12 ; 13:1-2 ) 。

(3) Eliu ( 3 ) Eliu

Like Job, Eliu the Buzite was an Aramean; at least this is indicated by his native country, Buz, for Buz is closely connected (Genesis 22:21) with Hus.想就業, Eliu的Buzite是一個Aramean ;至少這是表明他的祖國, Buz ,為Buz密切相關(創22:21 )與胡斯。 Eliu was much younger than Sophar (xxxii, 6). Eliu遠遠小於Sophar (三十二, 6 ) 。

(4) Listeners ( 4 )聽眾

Besides the speakers a large number of listeners were present at the discussion (xxxiv, 2, 34); some maintained a neutral position, as did Eliu at first.除了發言者了大量的聽眾參加了討論(三十四, 2 , 34 ) ;一些保持了中立的立場一樣, Eliu在第一。

IV.四。 CONTENTS目錄

The Book of Job consists of (1) a prologue in prose (1-2), (2) a poetic, main division (3-42:6), and (3) an epilogue also in prose (42:7-17).該約伯記包括( 1 )楔子散文( 1-2 ) , ( 2 )詩意,主要司( 3-42:6 ) ,和( 3 )結語還散文( 42:7-17 ) 。

(1) The prologue narrates how, with the permission of God, a holy man Job is tried by Satan with severe afflictions, in order to test his virtue. ( 1 )序幕敘述如何許可後,上帝,一個神聖的人的工作是受到撒旦的嚴重苦難,為了檢驗自己的美德。 In succession Job bears six great temptations with heroic patience, and without the slightest murmuring against God or wavering in loyalty to him.連續工作6個巨大的誘惑,熊與英勇的耐心,並沒有絲毫低聲對上帝或動搖他的忠誠。 Then Job's three friends, Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar, come to console him.然後工作的三個朋友, Eliphaz , Baldad ,並Sophar ,來安慰他。 Their visit is to become the seventh and greatest trial.他們的訪問將成為最大的第七和審判。

(2) The poetical, main division of the book presents in a succession of speeches the course of this temptation. ( 2 )詩歌,主要司書提出在繼承演講的過程中這種誘惑。 The three friends are fully convinced that trouble is always a result of wrongdoing.三個朋友都完全相信,問題始終是一個錯誤的結果。 They consider Job, therefore, a great sinner and stigmatize his assertions of innocence as hypocrisy.他們認為就業,因此,一個偉大的罪人和誣衊他斷言無罪的虛偽。 Job is hurt by the suspicion of his friends.工作是受到懷疑他的朋友。 He protests that he is no evil-doer, that God punishes him against his deserts.他抗議說,他沒有邪惡善人,上帝懲罰他對他的沙漠。 In the course of his speech he fails in reverence towards God, Who appears to him not unrighteous, but more as a severe, hard, and somewhat inconsiderate ruler than as a kind Father.過程中,他在演說中沒有對上帝的崇敬,他覺得不義,但更象是一個嚴重的,很難,而且有些不體諒的統治者,而不是一種父親。 Taking into consideration that the language is poetic, it is true that his expressions cannot be pushed too far, but the sharp reproofs of Eliu (xxxiv, 1-9, 36-37; xxxv, 16) and of Yahweh (Xxxviii, 2; xl, 3-9) leave no doubt of his sin.考慮到語言是詩,這是真的,他的表現不能推太遠,但急劇reproofs的Eliu (三十四, 1-9 , 36-37 ;三十五,第16 )和耶和華(三十八, 2 ;儀, 3月9日)離開毫無疑問他的罪過。 In answering his friends Job emphasizes that God indeed is accustomed to reward virtue and to punish wickedness (xxvii, 7-23; xxxi).在回答他的朋友們工作強調指出,上帝確實是習慣於憑藉獎勵和懲罰邪惡(二十七, 7月23日; XXXI )號決議。 He even threatens his friends with the judgment of God on account of their unfriendly suspicion (vi, 14; xiii, 7-12; xvii, 4; xix, 29).他甚至威脅到他的朋友的判決上帝在考慮到它們的不友好猜疑(六, 14 ;十三, 7月12日;十七, 4 ; 19 , 29 ) 。 He rightly proves, however violently, that in this world the rule has many exceptions.他正確地證明了,但是暴力,在這個世界上有很多的規則的例外。 Almost universally, he says, the wicked triumph and the innocent suffer (ix, 22-24, xxi, xxiv).幾乎普遍,他說,邪惡的勝利和無辜受害(九, 22日至24日,二十一,二十四) 。 Yet for all this Job, like his friends, regards all suffering as a punishment for personal sins, although he does not, as his friends, consider it a punishment of gross sin.然而,所有這一切工作需要,比如他的朋友,把所有的痛苦作為一種懲罰個人的罪過,但他不這樣做,因為他的朋友,認為這是一種懲罰的嚴重罪行。 Job looks upon the sufferings of the righteous as an almost unjust severity of God, which he inflicts for the slightest mistakes, and which the most virtuous man cannot escape (vii, 21; ix 30-21; X, 6, 13-14).工作視痛苦的正義作為一個幾乎不公正的嚴重性上帝,他帶來的最輕微的錯誤,其中最善良的人無法逃脫(第七章, 21條; ㈨ 30勝21負;十, 6 , 13日至14日) 。 The expressions of depression and irreverence uttered by Job are, besides, only venial sins, which human beings can never fully avoid.抑鬱症的表現和不敬的話工作是,除此之外,只有venial罪孽,人類永遠不能完全避免。 Job himself says that his words are not to be taken too exactly, they are almost the involuntary expression of his pain (vi, 2-10, 26-27).工作自己說,他的話是不是太準確,他們幾乎是不自覺的表達他的疼痛(六, 2月10日, 26日至27日) 。 Many of his utterances the character of temptations in thought which force themselves out almost against the will, rather than of voluntary irreverence towards God, although Job's error was greater than he was willing to acknowledge.他的許多言論的性質,在思想的誘惑力幾乎對自己的意志,而不是自願對上帝不敬,但就業的誤差大於他願意承認。 Thus Job bore all the tests triumphantly, even those caused by his friends.因此,工作承擔的所有測試勝利,甚至是那些因他的朋友。 No matter how terrible the persecutions of God might be, Job held fast to Him (vi, 8-10) and drew ever closer to Him (xvii, 9).無論多麼可怕的迫害上帝的可能,工作堅守他(六, 8月10日) ,並提請以往任何時候都更接近他(十七, 9 ) 。 In the midst of his sufferings he lauds God's power (xxvi, 5-14) and wisdom (xxviii).在痛苦之中,他讚揚他的上帝的力量( 26 , 5月14日)和智慧( XXVIII )號決議。 Satan, who had boasted that he could lead Job into sin against God (i, 11; ii, 5), is discredited.撒但,誰曾吹噓說,他可能會導致就業納入罪對上帝(一, 11人;二, 5 ) ,是信譽。 The epilogue testifies expressly to Job's faithfulness (xlii, 7-9). After much discourse (iii-xxii) Job finally succeeds in silencing the three friends, although he is not able to convince them of his innocence.明確的尾聲證明就業的忠誠(四十二, 7月9日) 。經過長時間的討論( 3 - 22 )項目終於成功地沉默了三個朋友,但他無法說服他們他是無辜的。 In a series of monologues (xxiii-xxxi), interrupted only by a short speech by Baldad (xxv), he once more renews his complaints (xxiii-xxiv), extols the greatness of God (xxvi-xxviii), and closes with a forcible appeal to the Almighty to, examine his case and to recognize his innocence (xxix-xxxi).在一系列的獨白( 23 - XXXI )號決議,中斷只有很短的講話Baldad ( XXV )號決議,他再次重申他的投訴(二十三,二十四) ,頌揚偉大的上帝( 26 - XXVIII )號決議,並關閉了強行呼籲萬能的,審查他的案件,並承認自己是無辜的(二十九,三十一) 。 At this juncture Eliu, a youth who was one of the company of listeners, is filled by God with the spirit of prophecy (xxxii, 18-22; xxxvi, 2-4).在此關頭Eliu ,青年誰是該公司的聽眾,是填補了上帝的精神,預言(三十二18日至22日;三十六, 2月4日) 。 In a long discourse he solves the problem of suffering, which Job and his friends had failed to explain.在很長的話語,他解決問題的痛苦,而就業和他的朋友們沒有解釋。 He says that suffering, whether severe or light, is not always a result of sin; it is a means by which God tries and promotes virtue (xxxvi, 1-21), and is thus a proof of God's love for his friends.他說,苦難,是否嚴重或輕,並不總是導致罪惡,它是一種手段,並促進上帝試圖憑藉(三十六, 1月21日) ,因此是一個證明了上帝的愛,他的朋友。 The sufferings of Job are also such a testing (xxxvi, 16-21).痛苦的工作也這樣一個測試( 36 , 16-21 ) 。 At the same time Eliu emphasizes the fact that the dispensations of God remain inexplicable and mysterious (xxxvi, 22; xxxvii, 24).與此同時Eliu強調這樣一個事實,即特許上帝仍然令人費解和神秘( 36 , 22 ;三十七, 24 ) 。 Yahweh speaks at the end (xxxviii-xlii, 6).耶和華說年底(三十八,四十二, 6 ) 。 He confirms the statements of Eliu, carrying further Eliu's last thought of the inexplicability of the Divine decrees and works by a reference to the wonder of animate and inanimate nature.他證實了聲明Eliu ,進行進一步Eliu的最後思想費解神聖法令和作品中提及的奇蹟動畫和生命的本質。 Job is severely rebuked on account of his irreverence; he confesses briefly his guilt and promises amendment in the future.工作是嚴厲斥責考慮到他的不敬,他承認自己有罪,並簡要承諾的修正案中的未來。

(3) In the epilogue Yahweh bears witness in a striking manner to the innocence of His servant, that is to Job's freedom from gross transgression. ( 3 )在尾聲耶和華見證了驚人的方式向天真無邪的他的僕人,這是就業的自由的嚴重侵。 The three friends are commanded to obtain Job's intercession, otherwise they will be severely punished for their uncharitable complaints against the pious sufferer. Yahweh forgives the three at the entreaty of Job, who is restored to double his former prosperity.三個朋友都指揮,以獲取就業的干預,否則將受到嚴厲懲罰的無情投訴虔誠的患者。耶和華寬恕三個在懇求的工作,誰是他的恢復雙前繁榮。

In his lectures on "Babel und Bibel" Delitzsch says that the Book of Job expresses doubt, in language that borders on blasphemy, of even the existence of a just the God.在他的演講“通天塔和聖經”德里說,約伯記表示懷疑,在語言,邊界褻瀆,甚至存在著一個公正的上帝。 These attacks arise from an extreme view of expressions of despondency.這些攻擊所產生的一種極端的觀點表達沮喪。 Further, the assertions often heard of late that the book contains many mythological ideas prove to be mere imagination.此外,經常聽到的說法年底這本書包含了許多神話的想法被證明只是想像力。

V. ARRANGEMENT OF THE MAIN, POETIC PORTION OF THE BOOK五,安排主,詩意部分預定

(1)The poetic portion of the book may be divided into two sections: chs. iii-xxii and xxiii-xlii, 6. ( 1 )詩歌部分書籍可分為兩個部分:社區衛生服務。三,二十二和二十三,四十二, 6 。 The first section consists of colloquies: the three friends in turn express their views, while to each speech Job makes a rejoinder. In the second section the three friends are silent, for Baldad's interposition (xxv) is as little a formal discourse as Job's brief comments (xxxix, 34-35 and xlii, 2-6).第一部分包括colloquies :三個朋友又表達自己的意見,同時對每個職位進行演講答辯。在第二部分的三個朋友都保持沉默,為Baldad的干預( XXV )號決議是作為一個正式的話語很少就業的短暫評論(三十九, 34-35和四十二, 2月6日) 。 Job, Eliu, and Yahweh speak successively, and each utters a series of monologues.就業, Eliu ,和耶和華先後發言,每個行使了一系列的獨白。 The length of the two sections is exactly, or almost exactly, the same, namely 510 lines each (cf. Hontheim "Das Buch Job", Freiburg im Br., 1904, 44).長度的兩個部分是完全或幾乎完全,同樣的,即每510線(參見Hontheim “達斯書工” ,弗賴堡一二。 , 1904年, 44歲) 。 The second division begins with the words: "Now also my words are in bitterness" (xxiii, 2; AV: "Even today is my complaint bitter").乙級開始的話: “現在我的話也有苦澀” ( 23 , 2 ;影音: “即使在今天是我的投訴痛苦” ) 。 This shows not only that with these words a new section opens, but also that the monologues were not uttered on the same day as the colloquies.這表明,不僅用這句話打開了新的一節,但還沒有說出獨白在同一天作為colloquies 。 The first monologue is evidently the opening of a new section, not a rejoinder to the previous speech of Eliphaz (xxii).第一獨白顯然是開設一個新的部分,而不是答辯前的講話Eliphaz (二十二) 。

(2) The colloquies are divided into two series: chs. ( 2 ) colloquies分為兩個系列:社區衛生服務。 iii-xiv and xv-xxii.三,十四和十五,二十二。 In each series Eliphaz, Baldad, and Sophar speak in turn in the order given (iv-v, viii, xi, and xv, xviii, xx), while Job replies to each of their discourses (vi-vii, ix-x, xii-xiv, xvi-xvii, xix, xxi).在每個系列Eliphaz , Baldad ,並反過來Sophar發言順序(四,五,八,十一,和十五,十八,二十) ,而就業答复各自的論述(六,七,九,十,第十二至十四,十六,十七,十九,二十一) 。 The first series, furthermore, is opened by a lament from Job (iii), and the second closes with a speech by Eliphaz in which he weakly reproaches Job (xxii - it is generally held that this chapter begins a new series), who rightly leaves this address unanswered.第一個系列,此外,開放的感嘆,從工作(三) ,第二次關閉了講話Eliphaz他在弱責備工作( 22 -人們普遍認為,這章開始一個新的系列) ,誰正確離開這個地址找到答案。 Each series contains seven speeches.每個系列包含七個演講。 In the first the friends try to convince Job of his guilt and of the necessity and good results of amendment.在第一個的朋友們試圖說服工作,他內疚和必要性和良好的結果的修正。 Eliphaz appeals to Revelation (iv, 12-21), Baldad to the authority of the Fathers 8-10), Sophar to understanding or philosophy (xi, 5-12). Eliphaz呼籲啟示(四, 12月21日) , Baldad管理局的父親8月10日) , Sophar理解或哲學(十一, 5月12日) 。 Eliphaz lays weight on the goodness of God (v, 9-27), Baldad on His justice (viii, 2-7), Sophar on His all-seeing power and wisdom, to which Job's most secret sins were plain, even those which Job himself had almost forgotten (xi, 5-12). Eliphaz規定重量的善良的上帝(五, 9月27日) ,對他的司法Baldad (八, 2月7日) , Sophar對自己的一切,看到力量和智慧,而工作的最秘密的罪過是平原,甚至那些求職本人曾幾乎被人遺忘(十一, 5月12日) 。 In the second series of speeches the friends try to terrify Job: one after the other, and in much the same form of address, they point out the terrible punishment which overtakes hidden sin. During the first series of speeches Job's despondency continually increases, even the thought of the future bringing him no comfort (xiv, 7-22); in the second series the change to improvement has begun, and Job once more feels joy and hope in the thought of God and the future life (xvi, 18-22; xix, 23-28).在第二一系列講話的朋友試圖恐嚇職位:一個接一個,在大致相同形式的地址,他們指出,可怕的懲罰超越隱藏的罪惡。在第一一系列講話職位的絕望不斷增加,甚至一想到他的未來帶來任何安慰(十四, 7月22日) ;在第二個系列的變化已經開始改善,就業再一次感到喜悅和希望的思想上帝和未來的生活( 16 , 18 - 22 ; 19 , 23-28 ) 。

(3) The monologues may also be divided into two series. ( 3 )獨白也可分為兩個系列。 The first includes the monologues of Job, seven in number.第一類包括獨白的工作, 7個號碼。 First Job repeats is complaint to God (xxiii-xxiv), asserts, however, in three speeches his unchangeable devotion to God by lauding in brilliant discourse the power (xxvi), justice (xxvii), and wisdom (xxviii) of the Almighty.第一份工作是重複投訴神(二十三,二十四) ,斷言,然而,在三場演講他不變的忠誠上帝的稱讚在燦爛的話語權力( XXVI )號決議,正義( XXVII )號決議和智慧( XXVIII )號決議的全能。 Finally in three further speeches be lays his case before God, imploring investigation and recognition of his innocence: How happy was I once (xxix), how unhappy am I now (xxx), and I am not to blame for this change (xxxi).最後,在另外三個講話奠定他的案件被上帝面前,懇求的調查,並承認自己是無辜的:多麼幸福是我曾經( XXIX )號決議,如何不高興我現在(三十) ,我不能責怪這種變化(三十一) 。 The second series contains the discourses of Eliu and Yahweh, also seven in number.第二批包含話語Eliu和耶和華,還七個號碼。 In three speeches Eliu explains the sufferings which befall men.在三場演講Eliu解釋其中的苦難降臨男子。 Trouble is often a Divine instruction, a warning to the godless to reform (xxxii-xxxiii, 30), thus revealing the goodness of God; it is often simply a punishment of the wicked who are perhaps in no way bettered by it (xxxiii, 31-xxxv), thus revealing the justice of God.麻煩往往是一種神聖的指示,一個警告的godless改革(三十二,三十三, 30歲) ,從而揭示了善良的上帝,它常常是一種懲罰惡人誰,也許是在沒有辦法創造了它(三十三, 31 - XXXV )號決議,從而揭示了正義的上帝。

