Book of Isaiah, Isaias以賽亞書伊薩亞

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Isaiah is the first and longest of the books of the Major Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible.該以賽亞書是第一個和最長的書籍主要先知在舊約聖經。 It derives its name from the prophet Isaiah, who lived in Jerusalem, perhaps of aristocratic origin.這源於它的名字從先知以賽亞,誰住在耶路撒冷,也許是貴族出身。 His prophetic career spanned half a century, from around 742 BC to at least 701.他的預言生涯橫跨半世紀,從公元前742到至少701 。

The book, however, contains the work of more than one man.這本書,但是,包含的工作,不止一個人。 Scholars now generally agree that chapters 1 to 35, known as First Isaiah, can be ascribed either to Isaiah himself or to his disciples; chapters 36 to 39 have been taken directly from 2 Kings 18:13 - 20:18.學者普遍認為現在章1至35 ,被稱為第一以賽亞,可以歸咎於要么以賽亞本人或他的弟子;章36至39已採取了直接從列王紀下18時13 - 20:18 。 Chapters 40 to 55, known as Second Isaiah, or Deutero - Isaiah, were the work of an anonymous prophet - poet during the latter part (c. 545 - 540 BC) of the Babylonian exile.章40至55 ,被稱為第二以賽亞,或Deutero -以賽亞,是工作的一個匿名先知-詩人在後一部分(約545 - 540年)的巴比倫流亡。 Chapters 56 to 66, known as Third Isaiah, or Trito - Isaiah, were written by authors unknown in detail but working around the end of the 6th century (525 - 500 BC) or the beginning of the 5th (500 - 475 BC).章56至66歲,被稱為第三以賽亞,或Trito -以賽亞書,寫的作者不詳,但詳細的工作結束後6世紀( 525 - 500年)或初的第5次( 500 -公元前475年) 。 Some of the material may be derived from a period even later than these times (c. 375 - 250 BC).一些材料可能來自一個時期甚至遲於這些時代(約375 - 250年) 。

First Isaiah falls roughly into four periods: (1) From 747 to 736 BC the prophet speaks about internal political and economic policy; (2) in 736 - 735 he addresses the crisis caused by the Syro - Ephraimite War, an attempt to force Jerusalem into an anti - Assyrian alliance; (3) after a period of silence, he speaks again, addressing himself to the attempt of King Hezekiah to free himself from the status of a vassal to Assyria (716 - 711); (4) again after a time of silence, Isaiah speaks of Hezekiah's second attempt to establish political independence (705 - 701).第一以賽亞屬於大致分為四個階段: ( 1 )從公元前747到736先知談到國內政治和經濟政策; ( 2 )在736 - 735 ,他處理危機所造成的Syro - Ephraimite戰爭,企圖迫使耶路撒冷到反-亞述人聯盟; ( 3 )經過一段時間的沉默,他再次談到,解決自己的企圖國王Hezekiah自由自己的地位的附庸到亞述( 716 - 711 ) ; ( 4 )後,再沉默的時候,以賽亞談到Hezekiah第二試圖建立政治獨立( 705 - 701 ) 。 The writings from these periods fall into seven collections of sayings on themes of sin, judgment, and deliverance from the judgment.從這些著作分為七個時期收藏的諺語主題罪,判決,並解救了判決。 The Immanuel prophecies (chapter 6 - 12) are well known to Christians, who interpret them as references to Christ. 預言伊曼紐爾(第6章- 12 )是眾所周知的基督徒,誰解釋為提述基督。

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Second Isaiah comprises poems of various genres: oracles of deliverance, hymns, prophetic legal speech designed to show that the God of Israel alone is God, and discussion forms designed to repel opposition.第二以賽亞包括詩歌的各種流派:神諭的解脫,讚美詩,預言法律講話旨在表明只有以色列的上帝是上帝,和討論的形式,以擊退反對派。 In addition, the material of Second Isaiah contains the passages about the Servant of the Lord, also interpreted by Christians as references to Christ (42:1 - 4; 49:1 - 6; 50:4 - 9; 52:13 - 53:12).此外,該材料的第二代以賽亞包含的受僱人主,還解釋基督徒為提述基督( 42:1 - 4 ; 49:1 - 6 ; 50:4 - 9 ; 52:13 - 53 : 12 ) 。

Third Isaiah includes 14 independent sayings concerning the operation of the restored Temple, with corresponding emphasis on the sabbath and cult.第三以賽亞包括14個獨立的諺語有關的運作,恢復寺,與相應的重點是安息日和邪教。 The material comprises a short prophetic liturgy (56:9 - 47:13), an oracle of promise (57:14 - 21), an exhortation and promise (58:1 - 12), prophetic invective and threat (65:1 - 2), and a promise (65:8 - 25).這些材料包括短期預言禮儀( 56:9 - 47:13 ) ,甲骨文的承諾( 57:14 - 21 ) ,一個告誡,並承諾( 58:1 - 12 ) ,先知謾罵和威脅( 65:1 - 2 ) ,並許諾( 65:8 - 25 ) 。 The final chapter contains a prophetic denunciation of the Temple and a rejection of the sacrificial cult, as well as three prophetic sayings that announce an imminent end and its results.在最後一章載有先知譴責廟和反對邪教的犧牲品,以及這三個預言諺語宣布即將結束,其結果。 Isaiah contains some of the most beautiful and best known passages in the Bible.以賽亞書包含了一些最美麗和最有名的聖經段落。 Two manuscripts of the book were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.兩本書的手稿被發現的死海古卷。

George W Coats喬治W科茨

Bibliography 參考書目
JH Hayes and SA Irvine, Isiah (1987); GAF Knight, Prophets of Israel: Isaiah (1962); JR Rosenbloom, The Dead Sea Isaiah Scrolls (1970); JW Whedbee, Isaiah and Wisdom (1971).保幼激素和SA埃爾文海耶斯,伊塞亞( 1987年) ; GAF騎士,先知以色列:以賽亞書( 1962年) ;乘坐JR羅森布魯姆,死海以賽亞古卷( 1970年) ;金威Whedbee ,以賽亞和智慧( 1971年) 。


Book of Isaiah, Isaias以賽亞書伊薩亞

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Introduction (1)導言( 1 )
  2. Denunciation of Jerusalem (2-5)退出耶路撒冷( 2-5 )
  3. Temple vision (6)寺視覺( 6 )
  4. Book of Immanuel (7-12)書伊曼努爾( 7月12日)
  5. Prophecies against the nations (13-23)預言對聯合國( 13-23 )
  6. Prophecies of judgment and future blessings (24-35)判斷和預言未來的祝福( 24-35 )
  7. Historic events (36-39)歷史事件( 36-39 )
  8. Book of Consolation (40-66)圖書安慰( 40-66 )


Isa'iah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Isaiah, (Heb. Yesh'yahu, ie, "the salvation of Jehovah").以賽亞, ( Heb. Yesh'yahu ,即“耶和華的救贖” ) 。 (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. ( 1 。 )的兒子Amoz ( Isa. 1:1 , 2:1 ) ,誰顯然是一個人的謙虛排名。 His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isa. 38:1).他的妻子被稱為“預言家” ( 8時03分) ,或者是因為她被賦予了禮品的預言一樣,德博拉( Judg. 4點04分)和Huldah (列王紀下22:14-20 ) ,或只是因為她是妻子的“先知” ( Isa. 38:1 ) 。 He had two sons, who bore symbolical names.他有兩個兒子,誰承擔象徵的名字。 He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1).他行使其職能的過程中普遍存在的Uzziah (或Azariah ) ,喬薩姆, Ahaz ,並Hezekiah ( 1:1 ) 。 Uzziah reigned fifty-two years (BC 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably BC 762. Uzziah在位五十二年(公元前810-759 ) ,和以賽亞書必須有自己的職業生涯開始前的幾年時間裡Uzziah的死亡,可能公元前762 。 He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died BC 698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh.他住到14年Hezekiah ,並很可能失去的君主(誰死於公元前698 ) ,並可能已被當代一些年來,與索加瓦里。 Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years.因此以賽亞預言可能的很長一段至少六十四年。 His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded.他首先請辦公室的預言是沒有記錄。

A second call came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died" (Isa. 6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore on the interests of religion.第二個電話向他“在這一年,國王Uzziah死亡” ( Isa. 6:1 ) 。他行使了教育部的精神,不妥協的堅定和勇氣對於一切承擔的利益,宗教。 He conceals nothing and keeps nothing back from fear of man.他隱瞞什麼,保持什麼回到免於恐懼的人。 He was also noted for his spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward " the holy One of Israel."他還指出,他的精神和他的深緩和崇敬走向“羅馬的一個以色列。 ” In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (qv), 2 Kings 15:19; and again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of conquest.在早期青年以賽亞必須已經移到了入侵以色列的亞述國王普勒( qv ) ,列王紀下15:19 06 ;並再次,二十年後,當他已經進入他的辦公室,由入侵Tiglath - pileser和他的職業生涯的征服。 Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr. 28:5, 6). Ahaz ,猶太國王,在這場危機中拒絕配合國王的以色列和敘利亞反對亞述人,並在該帳戶的攻擊和打敗Rezin大馬士革和Pekah的撒馬利亞(列王紀下16時05分; 2染色體。 28:5 , 6 ) 。 Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglathpileser against Israel and Syria. Ahaz ,從而謙卑,站在亞述,並尋求援助Tiglathpileser對以色列和敘利亞。

The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16: 9; 1 Chr. 5:26).其後果是, Rezin和Pekah被征服和許多人進行圈養,以亞述(列王紀下15:29 ; 16 : 9 ; 1染色體。 5時26分) 。 Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the kingdom of Israel.此後不久撒縵以確定完全制服以色列王國。 Samaria was taken and destroyed (BC 722).撒馬利亞和銷毀採取了(公元前722 ) 。 So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (BC 726), who "rebelled against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isa. 10:24; 37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa. 30:2-4).只要Ahaz統治,猶太王國被亞述unmolested的權力,但他加入了王位, Hezekiah (公元前726 ) ,誰“反抗亞述國王” (列王紀下18時07分) ,其中他感到鼓舞的是以賽亞書,誰告誡人們將其所有依賴耶和華( Isa. 10點24 ; 37:6 ) ,進入聯盟,埃及國王( Isa. 30:2-4 ) 。

This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (BC 701) led a powerful army into Palestine.這導致國王亞述威脅的猶太國王,並在長度入侵土地。森納赫里布(公元前701 )率領一個強大的軍隊進入巴勒斯坦。 Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But after a brief interval war broke out again, and again Sennacherib (qv) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (Isa. 36:2-22; 37:8). Hezekiah減少到絕望,並提交給了亞述人(列王紀下18:14-16 ) 。但經過短暫的間隔又爆發了戰爭,並再次森納赫里布( qv )領導的軍隊到巴勒斯坦,一個脫離威脅耶路撒冷(伊薩。 36:2-22 ; 37:8 ) 。 Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the Lord" (37:14).以賽亞在那次會議上鼓勵Hezekiah抵制亞述( 37:1-7 ) ,在這種情況下森納赫里布發出了一封恐嚇信,以Hezekiah ,他“傳播上帝面前” ( 37:14 ) 。 The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host.上帝的判決現在落在亞述東道國。 "Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt." “像薛西斯在希臘,森納赫里布從來沒有從震驚的災難,猶太。他沒有更多的探險對陣南部巴勒斯坦或埃及。 ” The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful (2 Chr. 32:23, 27-29).其餘各年的Hezekiah的統治地位是和平( 2染色體。 32:23 , 27-29 ) 。

Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown.以賽亞可能活到其關閉,並可能成為時代梅納西索,但時間和方式逝世不明。 There is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of Manasseh (qv).有一個傳統,他遭受殉道的異教徒反應時間索加瓦里( qv ) 。 (2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1 Chr. 25:3,15, "Jeshaiah"). (3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 26:25). ( 2 。 )一位首長的歌手時代的大衛( 1染色體。 25:3,15 , “ Jeshaiah ” ) 。 ( 3 。 )阿列維特( 1染色體。 26:25 ) 。 (4.) Ezra 8:7. ( 4 。 )以斯拉八點07分。 (5.) Neh. ( 5 。 ) Neh 。 11:7. 11時07分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


The Book of Isaiah該以賽亞書

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Isaiah consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66).該以賽亞書包括預言交付( Isa. 1 )中的統治Uzziah ( 1-5 ) , ( 2 )喬薩姆( 6 ) , ( 3 ) Ahaz ( 7-14:28 ) , ( 4 )第一一半的Hezekiah統治( 14:28-35 ) , ( 5 )下半年Hezekiah的統治地位( 66 ) 。 Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (BC 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (BC 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years.因此,從之前的第四個年頭Uzziah去世(公元前762 )的最後一年, Hezekiah (公元前698 ) ,以賽亞商務部延長了一段六十四年。 He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above. The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: (1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King.他可以,但是,倖存Hezekiah ,並可能已經腐壞的方式如上所述。這本書,作為一個整體,已經被分為三個主要部分組成: ( 1 。 )第35章,幾乎完全預言,以色列的敵人亞述,本彌賽亞作為一個強大的統治者,國王。 (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly. ( 2 。 )四個章節的歷史( 36-39 ) ,與時代的Hezekiah 。 ( 3 。 )預言( 40-66 ) ,以色列的敵人巴比倫,說明彌賽亞作為受害者的痛苦,溫順和卑微。

The genuineness of the section Isa.的真實性,本節赫伊薩。 40-66 has been keenly opposed by able critics. 40-66一直強烈反對,可以批評。 They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity.他們斷言,它必須是生產deutero -以賽亞,誰的生活密切的巴比倫囚禁。 This theory was originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century.這個理論最初由科佩,德國作家結束時,上個世紀。 There are other portions of the book also (eg, ch. 13; 24-27; and certain verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah.還有其他部分的圖書也(例如,甲烷。 13 ; 24-27 ;和某些詩句在CH 。 14和21 ) ,他們屬性比其他一些先知以賽亞。 Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this book.因此,他們說,大約在五年或七年,甚至更多,一些身份不明的先知了手工生產的這本書。

The considerations which have led to such a result are various:, (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah, living in BC 700, could foretell the appearance and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after.考慮導致這種結果是不同的: ( 1 。 )他們不能,因為有些人說,這一設想有可能以賽亞,生活在公元前700 ,可以預知的外觀和它講述的是一位王子所謂賽勒斯,誰設置猶太人免遭囚禁一百七十年後。 (2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. ( 2 。 )據稱,這需要先知的時候,他的觀點圈養,並談到了它然後提出;和( 3 ) ,有這樣一個風格之間的差異和語言的最後一節( 40 - 66 )和前幾章的需要不同的作者,並得出結論認為,至少有兩個Isaiahs 。 But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it.但是,即使這一事實給予了極大的多樣性,風格和語言,這將不會有必要的結論試圖得出它。

The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet's position at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this.主體的多樣性和治療的特殊性先知的立場時發出的預言都將充分考慮到這一點。 The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive.主張統一的書是相當確鑿。 When the LXX.當LXX 。 version was made (about BC 250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz.版本是(約公元前250 )的全部內容的圖書被歸因於以賽亞的兒子Amoz 。 It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it.這不是所謂的問題,此外,在規定的時間內我們的上帝存在,這本書的形式,使我們現在有它。 Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke 3:4-6; 4: 16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.許多預言在有爭議的部分引述了新約的話以賽亞(太3點03分;路加福音3:4-6 ; 4 : 16-41 ;約翰12時38分;行為8時28分;光盤。 10 :16 - 21 ) 。普遍和持續的傳統賦予了整本書的作者之一。

Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin.此外,內部的證據,相似的語言和風格,在思想和圖像和修辭飾品,所有的點了同樣的結論;及其地方染色和典故表明,這顯然是巴勒斯坦人的血統。 The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained.因此,理論的雙重著作權的書籍,更不用說一個多方面的作者,就不能維持。 The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it bears.這本書,與所有的多樣性,其內容是,是,我們認為,生產的偉大先知的名義承擔。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Isaias伊薩亞

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

Among the writers whom the Hebrew Bible styles the "Latter Prophets" foremost stands "Isaias, the holy prophet . . . the great prophet, and faithful in the sight of God" (Eccliasticus 48:23-25).在作家的人希伯來聖經風格的“末世預言”最重要的主張“伊薩亞,先知。 。 。偉大的先知,和忠實的視線上帝” ( Eccliasticus 48:23-25 ) 。

I. LIFE一,生命

The name Isaias signifies "Yahweh is salvation".名稱伊薩亞標誌著“耶和華的見證” 。 It assumes two different forms in the Hebrew Bible: for in the text of the Book of Isaias and in the historical writings of the Old Testament, for example in 2 Kings 19:2; 2 Chronicles 26:22; 32:20-32, it is read Yeshá`yahu, whereas the collection of the Prophet's utterances is entitled Yeshá`yah, in Greek `Esaías, and in Latin usually Isaias, but sometimes Esaias.它假設兩種不同的形式在希伯來文聖經:對案文中的圖書的伊薩亞和歷史著作舊約,例如在列王紀下19點02分;歷代誌下26:22 ; 32:20-32 ,這是閱讀耶沙` yahu ,而收集的先知話語題為耶沙`嚴,在希臘`兼顧到,而在拉丁美洲通常伊薩亞,但有時兼顧到。 Four other persons of the same name are mentioned in the Old Testament (Ezra 8:7; 8:19; Nehemiah 11:7; 1 Chronicles 26:25); while the names Jesaia (1 Chronicles 25:15), Jeseias (1 Chronicles 3:21; 25:3) may be regarded as mere variants. 4個其他人的相同的名稱中提到舊約全書(以斯拉8點○七; 8時19 ;尼希米記11時07分;歷代誌上26:25 ) ;而名字Jesaia (歷代誌上25:15 ) , Jeseias ( 1納尼亞3時21分; 25:3 )可被視為單純的變種。 From the Prophet himself (i, 1; ii, 1) we learn that he was the son of Amos.從先知本人(一, 1 ;二, 1 )我們了解,他的兒子阿莫斯納曼。 Owing to the similarity between Latin and Greek forms of this name and that of the Shepherd-Prophet of Thecue, some Fathers mistook the Prophet Amos for the father of Isaias.由於之間的相似拉丁美洲和希臘形式的這個名字和牧人,先知Thecue ,一些父親誤先知阿摩司的父親伊薩亞。 St. Jerome in the preface to his "Commentary on Amos" (PL, XXV, 989) points out this error.聖杰羅姆序言中他的“評阿莫斯納曼” (特等, 25 , 989 )指出這個錯誤。 Of Isaias's ancestry we know nothing; but several passages of his prophecies (iii, 1-17, 24; iv, 1; viii, 2; xxxi, 16) lead us to believe that he belonged to one of the best families of Jerusalem.的伊薩亞的祖先,我們什麼都不知道,但他的幾個段落的預言(三, 1月17日, 24日;四, 1 ;八, 2 ;三十一, 16 )使我們相信,他屬於一個最佳的家屬耶路撒冷。 A Jewish tradition recorded in the Talmud (Tr. Megilla, 10b.) held him to be a nephew of King Amasias.猶太人的傳統記錄在塔木德(編輯部Megilla , 10B條。 )舉行了他是一個國王的侄子Amasias 。 As to the exact time of the Prophet's birth we lack definite data; yet he is believed to have been about twenty years of age when he began his public ministry.至於確切的時間先知誕辰我們缺乏明確的數據,但他被認為是20歲時他開始了他的公共事務部。 He was a citizen, perhaps a native, of Jerusalem.他是一個公民,也許是本地,耶路撒冷。 His writings give unmistakable signs of high culture. From his prophecies (vii and viii) we learn that he married a woman whom he styles "the prophetess" and that he had two sons, She`ar-Yashub and Maher-shalal-hash-baz.他的作品給予明確的跡象,高文化。從他的預言(七和八)我們了解到,他娶了一個女人,他的風格“的預言家” ,他有兩個兒子,她`氬Yashub和馬希爾- shalal -散列巴茲。 Nothing whatever indicates that he was twice married as some fancy on the gratuitous and indefensible supposition that the `almah of vii, 14, was his wife.沒有任何顯示,他曾兩度結婚,一些幻想的無償和站不住腳的假設認為, ` almah的七,第14 ,是他的妻子。

