Epistle of James使徒詹姆斯

General Information 一般信息

The Epistle of James, the first of the general letters (Catholic epistles) of the New Testament of the Bible, is an exhortation to Christian patience and obedience. The book, more a sermon than a letter, uses 54 imperatives in 108 verses to call its readers to responsible living that accords with what they profess.詹姆斯的使徒,首先一般性字母(天主教書信)的新約聖經,是一個告誡基督教的耐心和順從。這本書,更是一個比信道,使用54必要性108詩句呼籲其讀者負責生活符合他們所信奉。 Traditionally, James, "the Lord's brother," has been accepted as the author, which would date the book between AD 45 and 50 and would account for its primitive Christology.傳統上,詹姆斯, “上帝的兄弟” ,已被接受的作者,這本書日期間公元45和50 ,並將其原始帳戶的基督。 Some scholars, however, claim that it comes much later from the hand of another and date the book from late 1st century to early 2d century.一些學者,但是,聲稱它是更晚的手,從另一個和日期的圖書從21世紀後期的2D世紀早期。

Although accepted by the church from the 2d century, James was reluctantly admitted into the Protestant New Testament canon.雖然接受了教會的二維世紀,詹姆斯勉強獲准進入新教新約全書佳能。 Martin Luther rejected the book as "a right strawy epistle," because he thought that James contradicted Saint Paul's view of justification by faith alone. Paul, however, was emphasizing the inappropriateness of works for salvation whereas James spoke of works that issue from faith. For both, the essentials are the same, and both were probably dealing independently with a traditional topic of Jewish belief.馬丁路德拒絕了該書的“權利strawy書信” ,因為他認為詹姆斯矛盾聖保羅的看法因信稱義的。 保羅然而,強調是不適當的工程救恩,而詹姆斯以工程這一問題從信仰。兩個,最基本的是相同的,並且都可能獨立地處理與傳統主題的猶太信仰。

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Epistle of James使徒詹姆斯

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Comfort (1)舒適( 1 )
  2. Warnings against specific sins of which they are guilty, such as pride, favoring the rich, misuse of the tongue, believing in Faith without Works (2-4)警告具體罪孽,他們是有罪的,如自豪感,有利於豐富,濫用舌頭,相信沒有信仰工程( 2-4 )
  3. Exhortation to patience in suffering and prayer.勸勉信徒要在痛苦的耐心等待和祈禱。 (5) ( 5 )


James詹姆斯

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle of James使徒詹姆斯

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. ( 1 。 )的作者,是詹姆斯如此,上帝的弟弟,一個十二門徒。 He was one of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9).他的三大支柱之一的教會( Gal. 2:9 ) 。 (2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad." ( 2 。 )這是給猶太人的分散, “十二個部落散居在國外。 ” (3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between Paul's two imprisonments at Rome, probably about AD 62. ( 3 。 )時間和地點的書面書信是耶路撒冷,那裡居住的詹姆斯,以及來自內部的證據,期間保羅的兩個監禁在羅馬,大概公元62 。 (4.) The object of the writer was to enforce the practical duties of the Christian life. ( 4 。 )的目的,是作家的實際執行職務的基督徒的生活。 "The Jewish vices against which he warns them are, formalism, which made the service of God consist in washings and outward ceremonies, whereas he reminds them (1:27) that it consists rather in active love and purity; fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious zeal, was tearing Jerusalem in pieces (1:20); fatalism, which threw its sins on God (1:13); meanness, which crouched before the rich (2:2); falsehood, which had made words and oaths playthings (3:2-12); partisanship (3:14); evil speaking (4:11); boasting (4:16); oppression (5:4). “猶太人的罪惡對他警告他們,形式主義,使天主服務的包括在沖洗及離港儀式,而他提醒他們( 1時27分) ,它包含積極的,而在愛和純潔性;狂熱,根據外衣的宗教狂熱,是撕裂耶路撒冷件( 1:20 ) ;宿命論,它扔其罪惡的神( 1:13 ) ;吝嗇,這蹲在面前的豐富( 2時02分) ;謊言,從而使詞和宣誓玩具( 3:2-12 ) ;黨派( 3:14 ) ;邪惡發言( 4點11分) ;吹噓( 4時16分) ;壓迫(五點04分) 。