(4) Finally, troubles can also overtake the just as a trial which purifies and increases their virtue (xxxvi-xxxvii), thus revealing God's unfathomable wisdom. The following four utterances of Yahweh illustrate the inscrutableness, already touched upon by Eliu, of the Divine wisdom by dwelling upon the wonders of inanimate nature (xxxviii, 1-38), of the animal world (xxxviii, 39-xxxix), and especially by referring to the great monsters of the animal world, the hippopotamus and the crocodile (xl, 10-xli). ( 4 )最後,麻煩也可以超越就像審判淨化和增加了他們的美德(三十六,三十七) ,從而揭示上帝的深不可測的智慧。以下四個言論耶和華說明inscrutableness ,已經觸及了Eliu ,在神聖智慧的住宅後,無生命的自然奇觀(三十八, 1-38 ) ,動物世界(三十八, 39 XXXIX )號決議,特別是提到的偉大怪物的動物世界,河馬和鱷魚(儀, 10 - XLI )號決議。 He then closes with a rebuke to Job for expressing himself too despondently and irreverently concerning his sufferings, upon which Job confesses his guilt and promises amendment (xxxix, 31-xl, 9 and xlii, 1-6); it appears that xxxix, 31-xl, 9, should be inserted after xli.然後,他關閉了指責,表示自己的工作過於沮喪和irreverently關於他的痛苦,可賴以就業承認他有罪,並承諾修正案(第39屆, 31儀, 9日和四十二, 1月6日) ;看來,第39屆, 31儀, 9日,之後應插入四十一。

VI.六。 DESIGN OF THE BOOK設計的書籍

The Book of Job is intended to give instruction.該約伯記旨在指示。 What it lays special stress on is that God's wisdom and Providence guide all the events of this world (cf. xxviii, xxxviii-xii).它規定了特別強調的是,上帝的智慧和Providence指南的所有活動的這個世界(參見二十八,三十八至十二章) 。 The main subject of investigation is the problem of evil and its relation to the Providence of God; particularly considered is the suffering of the upright in its bearing on the ends intended in the government of the world.主要調查對象的問題是邪惡及其有關普羅維登斯的上帝;特別考慮的是痛苦的直立在其影響的目的,政府打算在世界各地。 The Book of Job is further intended for edification, for Job is to us an example of patience.該約伯記進一步打算熏陶,對我們的工作就是一個例子,耐心等待。 It is, finally, a book of consolation for all sufferers.這是最後一本書的所有安慰患者。 They learn from it that misfortune is not a sign of hatred, but often a proof of special Divine love.他們從中學到了這一不幸的是沒有仇恨的跡象,但往往證明特別神聖的愛。 For the mystical explanation of the book, especially of Job as a type of Christ, cf.解釋的神秘的書,特別是就業作為一種基督,比照。 Knabenbauer, "In Job", 28-32. Knabenbauer , “就業” , 28-32 。

VII.七。 TEACHING AS TO THE FUTURE LIFE教學至於未來的生活

In his sufferings Job abandoned all hope for the restoration of health and good fortune in this world (xvii, 11-16; xxi).在他的職位被遺棄的痛苦都希望恢復健康,好運氣在這個世界上(十七, 11月16日; XXI )號決議。 If he were to continue to hold to the hope of reward here Satan would not be defeated.如果他繼續堅持,希望這裡的獎勵撒旦不會被打敗。 In the complete failure of all his earthly hopes, Job fastens his gaze upon the future.在完全沒有他的所有人間的希望,他的目光fastens工作的未來。 In the argument of the first series of speeches Job in his depression regards the future world only as the end of the present existence.在論點第一一系列講話中,他患工作方面的未來世界的不僅是結束目前的存在。 The soul indeed lives on, but all ties with the present world so dear to us are forever broken.確實生活的靈魂,但所有的關係,目前的世界如此珍惜我們永遠打破。 Death is not only the end of all earthly suffering (ii, 13-19), but also of all earthly life (vii, 6-10), and all earthly joys (x, 21-22), with no hope of a return to this world (xiv, 7-22). It is not until the second series that Job's thoughts on the future life grow more hopeful.去世不僅結束所有人間的痛苦(二13-19 ) ,而且所有的俗世生活(七, 6月10日) ,所有俗世的歡樂(十, 21日至22日) ,就沒有希望恢復這個世界(十四, 7月22日) 。它不是,直到第二個系列,職業的思考未來的生活變得更加充滿希望。 However, he expects as little as in the first discussion a renewal of the life here, but hopes for a higher life in the next world.不過,他預計,只有在第一次討論延長生命,但希望有一個更高的生活在未來的世界。 As early as chapter xvi (19-22) his hope in the recognition of his virtue in the next world is strengthened.早在第十六章( 19-22日) ,他希望在表彰他憑藉在未來的世界是加強。 It is, however, in xix (23-28) that Job's inspired hope rises to its greatest height and he utters his famous declaration of the resurrection of the body.然而,在十九( 23-28 )這項工作的靈感希望上升到其最大的高度和他行使他的著名宣言的復活的身體。 Notwithstanding this joyous glimpse into the future, the difficult problem of the present life still remained: "Even for this life how can the wisdom and goodness of God be so hard towards His servants?"儘管有這樣的喜事一窺未來,困難的問題,現在的生活仍然是: “即使這個生命怎樣的智慧和善良的上帝是很難實現他的僕人? ” Of this the complete solution, so far as such was possible and was included in the plan of the book, does not appear until the discourses of Eliu and Yahweh are given. Great efforts have been made by critics to alter the interpretation of ch.這一完整的解決方案,到目前為止,這樣有可能和已列入計劃的圖書,沒有出現,直到話語Eliu和耶和華給出。已作出巨大努力的批評改變總的解釋。 xix, and to remove from it the resurrection of the body; the natural meaning of the words, the argument of the book, and the opinion of all early commentators make this attempt of no avail (cf. commentaries, as those of Knabenbauer, Hontheim, etc.; also the article "Eine neue Uebersetzung von Job xix, 25-27" in the "Zeitschrift f롴h. Theologie", 1907, 376 sqq.).十九,並消除它的復活身體的自然含義,這種論點的書籍,並認為所有早期評論員使這一企圖無濟於事(見評注,因為這些Knabenbauer , Hontheim等;也文章“電影新Uebersetzung馮就業十九, 25日至27日”中的“雜誌롴閣下神學” , 1907年, 376 sqq 。 ) 。 See the commentaries for the doctrines of the Divine wisdom (xxviii), etc.查看評注的理論神聖智慧( XXVIII )號決議等

VIII.八。 INTEGRITY OF THE BOOK這本書的完整性

Prologue and epilogue (i-ii; xlii, 7 sqq.) are regarded by many as not parts of the original work.序幕和尾聲(第一和第二;四十二, 7 sqq 。 )是許多人認為,沒有地區的原創作品。 The prologue, though, is absolutely essential.序幕,不過,是絕對必要的。 Without it the colloquies would be unintelligible, nor would the reader know the end whether to believe the assertion of Job as to his innocence or not.沒有他們的colloquies將不知所云,也不知道讀者是否相信年底主張的工作,以自己的清白與否。 Upon hearing the rebukes of Eliu and Yahweh, he might be exposed to the danger of siding against Job.在聽取了指責的Eliu和耶和華,他可能會接觸到的危險,一邊對工作。 Without the epilogue the close of the work would be insatisfactory, an evident humiliation of the righteous.沒有尾聲結束,這項工作將在insatisfactory ,明顯侮辱正義。 For detailed treatment of this and kindred questions see Hontheim, op.如需詳細的處理這個問題和親屬見Hontheim ,同前。 cit.前。

(2) Many also regard ch. ( 2 )許多人還就總。 xxvii, 7-23, as a later addition; in this passage Job maintains that the wicked suffer in this world, while elsewhere he has declared the contrary.二十七, 7月23日,作為一個後來此外,在這一段工作堅持認為,惡人受到在這個世界上,而其他地方,他已經宣布相反。 The answer is: Job teaches that God is accustomed even in this world to reward the good in some measure and to punish the wicked.答案是:工作教導我們,上帝是習慣,即使在這個世界上,以獎勵的良好在一定程度上和懲罰惡人。 In other passages he does not deny this rule, but merely says it has many exceptions. Consequently there is no contradiction.在其他一些段落,他並不否認這條規則,而只是說,有許多例外。因此不存在矛盾。 [See above, IV (2).] Besides it may be conceded that Job is not always logical. [見上文,四( 2 ) 。 ]除了可以承認這一工作並不總是合理的。 At the beginning, when his depression is extreme, he lays too much emphasis on the prosperity of the godless; gradually he becomes more composed and corrects earlier extreme statements.開始時,當他的抑鬱症是極端的,他奠定了過分強調的繁榮godless ;逐步他變得更加組成並糾正先前極端發言。 Not everything that Job says is the doctrine of the book.並非一切都說是這項工作的理論的書籍。 [See above, II (2).] [見上文,第二( 2 ) 。 ]

(3) Many regard ch. ( 3 )許多方面總。 xxviii as doubtful, because it has no connection with what goes before or follows and is in no way related to the subject-matter of the book.二十八的懷疑,因為它沒有與發生的事情和之前或如下絕不是有關標的物的圖書。 The answer to this is that the poet has to show how the suffering of Job does not separate him from God, but, against the intent of Satan, drives him into closer dependence on God.對此問題的答复是,詩人已表明如何痛苦的工作不能單獨他來自上帝,但對撒旦的意圖,驅動他密切依賴於上帝。 Consequently he represents Job, after his complaints (xxiii-xxv), as glorifying God again at once, as in xxvi-xxvii, in which Job lauds God's power and righteousness.因此他代表職務後,他的投訴( 23 - XXV )號決議,為榮耀上帝再一次,在二十六,二十七,其中就業讚揚上帝的力量和正義。 The praise of God is brought to a climax in xxviii, where Job extols God's power and righteousness.讚美上帝帶到高潮二十八,在那裡工作頌揚上帝的力量和正義。 After Job has thus surrendered himself to God, he can with full confidence, in xxix-xxxi, lay his sorrowful condition before God for investigation.經過工作就此自首上帝,他可以充分的信心,在第29屆,第31 ,他的悲哀在於上帝面前條件進行調查。 Consequently xxviii is in its proper place, connects perfectly with what precedes and follows, and harmonizes with the subject-matter of the book.因此二十八是在其適當的位置,連接完全與前面和如下,和統一的主題事項的這本書。

(4) Many regard the description of hippopotamus and crocodile (xl, 10-xli) as later additions, because they lack connection with xxxix, 31-xl, 9, belonging rather to the description of animals in xxxix. ( 4 )許多方面說明河馬和鱷魚(儀, 10 - XLI )號決議作為後來增加,因為它們缺乏與第39屆, 31儀, 9屬,而是要說明的動物三十九。 In reply it may be said that this objection is not without force.在回答可以說,這並非沒有反對武力。 Who ever agrees with the present writer in this opinion need only hold that xxxix, 31-xl, 9, originally followed xli.誰以往任何時候都同意目前的作家在此只需要輿論認為,第39屆, 31儀, 9日,原其次四十一。 The difficulty is then settled, and there is no further reason for considering the splendid description of the two animals as a later insertion.困難在於然後解決,也沒有進一步的理由考慮燦爛說明兩個動物,稍後插入。

(5) There is much disagreement as to the speeches of Eliu (xxxii-xxxvii). ( 5 )有很多分歧的發言Eliu (三十二- XXXVII )號決議。 With the exception of Budde, nearly all Protestant commentators regard them as a later insertion, while the great majority of Catholic investigators rightly defend them as belonging to the original work.除了布德,幾乎所有的新教評論員認為他們是稍後插入,而絕大多數的天主教調查正確保衛屬於他們原來的工作。 The details of this discussion cannot be entered upon here, and the reader is referred to the commentaries of Budde and Hontheim.的細節,這種討論不能進入這裡時,和讀者的評注提到的布德和Hontheim 。 The latter sums up his long investigation in these words: "The section containing the speeches of Eliu has been carefully prepared by the poet and is closely and with artistic correctness connected with the previous and following portions. It is united with the rest of the book by countless allusions and relations. It is dominated by the same ideas as the rest of the poem. It makes use also of the same language and the same method of presentation both in general and in detail. All the peculiarities exhibited by the author of the argumentative speeches are reproduced in the addresses of Eliu. The content of this portion is the saving of the honour of Job and is essential as the solution of the subject of discussion. Consequently there is no reason whatever for assuming that it is an interpolation; everything is clearly against this" (Hontheim, op. cit., 20-39. Cf. also Budde, "Beitr䧥 zur Kritik des Buches Hiob", 1876; Knabenbauer, "In Job").後者總結了他的長期調查,在這些話: “一節載有講話Eliu已精心準備的詩人,是密切和藝術正確性與以往和下面的部分。這是美國與其他圖書由無數的典故和關係。它是佔主導地位的是同樣的想法,其餘的詩。它利用也是相同的語言和同樣的方法,介紹在一般和詳細說明。所有的特殊性所表現的作者爭論的講話轉載的地址, Eliu 。的內容,這部分是節省的榮譽是必不可少的工作,並為解決這一問題的討論。因此,沒有理由假設它是一個插值;一切顯然是針對這一“ ( Hontheim ,同前。前。 , 20-39 。參看。還布德, ” Beitr䧥論批判之Buches Hiob “ , 1876年; Knabenbauer , ”就業“ ) 。 Anyone who desires to consider the speeches of Eliu as a later addition must hold, by the teaching of the Church, that they are inspired.任何人都希望考慮誰的發言Eliu作為除了必須持有後,由教學中的教會,他們的啟發。

(6) There is in general no reason whatever for considering any important part of the book either large or small as not belonging to the original text. ( 6 )一般沒有理由考慮任何重要組成部分,這本書無論大國還是小國,不屬於原來的案文。 Equally baseless is the supposition that important portions of the original composition are lost.同樣的假設是毫無根據的這一重要部分的原始成分都將丟失。

IX.九。 CONDITION OF THE TEXT條件的文本

The most important means for judging the Massoretic Text are the old translations made directly from the Hebrew: the Targum, Peshito, Vulgate, Septuagint, and the other Greek translations used by Origen to supplement the Septuagint.最重要的手段判斷Massoretic文字舊翻譯直接從希伯來文:的根, Peshito ,武加大,七十,和其他希臘翻譯使用奧利補充七十。 with the exception of the Septuagint, the original of all these translations was essentially identical with the Massoretic Text; only unimportant differences can be proved.唯一的例外是七十,原來所有這些翻譯基本上是相同的Massoretic文字;只有不重要的差異可以證明。 On the other hand, the Septuagint in the form it had before Origen, was about four hundred lines, that is one-fifth shorter than the Massoretic Text.另一方面,該譯本的形式它收到奧利,約400線,即五分之一短於Massoretic文字。 Origen supplied what was lacking in the Septuagint from the Greek translations and marked the additions by asterisks. Copyists generally omitted these critical signs, and only a remnant of them, mixed with many errors, has been reserved in a few manuscripts.奧利提供所缺乏的七十來自希臘語翻譯,標誌增加了星號。 Copyists普遍忽略這些重要的跡象,只有殘人,混合有許多錯誤,已預留了一些手稿。 Consequently knowledge of the old form of the Septuagint is very imperfect.因此知識的舊形式的七十是非常不完善的。 The best means now of restoring it is the Copto-Sahidic translation which followed the Septuagint and does not contain Origen's additions.現在的最佳手段,恢復它是Copto - Sahidic翻譯之後的譯本,並沒有包含奧利的補充。 This translation was published by Ciasca, "Sacrorum Bibliorum fragments Copto-Sahidica" (2 vols., Rome, 1889), and by Amelineau in "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology", IX (1893), 409-75.這翻譯出版了Ciasca , “蒿Bibliorum片段Copto - Sahidica ” ( 2卷。 ,羅馬, 1889年) ,並通過Amelineau在“交易中學會聖經考古學” ,第九章( 1893年) , 409-75 。 Hatch and Bickell claim that the shorter text of the Septuagint is in general the earlier one, consequently that the present Massoretic Text is an expansion of a shorter original.哈奇和Bickell聲稱較短的案文譯本是一般早先的,因此,目前的Massoretic文字是擴大較短的原始。 Nearly all other investigators hold the opposite, that the Septuagint was produced by cutting down an original which varied but little from the Massoretic Text.幾乎所有的其他調查持有相反,該譯本是由砍伐原始而不同,但很少從Massoretic文字。 This was also Bickell's view in earlier years, and is the real state of the case.這也是Bickell認為前幾年,是真正的國家的情況。 To avoid repetition and discursive statements, the translators of the Septuagint omitted much, especially where the reading seemed doubtful, translation difficult, the content anthropomorphic, unworthy of Job, or otherwise objectionable.為了避免重複和話語報表,翻譯省略了七十多,特別是在閱讀似乎懷疑,翻譯困難,擬人化的內容,不配工作,或其他不恰當的。 In doing this the translation frequently disregards the fundamental principle of Hebrew poetry, the parallelism of the lines.在這一過程中往往忽略了翻譯的基本原則希伯來詩歌,平行的線。 In brief the critical value of the Septuagint is not great; in almost all instances the Massoretic Text is to be preferred.在簡短的臨界值的七十不是很大;在幾乎所有情況下, Massoretic文字是更可取。 Taken altogether, the Massoretic has preserved the original form of the consonantal text fairly well, and needs but a moderate amount of critical emendation.採取總的來說, Massoretic保留了原來的形式consonantal文字相當好,和需要,但適量的關鍵校正。 The punctuation (vowel signs and accents), it is true, frequently requires correction, for the punctuators did not always lightly understand the often difficult text; at times also words are not properly divided.標點符號(元音符號和重音) ,它是真實的,經常需要更正,為punctuators並不總是輕易理解往往難以文本;有時還詞不正確劃分。