The prophetical ministry of Isaias lasted wellnigh half a century, from the closing year of Ozias, King of Juda, possibly up to that of Manasses.部的預言伊薩亞持續wellnigh半個世紀以來,從一年的Ozias結束,國王的猶大,可能最多的Manasses 。 This period was one of great prophetical activity.這一時期是一個偉大的預言活動。 Israel and Juda indeed were in sore need of guidance.以色列和猶大的確是在疼痛需要指導。 After the death of Jeroboam II revolution followed upon revolution and the northern kingdom had sunk rapidly into an abject vassalage to the Assyrians.逝世後,耶羅波安二世革命後,革命和隨後的北部擊沉了英國迅速成為赤貧vassalage向亞述人。 The petty nations of the West, however, recovering from the severe blows received in the beginning of the eighth century, were again manifesting aspirations of independence.小國家的西方,但是,從收到的嚴厲打擊開始在八世紀,再次表現出願望的獨立性。 Soon Theglathphalasar III marched his armies towards Syria; heavy tributes were levied and utter ruin threatened on those who would show any hesitation to pay.很快Theglathphalasar三遊行他對敘利亞軍隊;沉重悼念徵收和徹底的毀滅威脅的那些誰將表現出任何猶豫支付。 In 725 Osee, the last King of Samaria, fell miserably under the onslaught of Salmanasar IV, and three years later Samaria succumbed to the hands of the Assyrians.在725 Osee ,末代撒瑪利亞,下跌慘敗的攻擊下Salmanasar四,三年後薩馬利亞屈服於手中的亞述人。 In the meantime the Kingdom of Juda hardly fared better.與此同時猶大王國幾乎要好。 A long period of peace had enervated characters, and the young, inexperienced, and unprincipled Achaz was no match for the Syro-Israelite coalition which confronted him.在很長一段和平enervated字符,年輕,缺乏經驗,和無原則的Achaz沒有匹配的Syro -以色列人聯盟面對他。 Panic-stricken he, in spite of the remonstrances of Isaias, resolved to appeal to Theglathphalasar. The help of Assyria was secured, but the independence of Juda was thereby practically forfeited.驚惶失措的他,儘管remonstrances的伊薩亞,解決呼籲Theglathphalasar 。亞述的幫助下,被擔保的,但獨立的猶大,因此實際上沒收。 In order to explain clearly the political situation to which so many allusions are made in Isaias's writings there is here subjoined a brief chronological sketch of the period: 745, Theglathphalasar III, king of Assyria; Azarias (AV Uzziah), of Juda; Manahem (AV Menahem) of Samaria; and Sua of Egypt; 740, death of Azarias; Joatham (AV Jotham), king of Juda; capture of Arphad (AV Arpad) by Theglathphalasar III (Isaiah 10:9); 738, campaign of Theglathphalasar against Syria; capture of Calano (AV Calno) and Emath (AV Hamath); heavy tribute imposed upon Manahem (2 Kings 15:19-20); victorious wars of Joatham against the Ammonites (2 Chronicles 27:4-6); 736, Manahem succeeded by Phaceia (AV Pekahiah); 735, Joatham succeeded by Achaz (2 Kings 16:1); Phaceia replaced by Phacee (AV Pekah), son of Remelia (AV Remaliah), one of his captains; Jerusalem besieged by Phacee in alliance with Rasin (AV Rezin), king of Syria (2 Kings 16:5; Isaiah 7:1-2); 734, Theglathphalasar, replying to Achaz' request for aid, marches against Syria and Israel, takes several cities of North and East Israel (2 Kings 15:29), and banishes their inhabitants; the Assyrian allies devastate part of the territory of Juda and Jerusalem; Phacee slain during a revolution in Samaria and succeeded by Osee (AV Hoshea); 733, unsuccessful expeditions of Achaz against Edom (2 Chronicles 28:17) and the Philistines (20); 732, campaign of Theglathphalasar against Damascus; Rasin besieged in his capital, captured, and slain; Achaz goes to Damascus to pay homage to the Assyrian ruler (2 Kings 16:10-19); 727, death of Achaz; accession of Ezechias (2 Kings 18:1); in Assyria Salmanasar IV succeeds Theglathphalasar III, 726, campaign of Salmanasar against Osee (2 Kings 17:3); 725, Osee makes alliance with Sua, king of Egypt (2 Kings 17:4); second campaign of Salmanasar IV, resulting in the capture and deportation of Osee (2 Kings 17:4); beginning of the siege of Samaria; 722, Sargon succeeds Salmanasar IV in Assyria; capture of Samaria by Sargon; 720, defeat of Egyptian army at Raphia by Sargon; 717, Charcamis, the Hittite stronghold on the Euphrates, falls into the hands of Sargon (Isaiah 10:8); 713, sickness of Ezechias (2 Kings 20:1-11; Isaiah 38); embassy from Merodach Baladan to Ezechias (2 Kings 20:12-13; Isaiah 39); 711, invasion of Western Palestine by Sargon; siege and capture of Azotus (AV Ashdod; Isaiah 20); 709, Sargon defeats Merodach Baladan, seizes Babylon, and assumes title of king of Babylon; 705, death of Sargon; accession of Sennacherib; 701, expedition of Sennacherib against Egypt; defeat of latter at Elteqeh; capture of Accaron (AV Ekron); siege of Lachis; Ezechias's embasy; the conditions laid down by Sennacherib being found too hard the king of Juda prepares to resist the Assyrians; destruction of part of the Assyrian army; hurried retreat of the rest (2 Kings 18; Isaiah 36:37); 698, Ezechias is succeeded by his son Manasses.為了解釋清楚的政治局勢,以如此眾多的典故是在伊薩亞的著作是在這裡subjoined簡短的順序示意圖期: 745 , Theglathphalasar三,國王亞述;阿扎里亞斯魯(影音Uzziah )的猶大; Manahem (影音梅納海姆)的撒馬利亞;和蘇阿埃及; 740 ,死亡阿扎里亞斯魯; Joatham (影音喬薩姆) ,國王猶大;捕獲Arphad (影音阿帕德普)由Theglathphalasar三(以賽亞書10時09 ) ; 738 ,對運動的Theglathphalasar敘利亞;捕獲Calano (影音Calno )和Emath (影音哈馬) ;重型敬意強加於Manahem (列王紀下15:19-20 ) ; Joatham戰爭的勝利對菊石(歷代誌下27:4-6 ) ; 736 , Manahem接替Phaceia (影音Pekahiah ) ; 735 , Joatham接替Achaz (列王紀下16:1 ) ; Phaceia改為Phacee (影音Pekah ) ,兒子Remelia (影音Remaliah ) ,他的一名隊長;耶路撒冷包圍Phacee在聯盟Rasin (影音Rezin ) ,國王的敘利亞(列王紀下16點05 ;以賽亞書7:1-2 ) ; 734 Theglathphalasar回答Achaz '請求援助,遊行對敘利亞和以色列,需要幾個城市的北部和東以色列(列王紀下15:29 ) ,並banishes居民;亞述盟國摧毀領土的一部分猶大和耶路撒冷; Phacee期間被殺害的革命撒馬利亞和成功的Osee (影音Hoshea ) ; 733 ,不成功的考察Achaz對以東(歷代誌下28:17 )和非利士人( 20 ) ; 732 ,運動Theglathphalasar對大馬士革; Rasin被圍困在他的資本,被捕,被殺; Achaz去大馬士革頂禮膜拜亞述的統治者(列王紀下16 :10 - 19 ) ; 727 ,死亡Achaz ;加入埃澤希亞甚(列王紀下18:1 ) ;在亞述Salmanasar四成功Theglathphalasar三, 726 ,運動Salmanasar對Osee (列王紀下17:3 ) ; 725 , Osee使得聯盟與血清尿酸,埃及國王(列王紀下17時04分) ;第二次運動Salmanasar第四,導致捕獲和驅逐Osee (列王紀下十七點04分) ;開始圍困撒瑪利亞; 722 ,薩爾貢成功Salmanasar四在亞述;捕獲薩馬利亞的薩爾貢; 720 ,擊敗埃及軍隊在Raphia的薩爾貢; 717 , Charcamis的赫提特據點的幼發拉底河,落入手中的薩爾貢(以賽亞十時08分) ; 713 ,疾病的埃澤希亞甚(列王紀下20:1-11 ;以賽亞書38 ) ;使館從米羅達巴拉但以埃澤希亞甚(列王紀下20:12-13 ;以賽亞書39 ) ; 711 ,入侵西方巴勒斯坦薩爾貢;包圍和逮捕Azotus (影音阿什杜德;以賽亞20 ) ; 709 ,薩爾貢失利米羅達巴拉但,奪取巴比倫,並假定標題巴比倫國王; 705 ,死亡薩爾貢;加入森納赫里布; 701 ,加快森納赫里布對埃及;擊敗後者在Elteqeh ;捕獲Accaron (影音Ekron ) ;圍困Lachis ;埃澤希亞甚的embasy ;所定的條件,森納赫里布很難被發現的猶大國王準備抵制亞述人;銷毀部分亞述軍隊;匆忙撤退,其餘(列王紀下18 ;以賽亞書36 : 37 ) ; 698 ,埃澤希亞甚是接替他的兒子Manasses 。 The wars of the ninth century and the peaceful security following them produced their effects in the latter part of the next century.戰爭的第九世紀與和平之後他們安全生產的影響,後者的一部分,下個世紀。 Cities sprang up; new pursuits, although affording opportunities of easy wealth, brought about also an increase of poverty.城市的興起,新的追求,雖然提供機會,容易財富,也帶來了貧困的增加。 The contrast between class and class became daily more marked, and the poor were oppressed by the rich with the connivance of the judges.之間的對比階級和階級成為每日更加明顯,和受壓迫的窮人與富人的默許法官。 A social state founded on iniquity is doomed.一個社會的國家基礎上的不公正是注定要失敗的。 But as Israel's social corruption was greater than Juda's, Israel was expected to succumb first.但隨著以色列的社會腐敗大於猶大的,以色列將屈服於第一。 Greater likewise was her religious corruption.更多的同樣是她的宗教腐敗。 Not only did idolatrous worship prevail there to the end, but we know from Osee what gross abuses and shameful practices obtained in Samaria and throughout the kingdom, whereas the religion of the people of Juda on the whole seems to have been a little better.不僅沒有盲目崇拜崇拜盛行有結束,但我們知道從什麼Osee嚴重侵犯和可恥的做法,取得的撒馬利亞和整個王國,而宗教的人民的猶大總體上似乎已經有所好轉。 We know, however, as regards these, that at the very time of Isaias certain forms of idolatrous worship, like that of Nohestan and of Moloch, probably that also of Tammur and of the "host of heaven", were going on in the open or in secret.然而,我們知道,對於這些,在關鍵時刻的伊薩亞某些形式的盲目崇拜的崇拜一樣, Nohestan和摩洛克,也許這也Tammur和“主辦的天堂” ,是繼續在開放或在秘密。

Commentators are at variance as to when Isaias was called to the prophetical office.評論員在差額何時伊薩亞被稱為辦公室的預言。 Some think that previous to the vision related in vi, 1, he had received communications from heaven.一些人認為,以往的遠景有關在六, 1 ,他收到天堂。 St. Jerome in his commentary on the passage holds that chapters iv ought to be attributed to the last years of King Ozias, then ch.聖杰羅姆在他的評論認為,通過第四章應該歸因於過去幾年的國王Ozias ,然後總。 vi would commence a new series begun in the year of the death of that prince (740 BC; PL, XXIV, 91; cf. St. Gregory Nazianzen, Orat. ix; PG, XXXV, 820). ㈥將開始一系列新的一年開始的死亡的王子( 740公元前;特等, 24 , 91 ;比照。聖格雷戈里Nazianzen , Orat 。九;指引,第三十五卷, 820 ) 。 It is more commonly held, however, that ch.這是更為普遍,但是,總。 vi refers to the first calling of the Prophet; St. Jerome himself, in a letter to Pope Damasus seems to adopt this view (PL, XXII, 371; cf. Hesychius "In Is.", PG XCIII, 1372), and St. John Chrysostom, commenting upon Is., vi, 5, very aptly contrasts the promptness of the Prophet with the tergiversations of Moses and Jeremias.六指的是第一次要求先知;聖杰羅姆自己的信中,教皇達馬蘇似乎通過這種看法(特等, 22 , 371 ;比照。赫西基奧斯“的是。 ”素XCIII , 1372年) ,和意法半導體。約翰金口,發表評論是。 ,六,五,非常恰當地對比迅速先知與tergiversations摩西和赫雷米亞斯。 On the other hand, since no prophecies appear to be later than 701 BC, it is doubtful if Isaias saw the reign of Manasses at all; still a very old and widespread tradition, echoed by the Mishna (Tr. Yebamoth, 49b; cf. Sanhedr., 103b), has it that the Prophet survived Ezechias and was slain in the persecution of Manasses (2 Kings 21:16).另一方面,因為沒有任何的預言似乎是晚於701年,這是值得懷疑的,如果看到伊薩亞斯統治Manasses所有;仍然是一個非常古老的和普遍的傳統,反映了米示拿(編輯部Yebamoth , 49b ;比照。 Sanhedr 。 , 103b ) ,已經可以認為先知存活埃澤希亞甚和被殺害的迫害Manasses (列王紀下21時16分) 。 This prince had him convicted of blasphemy, because he had dared say: "I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne" (vi, 1), a pretension in conflict with God's own assertion in Exod., xxxiii, 20: "Man shall not see me and live".這王子他定罪的褻瀆,是因為他敢於說: “我看到了上帝坐在一個寶座” (六, 1 ) ,一個預相衝突上帝的斷言在Exod 。 ,三十三, 20 : “人不得見我和生活“ 。 He was accused, moreover, of having predicted the ruin of Jerusalem and called the holy city and the people of Juda by the accursed names of Sodom and Gomorrah.他被指控,此外,有預測的廢墟耶路撒冷,並呼籲聖城和人民的猶大所詛咒的名字,所多瑪和蛾摩拉。 According to the "Ascension of Isaias", the Prophet's martyrdom consisted in being sawed asunder.根據“阿森松的伊薩亞”先知的殉道包括在被鋸四分五裂。 Tradition shows this to have been unhesitatingly believed.傳統節目,這已經毫不猶豫地相信。 The Targum on 2 Kings 21:6, admits it; it is preserved in two treatises of the Talmud (Yebamoth, 49b; Sanhedr., 103b); St. Justin (Dial. c. Tryph., cxx), and many of the Fathers adopted it, taking as unmistakable allusions to Isaias those words of the Heb., xi, 37, "they (the ancients) were cut asunder" (cf. Tertullian, "De patient.", xiv; PL, I, 1270; Orig., "In Is., Hom." I, 5, PG, XIII, 223; "In Matt.", x, 18, PG, XIII, 882; "In Matt.", Ser. 28, PG, XIII, 1637; "Epist. ad Jul. Afr.", ix, PG, XI, 65; St. Jerome, "In Is.", lvii, 1, PL, XXIV, 546-548; etc.).在根上列王紀下21時06分,承認它,它是保存在兩個論文的塔木德( Yebamoth , 49b ; Sanhedr 。 , 103b ) ;聖賈斯汀( Dial.角Tryph 。 , cxx ) ,和許多父親通過它,同時為明確暗示伊薩亞這些話的希伯來。 ,十一, 37歲, “他們(古人)被切斷四分五裂” (見良“者耐心等待。 ”十四;特等,一, 1270年;原始內容的機會。 “的是。 ,坎。 ”我, 5 ,前列腺素,十三, 223 ; “在馬特。 ” ,第十,第18 ,前列腺素,十三, 882 ; “在馬特。 ”服務。 28 ,前列腺素,十三, 1637 ; “ Epist 。廣告7月非洲。 ”九,前列腺素,十一, 65歲;聖杰羅姆“的是。 ”第五十七, 1 ,特等, 24 , 546-548 ;等等) 。 However, little trust should be put in the strange details mentioned in the "De Vit. Prophet."然而,幾乎沒有信任,應放在奇怪的細節中所提到的“德維生素。先知。 ” of pseudo-Epiphanius (PG, XLIII, 397, 419).偽埃皮法尼烏斯(前列腺素,四十三, 397 , 419 ) 。 The date of the Prophet's demise is not known.日期先知的滅亡不知道。 The Roman Martyrology commemorates Isaias on 6 July.羅馬Martyrology紀念伊薩亞7月6日。 His tomb is believed to have been in Paneas in Northern Palestine, whence his relics were taken to Constantinople in AD 442.他的墓被認為是在Paneas在北巴勒斯坦,何處他的文物被運到君士坦丁堡公元442 。