The great lesson which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2), patience in good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17), patience under oppression (5:7), patience under persecution (5:10); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong (5:8)." "Justification by works," which James contends for, is justification before man, the justification of our profession of faith by a consistent life. Paul contends for the doctrine of "justification by faith;" but that is justification before God, a being regarded and accepted as just by virtue of the righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.偉大的教訓,他教他們作為基督徒是耐心,耐心等待審判( 1:2 ) ,耐心的優秀作品( 1:22-25 ) ,耐心等待下挑釁( 3時17 ) ,耐心等待下壓迫(五點07 ) ,耐心根據迫害( 17:10 ) ;和地面的他們的耐心是,未來的主draweth近,這是正確的都錯了( 5時08 ) 。 “ ”正當理由的作品“ ,這詹姆斯爭辯的,理由是前男子的理由我們信念的一貫生活。保羅爭辯的學說“因信稱義” ,但理由是上帝面前,一個被視為和接受為公正憑藉正義的基督,這是收到的信念。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


James詹姆斯

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order:關於這個問題的書信的待遇,按下列順序:

I. Author and Genuineness;一,作者和真實性;

II.二。 Tradition as to the Canonicity;傳統的正規;

III.三。 Analysis and Contents of the Epistle;分析和內容的書信;

IV.四。 Occasion and Object;場合和對象;

V. To whom addressed;五,誰處理;

VI.六。 Style;風格;

VII.七。 Time and Place of composition.時間和地點組成。

I. AUTHOR AND GENUINENESS一,作者和真實性

The author is commonly identified with the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem (see ST. JAMES THE LESS; the view that the Lord's brother must be identified with James, the son of Alpheus, is by far the most probable). Internal evidence (contents of the Epistle, its style, address, date, and place of composition) points unmistakably to James, the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem, as the author; he exactly, and he alone, fulfils the conditions required in the writer of the Epistle.作者是常見的與上帝的兄弟,主教耶路撒冷(見秘。塗謹申較少;認為,上帝的弟弟必須確定與詹姆斯的兒子,鼓,是迄今最有可能的) 。內部證據(內容的書信,其風格,地址,日期和地點組成)點明確無誤地向詹姆斯,主的弟弟,主教的耶路撒冷,作為作者,他到底,他就有符合條件的作家的書信。 External evidence begins at a comparatively late date.外部證據始於起步較晚。 Some coincidences, or analogies, exist between the Epistle and the Apostolic Fathers (Clement of Rome, the Pastor Hermas, St. Justin, St. Irenæus; see Mienertz, "Der Jacobusbrief", Freiburg im Br., 1905, p. 55 sqq.).有些巧合,或類比,存在著書信和使徒教父(克萊門特羅馬牧師書,聖上,聖Irenæus ;見Mienertz , “明鏡Jacobusbrief ” ,弗賴堡一二。 , 1905年,第55頁sqq 。 ) 。 The literary relation between the Epistle of James and the Epistle to the Romans is doubtful.文學之間的關係使徒詹姆斯和使徒的羅馬人是令人懷疑的。 Its later recognition in the Church, especially in the West, must be explained by the fact that it was written for Jewish Christians, and therefore not widely circulated among the Gentile Churches.後來承認在教會,尤其是在西方國家,必須加以解釋的事實,這是書面的猶太基督徒,因此沒有得到廣泛散發的詹蒂萊教會。 From the middle of the third century, ecclesiastical authors cite the Epistle as written by St. James, the brother of the Lord.來自中東的第三個世紀,教會書信的作者列舉了書面的聖雅各福群的兄弟主。 See the testimonies in the section following. The greater number of the Fathers in the Western Church identify the author with James the Apostle.見證詞的一節中以下。更大一些的父親在西方教會查明作者詹姆斯使徒。 In the Eastern Church, however, the authority of Eusebius and St.在東方教會,不過,當局的優西比烏和街 Epiphanius may explain some ecclesiastical doubts about the Apostolic origin of the Epistle, and consequently about its canonicity.埃皮法尼烏斯也許可以解釋一些疑慮教會使徒書信起源的,因此其正規。