X. TECHNICAL SKILL OF THE AUTHOR AND THE METRE十,技術技能作者和米

Chapters iii-xlii, 6, are poetical in form.第三章至四十二,第6 ,是詩的形式。 This part of the book consists of about 102O lines.這部分圖書包括約102O線。 The verses, which do not always correspond with the Massoretic verses of our editions, are generally divided into two clauses or lines which are parallel in content.的詩句,這並不總是符合Massoretic詩句我們的版本,大致分為兩個條款或線是平行的內容。 There are also a number of verses, about sixty, of three clauses each, the so-called triplets.也有一些詩句,大約60 ,每3個條款,即所謂的三胞胎。 It is an unjustifiable violence to the text when a critic by removing one clause changes these triplets into couplets.這是一種毫無道理的暴力事件時對案文的批評者之一條款通過消除這些變化三胞胎成春聯。 The verses form the twenty-eight speeches of the book which, as already stated, make four series of seven speeches each.的詩句形成2008年發表的這本書的,如前所述,使四大系列7講話每個。 The speeches are divided, not directly into lines, but into strophes.演講分為,而不是直接進入線,但到strophes 。 It is most probable that the speeches formed from strophes often, perhaps always follow the law of "choral structure" discovered by Father Zenner.這是最有可能的演講往往形成strophes ,也許始終遵循法律的“合唱團結構”真蘭發現了父親。 That is, the speeches often or always consist of pairs of strophes, divided by intermediate strophes not in pairs.也就是說,演講經常或一直包括對strophes ,除以中間strophes不對。 The two strophes forming a pair are parallel in content and have each the same number of lines.這兩個strophes形成一條平行的內容和都相同的行數。 For a further discussion of this subject see Hontheim, op. cit.為進一步討論這一問題見Hontheim ,同前。前。 Investigators are not agreed as to the construction of the line.調查人員不同意,以建造線。 Some count the syllables, others only the stresses, others again the accented words.一些計數音節,有的只是強調,他人再次口音的話。 It would seem that the last view is the one to be preferred.看來,過去認為是一個更可取。 There are about 2100 lines in the Book of Job, containing generally three, at times two or four, accented words.大約有2100行中的約伯記,一般含有3個,有時2個或4個,口音的話。 Besides the commentaries, cf.除了評注,比照。 Gietmann, "Parzival, Faust, Job" (Freiburg im Br., 1887); Baumgartner, "Gesch. d. Weltliteratur", I (Freiburg im Br., 1901), 24 sqq. Gietmann , “ Parzival ,浮士德,就業” (弗賴堡一二。 , 1887年) ;鮑姆加特納, “ Gesch 。 4 Weltliteratur ” ,我(弗賴堡一二。 , 1901 ) , 24 sqq 。 One peculiarity of the author of Job is his taste for play upon words; for example, ch.一個獨特的作者的工作是他的味道的俏皮話,比如,甲烷。 xxi contains a continuous double meaning.二十一載有一個持續的雙重意義。

XI.十一。 TIME OF COMPOSITION時間的組成

The author of the book is unknown, neither can the period in which it was written be exactly determined.本書的作者不詳,也不能在這段期間,有人寫完全確定。 Many considered the book the work of Job himself or Moses.許多人認為這本書的工作,招聘本人或摩西。 It is now universally and correctly held that the book is not earlier than the reign of Solomon.現在人們普遍認為,正確的書是不早於在位所羅門。 On the other hand it is earlier than Ezechiel (Ezekiel 14:1-20).另一方面,早於Ezechiel (以西結書14:1-20 ) 。 For it is the natural supposition that the latter gained his knowledge of Job from the Book of Job, and not from other, vanished, sources.因為這是自然的假設,後者獲得知識的工作從約伯記,而不是從其他消失,來源。 It is claimed that allusions to Job have also been found in Isaias, Amos, Lamentations, some of the Psalms, and especially Jeremias.有人聲稱,典故就業也已發現伊薩亞阿莫斯納曼,耶利米哀歌,一些詩篇,特別是赫雷米亞斯。 Many Catholic investigators even at the present time assign the book to the reign of Solomon; the masterly poetic form points to this brilliant period of Hebrew poetry.許多天主教會的調查,即使在目前的時間分配書統治所羅門;詩形式的巧妙點,這個輝煌的時期希伯來詩歌。 The proofs, however, are not very convincing.的證據,但是,並不十分令人信服。 Others, especially Protestant investigators, assign the work to the period after Solomon.其他國家,特別是新教的調查員,分配工作以後的期間所羅門群島。 They support this position largely upon religious historical considerations which do not appear to have much force.他們支持這一立場主要是對宗教的歷史因素,似乎沒有多少力量。

Publication information Written by Joseph Hontheim.出版信息作者約瑟夫Hontheim 。 Transcribed by F. Gilles Beaudet, fsc. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄的樓吉爾斯博德特,金管會。天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Full bibliographies are to be found in CORNELY, Introductio in UT libros sacros, II (2nd ed., 1897), ii, 71 sqq., and in the commentaries of DILLMANN and BUDDE, cf.充分書目都在CORNELY ,引UT斯達康libros sacros ,第二章(第2版。 , 1897 ) ,二, 71 sqq 。 ,並在評注DILLMANN和布德,比照。 also the various Introductions to the Scripture, as GIGOT (1906); TROCHON (1886); KAULEN (4th ed., 1899); CORNELY (2nd ed., Paris, 1897); further the articles on Job in the theological and Biblical encyclopedias.還介紹了各種的經文,因為GIGOT ( 1906年) ; TROCHON ( 1886年) ; KAULEN (第4版。 , 1899 ) ; CORNELY (第二版。 ,巴黎, 1897年) ;進一步條款的工作,神學和聖經百科全書。 Of the large number of commentaries on Job the following may be mentioned.大量的評論,下面的工作可能會提到。 Catholic: WELTE (1849); KNABENBAUER (Paris, 1886), HONTHEIM (1904).天主教:答( 1849年) ; KNABENBAUER (巴黎, 1886年) , HONTHEIM ( 1904年) 。 Non-Catholic: DELITZSCH (2nd ed., 1876); DILLMANN (4th ed., 1891); DAVIDSON in Cambridge Bible (1895); BUDDE (1896); DUHM (1897); WIGHT AND HIRSCH, A Commentary on the Book of Job from a Hebrew Manuscript in the University Library, Cambridge (1905).非天主教:德里(第二版。 , 1876年) ; DILLMANN (第4版。 , 1891年) ;戴維森在劍橋聖經( 1895年) ;布德( 1896年) ; DUHM ( 1897 ) ; WIGHT和Hirsch ,評上的書工作從希伯來手稿中的大學圖書館,劍橋大學( 1905年) 。 Among special works mention may be made of: BICKELL, De indole ac ratione versionis Alexandrinae in interpretando libro Jobi (1862); IDEM, Carmina Vet.在特殊工程可以提到: BICKELL ,德吲哚交流的理由versionis Alexandrinae在interpretando圖書Jobi ( 1862年) ;同上,卡爾米納獸醫。 Test. metrice (18S2); GIETMANN, De re Metrica Hebraeorum (1880); VETTER, Die Metrik des Buches Job (1897); BEER, Text des Buches Hiob untersucht (1897); ROGER, Eschatologie des Buches Job (1901); POSSELT, Der Verfasser der Eliureden (1909).測試。 metrice ( 18S2 ) ; GIETMANN ,者重新Metrica Hebraeorum ( 1880年) ; VETTER ,模具Metrik萬Buches工作( 1897年) ;啤酒,文字之Buches Hiob untersucht ( 1897 ) ;觀, Eschatologie萬Buches工作( 1901年) ; POSSELT報Verfasser之Eliureden ( 1909年) 。


Book of Job約伯記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Complaint and Rejoinders.投訴和Rejoinders 。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Speeches of Elihu.演的伊萊休。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The Doctrine of Retribution.中庸報復。

Job's Replies.就業的答复。

Composition of the Book.組成的這本書。

Second and Third Dialogues.第二和第三次對話。

Later Additions and Changes in the Text.後來增加與變更的案文。

Textual Criticism.考據學。

Translations.翻譯。

Complaint and Rejoinders.投訴和Rejoinders 。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

A dramatic poem in forty-two chapters, the characters in which are Job, his wife (mentioned only once, ii. 9), his three friends-Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar-Elihu, and God (see Drama, Hebrew).急劇詩42章中的字符的工作,他的妻子(只提到一次,二。 9 ) ,他的三個朋友, Eliphaz , Bildad ,並Zophar -伊萊休,上帝(見戲劇,希伯來文) 。 Ch.總。 i.-ii.: Prologue, describing Job's prosperity, its disappearance,and the calamities sent upon him at the suggestion of Satan. i.-ii. :序章,說明工作的繁榮,它的失踪,和災害派遣他的建議撒旦。 Ch.總。 iii.: Job's complaint.三。 :求職的投訴。 He curses the day he was bron; wishes he had died immediately after birth; thinks death preferable to a life of misfortune.他咒罵的一天,他是支氣管;希望他死於出生後立即予以;認為死亡最好的生活不幸。 Ch.總。 iv.-v.: Reply of Eliphaz. iv.-v. :引的Eliphaz 。 He declares that a truly righteous man is never afflicted; that a man sometimes thinks himself just, though he is unjust: hence his complaint.他宣稱,一個真正的義人是從來沒有困擾;有時一個人認為自己只是,儘管他是不公正的:因此他的申訴。 He exhorts Job to turn to God in sincerity, who will surely restore him to well-being.他敦促工作轉向上帝的誠意,誰必將恢復他福祉。 Ch.總。 vi.-vii.: Job resumes his complaint. vi.至七。 :求職簡歷他的申訴。 His afflictions are greater than he can bear; his sole desire is to die at once, all his friends having deserted him.他的痛苦大於他可以承受;他唯一的願望是死於一次,所有他的朋友在離他而去。 He relates his sufferings, and reproaches God, who takes delight in torturing him. Ch.他與他的痛苦,並指責上帝,誰需要,可折磨他。總。 viii.: Reply of Bildad.八。 :引的Bildad 。 He reproaches Job for his injustice toward God, declaring that if he were really upright, God would not have so afflicted him, and that the prosperity of the wicked, of which Job complains, is unstable.他責備的工作對他的不公正的上帝,宣稱如果他真的是一身正氣,上帝也不會如此折磨他,而繁榮的惡人,其中就業抱怨,是不穩定的。 Ch.總。 ix.-x.: Job represents God as a capricious tyrant, who lets His hand fall on both the just and the unjust. ix.-x. :招聘代表上帝作為一個反复無常的暴君,誰可以讓他的手落在了公正和不公正的。 He maintains that God knows that he is not wicked, and yet tortures him.他堅持認為,上帝知道,他不是邪惡的,但折磨他。 Ch.總。 xi.: Zophar, in reply, accuses Job of wickedness, for which he is being punished, and exhorts him to repent.十一。 : Zophar ,在答复中,指責工作的邪惡,他是受到懲罰,並力勸他悔改。 Ch. xii-xiv.: Job declares that he is as wise as his friends and that he needs not their counsel.總。第十二至十四。 :職位宣布,他是明智的,他的朋友,他並不需要他們的顧問。 God is ruler, and therefore he complains directly to Him of the prosperity of the wicked and of the suffering of the righteous.上帝是統治者,因此,他直接向他抱怨的繁榮的邪惡和苦難的正義。 God, the Omnipotent, ought not to bring under judgment so frail a creature as man.上帝,萬能的,不應該把這樣的判斷下的產物,為年老體弱的人。 Ch.總。 xv.: Eliphaz replies; Job's own words prove his guilt.十五。 : Eliphaz答复;招聘自己的話證明他有罪。 He repeats the assertion that the prosperity of the wicked is not of long duration.他重複斷言繁榮惡人不是長期。

Ch.總。 xvi-xvii.: Job again accuses God of injustice.十六,十七。 :職位再次指責神的不公正。 Ch.總。 xviii.: Bildad confirms his friends' assertion that the wicked, in spite of present prosperity, will come to a bad end.十八。 : Bildad證實了他的朋友們的斷言,即邪惡的,儘管目前的繁榮,會來一個壞結束。 Ch.總。 xix.: Job accuses his friends of being unjust toward him, laments that now he has none to whom he may go for comfort: God persecutes him, his friends and acquaintances have abandoned him, even his wife turns against him. Ch.十九。 :職位指責他的朋友對他不公,感嘆說,現在他已經沒有任何人,他可能會去安慰:上帝迫害他,他的朋友和熟人已經放棄他,甚至他的妻子對他輪流。總。 xx.: Zophar makes the same reply as Bildad in ch.二十。 : Zophar作出了同樣的答复Bildad在CH 。 xviii., but in other words.十八。 ,但在其他的話。 Ch.總。 xxi.: Job refutes his friends' assertions, maintaining that only the wicked prosper, that they spend their lives in pleasure and pass swiftly to the grave.二十一。 :職位駁斥他的朋友'的說法,堅持認為只有邪惡的繁榮,使得他們可以省下自己的生命很高興,並通過迅速的嚴重。 Even if misfortune overtakes their children, the wicked have departed, and will know it not.即使不幸超越自己的孩子,惡人已經離開,並且將知道這不是。 Ch.總。 xxii.: Eliphaz asserts that God has no profit in man's righteousness, only man himself profits by it; that Job is being punished for his manifold sins.二十二。 : Eliphaz聲稱,上帝沒有利潤的人的正義,只有他本人利潤的人;這項工作正在多方面的懲罰,他的罪過。 He again exhorts Job to repentance, telling him that therein he will prosper at last.他再次敦促工作悔改,告訴他那裡,他將繁榮上。

Ch.總。 xxiii.-xxiv.: Job complains that, not knowing the abode of God, he can not bring his case directly before Him. xxiii. - 24 。 :職位抱怨,不知道該居留權的上帝,他不能把他的案件直接在他面前。 Then, changing his theme, he describes the perverseness of the wicked and marvels that God, who sees everything, does not check them.然後,改變自己的主題,他闡述了perverseness的邪惡和奇蹟,上帝,誰看到的一切,不檢查他們。 Ch.總。 xxv.: Bildad rejoins that man has no right to complain, as he can not be perfect. Ch.二十五。 : Bildad相聚,人沒有權利抱怨,因為他不能完美。總。 xxvi.-xxxi.: Job, after declaring to Bildad that he knows well that God is omnipotent and omniscient, cites a parable, maintaining that he is upright and a stranger to wickedness. xxvi. -三十一。 :作業後,宣布以Bildad ,他深知上帝是無所不能,無所不知,舉了個比喻,認為他是正直和陌生人邪惡。 The wicked are destined to destruction, and will not profit in their great wealth. In ch.惡人注定要毀滅,也不會在其獲利巨大的財富。在CH 。 xxviii.二十八。 he exalts wisdom, and contrasts, in the two following chapters, his present condition with his former prosperity. Formerly, he was respected and beloved by all for his generosity and his charitable deeds, and the wicked feared his power.他exalts智慧和對比,在以下兩個章節,他目前的狀況與他的前繁榮。以前,他是尊重和熱愛的一切,他的慷慨和他的慈善事蹟,並擔心他的邪惡力量。 Now, he is mocked by the meanest, by the outlawed; he again speaks harshly against God.現在,他嘲笑的卑鄙,由取締;他再次談到嚴厲打擊上帝。 He describes his generosity and his uprightness, calling upon God to witness it.他形容他的慷慨和他的浩然正氣,呼籲上帝見證它。