The literary activity of Isaias is attested by the canonical book which bears his name; moreover allusion is made in II Par., xxvi, 22, to "Acts of Ozias first and last . . . written by Isaias, the son of Amos, the prophet".文學活動的伊薩亞證明了這是典型的書,他的名字命名;此外典故是在二桿。 , 26 , 22日,以“行為的Ozias第一個和最後一個。 。 。寫的伊薩亞的兒子阿莫斯的先知“ 。 Another passage of the same book informs us that "the rest of the acts of Ezechias and his mercies, are written in the Vision of Isaias, son of Amos, the prophet", in the Book of the Kings of Juda and Israel.另一種通過同一本書告訴我們, “其餘的行為埃澤希亞甚和他的憐憫,是書面視野中的伊薩亞兒子阿莫斯納曼,先知” ,在這本書中的國王猶大和以色列。 Such at least is the reading of the Massoretic Bible, but its text here, if we may judge from the variants of the Greek and St. Jerome, is somewhat corrupt.這種至少是讀Massoretic聖經,但它的文字在這裡,我們可以判斷,如果從不同的希臘和聖杰羅姆,有些腐敗。 Most commentators who believe the passage to be authentic think that the writer refers to Is., xxxvi-xxxix.大多數評論家認為,通過誰是真正的作家認為,指的是。 ,三十六,三十九。 We must finally mention the "Ascension of Isaias", at one time attributed to the Prophet, but never admitted into the Canon.我們必須最後提到“阿森松的伊薩亞” ,在同一時間歸咎於先知,但從未承認的佳能。

II.二。 THE BOOK OF ISAIAS之書ISAIAS

The canonical Book of Isaias is made up of two distinct collections of discourses, the one (chapters 1-35) called sometimes the "First Isaias"; the other (chapters 40-66) styled by many modern critics the "Deutero- (or Second) Isaias"; between these two comes a stretch of historical narrative; some authors, as Michaelis and Hengstenberg, holding with St. Jerome that the prophecies are placed in chronological order; others, like Vitringa and Jahn, in a logical order; others finally, like Gesenius, Delitzsch, Keil, think the actual order is partly logical and partly chronological.規範書伊薩亞是由兩個不同的集合的話語,一個( 1-35章)呼籲有時他說: “首先伊薩亞” ;其他(章40-66 )式的批評,許多現代的“ Deutero (或第二)伊薩亞“ ;這兩者之間是一段歷史敘事;一些作者認為,作為米氏和亨斯,持有與聖杰羅姆的預言被安置在順序;另外一些國家,比如Vitringa和雅恩,按邏輯順序;其他最後,像Gesenius ,德里, Keil公司,認為實際的秩序,是合乎邏輯的部分,部分時間。 No less disagreement prevails on the question of the collector.不分歧的問題上普遍存在的收藏家。 Those who believe that Isaias is the author of all the prophecies contained in the book generally fix upon the Prophet himself.那些誰認為伊薩亞的作者所有的預言這本書所載的一般修復後先知本人。 But for the critics who question the genuineness of some of the parts, the compilation is by a late and unknown collector.但是,批評誰的問題的真實性的一些部件,彙編是由已故的和未知的收藏家。 It would be well, however, before suggesting a solution to analyse cursorily the contents.這將是很好,但是,在提出解決辦法,以分析cursorily內容。

First Isaias第一伊薩亞

In the first collection (cc. i-xxxv) there seems to be a grouping of the discourses according to their subject-matter: (1) cc.在第一個集合( cc.的i - XXXV )號決議似乎有一種分組的話語根據其主題事項: ( 1 )循環。 i-xii, oracles dealing with Juda and Israel; (2) cc.第一至十二,神諭處理猶大和以色列; ( 2 )抄送。 xiii-xxiii, prophecies concerning (chiefly) foreign nations; (3) cc.十三,二十三,預言有關(主要)外國國家; ( 3 )抄送。 xxiv-xxvii, an apocalypse; (4) cc.二十四,二十七,一個啟示; ( 4 )循環。 xxviii-xxxiii, discourses on the relations of Juda to Assyria; (5) cc.二十八,三十三,話語關係的猶大,以亞述; ( 5 )消委會。 xxxiv-xxxv, future of Edom and Israel.三十四,三十五,未來以東和以色列。

First section第一部分

In the first group (i-xii) we may distinguish separate oracles.在第一組(一至十二)我們可以區分不同的神諭。 Ch.總。 i arraigns Jerusalem for her ingratitude and unfaithfulness; severe chastisements have proved unavailing; yet forgiveness can be secured by a true change of life.字母i arraigns耶路撒冷為她忘恩負義和不忠;嚴重chastisements證明徒勞的,但可免除擔保的真正改變生活。 The ravaging of Juda points to either the time of the Syro-Ephraimite coalition (735) or the Assyrian invasion (701).在肆虐的猶大分,無論是時間上的Syro - Ephraimite聯盟( 735 )或亞述人入侵( 701 ) 。 Ch.總。 ii threatens judgment upon pride and seems to be one of the earliest of the Prophet's utterances.二威脅判決後,自豪和似乎是最早的先知的話語。 It is followed (iii-iv) by a severe arraignment of the nation's rulers for their injustice and a lampoon against the women of Sion for their wanton luxury.其次是(三至四)受到嚴重傳訊國家的統治者對他們的不公正和諷刺對婦女的錫永的肆意奢侈。 The beautiful apologue of the vineyard serves as a preface to the announcement of the punishment due to the chief social disorders.美麗的葡萄園apologue充當序宣布處罰,由於行政的社會疾病。 These seem to point to the last days of Joatham, or the very beginning of the reign of Achaz (from 736-735 BC).這些似乎指向的最後幾天Joatham ,或一開始就統治Achaz (從736-735年) 。 The next chapter (vi), dated in the year of the death of Ozias (740), narrates the calling of the Prophet.下一章(六) ,日期為今年的死亡Ozias ( 740 ) ,敘述了要求先知。 With vii opens a series of utterances not inappropriately called "the Book of Emmanuel"; it is made up of prophecies bearing on the Syro-Ephraimite war, and ends in a glowing description (an independent oracle?) of what the country will be under a future sovereign (ix, 1-6).與七打開了一系列的言論沒有過分稱為“書艾曼紐” ;它是由預言影響Syro - Ephraimite戰爭,結束了光輝的說明(一個獨立的甲骨文? )是該國將根據未來的主權(九, 1月6日) 。 Ch.總。 ix, 7-x, 4, in five strophes announces that Israel is foredoomed to utter ruin; the allusion to rivalries between Ephraim and Manasses possibly has to do with the revolutions which followed the death of Jeroboam II; in this case the prophecy might date some time between 743-734.九, 7十, 4 , 5 strophes宣布,以色列是注定要徹底破產;的針對爭奪埃弗拉伊姆和Manasses可能有這樣的革命之後的死亡耶羅波安二世;在這種情況下,預言可能日期之間的某個時間743-734 。 Much later is the prophecy against Assur (x, 5-34), later than the capture of Arshad (740), Calano (738), or Charcamis (717).更晚的預言是對亞述(第十5-34 ) ,遲於捕獲艾爾沙德( 740 ) , Calano ( 738 ) ,或Charcamis ( 717 ) 。 The historical situation therein described suggests the time of Sennacherib's invasion (about 702 or 701 BC).歷史情況表明有描述時森納赫里布入侵(約702或701年) 。 Ch.總。 xi depicts the happy reign to be of the ideal king, and a hymn of thanksgiving and praise (xii) closes this first division.十一描繪高興統治是理想的國王,並讚美感恩和讚美(十二)完成第一部。

Second section第二部分

The first "burden" is aimed at Babylon (viii, 1-xiv, 23).第一個“包袱”的目的是巴比倫(八, 1 - 14 , 23 ) 。 The situation presupposed by the Prophet is that of the Exile; a fact that inclines some to date it shortly before 549, against others who hold it was written on the death of Sargon (705).先決條件的情況是,先知的流亡;一個事實,傾向於一些迄今前不久549 ,對他人持有這是誰寫的死亡薩爾貢( 705 ) 。 Ch.總。 xiv, 24-27, foretelling the overthrow of the Assyrian army on the mountains of Juda, and regarded by some as a misplaced part of the prophecy against Assur (x, 5-34), belongs no doubt to the period of Sennacherib's campaign.十四, 24日至27日,預示推翻亞述軍隊在山區的猶大,並認為一些人認為是錯的部分預言對亞述(第十5-34 ) ,屬於毫無疑問的時期森納赫里布的運動。 The next passage (xiv, 28-32) was occasioned by the death of some foe of the Philistines: the names of Achaz (728), Theglathphalasar III (727), and Sargon (705) have been suggested, the last appearing more probable.在今後一段(十四, 28-32 )的死亡所引起的一些敵人的非利士人:姓名Achaz ( 728 ) , Theglathphalasar三( 727 ) ,和薩爾貢( 705 )已經提出,在過去更有可能出現。 Chapters xv-xvi, "the burden of Moab", is regarded by many as referring to the reign of Jeroboam II, King of Israel (787-746); its date is conjectural.章第十五,十六, “莫阿布的負擔” ,是許多人認為,指的是統治耶羅波安二世國王以色列( 787-746 ) ;其日期是猜測。 The ensuing "burden of Damascus" (xvii, 1-11), directed against the Kingdom of Israel as well, should be assigned to about 735 BC Here follows a short utterance on Ethiopia (prob. 702 or 701).隨後的“負擔大馬士革” (十七, 1月11日) ,針對英國以及以色列應該被分配到大約735年在這裡如下簡短話語關於埃塞俄比亞( prob. 702或701 ) 。 Next comes the remarkable prophecy about Egypt (xix), the interest of which cannot but be enhanced by the recent discoveries at Elephantine (vv. 18, 19).其次是顯著的預言關於埃及( 19 ) ,其中的利益不能得到加強,但最近發現的大象( vv. 18日, 19日) 。 The date presents a difficulty, the time ranging, according to diverse opinions, from 720 to 672 BC.日期提出了困難,但時間不等,根據不同意見,從公元前720至672 。 The oracle following (xx), against Egypt and Ethiopia, is ascribed to the year in which Ashdod was besieged by the Assyrians (711).甲骨文以下( 20 ) ,對埃及和埃塞俄比亞,原因是在這一年中被圍困的阿什杜德亞述人( 711 ) 。 Just what capture of Babylon is alluded to in "the burden of the desert of the sea" (xxi, 1-10) is not easy to determine, for during the lifetime of Isaias Babylon was thrice besieged and taken (710, 703, 696 BC).究竟什麼是捕捉巴比倫中提到“的負擔,沙漠海洋” ( 21 , 1月10日)是不容易的決定,對在生伊薩亞巴比倫是三次圍攻和採取的( 710 , 703 , 696公元前) 。 Independent critics seem inclined to see here a description of the taking of Babylon in 528 BC, the same description being the work of an author living towards the close of the Babylonian Captivity.獨立批評者似乎傾向於在這裡看到的描述採取巴比倫在公元前528 ,同一種類的工作正在作者對生活的密切的巴比倫圈養。 The two short prophecies, one on Edom (Duma; xxi, 11-12) and one on Arabia (xxi, 13-17), give no clue as to when they were uttered.這兩個短期的預言,一個以東(杜馬;二十一, 11月12日)和一個國家( 21 , 13日至17日) ,也沒有線索時,他們的話。 Ch.總。 xxii, 1-14, is a rebuke addressed to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.二十二, 1月14日,是一個訓斥給耶路撒冷居民。 In the rest of the chapter Sobna (Shebna) is the object of the Prophet's reproaches and threats (about 701 BC). The section closes with the announcement of the ruin and the restoration of Tyre (xxiii).在其餘的章節Sobna ( Shebna )的對象是先知的指責和威脅(約公元前701 ) 。本節結束時宣布了廢墟和恢復提爾(二十三) 。