II.二。 TRADITION AS TO CANONICITY傳統的正規

In the first centuries of the Church the authenticity of the Epistle was doubted by some, and amongst others by Theodore of Mopsuestia; it is therefore deuterocanonical.在第一世紀的教會的真實性,書信懷疑一些,和等西奧多的Mopsuestia ;因此deuterocanonical 。 It is wanting in the Muratorian Canon, and because of the silence of several of the Western Churches regarding it, Eusebius classes it amongst the Antilegomena or contested writings (Hist. eccl., III, xxv; II, xxiii); St. Jerome gives the like information (De vir. ill., ii), but adds that with time its authenticity became universally admitted.它是想在穆拉多利佳能,由於沉默的幾個西方教會認為這是,優西比烏班級之間的Antilegomena或有爭議的著作( Hist. eccl 。 ,三,二十五;二, 23 ) ;聖杰羅姆讓類似的信息(者病毒。虐待。 ,二) ,但補充說,隨著時間的推移它的真實性成為普遍承認。 In the sixteenth century its inspired nature was contested by Erasmus and Cajetan; Luther strongly repudiated the Epistle as "a letter of straw", and "unworthy of the apostolic Spirit", and this solely for dogmatic reasons, and owing to his preconceived notions, for the epistle refutes his heretical doctrine that Faith alone is necessary for salvation.在16世紀的激勵性質的爭議伊拉斯謨和Cajetan ;路德強烈批駁了書信為“信稻草”和“愧對使徒精神” ,這完全是為了武斷的原因,並由於他的先入為主的觀念,在他的書信駁斥異端學說,信仰本身是必要的救贖。 The Council of Trent dogmatically defined the Epistle of St. James to be canonical.安理會的遄達教條界定了使徒聖雅各福群是典型。 As the solution of this question of the history of the canonicity of the Epistle depends chiefly on the testimony of the ancient Fathers, it remains to be seen whether it is quoted by them as Scripture.為解決這一問題的歷史,正規的書信取決於主要的證詞古代父親,還有待觀察它是否是他們所引用的聖經。 (a) In the Latin Church it was known by St. Clement of Rome (before AD 100), the Pastor Hermas (about AD 150), St. Irenæus (125?-202?, 208), Tertullian (d. about 240), St. Hilary (d. 366), St. Philaster (d. 385), St. Ambrose (d. 397), Pope Damasus (in the canon of about AD 382), St. Jerome (346-420), Rufinus (d. 410), St. Augustine (430), and its canonicity is unquestioned by them. (一)在拉丁美洲教會它被稱為聖克萊門特的羅馬(前公元100 ) ,牧師書(約公元150 ) ,聖Irenæus ( 125 ? -202 ? , 208 ) ,良(約240 4 ) ,聖希拉里( 4 366 ) ,聖Philaster ( 4 385 ) ,聖安布羅斯( 4 397 ) ,教宗達馬蘇(佳能在約公元382 ) ,聖杰羅姆( 346-420 ) , Rufinus ( 4 410 ) ,聖奧古斯丁( 430 ) ,其正規他們是無可置疑的。 (b) In the Greek Church, Clement of Alexandria (d. 217), Origen (d. 254), St. Athanasius (d. 373), St. Dionysius the Areopagite (about AD 500), etc., considered it undoubtedly as a sacred writing. ( b )在希臘教會,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞( 4 217 ) ,奧利( 4 254 ) ,聖亞他那修( 4 373 ) ,聖狄奧尼修斯的Areopagite (約公元500 ) ,等等,認為這是毫無疑問作為一種神聖的書面答复。 (c) In the Syrian Church, the Peshito, although omitting the minor Catholic Epistles, gives that of St. James; St. ( c )在敘利亞的教會, Peshito ,雖然省略了輕微天主教書信,給了聖雅各福群;街 Ephraem uses it frequently in his writings. Ephraem使用它經常在他的著作。 Moreover, the most notorious heretics of Syria recognised it as genuine.此外,最臭名昭著的異端敘利亞承認它是真實的。 Thus we find that Nestorius ranked it in the Canon of Sacred Books, and James of Edessa adduces the testimony of James, v, 14.因此,我們發現,涅斯多留排名在佳能的聖書,詹姆斯的埃德薩1971的證詞詹姆斯,五, 14 。 The Epistle is found in the Coptic, Sahidic, Ethiopic, Arabic, and Armenian versions.在書信中發現的科普特人, Sahidic ,埃塞俄比亞語,阿拉伯語,和亞美尼亞的版本。 Although, therefore, the canonicity of the Epistle of St. James was questioned by a few during the first centuries, there are to be found from the very earliest ages, in different parts of the Church, numerous testimonies in favour of its canonicity.雖然,因此,正規的使徒聖雅各福群提出質疑少數在第一世紀,有被發現的最早的年齡,不同地區的教會,許多證詞贊成其正規。 From the end of the third century its acceptance as inspired, and as the work of St. James, has been universal, as clearly appears from the various lists of the Sacred Books drawn up since the fourth century.月底的第三個世紀對其接受的啟發,並作為工作的聖雅各福群,已被普遍的,明確地顯示出各種名單的聖書制定了自第四世紀。