Speeches of Elihu.演的伊萊休。

Ch.總。 xxxii.-xxxvii.: Elihu's speeches. xxxii. -三十七。 :伊萊休的講話。 Seeing that Job's three friends remained silent, unable to answer him, Elihu takes their place.看到這項工作的三個朋友保持沉默,無法回答他,伊萊休考慮自己的位置。 He had remained silent because the others were older; but being now convinced that wisdom is not in years, he assumed the duty of replying to Job.他一直保持沉默,因為人老,但現在確信正在智慧不來,他承擔的責任作出答复的工作。 The chief points of Elihu's speeches are that God is never wrong, that calamity is a warning from God to man to repent, that God, who neither profits in man's righteousness nor suffers in his sins, always chastises the wicked and rewards the righteous.首席點伊萊休的講話是上帝從來都不是錯誤的,這是一個災難預警上帝向人懺悔,上帝,誰都不利潤人的正義,也沒有受到他的罪孽,總是斯菲爾惡人和獎勵的正義。

Ch.總。 xxxviii.-xxxix. xxxviii. -三十九。 are theophanous; they present a cosmographical sketch and take the form of questions addressed to Job by God, who speaks to him out of the whirlwind.是theophanous ;他們提出一個cosmographical素描和採取的形式問題,給工作的上帝,誰講了他的旋風。 They tell of the creation of earth, seas, light, darkness, snow, hail, rain, the heavens, and the celestial bodies; the habits of the wild goat, the unicorn, the peacock, the ostrich, the horse, and the eagle are spoken of in passages of great beauty.他們告訴創造地球,海洋,光,黑暗中,雪,冰雹,雨,天空和天體;的習慣野生山羊,利康,孔雀,鴕鳥,馬,和老鷹在談到在通道非常美麗。 Ch.總。 xl.-xli.: Continuation of God's address with a brief reply from Job. xl. -四十一。 :繼續上帝的地址並擁有一個簡短的答复工作。 These two chapters describe the nature and habits of the hippopotamus ("behemoth") and the whale ("leviathan").這兩個章節描述的性質和習慣的河馬( “巨人” )和鯨( “利維坦” ) 。 Ch.總。 xlii.: Epilogue; after a short speech from Job declaring his repentance, an account of his restoration to his former state of prosperity is given.四十二。 :尾聲;經過短暫的講話,從工作,宣布他的懺悔,他的帳戶恢復他的前一個國家的繁榮是。 The sublime grandeur of the final theophany, the simple directness of the narrative portions, and the imaginative coloring of the soul-problems raised in the book make it, regarded merely as literature, the most striking production of the Hebraic genius.神聖莊嚴的最後神,簡單的直接因果關係的說明部分,和富有想像力的色彩的靈魂中提出的問題使這本書,僅視作文學,最突出的生產希伯來天才。 See Job, Biblical Data.ECM Sel.見工作,聖經Data.ECM服務器。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The poem which is contained in Job iii.這首詩,載於工作三。 1-xlii. 1 -四十二。 6, exclusive of later interpolations, discusses a religious problem which could scarcely have been formulated in the early period of the Israelitic people; for it presupposes a high spiritual development and a maturity of judgment which are acquired by a people only after great trials and sore tribulations. 6 ,不包括後來插值,討論了宗教問題,幾乎已經制定初期的Israelitic人;因為它的前提是高精神方面的發展和成熟的判斷這是一國人民所取得偉大的試驗後,才和喉嚨痛磨難。 This view excludes all the earlier opinions which assign the date of the composition of the poem either to the patriarchal age (so Eichhorn, Jahn, Bertholdt, Haneberg, and others), or to the time of Moses (BB 15a), of David (Herder), of Solomon (Schlottmann, Haevernick, and Hahn), and even of Hezekiah (Ewald).這種觀點排除所有先前的意見而指定的日期組成的詩要么重男輕女年齡(所以艾希霍恩,雅恩, Bertholdt , Haneberg等) ,或時間摩西( BB心跳15A條) ,大衛(赫德) ,所羅門( Schlottmann , Haevernick ,和哈恩) ,甚至Hezekiah (埃瓦爾德) 。

The special problem discussed in Job concerns the justice of the divine government of the world.特別討論的問題涉及到司法工作的神聖政府世界。 It could have been formulated only after the principles of that justice had been announced in Deuteronomy; according to which earthly happiness was promised as a reward to the faithful followers of the Law and of Yhwh, and earthly misfortune was heldup as a punishment to the recalcitrant (Deut. xxviii.-xxx.).它可能已經制定之後才的原則,正義已經宣布在申命記;根據這一人間幸福承諾作為報酬的忠實追隨者,法律和Yhwh ,和人間的不幸是heldup作為一種懲罰的頑抗( Deut. xxviii. ,三十。 ) 。 Hence the poem must have been composed after the promulgation of the Deuteronomic code.因此,詩必須組成後,已頒布了Deuteronomic代碼。 And the question as to God's dealings with His world must have become paramount at a time when experience directly contradicted the principles laid down in that code.的問題,以上帝的交往與他的世界必須成為首要的時候經驗直接抵觸規定的原則在該代碼。 After the reforms of Josiah (622 BC) Israel undoubtedly had a right to unalloyed happiness.經過改革的約書亞( 622年)以色列無疑有權純粹的幸福。 Instead there came a succession of catastrophes: the defeat of Megiddo (609), and the Babylonian exile (587), by which the congregation of the Lord in Israel in particular was most deeply smitten.相反有了繼承的災難:打敗米吉多( 609人) ,和巴比倫流亡( 587 ) ,其中主聚集在以色列特別是最深刻一見鍾情。

Merx, Stickel, Reuss, Dillmann, Hirzel, Hitzig, and Ley (in "Studien und Kritiken," 1898, pp. 34-70) assume the seventh century BC as the date of composition; Gesenius, Vatke ("Biblische Theologie," i. 563), and Duhm ("Das Buch Hiob," p. ix.) place it as late as the fifth century; while Budde ("Das Buch Hiob," p. xiv.) assigns it even to the year 400. Merx , Stickel , Reuss , Dillmann , Hirzel ,希齊格和法(在“ Studien與Kritiken , ” 1898年,頁。 34-70 )承擔公元前七世紀的日期組成; Gesenius , Vatke ( “ Biblische神學”一563 ) ,和Duhm ( “達斯圖書Hiob , ”第9頁。 )置於遲五世紀;而布德( “達斯圖書Hiob , ”第14 。 )指派,甚至到400人。 But the question involved in the poem must have become imperative, not when righteous Israel was pitted against the heathen evil-doers (as in Hab. i. 2-5, ii. 4), but when the oppressed Israelitic congregation presented a violent contrast to its wicked oppressors who were joined by traitors to their own religion and people.但是,這個問題涉及的詩必須成為當務之急,而不是以色列時,正義對抗邪惡的異教徒,事(如民政事務局。島2月5日,二。 4 ) ,但是當被壓迫Israelitic眾提出了暴力對比其邪惡的壓迫者誰加入了叛徒自己的宗教和人民。 This contrast is found in the Exile, but still more markedly perhaps at the time of the Maccabees, when Israel was persecuted by Antiochus Epiphanes (2d cent. BC).這種反差中發現的流亡,但或許更明顯的時候,馬加比,當以色列迫害安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯(二維的。公元前) 。 The same designations are applied to him in the Book of Job as are found, according to advanced critical views, in the Psalms.相同的名稱,適用於他的約伯記因為被發現,根據先進的批評意見,在詩篇。 On the one hand there are the "resha'im" (Job xx. 5 et seq., xxi. 7 et seq., 16 et seq.); the "po'ale awen" (xxxi. 3); the "'ariẓim" (xxvii. 13); the "ḥanef" (xxvii. 8); the "'awwal" (xxix. 17); the "'ashir" (xxvii. 19), etc.; on the other, the "ẓaddiḳim" (xxii. 19); the "ebyonim" (xxiv. 4); and the "'aniyye areẓ" (xxiv. 4b); comp.一方面是“ resha'im ” (工作二十。 5起。 ,二十一。 7起。 , 16起。 ) ;的“ po'ale awen ” ( xxxi. 3 ) ;的“ ' ariẓim “ ( xxvii. 13 ) ;的” ḥanef “ ( xxvii. 8 ) ;的” ' awwal “ ( xxix. 17 ) ;的” ' ashir “ ( xxvii. 19 )等;另一方面, ” ẓaddiḳim “ ( xxii. 19 ) ;的” ebyonim “ ( xxiv. 4 ) ;和” aniyye areẓ “ ( xxiv. 4B條) ;補償。 "'ani weebyon" (xxiv. 14 et seq.); "yashar" (xxiii. 7); "naḳi" (xxvii. 17), etc. Many catastrophes had been recently witnessed falling upon great nations (xii. 23); eg, when the Assyrians were vanquished by the Babylonians, and the latter in turn by the Persians. “ '威阿尼weebyon ” ( xxiv. 14起。 ) ; “亞沙爾” ( xxiii. 7 ) ; “基” ( xxvii. 17日)等許多災難最近目睹了偉大的國家時下降( xii. 23 ) ;例如,當亞述人征服的巴比倫人,後者又由波斯人。 It had indeed become a matter of daily occurrence to witness countries given into the hands of evil-doers, and to see Yhwh mock at the despair of the innocent (ix. 23, 24) and to behold the triumph of the wicked (xxi. 7 et seq.).它確實成為一個問題,每天都在發生,以證人的國家給予的手中邪惡的事,並見Yhwh模擬在絕望的無辜( ix. 23日, 24日) ,並看哪勝利惡人( xxi. 7起。 ) 。 The doom of the evil-doer (xv. 20 et seq.) is described in terms which seem to allude to the fate of Alexander Jannæus.末日論者們的罪惡善人( xv. 20起。 )中所描述的條件似乎暗示命運的亞歷山大Jannæus 。 The language of the speeches in the Book of Job, the late Hebraic words recurring in it (comp. Barth, "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Buches Hiob," 1876, p. 4; Stade, "Lehrbuch der Hebr. Grammatik," 1879, p. 12), and the many Aramaisms (comp. Budde, "Beiträge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob," 1876, p. 141) and Arabisms (comp. Stade, lc pp. 12 et seq.) all point to a comparatively late time.語言的講話在約伯記,已故的希伯來詞中反复出現( comp.巴斯“ Beiträge楚Erklärung萬Buches Hiob , ” 1876年,第4頁;體育場, “教科書之Hebr 。語法” , 1879年,第12頁) ,和許多Aramaisms ( comp.布德, “ Beiträge論批判之Buches Hiob , ” 1876年,第141頁)和Arabisms ( comp.體育場術頁。 12起。 )都指向一個比較晚時間。

From the references to many Egyptian matters, Hitzig has assumed that Egypt was the home of the poet; but the passages referring to the hippopotamus and crocodile may be suspected to be later interpolations.從提到許多埃及事項,希齊格承擔,埃及是家裡的詩人;但通道指的是河馬和鱷魚可能會懷疑是後來插值。 The Egyptian mines (xxviii. 1-11) were known in Palestine, as were also the swift ships of the Nile (ix. 26), the papyrus-rolls (xxxi. 36; comp. viii. 11), the war-horse (xxxix. 19), and the pyramids (AV "desolate places"; iii. 14).埃及地雷( xxviii. 1月11日)被稱為在巴勒斯坦也迅速船舶尼羅河( ix. 26 ) ,紙莎草紙,卷( xxxi. 36 ;補償。八。 11 ) ,戰爭馬( xxxix. 19 ) ,和金字塔(視聽“荒涼的地方” ;三。 14 ) 。 From "them that go by the way" (xxi. 29), also, much may have been learned of foreign countries.從“他們去的方式” ( xxi. 29 ) ,此外,很多可能已經了解到國外。 The poet himself may have joined caravans (vi. 15-19); the descriptions of the sufferings of the pious in Israel indicate that he also had suffered (xi. 15, 19a; vii. 1-3).詩人本人可能已加入大蓬車( vi. 15-19 ) ;的描述的痛苦虔誠以色列表明,他還遭受( xi. 15 , 19A條;七。 1-3 ) 。 He wrote his poem with his heart's blood (Duhm).他寫他的詩與他的心臟的血液( Duhm ) 。

The Doctrine of Retribution.中庸報復。

It had become necessary to assail the popular doctrine that obedience to the Law would be rewarded, and its transgression punished.它已成為必要的抨擊流行理論,服從法律將得到獎勵,其侵懲罰。 For both of these principles were interpreted in an entirely external way: reward meaning a long and pleasant life (Ex. xx. 12; Lev. xxvi. 3 et seq.), and punishment misfortune and an early death (Deut. xxviii. 20 et seq.; Lev. xxvi. 15 et seq.; Gen. ii. 17 et seq.).對於這兩個原則的解釋是完全外部方式:獎勵長期意義和愉快的生活(例如: XX元。 12 ;列夫。二十六。 3起。 )和懲罰的不幸和過早死亡( Deut.二十八。 20起。 ;列夫。二十六。 15起。 ;將軍二。 17起。 ) 。 The leper especially was considered to be smitten by God; hence the term "nega'" (= "blow"; Lev. xiii. 22) for leprosy.台階尤其是被認為是一見鍾情的上帝,因此,長期“負” ( = “打擊” ;列夫。十三。 22 )的麻風病。 The sufferings of the law-abiding Israelite or of the righteous seemed therefore irreconcilable with Yhwh's justice and truthfulness; for He smote him who deserved praise, and punished where He had promised a reward.痛苦的守法以色列人或正義似乎因此不可調和Yhwh的公正和真實性,因為他smote他誰值得表揚,並受到懲罰,他曾許諾獎勵。

The ancient doctrine of retribution is developed at great length by Job's three friends.古老的學說報復開發了很長時間的工作的三個朋友。 According to it God shows His anger by inflicting suffering; He turns from man as from an enemy (xiii. 24, xix. 11); looks at him angrily (vii. 19a, xiv. 6a, xvi. 9); smites him with His hand (xiii. 21b, xix. 21); makes him afraid by His terrors (ix. 34, xiii. 21b, xxiii. 16); covers him with darkness (xix. 8b); stands in his way (iii. 23); overwhelms him with His power (ix. 12, 13, 19a; xxiii. 6); pierces him with His arrows (vi. 4, xvi. 14); punishes him with His scourge (ix. 23).根據它的上帝顯示了他的憤怒造成痛苦;他輪流從男子從敵人( xiii. 24 , 19 。 11 ) ;看著他生氣地( vii. 19A條,第十四條。 6A條,十六。 9 ) ; smites他他的手( xiii.第二十一期乙,十九。 21 ) ;使他害怕了他的恐懼( ix. 34 ,十三。第二十一期乙,二十三。 16 ) ;包括他與黑暗( xix. 8B條) ;站在了他的去路( iii. 23 ) ;壓垮他,他的權力( ix. 12 , 13 , 19A條;二十三。 6 ) ;穿過他與他的箭頭( vi. 4十六。 14 ) ;懲罰他,他的禍害( ix. 23 ) 。 The poet introduces also the imagery of the prison (vii. 12, xiii. 27, xiv. 16), the net (xix. 6), the storm (ix. 17, xxx. 22), and an army assailing an unfortunate captive (x. 17, xvi. 13, xix. 12), who in the end succumbs (xxx. 12 et seq.).詩人還介紹了圖像的監獄( vii. 12 ,十三。 27日,十四。 16 ) ,淨( xix. 6 ) ,熱帶風暴( ix. 17三十。 22 ) ,和一個軍隊調戲一個不幸被俘(十17 ,十六。 13 , 19 。 12 ) ,誰最終屈服於( xxx. 12起。 ) 。 He vainly questions how he may have incurred the inscrutable anger of God (x. 2, xiii. 23).他是徒勞的問題,他可能已經發生了不可思議的憤怒的上帝(十2 ,十三。 23 ) 。 The burning pain will not let him rest (xxx. 17).燃燒的痛苦不會讓他休息( xxx. 17 ) 。 Imagery from the animal world is also used (x. 16).圖像動物世界也被用來(十16 ) 。 God's hostility calls up fear of further visitation (ix. 18, x. 13-15, xxx. 23) and despair because of the unending misery (ix. 11 et seq., xxiii. 15 et seq.), so that the prayer for a short respite (vii. 16-19, x. 20, xiv. 6) is interwoven with the cry for death (vi. 9, 10; vii. 15).上帝的敵意,籲請害怕進一步探視( ix. 18日,十, 13日至15日,三十。 23 )和絕望,因為無休止的苦難( ix. 11起。 ,二十三。 15起。 ) ,因此,祈禱短暫喘息( vii. 16-19 ,十20 ,十四。 6 )是交織在一起的呼聲死亡( vi. 9日, 10日;七。 15 ) 。