Third section第三部分

The third section of the first collection includes chapters xxiv-xxviii, sometimes called "the Apocalypse of Isaias".第三部分第一章收集包括二十四,二十八,有時被稱為“啟示伊薩亞” 。 In the first part (xxiv-xxvi, 29) the Prophet announces for an undetermined future the judgment which shall precede the kingdom of God (xxiv); then in symbolic terms he describes the happiness of the good and the punishment of the wicked (xxv).在第一部分( 24 - 26 , 29 )先知宣布未來的不確定的判決應先神的國( 24 ) ;然後在象徵性的條款,他介紹了幸福的良好和懲罰惡人( 25 ) 。 This is followed by the hymn of the elect (xxvi, 1-19).這是遵循的讚美詩的選舉( 26 , 1月19日) 。 In the second part (xxvi, 20-xxvii) the Prophet depicts the judgment hanging over Israel and its neighbours.在第二部分( 26 , 20 - XXVII )號決議描繪先知的判決懸在以色列和其鄰國。 The date is most unsettled among modern critics, certain pasages being attributed to 107 BC, others even to a date lower than 79 BC.日期間的最不穩定的現代批評,某些pasages被歸因於107年,甚至對他人的日期低於79年。 Let it be remarked, however, that both the ideas and the language of these four chapters support the tradition attributing this apocalypse to Isaias.讓我們說,但是,雙方的想法和語言的支持這四個章節的傳統歸於這一啟示伊薩亞。 The fourth division opens with a pronouncement of woe against Ephraim (and perhaps Juda; xxviii, 1-8), written prior to 722 BC; the historical situation implied in xxviii, 9-29, is a strong indication that this passage was written about 702 BC To the same date belong xxix-xxxii, prophecies concerned with the campaign of Sennacherib.第四司打開一個宣布對埃弗拉伊姆休戚與共(也許猶大;二十八, 1月8日) ,書面之前722年的歷史情況中暗示二十八, 9月29日,是一個強有力的跡象表明,這一段是寫702年到同一日期屬於二十九,三十二,預言關注的運動森納赫里布。 This series fittingly concludes with a triumphant hymn (xxxiii), the Prophet rejoicing in the deliverance of Jerusalem (701).這一系列恰當最後勝利的讚美詩(三十三) ,先知喜悅中解脫耶路撒冷( 701 ) 。 Chapters xxxi-xxxv, the last division, announce the devastation of Edom, and the enjoyment of bountiful blessings by ransomed Israel.章三十一,三十五,最後司宣布的破壞以東,和享受豐富的祝福的贖以色列。 These two chapters are thought by several modern critics to have been written during the captivity in the sixth century.這兩個章節被認為一些現代的批評已經寫在囚禁在第六世紀。 The foregoing analysis does not enable us to assert indubitably that this first collection as such is the work of Isaias; yet as the genuineness of almost all these prophecies cannot be seriously questioned, the collection as a whole might still possibly be attributed to the last years of the Prophet's life or shortly afterwards.上述分析並沒有使我們能夠斷言無疑,這首先是因為這種收集工作的伊薩亞;然而,正如真實性幾乎所有這些預言不能被嚴重質疑,收集作為一個整體可能仍然可能是由於過去幾年裡先知的生命或不久之後。 If there really be passages reflecting a later epoch, they found their way into the book in the course of time on account of some analogy to the genuine writings of Isaias.如果真有被段落反映時代以後,他們發現自己的方式進入書過程中,時間到一些比喻的真正著作伊薩亞斯。 Little need be said of xxxvii-xxxix.沒有必要說的三十七,三十九。 The first two chapters narrate the demand made by Sennacherib–the surrender of Jerusalem, and the fulfillment of Isaias's predictions of its deliverance; xxxviii tells of Ezechias's illness, cure, and song of thanksgiving; lastly xxxix tells of the embassy sent by Merodach Baladan and the Prophet's reproof of Ezechias.頭兩章講述的需求所作的森納赫里布-交出耶路撒冷,實現伊薩亞預測其解脫;三十八講述了埃澤希亞甚的病情,治療,宋感恩;最後三十九告訴大使館發出的米羅達巴拉但和先知的責備的埃澤希亞甚。

Second Isaias第二伊薩亞

The second collection (xl-lvi) deals throughout with Israel's restoration from the Babylonian exile.第二收集(儀- LVI )號決定涉及整個以色列的恢復從巴比倫放逐。 The main lines of the division as proposed by the Jesuit Condamine are as follows: a first section is concerned with the mission and work of Cyrus; it is made up of five pieces: (a) xl-xli: calling of Cyrus to be Yahweh's instrument in the restoration of Israel; (b) xlii, 8-xliv, 5: Israel's deliverance from exile; (c) xliv, 6-xlvi, 12: Cyrus shall free Israel and allow Jerusalem to be built; (d) xlvii: ruin of Babylon; (e) xlviii: past dealings of God with his people are an earnest for the future.的主要方針司提出的耶穌康達明如下:第一部分是有關的任務和工作的賽勒斯;它是由五件: (一)儀-四十一:致電居魯士是耶和華的文書恢復以色列; (二)四十二, 8四十四, 5 :以色列解脫從流亡; (三)第四十四6四十六, 12 :賽勒斯應允許自由以色列和耶路撒冷興建; (四)四十七:毀滅巴比倫; (五)四十八:過去交往的上帝與他的人民是真誠的未來。 Next to be taken up is another group of utterances, styled by German scholars "Ebed-Jahweh-Lieder"; it is made up of xlix-lv (to which xlii, 1-7, should be joined) together with lx-lxii.下一步將要採取行動是另一組的話語,由德國學者稱為“ Ebed - Jahweh -歌” ;它是由xlix ,呂(其中四十二, 1月7日,應加入)連同迅LX - lxii 。 In this section we hear of the calling of Yahweh's servant (xlix, 1-li, 16); then of Israel's glorious home-coming (li, 17-lii, 12); afterwards is described the servant of Yahweh ransoming his people by his sufferings and death (xlii, 1-7; lii, 13-15; liii, 1-12); then follows a glowing vision of the new Jerusalem (liv, 1-lv, 13, and lx, 1-lxii, 12).在本節中,我們聽到呼叫的耶和華的僕人( xlix , 1麗, 16 ) ;然後以色列的光榮回歸故里(李, 17崇禮, 12 ) ;後所描述的公僕耶和華ransoming他的人,他痛苦和死亡(四十二, 1月7日;崇禮, 13-15 ; liii , 1月12日) ;然後如下熱烈遠景新耶路撒冷(麗芙, 1 - LV的, 13日,和光照, 1 - lxii , 12 ) 。 Ch.總。 lvi, 1-8, develops this idea, that all the upright of heart, no matter what their former legal status, will be admitted to Yahweh's new people.左室, 1月8日,開發這一想法,所有正直的心,不管他們以前的法律地位,將被接納為耶和華的新朋友。 In lvi, 9-lvii, the Prophet inveighs against the idolatry and immorality so rife among the Jews; the sham piety with which their fasts were observed (lvii).在左室9第五十七,先知inveighs反對偶像崇拜和不道德之間如此盛行的猶太人;深水虔誠齋戒與他們觀察( LVII )號決議。 In lix the Prophet represents the people confessing their chief sins; this humble acknowledgment of their guilt prompts Yahweh to stoop to those who have "turned from rebellion".在柳先知代表人民承認他們的主要罪過;這一謙卑承認自己有罪提示耶和華要互相擔當,那些誰擁有“ ,從叛亂” 。 A dramatic description of God's vengeance (lxiii, 1-7) is followed by a prayer for mercy (lxiii, 7-lxiv, 11), and the book closes upon the picture of the punishment of the wicked and the happines of the good.急劇描述上帝的復仇( lxiii , 1月7日)之後的是祈禱的憐憫( lxiii , 7 lxiv , 11人) ,並關閉這本書的圖片的懲罰惡人和happines良好。 Many perplexing questions are raised by the exegesis of the "Second Isaias".許多令人費解的問題提出了註釋的“第二次伊薩亞” 。 The "Ebed-Jahweh-Lieder", in particular, suggest many difficulties.該“ Ebed - Jahweh -歌” ,特別是提出了許多困難。 Who is this "servant of Yahweh"?這是誰“耶和華的僕人” ? Does the title apply to the same person throughout the ten chapters?標題是否適用於同一人在整個10章? Had the writer in view some historical personage of past ages, or one belonging to his own time, or the Messias to come, or even some ideal person?有作家,鑑於一些歷史人物的過去時代,或一個屬於自己的時間,或弭賽亞來,甚至一些理想的人? Most commentators see in the "servant of Yahweh" an individual.大多數評論家認為的“耶和華的僕人”的個人。 But is that individual one of the great historical figures of Israel?但問題是個別的一個偉大的歷史人物的以色列? No satisfactory answer has been given.沒有滿意的答案給予了。 The names of Moses, David, Ozias, Ezechias, Isaias, Jeremias, Josias, Zorobabel, Jechonias, and Eleazar have all been suggested as being the person.姓名摩西,大衛, Ozias ,埃澤希亞甚伊薩亞,赫雷米亞斯, Josias , Zorobabel , Jechonias ,並埃萊亞薩都被建議作為的人。 Catholic exegesis has always pointed out the fact that all the features of the "servant of Yahweh" found their complete realization in the person of Our Lord Jesus Christ.天主教訓詁學一向指出的是,所有的特點, “耶和華的僕人”發現他們完全實現了人在我們的主耶穌基督。 He therefore should be regarded as the one individual described by the Prophet.因此,他應被視為一個個人所描述的先知。 The "Second Isaias" gives rise to other more critical and less important problems. “第二伊薩亞”引起了其他更為重要和不太重要的問題。 With the exception of one or two passages, the point of view throughout this section is that of the Babylonian Captivity; there is an unmistakable difference between the style of these twenty-seven chapters and that of the "First Isaias"; moreover, the theological ideas of xl-lxvi show a decided advance on those found in the first thirty-nine chapters.除了一個或兩個通道,的角度來看,整個這一節是巴比倫圈養;有一個明確的風格之間的差異,這些27章和“第一批伊薩亞” ;此外,神學思想的XL - lxvi顯示決定提前對這些發現在第一個39章。 If this be true, does it not follow that xl-lxvi are not by the same author as the prophecies of the first collection, and may there not be good grounds for attributing the authorship of these chapters to a "second Isaias" living towards the close of the Babylonian Captivity?如果這是真的,它不遵循這一儀- lxvi不能由同一作者的預言第一次收集,並可能有正當理由不能歸於作者這些章節,以“第二伊薩亞”走向生活密切的巴比倫圈養? Such is the contention of most of the modern non-Catholic scholars.這種論點是最現代非天主教學者。