III.三。 ANALYSIS AND CONTENTS OF THE EPISTLE分析和內容的書信

The subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument; hence it is difficult to give a precise division of the Epistle.治療的受試者中有許多書信和各種;此外,聖雅各福群並不罕見,同時闡明了某一點,突然傳球到另一個,目前他再次恢復前論點;因此,很難準確劃分的書信。 It is doubtful whether the sacred writer intended any systematic arrangement of subject; indeed, it is more probable that he did not, for in the Hebrew Sapiential Books of the Old Testament, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus, to which the present Epistle may in many ways be likened, the order in which the moral sentences stand does not seem to suggest any connection between them.這是有疑問的神聖作家打算安排的任何系統的問題;事實上,它更可能是他沒有,因為在希伯來語Sapiential圖書舊約,諺語,傳道書, Ecclesiasticus ,這本可以在許多書信方法好比,順序,而道德判決的立場似乎並不表明它們之間的任何聯繫。 It will therefore be more expedient to give a simple enumeration of the subjects treated in the Epistle:因此,將給予更適宜一個簡單列舉的科目處理的書信:

Inscription (i, 1); persecutions are to be borne with patience and joy (2-4); wisdom must be asked of God with confidence (5-8); humility is recommended (9-11); God is not the author of evil but of good (12-18); we must be slow to anger (19-21); not faith only, but also good works are necessary (22-27). Against respect of persons (ii, 1-13); another exhortation to good works (14-26). Against the evils of the tongue (iii, 1-12); against envy and discord, 13-18. Against wars and contentions (iv, 1-3); against the spirit of this world and pride (4-10); against detraction (11-13a); against vain confidence in worldly things (13b-16). Against the rich that oppress the poor (v, 1-6); exhortation to patience in the time of oppression (7-11), and to avoid swearing (12); of the anointing of the sick (13-15); of prayer (16); we must have at heart the conversion of sinners (19-20).碑文(一, 1 ) ;迫害應由耐心和喜悅( 2-4 ) ;智慧必須問上帝有信心( 5月8日) ;謙卑建議( 9月11日) ;上帝不是作者但邪惡的良好( 12月18日) ;我們必須緩慢憤怒( 19-21 ) ;不信仰只,而且還不錯的作品是必要的( 22-27 ) 。反對的人(二, 1月13日) ;另一個告誡好作品( 14-26 ) 。反對的罪惡的舌頭(三, 1月12日) ;對嫉妒和不和, 13日至18日。反對戰爭和爭論(四, 1月3日) ;對精神這個世界和自豪感( 4月10日) ;對譖( 11 - 13A條) ;對徒勞的信心,世俗的東西( 13B條, 16條) 。反對富人壓迫窮人(五, 1月6日) ;告誡耐心壓迫時( 7月11日) ,並避免宣誓就職( 12 ) ;的輔之以抹病人( 13-15 ) ;的祈禱( 16 ) ;我們必須在心髒病的轉換罪人( 19-20 ) 。