Added to all these sufferings of the stricken one is the bitterness of seeing that his enemies as well as his friends heartlessly consider him to be a sinner branded by God (xvii. 6).添加到所有這些痛苦的是災區的辛酸看到他的敵人,以及他的朋友們無情地認為他是一個罪人品牌上帝( xvii. 6 ) 。 His enemies snatch at the opportunity to vent their malice on him (xvi. 10 et seq., xxx. 1-14); his servants and followers refuse him obedience (xix. 15, 16); his wife and children, as well as relatives and friends, abandon him (xii. 4; xix. 13-14, 17-19, 21 et seq.).他的敵人抓住機會發洩怨恨他( xvi. 10起。 ,三十。 1月14日) ;他的僕人和他的追隨者拒絕服從( xix. 15日, 16日) ;他的妻子和子女,以及親人和朋友,放棄他( xii. 4 ;十九。 13-14 , 17-19 , 21起。 ) 。 His guilt is assumed as a matter of course, and no one thinks of doubting it; otherwise God would have to be accused of injustice-an accusation that would be the most grievous blasphemy (iv. 7, viii. 3).假定他有罪是理所當然,沒有人認為它的懷疑,否則上帝將被指責為不公正,指責這將是最嚴重的褻瀆( iv. 7八。 3 ) 。 Hence it becomes the imperative duty of the sufferer to find out, by a frank examination of his past life and thoughts, inwhat way he has sinned.因此,成為當務之急責任患者為了找到答案,考試通過了坦率,他過去的生活和想法,他已經inwhat罪。 For there must be some guilt (iv. 18-19, xv. 14-16, xxv. 4-6)-this must be assumed a priori in order to explain the suffering (viii, 11, xxii. 5 et seq.).為,必須有某種罪行( iv. 18-19十五。 14-16 , 25 。 4月6日) ,這必須假定先驗,以解釋的痛苦( 8 , 11 , 22 。 5起。 ) 。 If the sufferer admits his guilt God will forgive him (v. 17-27, viii. 5-7, xi. 13-19, xxii. 21-30); but if he obstinately persists in declaring that he is innocent he adds another grievous sin to his former guilt, and his punishment will increase accordingly (xi. 4, xv. 13, xxii. 3-4).如果患者承認他有罪上帝會原諒他( 17-27五,第八條。 5月7日,十一。 13-19 , 22 。 21-30 ) ;但如果他一意孤行堅持聲稱他是無辜的,他又增加了嚴重的罪孽他有罪,他的處罰將相應增加( xi. 4 ,十五。 13 , 22 。 3-4 ) 。

Job's Replies.就業的答复。

In answer to all these arguments of his friends Job insists, in the first place, that the sufferer has the right to complain (vi. 5-7). He points out the heartlessness to which their doctrine leads; for instead of comforting the sufferer in his pain, they reprove him for his alleged sins (vi. 14-22).在回答所有這些論點,他的朋友們堅持工作,擺在首位,該患者有權利抱怨( vi. 5-7 ) 。他指出,現在的無情而他們的理論線索;的不是安慰患者在他的痛苦,他們責備他所稱的罪孽( vi. 14-22 ) 。 But it is cheap wisdom to repeat the ancient doctrine of divine retribution in all sorts of variations and to apply these to an unfortunate man (xii. 2-3, xiii. 2, xix. 2-5).但它是廉價的智慧重複古老的學說神罰的各種變化和適用這些不幸的人( xii. 2月3日,十三。 2 ,十九。 2-5 ) 。 Although the supreme power of God makes it impossible to rebel against His blows, the justice of His decrees is not thereby proved (ix. 2-21, 30-35; x. 15-17; xii. 14; xiii. 3; xix. 6 et seq.; xxi. 31).雖然最高權力神使其無法反抗他的打擊,他的正義性的法令並不因此而證明( ix. 2月21日, 30-35 ;十15-17 ;十二。 14 ;十三。 3 ; 19 。 6起。 ;二十一。 31 ) 。 Experience shows that in the catastrophes of nature the perfect and the wicked are alike smitten by God (ix. 22-23); and it often happens that the wicked live prosperously to the end of their days (xii. 6; xxi. 7-15, 32 et seq.), being made the judges of right and wrong (ix. 24), although occasionally the ancient doctrine of retribution brought them to the bar of justice (xix. 29).經驗表明,在自然災害的完美和惡人都是一樣一見鍾情的上帝( ix. 22日至23日) ;和會常常發生邪惡生活繁榮的結束其天( xii. 6 ;二十一。 7 - 15日, 32起。 )正在取得法官的正確和錯誤的( ix. 24 ) ,雖然偶爾古代學說報復把他們帶到律師司法( xix. 29 ) 。

But no power on earth can take away the feeling of innocence from the sinless sufferer, or force him to declare himself guilty against his better convictions (x. 6, 7; xiii. 18 et seq.; xvi. 17; xxvii. 5, 6; xxxi. 1 et seq.).但是,地球上沒有任何力量可以帶走的感覺,從清白無辜的受害者,或迫使他宣布自己對他更好的有罪判決(十,六,七;十三。 18起。 ;十六。 17 ;二十七。 5 , 6 ;三十一。 1起。 ) 。 He has the right to appeal to God's judgment, as being superior to the condemnation his friends pretend to see in his present misfortunes (xii. 4, xiii. 7-10, xvi. 18-20, xix. 17).他已提出上訴的權利,以上帝的判決,是優於譴責他的朋友們假裝看到他目前的不幸( xii. 4 ,十三。 7月10日,十六。 18-20 , 19 。 17 ) 。 It is useless to say that no man is clean in the eyes of God (xiv. 4); for even according to that argument it is incomprehensible why the comparatively just person should be most heavily stricken and the worst evil-doers go unpunished (vii. 21, xiii. 26, xiv. 17).這是無用的說,沒有人是乾淨的眼神中的上帝( xiv. 4 ) ;甚至根據這一論點難以理解的是為什麼比較公正的人應該是受災最重和最嚴重的邪惡的事逍遙法外(七。 21日,十三。 26日,十四。 17 ) 。

The negative result reached by these arguments of the Book of Job may be stated as follows: What hitherto has been called divine justice is merely the display of the omnipotence of God.消極結果所達成的這些論點的約伯記可能如下:什麼一直被稱為神聖的正義只是展示無所不能的上帝。 His decisions are devoid of all moral qualities, and are pronounced indifferently, as blessings or as curses, upon all men, upon the good and the bad alike.他的決定是毫無道德素質,並正在明顯冷淡,因為祝福或詛咒,要求所有男性後,好的和壞一樣。 In the same way men are prosperous or unhappy according to the fortuitous events of their lives, quite independently of their ethical qualities.以同樣的方式男子繁榮或不高興根據偶然事件的他們的生活,相當獨立的道德素質。 The gifts of fortune and the strokes of calamity are in no wise connected either with God's justice or with man's moral nature.的禮物,財富和中風的災難是在沒有明智的連接或者在上帝的正義或與人的道德性質。

But as these arguments deprived the divine omnipotence, as manifested in the world, of all ethical quality the danger arose of excluding this quality altogether from the divine nature, and of actually destroying the attribute of justice in God.但是,因為這些論點被剝奪的神聖無所不能,表現在世界上,所有道德素質產生的危險排除這個質量完全的神聖性質,實際上破壞了司法的屬性上帝。 Hence the poet attempted to rehabilitate the latter in a round-about way, succeeding, however, only by means of a postulate.因此,詩人試圖恢復後者在一個迂迴的方式取得了成功,但是,只有通過一個假設。 He declares that many of the phenomena of nature are indeed the manifestations of an omnipotence that overwhelms man by the terrors of its sublimity (xxvi. 6-14), but that this is not the only thing that nature declares of God.他宣稱,許多現象的性質的表現確實是一個無所不能的壓垮人的恐懼其崇高( xxvi. 6月14日) ,但是,這不是唯一的這種性質的聲明上帝。 The marvelous law and order of those phenomena, of nature and the multiplicity and curious modes of life of her creatures, are also the manifestations of a hidden wisdom, to which man simply must submit.精彩法律和秩序,對這些現象的性質和方式的多樣性和好奇,她的生活的動物,也表現的一個隱藏的智慧,而男人只是必須提交。

Composition of the Book.組成的這本書。

The author of the Book of Job incorporated the folk book into his work in a manner still showing traces of the component parts.的作者約伯記納入民間書到他的工作方式仍然顯示痕跡的組成部分。 The use of this preexisting material very cleverly placed the problem outside of Palestine, thereby excluding the possible objection of orthodox theology that such a case-a perfectly righteous man persecuted by Yhwh-could not occur in Israel.使用這種材料存在的非常巧妙,把外面的巴勒斯坦問題,從而排除了可能的反對正統神學說,這種情況下,一個完全正義的人的迫害Yhwh ,可能不會發生在以色列。 Yhwh, moreover, did not inflict the suffering; it was inflicted by Satan with Yhwh's permission.耶和華,此外,沒有造成的痛苦,這是造成撒旦與Yhwh的許可。 The problem is discussed in a disputation between Job-who like a leper sits on the dust-heap (Ar. "mazbalah") outside the nomad village (on the separation of lepers see II Chron. xxvi. 21)-and his three friends who, according to the folk-book, come to comfort him (ii. 11).討論的問題是在一個工作之間的爭議是誰的像一個台階坐落在灰塵堆( Ar. “ mazbalah ” )以外的游牧村(分離麻風病人見二專欄。二十六。 21 ) ,和他的三個朋友誰,根據民間書,來安慰他(白介素11 ) 。 In the body of the book, however, they bring no comfort, but heap the bitterest accusations upon Job. Job opens the discussion with the ancient cry of all sufferers (iii., Hebr.): "O, that I had never been born! and since I was brought into the world, why could I not, even in the hour of birth, have found the eternal rest of Sheol" (comp. Sophocles, "(Edipus Coloneus," line 1225: τὸ μὴ φῦναι τὸν ἅπαντα νικᾷ λόγον; Eccl. iv. 2-3); and in his questionings at the end of this monologue (iii. 26 et seq.) he formulates the problem as to the cause of this inexplicable suffering. The friends defend the views of the orthodox doctrine of retribution, according to which all suffering is a punishment for some sin; while Job defends the views of the clear conscience, which knows itself to be free from sin, and declares his suffering to be inexplainable from the Old Testament point of view. The discussion is held in a threefold series of dialogues (iv.-xxxi.), in each of which Job alternates once with each of the three friends. Hence arises the following scheme, aside from the additions to be discussed later on: First series of dialogues: Eliphaz (iv.-v.); Job (vi-vii.); Bildad (viii.); Job (ix.-x.); Zophar (xi.); Job (xii-xiv.). Second series: Eliphaz (xv.); Job (xvi.-xvii.); Bildad (xviii.); Job (xix.); Zophar (xx.); Job (xxi.). Third series: Eliphaz (xxii.); Job (xxiii.-xxiv.); Bildad (xxv.-xxvi. 5-14); Job (xxvi. 1-4, xxvii. 2-23, xxviii.-xxxi.); Zophar; Job (not in Hebrew text in the Masoretic arrangement). The third series of dialogues especially has been altered by interpolations. The beginning of Bildad's speech (xxv. 1-6) has been separated from the portion continuing it (xxvi. 5-14). It is followed by Job's answer (xxvi. 1-4; xxvii. 2-6; xxix. 1-6, 19, 20, 7-11, 21-23, 12, 13, 15-17, 24, 25, 14, 18; xxx. 1-24, 26-31; xxxi. 1-20; xxx. 25; xxxi. 21-23, 38-40, 24-37, 40; for this arrangement see C. Siegfried," The Book of Job," critical ed., especially pp 42 et seq., Leipsic and Baltimore, 1893).正文中的圖書,但是,他們帶來任何安慰,而是堆在激烈的指責後就業。就業開闢了討論與古代哭所有患者( iii. , Hebr 。 ) : “啊,我從來沒有出生!和自從我被帶到世界各地,為什麼我不能,即使是在出生時,已經找到了永恆的其他Sheol “ ( comp.索福克勒斯, ” ( Edipus Coloneus , “行1225年: τὸ μὴ φῦναι τὸν ἅπαντα νικᾷ λόγον ; Eccl 。四。 2月3日) ;並在其questionings在本月底獨白( iii. 26起。 )他提出的問題,因為事業的這一令人費解的痛苦。辯護的朋友的意見,東正教理論的報復,其中所有的痛苦是一種懲罰犯了罪,而辯護工作的意見,問心無愧,而知道自己免於罪,並宣布他的痛苦是inexplainable從舊約的觀點。討論舉行了三倍一系列對話( iv. -三十一。 ) ,在每一個職位輪換一次的三個朋友。因此出現了以下計劃,除了增加在後面討論:第一系列對話: Eliphaz ( iv.-v. ) ;工作( vi-vii. ) ; Bildad ( viii. ) ;工作( ix.-x. ) ; Zophar ( xi. ) ;工作( xii-xiv. ) 。第二次系列: Eliphaz ( xv. ) ;工作( xvi. - 17 。 ) ; Bildad ( xviii. ) ;工作( xix. ) ; Zophar ( xx. ) ;工作( xxi. ) 。第三個系列: Eliphaz ( xxii. ) ;工作( xxiii. - 24 。 ) ; Bildad ( xxv. - 26 。 5月14日) ;工作( xxvi. 1-4 ,二十七。 2月23日, xxviii. -三十一。 ) ; Zophar ;工作(不是在希伯來文在馬所拉的安排) 。第三一系列對話,特別是已經改變了插值。開始的Bildad的講話( xxv. 1-6 )已脫離部分繼續它( xxvi. 5月14日) 。其次是招聘的答案( xxvi. 1-4 ;二十七。 2-6 ;第29 。 1月6日, 19日, 20日, 7月11日, 21日至23日, 12 , 13 , 15-17 , 24 , 25 , 14 , 18 ;三十。 1月24日, 26日至31日;三十一。 1月20日;三十。 25 ;三十一。 21-23 , 38-40 , 24-37 , 40 ;對這一安排見角齊格弗里德說: “約伯記”關鍵版。 ,特別是第42起。 , Leipsic和巴爾的摩, 1893年) 。

These speeches do not present a direct, continuous train of thought developing or elaborating some central idea.這些講話沒有提出一個直接的,持續發展的思路,或制定一些中心思想。 The art and power of Semitic rhetoric consistrather in the rich elaboration of a single thought expressing the same idea in a varied profusion of imagery (comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] i. 5-10; Franz Delitzsch, "Gesch. der Jüdischen Poesie," pp. 21 et seq., Leipsic, 1836).藝術和權力的反猶言論consistrather在富國制定一個單一的思想表達了同樣的想法,投資在不同的圖像( comp. Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ]一, 5月10日;弗蘭茲德里, “ Gesch 。河畔Jüdischen詩, “頁。 21起。 , Leipsic , 1836年) 。 In general it may be said that Eliphaz represents on the whole the proof of authority, basing his arguments on a vision (iv. 12-21).總體而言,可以說, Eliphaz代表整個機關的證明,根據他的論點有關設想( iv. 12月21日) 。 Bildad appeals chiefly to experience, which proves the truth of the doctrine of divine retribution (viii. 8 et seq., xviii. 5-21). Bildad呼籲主要的經驗,證明的真理學說的神罰( viii. 8起。 ,十八。 5月21日) 。 Zophar argues with all the fervor of religious conviction and appeals to the divine decision (xi. 5 et seq.). Zophar主張與所有熱情的宗教信念,並呼籲神聖決定( xi. 5起。 ) 。

It appears from Job's speeches that, overawed by the veneration clinging to the old sacred doctrine of retribution (xii. 12), he at first does not dare to proclaim his innocence, of which he is so firmly convinced.看來,從工作的講話說, overawed由崇拜抱住舊的神聖原則報復( xii. 12 ) ,他在第一次也不敢宣布自己是無辜的,他是如此堅信。 He begs his friends to grant him the right to complain (vi. 2-13); not to refuse him the comfort he had expected from them (vi. 14-21), nor to attack him so mercilessly (vi. 24-27). He points out that experience shows only that the misfortunes befalling men are manifestations of God's omnipotence, and that because His decisions are strong enough to overcome all resistance it does not necessarily follow that they are just (ix., xii. 7-25). He therefore boldly asks the reason for his suffering (xiii. 18-23).他懇求他的朋友們給予他的權利,投訴( vi. 2月13日) ;沒有拒絕他的安慰,他預計他們( vi. 14-21 ) ,也不是要攻擊他,所以無情( vi. 24-27 ) 。他指出,經驗表明只有不幸降臨男子表現上帝的無所不能,而且因為他的決定是強大到足以克服一切阻力並不一定意味著他們只是( ix. ,十二。 7月25日) 。因此,他大膽地問他原因的痛苦( xiii. 18-23段) 。