This is hardly the place for a discussion of so intricate a question.這是很難的地方進行討論,使複雜的一個問題。 We therefore limit ourselves to stating the position of Catholic scholarship on this point.因此,我們局限於說明的立場,天主教獎學金這一點。 This is clearly set out in the decision issued by the Pontifical Biblical Commission, 28 June, 1908.這是明確規定了在該決定發布的宗座聖經委員會, 1908年6月28日。 (1) Admitting the existence of true prophecy; (2) There is no reason why "Isaias and the other Prophets should utter prophecies concerning only those things which were about to take place immediately or after a short space of time" and not "things that should be fulfilled after many ages". ( 1 )承認存在著真正的預言; ( 2 )沒有理由“伊薩亞和其他先知的預言就應該徹底只有那些事情即將發生後立即或短的時間” ,而不是“東西應後履行許多年齡“ 。 (3) Nor does anything postulate that the Prophets should "always address as their hearers, not those who belonged to the future, but only those who were present and contemporary, so that they could be understood by them". ( 3 )也沒有任何假定先知應當“始終地址作為他們的聽眾,而不是那些屬於誰的未來,但只有那些誰出席和當代,使他們可以理解他們。 ” Therefore it cannot be asserted that "the second part of the Book of Isaias (xl-lxvi), in which the Prophet addresses as one living amongst them, not the Jews who were the contemporaries of Isaias, but the Jews mourning in the Exile of Babylon, cannot have for its author Isaias himself, who was dead long before, but must be attributed to some unknown Prophet living among the exiles".因此,不能斷言, “第二部分的書伊薩亞(儀- lxvi ) ,其中先知的地址作為一個生活其中,而不是猶太人誰是同時代的伊薩亞,但猶太人悼念在流亡巴比倫,不能有其作者伊薩亞自己,誰死了很久以前,但必須是由於一些未知的先知的流亡生活。 “ In other words, although the author of Isaias xl-lxvi does speak from the point of view of the Babylonian Captivity, yet this is no proof that he must have lived and written in those times.換句話說,雖然作者的伊薩亞儀- lxvi不說話的角度圈養的巴比倫,但是這是沒有證據,他必須有書面的生活和那些次。 (4) "The philological argument from language and style against the identity of the author of the Book of Isaias is not to be considered weighty enough to compel a man of judgment, familiar with Hebrew and criticism, to acknowledge in the same book a plurality of authors". ( 4 ) “的爭論從語言學的語言和風格的身份,對本書的作者的伊薩亞是不被視為重大的,足以迫使一個人的判斷,熟悉希伯萊語和批評,承認在同一本書的多元化作者“ 。 Differences of language and style between the parts of the book are neither denied nor underrated; it is asserted only that such as they appear, they do not compel one to admit the plurality of authors.不同的語言和風格之間的部分圖書既不否認也不低估,它是唯一的,這種斷言,因為它們顯示,他們不承認迫使一個多元化的作者。 (5) "There are no solid arguments to the fore, even taken cumulatively, to prove that the book of Isaias is to be attributed not to Isaias himself alone, but to two or rather to many authors". ( 5 ) “沒有堅實的論點突出,甚至採取累計,證明這本書的伊薩亞斯是應歸於不伊薩亞本人,而是兩個或兩個而是許多作者” 。

III.三。 APPRECIATION OF THE WORK OF ISAIAS感謝工作ISAIAS

It may not be useless shortly to set forth the prominent features of the great Prophet, doubtless one of the most striking personalities in Hebrew history. Without holding any official position, it fell to the lot of Isaias to take an active part during well nigh forty troublesome years in controlling the policy of his country.它可能不是無用的規定不久的突出特點是偉大的先知,無疑是最引人注目的人物在希伯來歷史。沒有舉行任何官方立場,下跌到很多伊薩亞積極參與幾乎在第四十四麻煩來控制的政策,他的國家。 His advice and rebukes were sometimes unheeded, but experience finally taught the rulers of Juda that to part from the Prophet's views meant always a set-back for the political situation of Juda.他的意見和指責,有時置若罔聞,但最後教經驗的統治者猶大,為部分從先知的意見意味著永遠是挫折的政治局勢的猶大。 In order to understand the trend of his policy it is necessary to remember by what principle it was animated.為了理解的趨勢,他的政策是要記住的是什麼原則動畫。 This principle he derived from his unshaken faith in God governing the world, and particularly His own people and the nations coming in contact with the latter.這一原則,他來自他對上帝的信仰動搖執政世界,特別是他自己的人民和國家的未來在與後者。 The people of Juda, forgetful of their God, given to idolatrous practices and social disorders of many kinds, had paid little heed to former warnings.人民的猶大,健忘的上帝,給盲目崇拜的習俗和社會的多種疾病,已支付不在乎前的警告。 One thing only alarmed them, namely that hostile nations were threatening Juda on all sides; but were they not the chosen people of God? Certainly He would not allow His own nation to be destroyed, even as others had been.單打一他們感到震驚,即敵對國家的威脅猶大各方;但他們沒有選擇的人的上帝?當然,他不會允許他自己的國家被摧毀,即使其他人。 In the meantime prudence dictated that the best possible means be taken to save themselves from present dangers.在此期間慎重決定,最好的可能的手段採取自救,從目前的危險。 Syria and Israel were plotting against Juda and her king; Juda and her king would appeal to the mighty nation of the North, and later to the King of Egypt.敘利亞和以色列陰謀反對猶大和她的國王;猶大和她的國王呼籲強大的北方民族,後來國王的埃及。

Isaias would not hear aught of this short-sighted policy, grounded only on human prudence, or a false religious confidence, and refusing to look beyond the moment.伊薩亞不會聽到奧特這一短視的政策,不僅對人類停飛謹慎,或虛假宗教信心,並拒絕超越時刻。 Juda was in terrible straits; God alone could save her; but the first condition laid down for the manifestation of His power was moral and social reformation.猶大是在可怕的海峽;只有上帝可以救她,但第一個條件的規定體現了他的權力是道德和社會改革。 Syrians, Ephraimites, Assyrians, and all the rest were but the instruments of the judgment of God, the purpose of which is the overthrow of sinners.敘利亞人, Ephraimites ,亞述人,和所有其餘的人,但這些文書的判決的上帝,其目的是推翻罪人。 Certainly Yahweh will not allow His people to be utterly destroyed; His covenant He will keep; but it is vain to hope that well-deserved chastisement may be escaped.當然耶和華不允許他的人是完全摧毀了他的盟約,他將繼續,但它是徒勞地希望,受之無愧的懲罰可能會逃脫。 From this view of the designs of God never did the faith of Isaias waver.從這一觀點的設計上帝從來沒有的信仰伊薩亞動搖。 He first proclaimed this message at the beginning of the reign of Achaz.他首先宣布這一消息的開頭時期Achaz 。 The king and his counsellors saw no salvation for Juda except in an alliance with, that is an acknowledgment of vassalage to, Assyria.國王和他的顧問認為沒有拯救猶大除了結盟,這是一個承認vassalage到,亞述。 This the Prophet opposed with all his might.這先知反對他的所有可能。 With his keen foresight he had clearly perceived that the real danger to Juda was not from Ephraim and Syria, and that the intervention of Assyria in the affairs of Palestine involved a complete overthrow of the balance of power along the Mediterranean coast.與他的敏銳的遠見,他清楚的認識,真正的危險不是來自猶大埃弗拉伊姆和敘利亞,並進行干預,亞述的事務,一個完整的巴勒斯坦參與推翻的權力平衡沿地中海沿岸。 Moreover, the Prophet entertained no doubt but that sooner or later a conflict between the rival empires of the Euphrates and the Nile must arise, and then their hosts would swarm over the land of Juda.此外,先知娛樂毫無疑問,遲早之間的衝突競爭對手帝國的幼發拉底河和尼羅河必須出現,然後將其主機群的土地的猶大。 To him it was clear that the course proposed by Juda's self-conceited politicians was like the mad flight of "silly doves", throwing themselves headlong into the net.他很清楚,建議的過程猶大的自我自負政治家就像瘋了飛行的“愚蠢的鴿派” ,扔自己陷入淨。 Isaias's advice was not followed and one by one the consequences he had foretold were realized.伊薩亞的意見之後,並沒有一個接一個的後果,他預言實現了。 However, he continued to proclaim his prophetical views of the current events.然而,他繼續宣布他的預言意見時事。 Every new event of importance is by him turned into a lesson not only to Juda but to all the neighbouring nations.每一個新的事件的重要性是由他變成了一個教訓,不僅要猶大,而是所有國家的鄰國。 Damascus has fallen; so will the drunkards and revellers of Samaria see the ruin of their city.大馬士革下降;也將醉鬼和狂歡的撒馬利亞看到廢墟的城市。 Tyre boasts of her wealth and impregnable position; her doom is no less decreed, and her fall will all the more astound the world.輪胎擁有她的財富和堅不可摧的立場;她的厄運也同樣命令,和她的秋天將更加震驚世界。 Assyria herself, fattened with the spoils of all nations, Assyria "the rod of God's vengeance", when she will have accomplished her providential destiny, shall meet with her fate.亞述自己,養肥的戰利品所有國家,亞述“桿上帝的報復” ,當她將已經完成了她的天賜的命運,應與她會面的命運。 God has thus decreed the doom of all nations for the accomplishment of His purposes and the establishment of a new Israel cleansed from all past defilements.上帝因此下令末日的所有國家為完成其宗旨和設立一個新的潔淨以色列從所有過去污穢。