This enumeration shows that St. James inculcates especially: patience and perseverance in adversity, temptations, and persecutions; the necessity of good works, mercy, and charity.這表明,枚舉聖詹姆斯灌輸特別是:耐心和毅力在逆境中,誘惑,和迫害;有必要的優秀作品,慈悲,慈善機構。 For the question of apparent opposition between St. James and St. Paul with regard to "faith and works" see EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.的問題明顯對立聖雅各福群和聖保祿關於“信仰與工程”見書信於羅馬。

IV.四。 OCCASION AND OBJECT場合和對象

A. Occasion答:紀念

St. James seems to have been moved to write his Epistle on witnessing that the first fervour of the Jewish Christians had grown cold, and that, owing to various causes, both external and internal, a certain spirit of discouragement had declared itself amongst them.聖雅各福群似乎已移至寫書信上看到,第一個狂熱的猶太基督徒增長冷,而且,由於各種原因,外部和內部,某精神沮喪宣布自己其中。

(1) External Causes. ( 1 )外部原因。 The new Christian converts found themselves at first the object of the indifference only of their fellow townsfolk, the greater number of whom still remained in unbelief; but this attitude very soon changed to one of hostility and even persecution.新皈依基督教發現自己在第一次的對象只有冷漠的鄉親,在越來越多的人仍然在不信教,但是這種態度很快就改變了一個敵視,甚至迫害。 These early converts, belonging as they mostly did to the poorer classes, found themselves oppressed by the wealthy unbelievers; some were refused employment, others were denied their wages (v, 4); at other times they were mercilessly dragged before the tribunals (ii, 6); they were persecuted in the synagogues, and were, besides, reduced to extreme want and even starvation (ii, 15-17).這些早期的轉換,因為它們大多屬於沒有給貧困階層,發現自己被壓迫的富裕不信教;一些被拒絕就業,其他人被剝奪了他們的工資(五, 4 ) ;在其他時間他們被無情地拖在法庭上(二, 6 ) ;他們受迫害的猶太教堂,而且,此外,減少極端貧困和飢餓甚至(二15-17 ) 。

(2) Internal Causes. ( 2 )內部原因。 In the midst of these trials the faith of many began to languish (ii, 14, 20, 26), and the evil ways they had abandoned at their conversion were gradually indulged in once more.在這些試驗的信仰許多開始煎熬(二, 14日, 20日, 26日) ,以及邪路他們遺棄在其轉換逐漸沉迷於一次。 Thus it came to pass that the poor were despised in the sacred assemblies (ii, 1-9); there were breaches of brotherly charity (ii, 7); some arrogated to themselves the office of teacher who were unfitted (iii, 1, 13); many were guilty of detraction and other sins of the tongue (iii, 1-12; iv, 11-13); there were contentions and lawsuits (iv, 1-2); some indulged in swearing (v, 12); others neglected assiduous prayer (v, 13, 17-18); pride and vainglory were yielded to (iv, 6-10); even some of the sacred rites seem to have been overlooked (v, 14-16).因此,它是通過對窮人的鄙視在神聖的議會(二, 1月9日) ;有違反兄弟慈善機構(二, 7 ) ;一些僭取教師辦公室誰是unfitted (三, 1 , 13 ) ;許多犯有誹謗和其他罪惡的舌頭(三, 1月12日;四, 11月13日) ;有爭論和訴訟(四, 1月2日) ;一些沉迷於宣誓就職(五, 12 )其他被忽視的刻苦祈禱(五, 13日, 17日至18日) ;驕傲和虛榮是屈服於(四, 6月10日) ;甚至有些神聖的儀式似乎被忽視了(五, 14日至16日) 。 Such were the evils that the Epistle sought to remedy.這種人的邪惡的書信設法補救。