Second and Third Dialogues.第二和第三次對話。

In the second dialogue Job develops the thought that while in some cases God's judgment is in accordance with the old doctrine of retribution (xxi. 16-21), very frequently just the opposite happens, as appears in the undisturbed good fortune of the wicked (xxi. 7-15, 22-34).在第二次對話的思想工作的發展,雖然在某些情況下,上帝的判決是根據舊的理論報復( xxi. 16-21 ) ,往往正好相反情況,如出現在不受干擾好運的惡人(二十一。 7-15 , 22-34 ) 。 He persists, moreover, even more strongly in declaring his innocence, appealing to the judgment of God, who apparently is so hostile to him, but whose justice will ultimately induce Him to become the avenger (go'el) of that innocence (xvi. 17-19, xix. 25-27).他堅持,而且,更加強烈,宣布自己是無辜的,呼籲上帝的判決,顯然是誰如此敵視他,但他的正義終將誘使他成為復仇者( go'el )的清白( xvi. 17-19 , 19 。 25-27 ) 。

In the third dialogue, as the friends begin to weaken in their attacks, Job emphasizes the impossibility of contending with such an opponent as God.在第三次對話,作為朋友開始削弱他們的攻擊,強調就業是不可能的對立與這樣一個對手作為上帝。 Of course Job must outwardly succumb; but even against God he will maintain his right, and is willing to prove it, if God will appear and answer (xxvii. 1-6, xxxi.).當然工作必須表面屈服於;但是,即使對上帝,他將保持他的權利,並願意證明這一點,如果上帝會出現,並回答( xxvii. 1月6日,三十一。 ) 。 The discussion is ended by Yhwh's appearance in the storm (xxxviii.-xxxix. 30, xl. 1-5).討論結束的Yhwh出現在風暴( xxxviii. -三十九。 30日,儀。 1月5日) 。 Yhwh reminds Job of the limitations of human nature, and Job, humbly admitting them, no longer seeks an answer to his question.耶和華提醒工作的局限性,人類的本性和工作,虛心接納他們,不再要求回答他的問題。

Later Additions and Changes in the Text.後來增加與變更的案文。

In the course of time various interpolations were made in the text of the poem.隨著時間的推移各種插值作了案文中的詩。 These comprise: (1) a number of passages that have been placed among the foot-notes in the edition by Siegfried mentioned above; (2) the parallel texts, so called because they are parallel developments of the corresponding passages in the genuine text; eg, as vii.其中包括: ( 1 )一些段落,已被各英尺注意到在版西格弗里上述; ( 2 )平行的案文,所謂的,因為它們是平行發展的相應通道的真正文本;例如,作為七。 1-10; x. 1月10日;十 18-22; xii. 18日至22日;十二。 4-6; xiv. 4月6日;十四。 1, 2; xiii. 1 , 2 ;十三。 28; xiv. 28 ;十四。 5, 7-12, 14, 18-22; xvii. 5日, 7月12日, 14日, 18日至22日;十七。 11-16; xl. 11月16日;儀。 6-32; xli. 6-32 ;四十一。 1-26, xlii. 1月26日,四十二。 1-6; (3) corrections and revisions of Job's speeches made for the purpose of harmonizing them with the orthodox doctrine of retribution (these revisions include xii. 7-10 [11, 12 as glosses], 13-25; xiii. 11; xxi. 16-18; xxiv. 13-24; xxvii. 7-23); (4) passages containing a polemic against the ideas expressed in the poem (xxviii. 1-28 and the so-called speeches of Elihu, xxxii.-xxxvii.). 1月6日; ( 3 )更正和修訂工作的講話,目的是協調他們的正統學說的報復(這些修改包括十二。 7月10日[ 11日, 12日為掩飾] , 13-25 ;十三。 11 ;二十一。 16-18 ;二十四。 13-24 ;二十七。 7月23日) ; ( 4 )段落載有爭論對所表達的意見詩( xxviii. 1月28日和所謂的講話伊萊休,三十二.-三十七。 ) 。 Ch.總。 xxviii. rejects the effort to fathom the divine wisdom and to discover the rule of its workings, these being regions into which human understanding and empiric knowledge can not penetrate.二十八。拒絕努力噚神聖的智慧和發現它的運作規則,這些地區正在成為人類了解和經驗知識無法穿透。 Speculation here must give way to faith.投機這裡必須讓位於信念。 The fear of Yhwh ("yir'at Adonai"; xxviii. 28), that is, religion, and the departure from evil ("sur me-ra'"), that is, morality, take the place of science, which here has reached the end of its resources.由於害怕Yhwh ( “ yir'at阿多乃” ;二十八。 28 ) ,也就是說,宗教,離開邪惡( “河畔我羅” ) ,也就是道德,採取科學的地方,而這裡已經結束的資源。

The speeches of Elihu contradict the fundamental teachings of the genuine poem of Job, according to which it is impossible that the righteous should suffer, all pain being a punishment for some sin. Elihu, however, assumes that suffering may be decreed for the righteous for pedagogic reasons, as a protection against greater sin, and for moral betterment (xxxiii. 17 et seq., 28-30).伊萊休的講話相矛盾的基本教義的真正的詩的職位,其中這是不可能的正義應該受苦,所有的痛苦是一個懲罰犯了罪。伊萊休,但是,假定的痛苦可能會下令進行的正義教學理由,作為一個保護,防止更大的罪惡,和道德改良( xxxiii. 17起。 28日至30日) 。 How little these Elihu speeches come into the general scheme of the poem is shown by the fact that Elihu is not mentioned either in the prologue or in the epilogue, being entirely ignored by Yhwh in the latter.多少這些伊萊休講話納入總體方案的詩所顯示的事實,伊萊休未提到無論是在前言或後記,就被完全忽略的Yhwh後者。 They have been defended as genuine by Umbreit, Stickel, Schlottmann, and Budde (1876; and in his commentary [1896], especially pp. xxxv.-xxxviii.).他們一直捍衛作為真正的Umbreit , Stickel , Schlottmann和布德( 1876年;並在他的評注[ 1896 ] ,特別是頁。 xxxv. -三十八。 ) 。 On Studer's criticism in "Jahrb. für Protestantische Theologie" (1875, pp. 688 et seq.; 1877, pp. 545 et seq.) and in "Das Buch Hiob für Geistliche und Gebildete Laien" (1881) comp.在斯圖德的批評在“ Jahrb 。 f黵新教神學” ( 1875年,頁。 688起。 ; 1877年,頁。 545起。 )和在“論書Hiob f黵Geistliche與Gebildete Laien ” ( 1881年)壓縮機。 Budde, "Beiträge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob," pp.布德, “ Beiträge論批判之Buches Hiob ”頁。 77 et seq. 77起。

Textual Criticism.考據學。

The textual criticism of Job must rest on the Masoretic text (see Baer, "Liber Jobi," 1875).的考證工作,必須休息的馬所拉文本(見拜爾, “書Jobi ” , 1875年) 。 As Lagarde has pointed out ("Anmerkungen zur Griechischen Uebersetzung der Proverbien," 1863, pp. 1 et seq.), that text goes back to a single original manuscript, so that nothing in regard to textual corrections is gained by a collation of manuscripts.正如拉加德指出( “ Anmerkungen楚Griechischen Uebersetzung之Proverbien , ” 1863年,頁。 1起。 ) ,這些文字可以追溯到一個原稿,因此,任何關於文字更正所取得的手稿整理。 The recently discovered Babylonian Bible manuscripts are important only for the history of the vocalization and accentuation of the Biblical text (comp. Harkavy and Strack, "Katalog der Hebräischen Bibelhandschriften der K. Bibliothek in St. Petersburg," 2 parts, 1875).最近發現的巴比倫聖經手稿是重要的不僅是歷史的發聲和重讀的聖經文本( comp. Harkavy和施特拉克, “目錄之Hebräischen Bibelhandschriften之光圖書館在聖彼得堡, ”兩部分, 1875年) 。 Jerome, who in his version of Job closely followed the Hebrew, calls for little notice (comp. Hupfeld, "Beleuchtung Dunkler Stellen in der Alttestamentlichen Textgesch." in "Studien und Kritiken," 1830, pp. 1571 et seq.; Nowack, "Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die Alttestamentliche Textkritik," Göttingen, 1875).杰羅姆,誰在他的版本的工作密切注視希伯來語,要求很少的通知( comp.霍普菲“ Beleuchtung Dunkler Stellen中的Alttestamentlichen Textgesch 。 ”在“ Studien與Kritiken , ” 1830年,頁。 1571頁起。 ; Nowack , “模具之海歐納莫斯f黵意義死亡Alttestamentliche Textkritik , ”哥廷根, 1875年) 。

Translations.翻譯。

The Septuagint version, being a very free rendering of the Book of Job (comp. Bickell, "De Indole ac Ratione Versionis Alexandrinæ in Interpretando Libro Jobi," 1862), must be used very cautiously; yet it can not be denied that it contains many traces of the correct reading (comp. A. Merx, "Das Gedicht von Hiob," 1891; C. Siegfried, "The Book of Job," 1893).該譯本的版本,是一個非常自由渲染的約伯記( comp. Bickell , “德吲哚交流的理由Versionis Alexandrinæ在Interpretando圖書Jobi , ” 1862年) ,必須使用非常謹慎,但不能否認,它包含許多痕跡正確讀( comp.答: Merx , “馮Hiob之詩” , 1891年;角齊格弗里德說: “約伯記” , 1893年) 。 For the Targum of Job see W. Bacher in "Monatsschrift," xx.為根的工作見W.巴切爾在“月刊, ”二十。 208-223. 208-223 。 The Syriac translation ("Peshiṭta") may also be consulted, but as it was corrected after the Septuagint, its agreement with the latter does not mean much textually.敘利亞語翻譯( “ Peshiṭta ” )也可進行協商,但因為它是修正後的七十,同意後者並不意味著很多全文。 For the Arabic translation of the poem by Saadia Gaon see I. Cohn, Altona, 1889; "ŒuvresComplètes de R. Saadia Gaon," v. (ed. Bacher), Paris, 1899.阿拉伯文翻譯的詩句Saadia Gaon見一科恩,阿爾托納, 1889年; “ ŒuvresComplètes日河Saadia Gaon , ”五(編輯巴切爾) ,巴黎, 1899年。 Emendations of the poem must often be based on conjecture. Emendations的詩往往必須基於猜想。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, M. Seligsohn, Emil G. Hirsch, Carl Siegfried執行委員會的編委會先生Seligsohn ,埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾齊格弗里德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Commentaries: For the earlier exegesis, Rosenmüller, Scholia in Vetus Testamentum, v.; and the commentaries and introductions to the OT For modern views compare especially H. Ewald, 1836; 2d ed.評:早些時候訓詁學, Rosenmüller , Scholia在Vetus Testamentum ,訴;和評注,並介紹了催產素的現代觀點比較特別是閣下埃瓦爾德, 1836年;的2D版。 1854; L. 1854年;研究 Hirzel, 1839; 2d ed. Hirzel , 1839年;的2D版。 by I. Olshausen, 1852; 3d ed.由一Olshausen , 1852年;三維版。 1869; 4th ed. 1869年;第4版。 by A. Dillmann, 1891; Ferdinand Hitzig, 1874; A.由A. Dillmann , 1891年;費迪南德希齊格, 1874年;答: Klostermann, Hiob, in Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. Klostermann , Hiob ,在赫爾佐格,克,實時Encyc 。 viii.八。 97-126; K. 97-126的K. Budde, 1896; B.布德, 1896年;灣 Duhm, 1897. Duhm , 1897年。 Translations with commentaries: A. Merx, 1871; G.翻譯評注:答: Merx , 1871年;灣 Studer, 1881; E.斯圖德, 1881年;大腸桿菌 Reuss, Das Alte Testament, 1892-1894; idem, Vortrag über das Buch Hiob, 1888; G. Reuss ,達斯老約, 1892年至1894年;同上, Vortrag黚er之書Hiob , 1888年;灣 Hoffmann, 1891; F.霍夫曼, 1891年;樓 Baethgen, in Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments, 2d ed.; idem, Hiob: Deutsch mit Anmerkungen für Ungelehrte, 1898; Friedrich Delitzsch, Das Buch Hiob, Leipsic, 1902. For problems in the Book of Job, J. Meinhold, Das Problem des Buches Hiob, in Neue Jahrb. Baethgen ,在Kautzsch ,模具神聖Schrift萬老聖經,二維版。 ;同上, Hiob :德語麻省理工Anmerkungen f黵Ungelehrte , 1898 ;弗里德里希德里,達斯圖書Hiob , Leipsic , 1902年。對於存在的問題約伯記,學者Meinhold ,達斯問題之Buches Hiob ,在新Jahrb 。 für Deutsche Theologie, 1892, pp. f黵德國神學, 1892年,頁。 63 et seq.; I. 63起。 ;一 Ley, Die Probleme im Buche Hiob, in Neue Jahrb.法,模具Probleme即時Buche Hiob ,在新Jahrb 。 für Philologie und Pädagogik, 1896, pp. f黵哲學和教育學, 1896年,頁。 125 et seq. For special questions on composition, I. Grill, Zur Kritik der Composition des Buches Hiob, Tübingen, 1890; TK Cheyne, Job and Solomon, 1887; Duhm, as above; L. 125起。對於特殊的問題組成,一燒烤,組成論批判之Buches Hiob ,蒂賓根大學, 1890年;傳統知識進益,就業和索羅門, 1887年; Duhm ,如上;研究 Laue, Die Composition des Buches Hiob, 1895.勞厄,模具之Buches Hiob組成, 1895年。

For textual criticism, G. Bickell, Kritische Bearbeitung des Jobdialogs, in Wiener Zeitschrift für Kunde des Morgenlandes, vi. 137-147, 241-257, 327-334; vii.對於考證灣Bickell ,批判Bearbeitung萬Jobdialogs ,在維納雜誌Kunde萬Morgenlandes ,六。 137-147 , 241-257 , 327-334 ;七。 1-20, 153-168; idem, Dichtungen der Hebräer, ii., 1882; idem, Das Buch Job nach Anleitung der Strophik und der Septuaginta, Vienna, 1894; P. 1月20日, 153-168 ;同上, Dichtungen之Hebräer ,二。 , 1882年;同上,達斯圖書招聘nach Anleitung之Strophik與德國Septuaginta ,維也納, 1894年;體育 Vetter, Die Metrik des Buches Hiob, in Biblische Studien, ed. Bardenhewer, ii. Vetter ,模具Metrik萬Buches Hiob ,在Biblische Studien ,教育署。 Bardenhewer ,二。 4, Freiburg, 1897; H. 4 ,弗賴堡, 1897年閣下; Grimme, Metrisch-Kritische Emendationen zum Buche Hiob, in Theol. Quartalschrift, lxxx. Grimme , Metrisch -批判Emendationen zum Buche Hiob ,在Theol 。 Quartalschrift , lxxx 。 295-304, 421-432; lxxxi. 295-304 , 421-432 ; lxxxi 。 112-118, 259-277; O. 112-118 , 259-277 ;著 Voigt, Einige Stellen des Buches Hiob, 1895; I.福格特,有的Stellen萬Buches Hiob , 1895年;一 Ley, in Studien und Kritiken, 1895, pp.法,在Studien與Kritiken , 1895年,頁。 635 et seq.; G. 635起。 ;灣 Bär, Der Text des Buches Hiob, 1895; idem, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1896, pp.酒吧,德文字萬Buches Hiob , 1895年;同上,在體育場的雜誌, 1896年,頁。 297 et seq.EGHCS 297等seq.EGHCS


Job工作

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Opinions as to Date.意見至今。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Job's Generosity.工作的慷慨。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Composite Nature of Book of Job.綜合性約伯記。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Titular hero of the Book of Job.領銜英雄約伯記。 He was a native of Uz, rich, very pious, and upright, and he had seven sons and three daughters.他是一個土生土長的烏茲,豐富,非常虔誠,正直,他有7個兒子和三個女兒。 His sons used to make a feast in their houses, one each day; and at the end of the week Job would bring seven holocausts, according to the number of his sons, thinking perhaps that the latter, while feasting, had committed sins (Job i. 1-5).他的兒子用來製造一個節日在他們的房屋,一個每天和結束時,將每週工作7大屠殺,據一些他的兩個兒子,心想也許是後者,而慶祝活動,犯下的罪過(約伯記一, 1月5日) 。