Judean politicians towards the end of the reign of Ezechias had planned an alliance with the King of Egypt against Assyria and carefully concealed their purpose from the Prophet.朱迪亞政治家在接近年底時在位埃澤希亞甚計劃聯盟與埃及國王對亞述和認真隱瞞其目的從先知。 When the latter came to know the preparations for rebellion, it was already too late to undo what had been done.當後者來了解籌備工作的叛亂,但為時已晚撤消已經完成的工作。 But he could at least give vent to his anger (see Isaiah 30), and we know both from the Bible and Sennacherib's own account of the campaign of 701 how the Assyrian army routed the Egyptians at Altaku (Elteqeh of Joshua 19:44), captured Accaron, and sent a detachment to ravage Juda; Jerusalem, closely invested, was saved only by the payment of an enormous ransom.但他至少可以發洩他的憤怒(見以賽亞書30 ) ,我們知道從聖經和森納赫里布自己帳戶的運動701亞述軍隊如何路由埃及人在Altaku ( Elteqeh約書亞19:44 ) ,抓獲Accaron ,並派出一個支隊肆虐猶大;耶路撒冷,密切合作,投資,不僅是保存了一個巨大的支付贖金。 The vindication of Isaias's policy, however, was not yet complete.伊薩亞的維護的政策,但是,尚未完成。 The Assyrian army withdrew; but Sennacherib, apparently thinking it unsafe to leave in his wake a fortified city like Jerusalem, demanded the immediate surrender of Ezechias's capital.亞述軍隊撤回;但森納赫里布,顯然覺得不安全,他離開之後設防的城市像耶路撒冷,要求立即交出埃澤希亞甚的資本。 At the command of Ezechias, no answer was given to the message; but the king humbly bade Isaias to intercede for the city.在命令的埃澤希亞甚,沒有答案是考慮到信息;但國王虛心八德伊薩亞介入的城市。 The Prophet had for the king a reassuring message.先知已為國王一個令人安心的消息。 But the respite in the Judean capital was short.但是,喘息在朱迪亞是短期資本。 Soon a new Assyrian embassy arrived with a letter from the king containing an ultimatum.很快一個新的亞述人來到大使館的一封信,國王包含了最後通牒。 In the panic-stricken city there was a man of whom Sennacherib had taken no account; it was by him that the answer was to be given to the ultimatum of the proud Assyrians: "The virgin, the daughter of Sion hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn; . . . He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow into it. . . . By the way that he came, he shall return, and into this city he shall not come, saith the Lord" (xxxvii, 22, 33).在驚惶失措的城市有一個男子,其中森納赫里布沒有採取任何帳戶,這是由他的回答是,考慮到最後通牒亞述人的自豪: “處女的女兒錫安上帝鄙視你笑你蔑視; 。 。 。他不得進入這個城市,也沒有射箭進去。 。 。 。順便說一下,他來了,他應返回,到這個城市,他將不來, saith上帝“ (三十七,第22 , 33 ) 。 We know in reality how a sudden catastrophe overtook the Assyrian army and God's promise was fulfilled.我們知道在現實中如何超越災難突然亞述軍隊和上帝的承諾,兌現。 This crowning vindication of the Divinely inspired policy of Isaias prepared the hearts of the Jews for the religious reformation brought about by Ezechias, no doubt along lines laid down by the Prophet.這至高無上的辯護神聖的政策伊薩亞準備心中的猶太人的宗教改革所帶來的埃澤希亞甚,毫無疑問,沿線所規定的先知。

In reviewing the political side of Isaias's public life, we have already seen something of his religious and social ideas; all these view-points were indeed most intimately connected in his teaching.在審查政治方面的伊薩亞的公共生活中,我們已經看到了他的宗教和社會觀念;所有這些鑑於點確實最密切相關的教學。 It may be well now to dwell a little more fully on this part of the Prophet's message.這可能是現在談論以及一些更充分的這一部分先知的訊息。 Isaias's description of the religious condition of Juda in the latter part of the eighth century is anything but flattering.伊薩亞的描述宗教狀況的猶大在後者的一部分,八世紀的事情,但抬舉我了。 Jerusalem is compared to Sodom and Gomorrah; apparently the bulk of the people were superstitious rather than religious.耶路撒冷是比較多瑪和蛾摩拉;顯然大部分人迷信,而不是宗教。 Sacrifices were offered out of routine; withcraft and divination were in honour; nay more, foreign deities were openly invoked side by side with the true God, and in secret the immoral worship of some of these idols was widely indulged in, the higher-class and the Court itself giving in this regard an abominable example.犧牲,提供了常規; withcraft和占卜是榮幸;奈多,外國神公開援引並排的真神,並且在秘密的不道德崇拜這些偶像普遍沉迷於越高級和法院本身在這方面給予的令人憎惡的例子。 Throughout the kingdom there was corruption of higher officials, ever-increasing luxury among the wealthy, wanton haughtiness of women, ostentation among the middle-class people, shameful partiality of the judges, unscrupulous greed of the owners of large estates, and oppression of the poor and lowly.整個王國有腐敗的高級官員,越來越多的豪華的富裕,肆意傲氣婦女,排場的中產階層的人,可恥的偏袒的法官,不擇手段的貪婪的業主大莊園,和壓迫的貧窮和卑賤。 The Assyrian suzerainty did not change anything in this woeful state of affairs.亞述宗主國沒有任何改變這一悲慘的狀況。 In the eyes of Isaias this order of things was intolerable; and he never tired repeating it could not last. The first condition of social reformation was the downfall of the unjust and corrupt rulers; the Assyrians were the means appointed by God to level their pride and tyranny with the dust.眼中的伊薩亞這項命令是不能容忍的事情,他從來沒有厭倦重複它可能不會持續太久。第一個條件的社會改革是垮台的不公正和腐敗的統治者;亞述人是指由上帝級別他們的驕傲和暴政的灰塵。 With their mistaken ideas about God, the nation imagined He did not concern Himself about the dispositions of His worshippers. But God loathes sacrifices offered by ". . . hands full of blood. Wash yourselves, be clean, . . . relieve the oppressed, judge for the fatherless, defend the widow. . . . But if you will not, . . . the sword shall devour you" (i, 15-20).他們的錯誤想法,上帝,國家想像他不擔心自己對他的信徒處分。但是上帝憎恨所提供的犧牲“ 。 。 。手中充分的血液。洗滌自己,保持清潔, 。 。 。解除壓迫,法官的父親,捍衛遺孀。 。 。 。但是,如果你不會, 。 。 。劍應吃掉你“ (一, 15-20 ) 。 God here appears as the avenger of disregarded human justice as much as of His Divine rights.這裡似乎是上帝的復仇者無視人類正義的多的他的神聖權利。 He cannot and will not let injustice, crime, and idolatry go unpunished.他不能也不會讓不公正,犯罪和崇拜逍遙法外。 The destruction of sinners will inaugurate an era of regeneration, and a little circle of men faithful to God will be the first-fruits of a new Israel free from past defilements and ruled by a scion of David's House.銷毀罪人將開創一個時代的復興,和一個小圓圈的男子忠於上帝將首次水果一個新的以色列擺脫過去污穢,並裁定由接穗大衛的家。 With the reign of Ezechias began a period of religious revival. Just how far the reform extended we are not able to state; local sanctuaries around which heathenish abuses had gathered were suppressed, and many `asherîm and masseboth were destroyed.隨著時代埃澤希亞甚開始一個時期的宗教復興。這麼遠的改革擴大我們無法狀態;當地避難所周圍的異教行為聚集遭到壓制,許多` asherîm和masseboth被摧毀。 It is true the times were not ripe for a radical change, and there was little response to the appeal of the Prophet for moral amendment and redress of social abuses.這是真正的時代並沒有成熟,從根本上改變,並沒有什麼反應的呼籲先知的道德修正案和補救的社會弊端。

The Fathers of the Church, echoing the eulogy of Jesus, son of Sirach (Ecclesiasticus 48:25-28), agree that Isaias was the greatest of the literary Prophets (Eusebius, "Præp. Evang.", v, 4, PG, XXII, 370; "Synops. Script. S.", among the works of St. Athan., PG, XXXVIII, 363; St. Cyril of Jerusalem, "In Is., Prooem.", PG, LXX, 14; St. Isidore of Pelus., "Epist.", i, 42, PG, LXXVIII, 208; Theodoret., "In Is. Argum.", PG, LXXXI, 216; St. Jerome, "Prol. in Is.", PL, XXIV, 18; "Præf. ad Paul. et Eustoch.", PL, XXXII, 769; "De civ. Dei", XVIII, xxix, 1, PL, XLI, 585, etc.).對教會的教父們,呼應悼詞耶穌的兒子Sirach ( Ecclesiasticus 48:25-28 ) ,同意伊薩亞是最偉大的文學先知(優西比烏, “ Præp 。 Evang 。 ”五,四,前列腺素,二十二, 370 ; “ Synops 。腳本。南” ,在工程街Athan 。素,三十八, 363 ;聖西里爾耶路撒冷“的是。 , Prooem 。 ”素, LXX , 14 ;聖。伊西多爾的Pelus 。 “ Epist 。 ”我今年42歲,前列腺素, LXXVIII , 208 ; Theodoret 。 “的是。 Argum 。 ”素, LXXXI , 216 ;聖杰羅姆, “ Prol 。的是。 ”特等, 24 , 18 ; “ Præf 。廣告保羅。等Eustoch 。 ”特等,三十二, 769 ; “者持續輸注。上帝” ,十八,二十九, 1 ,特等,四十一, 585等) 。 Isaias's poetical genius was in every respect worthy of his lofty position as a Prophet.伊薩亞的詩歌天才是在各方面都值得他的崇高地位,先知。 He is unsurpassed in poetry, descriptive, lyric, or elegiac.他是無與倫比的詩歌中,描寫,抒情,或輓歌。 There is in his compositions an uncommon elevation and majesty of conception, and an unparalleled wealth of imagery, never departing, however, from the utmost propriety, elegance, and dignity.人們在他的一種不常見的成分升高,國王陛下的概念,以及無與倫比的豐富的影像,從來沒有離開,然而,從最得體,優雅,和尊嚴。 He possessed an extraordinary power of adapting his language both to occasions and audiences; sometimes he displays most exquisite tenderness, and at other times austere severity; he successively assumes a mother's pleading and irresistible tone, and the stern manner of an implacable judge, now making use of delicate irony to bring home to his hearers what he would have them understand, and then pitilessly shattering their fondest illusions or wielding threats which strike like mighty thunderbolts.他擁有非凡的力量使他的語言都場合和對象;有時,他會顯示最敏感的柔情,並在其他時間緊縮程度,他先後承擔母親的懇求和不可抗拒的基調,船尾方式的無情法官,現在正利用微妙的諷刺帶回家,他聽什麼,他會理解他們,然後pitilessly粉碎他們的fondest幻想或揮舞威脅罷工一樣強大的雷電。 His rebukes are neither impetuous like those of Osee nor blustering like those of Amos; he never allows the conviction of his mind or the warmth of his heart to overdraw any feature or to overstep the limits assigned by the most exquisite taste.他指責既不浮躁像Osee也不blustering像阿莫斯納曼;他從來沒有讓他的信念或銘記的溫暖他的心透支任何功能或超越指定的範圍最精緻的口味。 Exquisite taste indeed is one of the leading features of the Prophet's style.精緻的味道確實是一個領先的功能,先知的風格。 This style is rapid, energetic, full of life and colour, and withal always chaste and dignified.這種風格迅速,充滿活力,充滿生機和顏色,並withal總是純潔和尊嚴。 It moreover manifests a wonderful command of language.它而且體現了美妙的指揮語言。 It has been justly said that no Prophet ever had the same command of noble throughts; it may be as justly added that never perhaps did any man utter lofty thoughts in more beautiful language.據他說,沒有公正先知過同樣的命令的崇高throughts ;這可能是因為從來沒有公正地說,也許沒有任何人說出崇高的思想更加美好的語言。 St. Jerome rejected the idea that Isaias's prophecies were true poetry in the full sense of the word (Præf. in Is., PL, XXVIII, 772).聖杰羅姆拒絕的想法伊薩亞的預言是正確的詩歌充分的含義來看( Præf.的是。 ,特等,二十八,第772號) 。 Nevertheless the authority of the illustrious Robert Lowth, in his "Lectures on the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews" (1753), esteemed "the whole book of Isaiah to be poetical, a few passages excepted, which if brought together, would not at most exceed the bulk of five or six chapters".然而,權威的傑出羅伯特Lowth ,在他的“講座的神聖詩歌的希伯來人” ( 1753 ) ,尊敬的“整本書的以賽亞的詩意,有幾個段落例外,如果聚集在一起,不會在最超過大部分五個或六個章節。 “ This opinion of Lowth, at first scarcely noticed, became more and more general in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and is now common among Biblical scholars.這個意見Lowth ,幾乎在第一次發現,變得越來越普遍在後者的一部分, 19世紀,現在常見的聖經學者。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息作者查爾斯L Souvay 。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