B. Object灣對象

St. James wrote his Epistle for a moral purpose, and addressed his co-religionists as their pastor, in his quality of Bishop of Jerusalem, in order: (1) to exhort them to constancy in the faith in spite of the persecutions and trials they were undergoing, and to give them comfort in their tribulations; (2) to correct the abuses and extirpate the evils amongst them, by urging them to make their conduct conformable to their faith, and by earnestly reminding them that faith alone would not save them unless they added good works.聖雅各福群寫下書信的道德目的,並給他的同事教友為他們的牧人,在他的品質的耶路撒冷主教,以便: ( 1 )敦促他們恆常的信念,儘管迫害和審判他們是經歷,並給他們安慰,他們的苦難; ( 2 )糾正濫用權力和消滅的罪惡其中,敦促他們作出自己的行為符合他們的信仰,並提醒他們認真的信念不會單獨保存他們說,除非他們的優秀作品。

V. TO WHOM ADDRESSED五,向誰給

St. James wrote his Epistle for the Jewish Christians outside Palestine, who, for the greater part, were poor and oppressed.聖雅各福群寫下書信的猶太基督徒巴勒斯坦之外誰,因為大部份是窮人和受壓迫者。 This we gather with certitude from the inscription (i, 1), and from various indications in the text. A.為此,我們收集與確信從銘文(一, 1 ) ,從各種跡象中的文字。答: The words, i, 1, "to the twelve tribes" can mean the whole Jewish nation; but the words following, "which are scattered abroad", designate clearly the Jews of the Dispersion.的話,我, 1 , “到12部落”可能意味著整個猶太民族,但以下的話, “這是散落在國外” ,指定明確的猶太人分散。 The Jews in Palestine, surrounded by Gentiles, were not considered as "scattered abroad".猶太人在巴勒斯坦,外邦人所包圍,被認為是“分散在國外” 。 That he addressed the Jewish Christians only becomes evident by the fact that the author styles himself "the servant of God, and of our Lord Jesus Christ", and by this title he indicates clearly that he writes to the disciples of Christ only.他給猶太人基督徒只有很明顯的事實是,作者自稱“上帝的僕人,和我們的主耶穌基督” ,並通過這個標題,他清楚表明,他寫的只有基督的門徒。

B. That the readers were Jewish appears still more evidently from the Epistle itself.灣這是猶太人的讀者似乎更明顯的書信本身。 St. James takes for granted that those whom he addressed were well versed in the writings of the Old Testament.聖雅各福群需要理所當然地認為那些人,他給了精通的著作舊約。 Moreover, he calls them not only his "brethren", which name taken by itself does not remove all doubt, but he so clearly shows them to be Christians that it is incomprehensible how any critics understand unconverted Jews to be the "brethren" to whom the Epistle was written.此外,他還要求他們不僅他的“兄弟” ,其中所採取的名字本身並沒有消除所有疑問,但他清楚地表明他們是基督徒,這是不可理解的任何批評者如何理解未猶太人是“兄弟”的人寫的書信。 Thus in i, 18, he writes to those whom God "of his own will hath begotten by the word of truth, that they might be some beginning of his creature"; in ii, 1, he admonishes them as follows: "My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory with respect to persons"; in ii, 7, he refers to them when he writes of "the good name [of Christ] that is invoked upon you"; in v, 7, they are to be patient "until the coming of the Lord"; etc. Further proof is afforded by the date of composition.因此,在我18歲,他寫信給上帝的人“將自己的上帝生字詞的真相,他們可能有一些開始他的造物” ,在二, 1 ,他admonishes如下: “我的兄弟,都沒有的信仰我們的主耶穌基督的榮耀與尊重的人“ ,在二, 7日,他提到這些時,他寫的”好名字[基督]這是援引你們“ ,在五, 7 ,他們是有耐心, “直到未來的上帝” ;等進一步證明是所提供的日期組成。