One day in the heavenly council, in consequence of a question asked by God, Job's piety was discussed by the accuser Satan, who maintained that if Job should be stricken with calamity he would certainly sin.有一天,在天上,安理會後果提問上帝,就業的虔誠討論了原告撒但,誰堅持認為,如果工作是飽經災難,他將與肯定罪孽。 Satan, having received permission to deal with Job as he pleased, first brought poverty on him by causing all his cattle to be stolen; then he caused the death of all Job's children.撒但在收到許可,以處理工作,他高興,首先把他的貧困造成了他所有的牛是盜竊得來的,然後他的死亡造成的一切工作的兒童。 But Job did not sin.但工作沒有罪過。 On the contrary, he declared God's act to be just, saying, "The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away" (ib. i. 6-22). At a second gathering of the "sons of God" Satan obtained permission to afflict Job's own person.相反,他宣稱上帝的行為是公正,他說: “上帝了,和上帝上帝帶走” ( ib.一, 6月22日) 。在第二次聚會的“上帝的兒子”撒旦獲准困擾招聘自己的人。 He accordingly smote him with a most painful disease (elephantiasis ?); still Job did not complain.因此,他smote他在最痛苦的疾病(象皮病? ) ;仍然工作沒有抱怨。 Even when his wife advised him to curse God and die, he replied that he had to accept evil at His hands, just as he had received good (ib. ii. 1-10).即使當他的妻子勸他詛咒上帝死了,他回答說,他不得不接受他的罪惡之手,就像他收到了良好( ib.二。 1月10日) 。 Three friends came to condole with him, and stayed with him seven days and seven nights in silence (ib. ii. 11-13), after which began the colloquies between him and his friends that form the text of the Book of Job.三個朋友來到喭與他,並留在他7天7夜的沉默( ib.二。 11月13日) ,之後開始colloquies他和他的朋友,形成了文約伯記。

Finally, God restored Job to his former state, giving him twice as much as he had before, even fourteen sons.最後,上帝恢復工作,他的前狀態,這使他的兩倍多,他收到了,甚至有14個兒子。 The daughters, however, born to him after his restoration were only three in number.的女兒,然而,他出生後,他恢復,只有3個號碼。 Job lived 140 years after this and saw four generations (ib. xlii. 10-17).工作生活140年後,看到了四代( ib.四十二。 10月17日) 。 He is mentioned by Ezekiel (Ezek. xiv. 14, 20) with Noah and Daniel as among the three most righteous men.他所提到的厄澤克爾( Ezek.十四。 14日, 20日)與諾亞和丹尼爾之間的三個最正直的人。 See Job, Book of.EGHM Sel.查看招聘,圖書of.EGHM服務器。

Opinions as to Date.意見至今。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Owing to the importance of the Book of Job, the Talmudists occupied themselves frequently with its chief character.由於重要性約伯記,佔領自己的Talmudists經常同其行政性質。 One of the amoraim expressed his opinion in the presence of Samuel b.一個amoraim發表了意見,在場的塞繆爾灣 Naḥmani that Job never existed and that the whole story was a fable (BB 15a). Naḥmani這項工作從未存在,而且整個故事是一個寓言( BB心跳15A條) 。 An opinion couched in similar words and pronounced by Simeon ben Laḳish was interpreted to mean that such a person as Job existed, but that the narratives in the drama are inventions (Gen. R. lvii.).意見表達類似詞語和宣判西梅昂本Laḳish被解釋為意味著這種人就業存在,但說明是在戲劇發明(將軍河第五十七。 ) 。 Apart from these utterances all of the rabbis took it for granted that Job existed, but they differed widely as to the epoch in which he lived and as to his nationality, two points of discussion closely connected.除了這些話語所有的拉比認為這是理所當然的,職業的存在,但它們有許多不同的時代,以他在生活和他的國籍,兩分的討論密切相關。 Every one of the Talmudists inferred Job's epoch and nationality from an analogy between two Biblical words or sentences. According to Bar Ḳappara, Job lived in the time of Abraham; according to Abba b.每一個Talmudists推斷工作的時代和國籍類推兩個聖經字或句子。根據酒吧Ḳappara ,工作生活在時間的亞伯拉罕;根據阿巴灣 Kahana, in the time of Jacob, he having married Dinah, Jacob's daughter (ib.; BB 15b; comp. additions in Targ. Yer. to Job ii. 9).卡哈納,在規定的時間內的雅各布,他結婚黛娜,雅各布的女兒( ib. ; BB心跳15B條;補償。增補Targ 。也門里亞爾。工作崗位二。 9 ) 。 R. Levi said that Job lived in the time of Jacob's sons; and he also said, in the name of Jose b.河列維說,住在求職時,雅各布的兒子,他還表示,在聖何塞的名稱灣 Ḥalafta, that Job was born when Jacob and his children entered Egypt and that he died when the Israelites left that country. Ḥalafta ,這項工作是出生時雅各布和他的孩子進入埃及,他去世時,以色列人離開該國。 Job consequently lived 210 years (comp. Rashi on Ex. xii. 40).工作因此生活二百一十年( comp. Rashi關於前。十二。 40 ) 。 When Satan came to accuse the Israelites of being idolaters, God set him against Job, whence Job's misfortunes (Gen. R. lc).當撒旦來指責以色列人被拜偶像,上帝讓他對工作,何處就業的不幸(將軍河信用證) 。 This opinion is supported by the statement that Job with Jethro and Balaam was consulted by Pharaoh as to the means of reducing the number of the children of Israel and that Job was stricken with calamity because he had remained silent (Sanh. 106a; Soṭah 11a).這一意見支持的聲明,工作, Jethro和巴蘭是法老作為協商的手段,減少兒童的以色列,並與工作是飽經災難,因為他一直保持沉默( Sanh. 106A章; Soṭah 11A條) 。 It may be mentioned that this legend is narrated differently in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (section "Shemot," p. 110a, ed. Leghorn, 1870) as follows: At first Job, who was one of Pharaoh's eunuchs and counselors, advised Pharaoh to have every male child murdered (Ex. i. 16).值得一提的是這個傳說講述不同的“ Sefer河亞沙爾” (節“ Shemot , ”第110a ,教育署。裡窩那, 1870年)如下:在第一份工作,誰是法老的宦官和輔導員,建議法老有每個男性兒童遇害(例如:一, 16 ) 。 Afterward Pharaoh, having had a dream which prognosticated the birth of a helper, again consulted Job.後來法老王,在做了一個夢而prognosticated誕生的助手,再次徵詢工作。 The latter answered evasively: "Let the king do as he pleases" ("Sefer ha-Yashar," lcp 111a).後者回答閃爍其辭: “讓國王感到高興,他做” ( “ Sefer河亞沙爾, ”液晶111a ) 。 Levi b.列維灣 Laḥma also held that Job lived in the time of Moses, by whom the Book of Job was written. Laḥma還認為,工作生活在時間的摩西,由何人約伯記寫。 Some of the rabbis even declare that the one servant of Pharaoh who feared the word of God (Ex. ix. 20) was Job (Ex. R. xii. 3).一些拉比甚至宣布,一個僕人法老誰害怕上帝的話, (例如九。 20 )工作(例如河十二。 3 ) 。 Raba, specifying the time more accurately, said Job lived in the time of the spies who were sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (BB 15a). According to these rabbis, Job was a Gentile-an opinion which is elsewhere expressed more fully, in that Job is said to have been a pious Gentile or one of the prophets of the Gentiles (ib. 15b; Seder 'Olam R. xxi.).拉巴,具體的時間更精確地說,生活在工作的時候,間諜誰派出了摩西,探索土地的迦南( BB心跳15A條) 。根據這些猶太教,就業是一個詹蒂萊安認為這是其他地方更表示充分,在這項工作,據說是一個虔誠的詹蒂萊或一個先知的外邦人( ib. 15B條; Seder ' Olam河二十一。 ) 。 Other tannaim place Job variously in the reign of Saba, in that of the Chaldees, and in that of Ahasuerus.其他tannaim地方工作中的不同時期的青花,在這的查爾德斯,並在這的Ahasuerus 。 R. Johanan and R. Eleazar both declared that Job was one of those who returned from the Captivity and that his bet ha-midrash was at Tiberias (Yer. Soṭah v. 8; BB lc; Gen. R. lc).河Johanan和河埃萊亞薩宣布,雙方的工作是其中的一個誰回來圈養,他打賭河米德拉士是在太巴列( Yer. Soṭah訴8 ; BB心跳立法會;將軍河信用證) 。 It is said in BB (ib.) that these tannaim necessarily considered Job an Israelite; but R. Hananeel (ad loc.) has in his text, "All the Tannaim and Amoraim, with the exception ofthe one who placed Job in the time of Jacob, were of opinion that Job was an Israelite" (comp. also Gen. R. lc).據悉,在BB心跳( ib. )指出,這些審議工作tannaim一定的以色列人,但河Hananeel (廣告同上。 )已在他的文字, “所有的Tannaim和Amoraim ,除之誰放置一個工作在規定的時間內雅各,被認為工作是一個以色列人“ ( comp.還將軍河立法會) 。

Job is prominent in haggadic legends.工作是突出haggadic傳說。 His prosperity is thus described: Samuel b.因此,他的繁榮描述:塞繆爾灣 Isaac said: "He who received a 'peruṭah' from Job prospered in his affairs."伊薩克說: “誰得到了' peruṭah ' ,從工作的繁榮,他的事務。 ” Jose b.聖何塞灣 Ḥanina inferred from Job i. 10 that Job's goats could kill wolves; and R. Johanan inferred from Job i.尼納推斷,從工作一10這項工作的山羊會殺死狼;和河Johanan推斷,從工作一 14 that God gave Job a foretaste of the bliss of paradise (BB 15b). 14 ,上帝給就業嚐到了幸福的天堂( BB心跳15B條) 。 Satan, seeing Job's extraordinary prosperity, was filled with envy and therefore began in the councils of heaven to disparage Job's piety.撒但,看到工作的非凡的繁榮,都充滿了羨慕,因此開始在安理會的天堂詆毀工作的虔誠。

According to the Targum Yerushalmi (Job i. 6, ii. 1) the two councils of heaven took place respectively on Rosh ha-Shanah and Yom Kippur.據根耶路莎米(約伯記一6 ,二。 1 )的兩個市政局的天堂分別發生在羅斯艾河Shanah和贖罪日。 When the messenger told Job that the Sabeans had seized his oxen, he armed his men and prepared to make war upon them.當信使告訴工作,在Sabeans已經抓住他的牛,他的武裝他的部下和準備戰爭給他們。 But the second messenger came, telling him that a fire from heaven had destroyed his sheep, and he then said: "Now I can do nothing" (Lev. R. xvii. 4).但第二信使來了,告訴他從天上火摧毀了他的羊群,他接著說: “現在我可以什麼都不做” ( Lev.河十七。 4 ) 。 The wind that blew down his house was one of the three great winds whose power was sufficient to destroy the world (Gen. R. xxiv. 4).風說,炸毀了他的房子是一個風的三個偉大的力量足以毀滅世界(將軍河二十四。 4 ) 。 Job was stricken by Satan with fifty different plagues (Ex. R. xxiii. 10).工作是受撒旦與50不同的困擾(例如:河二十三。 10 ) 。 His house was filled with a bad smell, and Job sat down on a dunghill.他的房子是充滿臭味,就業坐下就糞堆。 His flesh was filled with worms which made holes in his body and began to quarrel with one another.他的肉體充滿了蠕蟲漏洞,這使他的身體,並開始互相爭吵。 Job thereupon placed every worm in a hole, saying: "It is my flesh, yet you quarrel about it' (Ab. RN, ed. Schechter, p. 164; comp. Kohler, Testament of Job, v. 6-8, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 264-295). Job's sufferings lasted twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10; comp. Testament of Job, v. 9, where the number of years is given as seven); then God, yielding to the prayer of the angels, healed him and restored to him twofold what he had before (Ab. RN lc). Only the number of Job's daughters was not doubled. Nevertheless their beauty was doubled, and therefore their names (Job xlii. 14), indicating their extraordinary charms, are given (BB 16b). The legendary accounts of Job extend also to his three friends. These entered his house simultaneously, though they lived 300 miles apart. Each had a crown or, according to another statement, a tree on which the images of the three friends were carved; and when a misfortune befell any one of them his image was altered (ib.; comp. Targ. to Job ii. 11). It has been said that Job lived 210 years; this is inferred from Job xlii. 16, where it is said that he lived 140 years after his recovery (Gen. R. lviii. 3, lxi. 4; comp. Yalḳ., Kings, 243, and Testament of Job, xii. 8). It is said also that the whole world mourned Job's death (Soṭah 35a).工作隨即放在每蠕蟲在洞中,他說: “這是我的肉體,但你爭吵它' ( Ab.護士,教育署。謝克特,第164頁;補償。科勒,全書的工作,五,六月八日,在胡特紀念卷,頁。 264-295 ) 。職位的痛苦持續了12個月( ' Eduy 。二。 10 ;補償。全書的工作,五,九,在那裡的年數是7個) ;然後上帝,高產在祈禱的天使,他的癒合和恢復他的兩個方面,他收到了( Ab.護士立法會) 。只有一些職位的女兒是不是增加了一倍。然而他們的美麗增加了一倍,因此他們的名字(約伯記四十二。 14 ) ,以顯示其非凡的魅力,有( BB心跳16B款) 。傳奇賬戶的工作還延伸到他的三個朋友。這些同時進入他的房子,但他們住300英里遠。各有官方或根據另一份聲明,一棵大樹上的圖像的三個朋友都雕刻;和不幸降臨時,他們當中任何一人的形象是改變( ib. ;補償。 Targ 。工作崗位二。 11 ) 。有人說,工作生活二百一十年這是推斷,從工作四十二。 16日,它是說,他住140年後,他恢復(將軍河lviii 。 3 , LXI聯盟。 4 ;補償。 Yalḳ 。國王, 243 ,和全書的工作,十二。 8 ) 。據說還指出,全世界哀悼就業的死亡( Soṭah 35A條) 。

Job's Generosity.工作的慷慨。

But it was chiefly Job's character and piety that concerned the Talmudists.但它主要是工作的性質和虔誠的有關Talmudists 。 He is particularly represented as a most generous man. Like Abraham, he built an inn at the cross-roads, with four doors opening respectively to the four cardinal points, in order that wayfarers might have no trouble in finding an entrance, and his name was praised by all who knew him.他特別代表作為一個最慷慨的人。亞伯拉罕一樣,他建立了一個旅店的跨公路,以四門分別為開幕四項基本原則點,以便wayfarers可能沒有找到問題的入口,他的名字有人稱讚所有誰知道他。 His time was entirely occupied with works of charity, as visiting the sick and the like (Ab. RN, ed. Schechter, pp. 33-34, 164; Midrash Ma'yan Gannim, ed. Buber, p. 92; comp. Gen. R. xxx. 9).他完全是被佔領的作品的慈善機構,為來訪的病人和喜歡( Ab.護士,教育署。謝克特,頁。 33-34 , 164 ;米德拉士Ma'yan Gannim ,教育署。布伯,第92頁;補償。將軍河三十。 9 ) 。 Still more characteristic is the conclusion of Raba that Job used to take away, ostensibly by force, a field which belonged to orphans, and after making it ready for sowing would return it to the owners (BB lc).還有更多的特點是締結拉巴就業用來帶走,表面上的力量,一個外地屬於孤兒,並準備好後,它的播種將返回給業主( BB心跳信用證) 。 Job was also of exemplary piety.工作還模範虔誠。 Like Abraham he recognized God by intuition (Num. R. xiv. 7).像亞伯拉罕他承認上帝的直覺( Num.河十四。 7 ) 。 Nothing in his possession had been acquired by rapacity, and therefore his prayer was pure (Ex. R. xii. 4).沒有在他身上已取得的貪婪,因此他的祈禱是純粹的(例如,河十二。 4 ) 。 He, Melchizedek, and Enoch were as spotless as Abraham (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvii.). He took the greatest care to keep himself aloof from every unseemly deed (Ab. RN ch. ii., Recension B, ed. Schechter, p. 8).他說,麥基洗德,和埃諾克德為一塵不染的亞伯拉罕( Midr.的。到PS 。三十七。 ) 。他最大的照顧使自己遠離一切不當行為( Ab.考試總。二。 , Recension乙,教育署。謝克特,第8頁) 。

According to Targ.據Targ 。 Sheni to Esth.社向Esth 。 i.字母i. Job's name was one of the seven engraved on the seven branches of the golden candlestick.就業的名字是一個7個刻在七家分行金燭台。

But these features of Job's character made the Rabbis apprehend that he might eclipse Abraham; and some of them therefore depreciated Job's piety.但這些功能的工作的性質作出了拉比逮捕,他可能月食亞伯拉罕;其中一些因此折舊工作的虔誠。 Johanan b. Johanan灣 Zakkai used to say that Job's piety was only the result of his fear of punishment (Soṭah 27a; Yer. Soṭah v. 5). In Ab. Zakkai常說,工作的虔誠只是由於他害怕處罰( Soṭah第27A ;層。 Soṭah五5 ) 。在抗體。 RN, Recension A, p.護士, Recension甲,第 34, where the generosity of Job is so much praised, it is concluded that when he, after having been afflicted, complained that he was inadequately rewarded, God said to him: "Thy generosity has not yet attained to the half of that of Abraham." 34 ,在那裡的慷慨的工作是如此多的讚揚,這是結束了,當他後,被折磨,抱怨說,他充分的回報,上帝對他說: “你的慷慨尚未達到的一半亞伯拉罕。 “ R. Levi even went as far as to exculpate Satan, declaring that he had the same apprehension that God might forget the piety of Abraham (BB 16a).河列維甚至甚至開脫撒旦,聲稱他有同樣的憂慮,上帝會忘記虔誠的亞伯拉罕( BB心跳16A條) 。 Still even among the Tannaim Job had his defenders, eg, Joshua b.不過即使在Tannaim工作,他捍衛者,如約書亞灣 Hyrcanus, whose opinion was that Job worshiped God out of pure love (Soṭah lc). Hyrcanus ,他認為這項工作是崇拜上帝的純潔的愛( Soṭah立法會) 。 This difference of opinion existed with regard to Job's attitude at the time of his misfortune.這種不同的意見方面存在著就業的態度的時候,他的不幸。 R. Eliezer said that Job blasphemed God (the Talmudic expression being "he desired to upset the dish"), but R. Joshua considered that Job spoke harsh words against Satan only (BB 16a).河埃利澤說,就業褻瀆上帝(正表達了塔木德“他想要打破菜” ) ,但河光認為,就業以措辭嚴厲打擊撒旦只( BB心跳16A條) 。 This discussion was continued by Abaye and Raba, of whom the former pleaded for Job, while Raba followed R. Eliezer's opinion. Raba's (according to another text, Rab's) expression was "dust into the mouth of Job."這一討論繼續Abaye和拉巴,其中前懇求工作,而拉巴之後河埃利澤的意見。拉巴的(另一種文字,饒的)表達“灰塵進入河口的工作。 ” He inferred from the passage "and yet Job sinned not with his lips" (Job ii. 10) that Job sinned in his heart (ib.). In the Talmudic literature it is generally assumed that Job sinned or, as the expression is, "he rebelled" ("ba'aṭ"; Midr. Teh. xxvi.). It is further said that if Job had not sinned people would recite in prayer "and the God of Job," just as they recite "the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," but he rebelled (Pesiḳ. R. Aḥare Mot, ed. Friedmann, p. 190a; comp. Ex. R. xxx. 8).他推斷出的通道“和尚未就業罪不是他的嘴唇” (項目二。 10 ) ,職務犯罪在他的心( ib. ) 。在塔木德文學人們普遍認為,就業罪或作為表達, “他背叛” ( “ ba'aṭ ” ; Midr 。的。二十六。 ) 。委員會還表示,如果工作沒有犯過罪的人將背誦祈禱“和上帝的工作, ”就像他們背誦“的神亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各“ ,但他背叛( Pesiḳ.河Aḥare形態,教育署。弗里德曼,第190a ;補償。惠。河三十。 8 ) 。 Job's chief complaint was, according to Raba, that although man is driven to sin by the seducer ("yeẓer ha-ra'"), whom God Himself has created, yet he is punished (comp. Job x. 7).就業的主訴,根據拉巴,雖然人是驅車前往黃大仙的seducer ( “ yeẓer河嶺” ) ,誰創造了上帝,但他將被處以( comp.工作十7 ) 。 But Eliphaz answered him: "Thou castest off fear" (ib. xv. 4), meaning, if God created the seducer, He also created the Torah, by which a man can subdue the seducer (BB lc).但是Eliphaz回答他: “你castest了恐懼” ( ib.十五。 4 ) ,這意味著,如果上帝創造了seducer ,他還創造了律法,其中一個男人可以征服seducer ( BB心跳信用證) 。 Raba concluded also that Job denied resurrection (ib.). A more picturesque treatment of Job's bitternessagainst God is recorded by Rabbah (according to BB 16a), or Raba (according to Niddah 52a): Job blasphemed God by using the term "tempest" when he said, "For he breaketh me with a tempest" (Job ix. 17), which passage is interpreted by the Rabbis to mean, "Perhaps a tempest passed before Thee which caused the confusion between [= "Job"] and [= "enemy"]" (comp. also Ecclus. [Sirach] xlix. 9, the Hebrew, Greek, and Syriac versions, and the commentaries ad loc.).拉巴結束這項工作還否認復活( ib. ) 。一個更美麗的治療工作的bitternessagainst上帝是記錄安曼(根據BB心跳16A條) ,或拉巴(根據Niddah 52a ) :就業褻瀆上帝的使用“暴風雨”他說, “對於他breaketh我暴風雨” (就業九。 17 ) ,這是通行的拉比解釋的意思, “也許暴風雨前通過你造成混淆[ = ”工作“ ]和[ = “敵” ] “ ( comp.還Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ] xlix 。 9日,希伯來文,希臘文和敘利亞的版本,和評注的廣告同上。 ) 。 God therefore answered him out of the tempest (ib. xxxviii.-xxxix., which are interpreted as a refutation of Job's charge).因此上帝回答他的暴風雨( ib. xxxviii. -三十九。 ,這是解釋為駁斥就業的收費) 。 Still, Rabbi's opinion was that Job spoke in praise of God more than Elihu did (Ex. R. xxxiv. 1).儘管如此,拉比的意見是,項目以讚美上帝沒有超過伊萊休(例如河三十四。 1 ) 。

It has already been said that the Book of Job was ascribed by the Rabbis to Moses.已經表示,約伯記被賦予了拉比摩西。 Its place in the canon is between Psalms and Proverbs (BB 14b).其在佳能的詩篇和諺語( BB心跳14B條) 。 The high priest read the Book of Job for diversion before Yom Kippur (Yoma i. 4 [18b]).大祭司讀約伯記挪用贖罪日之前(山脈島4 [ 18B條] ) 。 According to the Talmudists, he who sees the Book of Job in a dream may anticipate a misfortune (Ber. 57b).據Talmudists ,他誰看到約伯記在夢中可以預料的不幸( Ber. 57B章) 。 There was an ancient Targum to Job which was regarded by the Talmudists as a dangerous work (comp. Tosef., Shab. xiv.).有一個古老的根就業被認為由Talmudists作為一種危險的工作( comp. Tosef 。 ,沙巴。十四。 ) 。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Israel Schwarz, Tikwat Enosh, Berlin, 1868; Wiernikowsky, Das Buch Hiob, Breslau, 1902.SSM Sel.以色列施瓦茨, Tikwat挪士,柏林, 1868年; Wiernikowsky ,達斯圖書Hiob ,布雷斯勞, 1902.SSM服務器。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The hero whose name has furnished the title of the Book of Job appears only as a legendary figure.英雄的名字已提供的標題約伯記看來只能作為傳奇人物。 It is idle to inquire whether the story has any historical basis, since nothing definite relating to Job can be ascertained.這是閒置,詢問是否有任何歷史故事的基礎,因為沒有明確的有關工作可以進一步確定。 The story originated in the land of Edom-a background that has been retained in the Hebrew poem.這個故事起源於土地以東一個背景下,一直保留在希伯來文詩。 The names of Job and his three friends have been partly Hebraized. "Iyyob," the Hebrew form of "Job," is either passive, meaning the person attacked [by Satan]" (comp. "yillod" = "the born one"; Ex. i. 22; Josh. v. 5; "shilloaḥ" in Job ix. 7 = ἀπεσταλ μήνος), or active, meaning "the attacker [ie, of the ancient doctrine of retribution]" (comp. Merx, "Das Gedicht von Hiob," 1871, pp. xvii., xxxv.), like "yissor," Job xl. 2 = "the reprover"; the Arabic etymologies given in Ewald, "Das Buch Ijob" (2d ed., 1854, pp. 19 et seq.: "the returning, repenting"), and in Hitzig, "Das Buch Hiob" (1874, pp. xix. et seq.: from the Arabic tribe "banu Awwab" = "sons of the evening star," ie, "of the returning one"), are doubtful. Eliphaz the Temanite (Job ii. 11) appears also in Gen. xxxvi. 4, 11, 15, as Esau's eldest son. Bildad the Shuhite is mentioned only in the Book of Job. According to Nöldeke (in "ZDMG" xlii. 479), the name means "Bel has loved" (comp. "Eldad"). In Gen. xxv. 2 "Shuah" is the name of a tribe, not of a place. "Zophar" also occurs only in the Book of Job. His home, Naamah, is mentioned in Josh. xv. 41 as a city within the Judaic "shefelah." Job's home, Uz (Χώρα Αὐσίτις in the Septuagint), is mentioned in Lam. iv. 21 as being in Edom; according to Wetzstein (in Delitzsch, "Hiob," pp. 576 et seq.) it was in Hauran, east of the Jordan. For other opinions see Budde, "Das Buch Hiob," 1896, pp. x. et seq.的姓名,職務和他的三個朋友已經部分Hebraized 。 “ Iyyob ” ,希伯來文的形式“的工作, ”不是被動的,這意味著攻擊的人[由撒旦] “ ( comp. ” yillod “ = ”的誕生一個“ ;前。島22 ;喬希。訴5 ; “ shilloaḥ ”就業九。 7 = ἀπεσταλ μήνος ) ,或主動,意思是“黑客[即古代學說報復] ” ( comp. Merx “馮Hiob之詩“ , 1871年,頁。十七。 ,三十五。 ) ,如” yissor , “就業儀。 2 = ”的reprover “ ;阿拉伯文etymologies給予埃瓦爾德, ”達斯圖書Ijob “ ( 2版。 , 1854年頁。 19起。 : “選舉,悔改” ) ,並在希齊格, “達斯圖書Hiob ” ( 1874年,頁。十九。起。 :從阿拉伯部落“巴努Awwab ” = “兒子晚上明星“ ,即”返回的一個“ ) ,是值得懷疑的。 Eliphaz的Temanite (約伯記二。 11 )也出現在將軍三十六。 4日, 11日, 15日,作為以掃的長子。 Bildad提到的Shuhite只有在在約伯記。根據Nöldeke (在“ ZDMG ”四十二。 479 ) ,其名稱的意思是“百愛” ( comp. “伊利達” ) 。在將軍二十五。 2 “ Shuah ”的名字是一個部落,沒有一個地方。 “ Zophar ”還只發生在約伯記。在家中, Naamah ,所提到的喬希。十五。 41作為城市內的猶太教“ shefelah 。 ”工作的家中,烏茲( Χώρα Αὐσίτις在七十)中提到的林。四。 21日為在以東;根據Wetzstein (在德里, “ Hiob ”頁。 576起。 )這是在Hauran ,東部約旦。對於其他意見見布德“達斯圖書Hiob , “ 1896年,頁。十起。

Composite Nature of Book of Job.綜合性約伯記。

The poem of Job as found in the Old Testament is a combination from two sources.這首詩的工作,發現在舊約結合有兩個來源。 The earlier of these, a folk-book, comprises the prologue (Job i. and ii.) and the epilogue (ib. xlii. 7-17). According to this source Job was a rich Edomite sheik, of irreproachable piety (ib. i. 1, 3, 8), as is shown especially by his punctiliousness in ritual observances (ib. i. 5) according to the customs of the time.這些較早的民間書,包括前言(約伯記一和二。 )和尾聲( ib.四十二。 7月17日) 。根據這一來源的工作是豐富的Edomite酋長的無可指責的虔誠(國際文憑。一, 1 , 3 , 8 ) ,這表明他punctiliousness特別是在祭祀紀念活動( ib.島5 )根據海關的時間。 The accusing angel Satan (ib. i. 6) in the presence of God casts reflections on the causes of Job's piety (ib. i. 9-11), and, in agreement with the conceit that the evil upon earth is not caused by God directly, but is brought by one or many intermediary angels, receives permission to test Job by misfortune (Gen. xix.; II Sam. xxiv. 16 et seq.; Ezek. ix. 4 et seq.; comp. κολαστικὴ δύναμις in Philo, "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 34 [ed. Mangey. i. 496]; "middat ha-din" in the Jewish midrash, Gen. R. xii.).天使撒旦的指責( ib.一6 )在天主面前蒙上思考的原因,招聘的虔誠( ib.一, 9月11日) ,並同意自負的罪惡不是地球時所造成的上帝直接,但帶來的一個或多個中介天使,獲得許可,以測試工作的不幸(將軍十九。 ;二山姆。二十四。 16起。 ;結。九。 4起。 ;補償。 κολαστικὴ δύναμις在斐洛, “ Quis事物Divinarum繼承人坐下, ”第34條[教育署。 Mangey 。島496 ] ; “ middat醫管局素”在猶太米德拉士,將軍河十二。 ) 。

The first trial consists in the destruction of Job's possessions (Job i. 12-19), in which he is the victor through his resignation (ib. i. 20-22).第一次審判包括銷毀工作的屬地(約伯記島12月19日) ,其中他是勝利者,通過他的辭職( ib.一20-22 ) 。 Satan declares this trial to have been insufficient, and demands another to consist in personal bodily suffering.撒旦宣布這一審判已經不足,並要求另一組成的人身痛苦。 This also is granted, and Job is again victorious (ib. ii. 1-10).這也是理所當然,與工作再次取得勝利( ib.二。 1月10日) 。 Job's wife (ib. ii. 9, 10) here shows how great in such cases is the temptation to do wrong.工作的妻子( ib.二。 9日, 10日)在這裡顯示了如何在這種情況下,巨大的誘惑是做是錯誤的。 That the friends of Job, who come to comfort him (ib. ii. 11-13), also sin on this occasion is evidenced in Job xlii.該項目的朋友們,誰來安慰他( ib.二。 11月13日) ,也藉此機會黃大仙是體現在工作四十二。 7-10a, where Job, who alone remains guiltless, has to intercede for them when they bring the burnt offerings. 7 - 10A條,在那裡工作,誰就有仍然無罪,已經介入時,為他們帶來的燔祭。 The nature of their sin does not appear, since the folk-book is interrupted at this point by the interpolation of the poem of Job (ib. iii. 1-xlii. 6).的性質,其罪惡不會出現,因為民俗圖書被打斷在這一點上的插值詩的工作( ib.三。 1 -四十二。 6 ) 。

The folk-book is further differentiated from the poem by its employment of the name of Yhwh, which it naively puts into the mouth of the Edomites (ib. i. 7, 21b; xlii. 7).民間書是進一步區分詩其就業的名字Yhwh ,它天真地投入口的Edomites ( ib.島7 ,第二十一期乙;四十二。 7 ) 。 Here again Job refrains from sinning with his lips (ib. ii. 10), even in his deepest suffering, and says to Yhwh only what is just ("nekonah"; ib. xlii. 7b, 8b), whereas in the poem he utters the most offensive sentiments against God, beginning by cursing the day of his birth.再次在這裡工作避免犯罪與他的嘴唇( ib.二。 10 ) ,即使在他最深切的痛苦,並表示只對Yhwh什麼是公正( “ nekonah ” ;國際文憑。四十二。 7B條,第8B ) ,而在他的詩行使最進攻對上帝的感情,開始一天的詛咒他出生。

In the folk-book the sins consist mainly in unseemly speeches to and about God (ib. i. 10; xlii. 7, 8; comp. ib. i. 22, "natan tiflah"). He who refrains, like Job, is 'sar me-ra'" (="one who escheweth evil") and "yere Elohim" (= "who feareth God") (ib. i. 1). In other respects piety here, as among the Patriarchs (Gen. xxii. 3), is a matter of ritual, consisting in burnt offerings (Job i. 5). Job's dress is that worn by the Patriarchs; his flocks are reminiscent of Gen. xii. 16, xxxii. 5; his servants ("'abuddah"), of Gen. xxvi. 14. According to Duhm ("Das Buch Hiob," 1897, p. viii.) Ezek. xiv. 14 et seq. indicates that the writer of that passage knew the folk-book.EGHCS在民間的圖書的罪孽主要在不適當的講話和關於上帝( ib.一10 ;四十二。 7日, 8日;補償。國際文憑。島22日, “納坦tiflah ” ) 。他誰不在,如就業,是'特區我羅“ ( = ”一個誰escheweth邪惡“ )和” yere耶洛因“ ( = ”誰feareth上帝“ ) ( ib.一1 ) 。在其他方面的虔誠在這裡,為的始祖(根。二十二。 3 ) ,是一個儀式,包括在燔祭(約伯記一5 ) 。職位的衣服是穿的始祖,他的羊群是想起將軍十二。 16 ,三十二。 5 ;他的僕人( “ ' abuddah ” )的將軍26 。 14 。根據Duhm ( “達斯圖書Hiob , ” 1897年,第viii頁。 )結。十四。 14起。表明,作家知道該通道的民間書。 EGHCS

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter, Carl Siegfried埃米爾灣赫希先生Seligsohn ,索羅門謝克特,卡爾齊格弗里德

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