C. The context does not reveal who were the particular Jewish converts, to whom the Epistle was addressed. c.該方面沒有透露誰是猶太人特別轉換,他們的書信處理。 We gather, however, that St. James appeals to certain Christians, labouring under the stress of particular circumstances, in order to warn them against special perils; no one will easily admit that the vices against which he inveighs and the errors which he condemns were to be met with in each and every community of Jewish converts.我們收集,但是,聖雅各福群呼籲某些基督教徒,勞動脅迫下的特殊情況,以提醒他們對特別危險;沒有人會輕易承認,惡習對他inveighs和錯誤,他譴責了應達到的每一個社區的猶太人轉換。 Therefore the conclusion that he addressed some particular Churches forces itself upon our minds.因此得出結論,他給一些特定的教會勢力本身在我們心中。 As, according to the most probable opinion, the Epistle was not written later than about AD 50, we may conclude that it was written to some of the Churches of Syria or of another country not far distant from Jerusalem.正如,根據最有可能認為,書信沒有書面不遲於約公元50 ,我們可以得出這樣的結論:這是書面的一些教會,敘利亞或其他國家不遙遠來自耶路撒冷。

VI.六。 STYLE風格

The style is sententious, figurative, often poetical, and may be compared to that of the Prophetical and Sapiential Books of the Old Testament.款式簡潔,圖形,往往詩意,並可能進行比較,在預言和Sapiential圖書舊約。 It is rapid, betrays emotion, and is not wanting in those vehement outbursts of feeling customary with the writers of that period, and which so powerfully set the force of the argument before the reader.這是快速,背叛感情,是不想在這些強烈爆發的感覺習慣與作家的這一時期,並有如此強大的力量建立的論據讀者面前。 It has already been noticed that the different sentences of the Epistle may be divided into hemistichs of parallel meaning; this is quite in keeping with the distinctly Hebraic style of the whole Epistle; it is a well known fact that the classical period is not found in Hebrew, but that the short members of a proposition are continually in juxtaposition.已經注意到,不同的判決的書信可分為hemistichs並行的意義,這是相當符合作風明顯希伯來整個書信;這是一個眾所周知的事實,古典時期是在沒有找到希伯來文,但短期成員主張不斷在並列。

VII.七。 TIME AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION時間和地點的組成

A. Time答:時間

The Epistle was probably written about AD 47.也許是的書信書面關於廣告47 。 The reference to the persecutions (ii, 6) is in the present tense, and indicates a stage of suffering which has not yet receded into the past of history.提及迫害(二6 )在目前的緊張,並指出一個階段的痛苦尚未消退到過去的歷史。 Now, in AD 44 the Churches of Judea were exposed to the persecution inflicted by Herod Agrippa, in which James, the son of Zebedee, was murdered (Acts 12:1 sqq.).現在,在公元44教會的朱迪亞受到的迫害,造成希律阿格里帕,其中詹姆斯號Zebedee的兒子被謀殺(使徒12時01分sqq 。 ) 。 Moreover, the author could not have written after the Council of Jerusalem (AD 51), where James acted as president, without some allusion to his decision unanimously accepted (Acts 15:4 sqq.).此外,作者不能寫在耶路撒冷理事會(公元51 ) ,在那裡詹姆斯擔任總統,而一些針對他的決定一致接受(使徒15:4 sqq 。 ) 。 Another indication also derived from indirect internal evidence, is an allusion to the hungry and naked poor (of Jerusalem, ii, 15 sqq.); they suffered probably from the famine foretold by Agabus (Acts 11:28-30), and usually identified with one mentioned by Josephus (Antiq., XX, ii, 5), AD 45.另一個跡象也來自內部的間接證據,是指的是赤裸裸的飢餓和貧困(耶路撒冷,二, 15 sqq 。 ) ;他們所遭受的飢荒可能預言的Agabus (使徒11:28-30 ) ,通常確定一提到約瑟夫( Antiq. ,二十,二,五) ,廣告45 。

B. Place of Composition灣廣場組成

The Epistle was probably written by St. James in Jerusalem; this we may conclude from the study of the life of the author (see SAINT JAMES THE LESS), and this opinion finds favour with nearly all its critics.也許是的書信撰寫的聖雅各福群在耶路撒冷;這一點,我們可以得出結論,研究生命的作者(見聖詹姆斯以較低者為準) ,這輿論認為贊成,幾乎所有的批評。

Publication information Written by A. Camerlynck.出版信息書面由A. Camerlynck 。 Transcribed by Christopher Nantista. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄由克里斯托弗Nantista 。天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Consult Introductions to the New Testament.諮詢,介紹新約。 It will suffice to indicate some recent commentaries and special studies in which the earlier bibliography is mentioned.這足以說明一些最近的評注,並進行專題研究,其中提到早先書目。 CATHOLIC WORKS:-ERMONI IN VIGOUROUX, Dict.天主教著作: - ERMONI的VIGOUROUX ,快譯通。 de la Bible, s.vv.德拉薩聖經s.vv. Jacques (Saint) le Majeur, Jacques (Saint) le Mineur, Jacques (Epître de Saint); JACQUIER, Histoire des livres de Nouveau Testament (Paris, 1909); MEINERTZ, Der Jacobusbrief und sein Verfasser in Schrift und Ueberlieferung (Frieburg im Br., 1905); CALMES, Epître catholiques, Apocalypse (Paris, 1905); VAN STEENKISTE-CAMERLYNCK, Commentarius in Epistolas Catholicas (Bruges, 1909). NON-CATHOLIC WORKS:-LIPSIUS, Die apocryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden (Braunschweig, 1883-1890); SPITTA, Der Brief des Jacobus (Göttingen, 1896); MAYOR, The Epistle of St. James (London, 1892); IDEM in HASTINGS, Dict.雅克(聖)樂不可抗力,雅克(聖)樂Mineur ,雅克( Epître聖) ; JACQUIER ,史里弗日新約聖經(巴黎, 1909年) ; MEINERTZ ,明鏡Jacobusbrief和他的Verfasser在Schrift與Ueberlieferung ( Frieburg即時通訊溴。 , 1905年) ; CALMES , Epître天主教,啟示(巴黎, 1905年) ;加值型網路STEENKISTE - CAMERLYNCK , Commentarius在Epistolas Catholicas (布魯日, 1909年) 。非天主教著作: - LIPSIUS ,模具apocryphen Apostelgeschichten與Apostellegenden (不倫瑞克, 1883年- 1890年) ;施皮塔,萬德簡雅各布(哥廷根, 1896年) ;市長,使徒聖雅各福群(倫敦, 1892年) ; IDEM在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 of the Bible, s.vv.聖經, s.vv. James and James, The General Epistle of; PLUMPTRE, The General Epistle of St. James (Cambridge, 1901); EMMETT in HASTINGS-SELBIE, Dict.詹姆斯和詹姆斯,一般書信; PLUMPTRE ,一般使徒聖雅各福群(劍橋, 1901年) ; EMMETT在黑斯廷斯, SELBIE ,快譯通。 of the Bible, sv James, Epistle of.聖經,希沃特詹姆斯,使徒。


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