In addition to general and special commentaries consult: CHEYNE, Book of Isaiah chronologically arranged (London, 1870); IDEM, Prophecies of Isaiah (London, 1880); IDEM, Introd.除了一般和特殊評諮詢:陳,以賽亞書順序排列(倫敦, 1870年) ;同上,預言以賽亞(倫敦, 1880年) ;同上, Introd 。 to the Book of Isaiah (London, 1895); DRIVER, Isaiah: his life and times and the writings which bear his name (London, 1888); LOWTH, Isaiah, translation, dissert.到以賽亞書(倫敦, 1895年) ;司機,以賽亞書:他的生活和時代的著作承擔自己的名字(倫敦, 1888年) ; LOWTH ,以賽亞書,翻譯,寫論文。 and notes (London, 1778); SKINNER, Isaiah (Cambridge, 1896); GA SMITH, Book of Isaiah (Expositor's Bible, 1888-1890); WR SMITH, The Prophets of Israel and their place in history (London, 1882); KNABENBAUER, Comment.並注意到, (倫敦, 1778年) ;斯金納以賽亞(劍橋, 1896年) ;大會史密斯,以賽亞書( Expositor的聖經, 1888年至1890年) ;水利史密斯預言以色列和其在歷史上的地位(倫敦, 1882年) ; KNABENBAUER ,評論。 in Isaiam prophetam (Paris, 1887); CONDAMINE, Livre d'Isaie, trad.在Isaiam prophetam (巴黎, 1887年) ;康達明,書德Isaie ,傳統。 critique avec notes et comment.批判秒債券等評論。 (Paris, 1905; a volume of introduction to the same is forthcoming); LE HIR, Les trois grandes prophètes, Isaïe, Jérémie, Ezéchiel (Paris, 1877); IDEM, Etudes Bibliques (Paris, 1878); DELITZSCH, Commentar über das Buch Jesaja; tr. (巴黎, 1905年;批量引進同樣的是即將出版) ;樂HIR ,萊特魯瓦大prophètes , Isaïe ,熱雷米, Ezéchiel (巴黎, 1877年) ;同上,練習曲Bibliques (巴黎, 1878年) ;德里, Commentar黚er存在布赫Jesaja ;文。 (Edinburgh, 1890); DUHM, Das Buch Jesaia (Gottingen, 1892); GESENIUS, Der Prophet Jesaja (Leipzig, 1820-1821); EWALD, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes (Tübingen, 1840-1841); tr. (愛丁堡, 1890年) ; DUHM ,達斯圖書Jesaia (哥廷根大學, 1892年) ; GESENIUS報先知Jesaja (萊比錫, 1820年至1821年) ; EWALD ,模具Propheten萬老的Bundes (圖賓根, 1840年至1841年) ;文。 by F. SMITH, (London, 1876–); HITZIG, Der Prophet Jesaja übers.由史密斯, (倫敦, 1876年- ) ;希齊格報先知Jesaja übers 。 und ausgelegt (Heidelberg, 1833); KITTEL, Der Prophet Jesaia, 6th ed.與ausgelegt (海德堡, 1833年) ; KITTEL報先知Jesaia ,第6版。 of DILLMANN's work of the same title (Leipzig, 1898); KNABENBAUER, Erklärung des Proph.的DILLMANN的工作相同的標題(萊比錫, 1898年) ; KNABENBAUER , Erklärung萬Proph 。 Isaias (Freiburg, 1881); MARTI, Das Buch Jesaja (Tübingen, 1900).伊薩亞(弗賴堡, 1881年) ;馬蒂達斯圖書Jesaja (圖賓根, 1900年) 。


Book of Isaiah以賽亞書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

The Call of the Prophet.的號召,先知。

Reliance on Assyria.依賴於亞述。

Alliance with Egypt.聯盟與埃及。

Book of Judgments.圖書判決。

The Question of Ch.總的問題。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。

The Critical Problem.的關鍵問題。

The "Variety" of Isaiah.的“多姿多彩”的以賽亞。

Periods of the Prophecy.時期的預言。

The chief note of the Book of Isaiah is首席注意到以賽亞書是

variety-variety of tone, of style, of thought, and of historical background.品種不同的色調,風格,思想,和歷史背景。 The first step in the study of Isaiah is to realize this variety by taking a survey of the contents.第一步研究中的以賽亞是實現這一品種,採取的調查內容。 The heading (i. 1) prepares the reader to expect a collection of closely related prophecies (hence called a "vision," in the singular) concerning Judah and its capital.標題(一1 )準備讀者期望的集合密切相關的預言(因此被稱為“遠見” ,在奇異)關於猶太和資本。 It is plain, therefore, that ch.這是平原,因此,總。 xiii.-xxiii. were only inserted as an afterthought; for, with the exception of ch. xiii. -二十三。只有插入作為一種事後的;的,除總。 xxii., they all relate to foreign nations; ch.二十二。 ,它們都涉及到外國的國家;總。 xiv.十四。 24-27, xvii. 12-14, xxii. 24日至27日,十七。 12月14日,二十二。 1-14, and 15-25 (which relate to Judah or Jerusalem) may be regarded as fragments which would have perished if an editor had not thought of inserting them in this group. 1月14日和15-25 (涉及猶太或耶路撒冷)可被視為碎片這將死去,如果編輯沒有想到插入他們這一組中。 Ch.總。 xxiv.-xxvii., also, can only have been admitted through an extension of the original plan, for they speak primarily of a judgment upon the earth at large, and when they do digress to Israel it is in obscure language, which the men of "Judah and Jerusalem" could not generally have understood. xxiv. -二十七。 ,也只能被接納通過延長原定計劃,他們說主要是判決後,地球上,當他們偏離以色列是在模糊的語言,其中男性的“猶太和耶路撒冷”一般都無法理解。 Similarly, ch.同樣,總。 xxxiv.-xxxv. xxxiv. -三十五。 can have formed no part of the original vision, for the larger part (xxxiv.) is concerned, not with Judah, but with Edom.可以形成任何部分的原始構想,為較大部分( xxxiv. )而言,不與猶太,但以東。 Ch.總。 xxxvi.-xxxix. xxxvi. -三十九。 speak of Isaiah in the third person, and largely coincide with II Kings xviii.談到以賽亞在第三人,並在很大程度上配合二國王十八。 13-xx. 19. 13 - XX元。 19 。 Ch.總。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。 have for their background, at any rate to a considerable extent, Jerusalem in ruins and her people in captivity. In following, therefore, that instinct of order, which is, of course, not the same thing as criticism, but is at least one element in it, the first impressions of Isaiah must be obtained from ch. i.-xii.對他們的背景下,在任何速度在相當程度上,耶路撒冷在廢墟和她的人民在囚禁。以下,因此,本能的秩序,這是當然,並不是一回事批評,但至少有一個內容是,第一印象以賽亞必須獲得總。一至十二。 and xxviii.-xxxiii.和xxviii. -三十三。

Ch.總。 i.: One of the finest specimens of prophetic rhetoric known.一:一個最好的標本先知言論眾所周知的。 It is in its present form a general prophecy, full of edification for all periods of Israel's history, thòugh the prominence given in verses 29, 30 to the heathen worship practised in the recesses of gardens would not have seemed perfectly natural in the later period of strict religious purity.這是目前的形式一般預言,充分的熏陶所有時期的以色列的歷史,但突出的詩句29日, 30日向異教徒崇拜實行深處的花園就不會似乎完全自然的後期嚴格的宗教的純潔性。 There are four leading ideas: Israel's ingratitude to its God; the false repentance of oblations; the true repentance of a changed life; purification from without, failing purification from within.有四個主要的想法:以色列的忘恩負義的上帝;虛假懺悔oblations ;真正的懺悔改變生活;淨化從沒有,沒有從內部淨化。

Ch.總。 ii.-iv.: A series of denunciations of the national corruption enclosed between two pictures of the ideal age. ii.-iv. :一系列的譴責國家腐敗封閉兩張圖片之間的理想年齡。 Here Isaiah goes into greater detail, both as to the nature of Judah's sin and as to the inevitable punishment.以賽亞這裡進入更詳細的,既作為的性質,猶太的罪孽,並作為對不可避免的懲罰。 Like a thunder-storm the wrath of God will overthrow the proud, and sweep away the heathenish luxury of the grandees of the land; all classes will be disturbed from their pleasant security; the ablest citizens will go into captivity, for theirs is the greatest guilt; nor shall the women of Jerusalem escape (comp. Amos iv. 1-3).像打雷風暴的怒火上帝會推翻感到自豪,並掃除異教豪華的grandees的土地;所有班級將干擾他們的舒適安全,能幹的公民將進入圈養,對他們是最大的認罪;的婦女也不應逃避耶路撒冷( comp.阿莫斯納曼四。 1-3 ) 。

Ch.總。 v.: A briefer utterance with similar scope.訴:一個簡短的話語類似範圍。 It begins with a bright parable on the vineyard of God, the moral of which is the danger of Judah's ingratitude; then follows a series of "wos" on the chief national sins, and a weird, mysterious announcement of terrible invaders.它始於一個光明的寓言對上帝的葡萄園,在道義上是危險的猶太的忘恩負義;然後如下一系列“ wos ”對行政國家的罪孽,並奇怪,神秘可怕的侵略者宣布。

The Call of the Prophet.的號召,先知。

Ch.總。 vi.: This chapter might well have stood at the head of the whole book.六。 :這一章很可能為團長的整本書。 It describes the call of the prophet.它描述的呼籲先知。 A vision, such as all prophets may expect to have (though abundance of visions is no proof of the goodness of a "man of God"), came to Isaiah, and in this vision-the sum of which was the glorified and idealized Temple-God and Isaiah interchanged these words: "Whom shall I send?"設想,如所有先知可以期望(雖然豐富的願景是沒有證據的善良的“人神” ) ,來到以賽亞書,並在這視覺的總和是美化和理想化寺神和以賽亞互換這些話: “人應我送? ” "Send me." No passage is so important as is this one for the true biography of Isaiah. “發送給我。 ”沒有通過是如此重要,因為這是一個真正的傳記以賽亞。

Ch.總。 vii.-ix. 7: Partly historical, partly prophetical. 7 :部分歷史,部分預言。 It is unfortunate that this precedent is not followed more frequently.不幸的是,這一先例,而沒有更頻繁。 It is now known that Isaiah sought to influence Ahaz, but was repelled by the king.現在已經知道,以賽亞試圖影響Ahaz ,但被擊退國王。 Judah was in sore peril from the invaders Pekah and Rezin (not the invaders to whom he pointed so mysteriously in v. 26 et seq.), and there was a conflict between the two principles-reliance on outside human help and implicit trust in Israel's God.猶太疼痛的危險是在從侵略者Pekah和Rezin (而不是侵略者的人,他指出,使神秘的訴26起。 ) ,並有兩國之間的衝突原則,依靠外部人的幫助和信任隱含在以色列的上帝。 Ahaz stood for the first, Isaiah for the second. Ahaz主張首先,以賽亞第二。 One result there was which Ahaz could never have anticipated: the sign of Immanuel has supplied material for controversy to the present hour.其結果之一是它Ahaz無法預料:伊曼紐爾的跡象提供了材料的爭議,本小時。 It might be thought that it was a promise of safety.也可能會有人認為這是一個安全的承諾。 But Isaiah could not "speak peace when there was no peace."但是以賽亞不能“講和平的時候,沒有和平。 ” It is desolation, and not deliverance, which the unbelief of Ahaz will ultimately bring on his unhappy country (vii. 17-25).這是悲哀,而不是解脫,這是不信教的Ahaz將最終使他的不幸國家( vii. 17-25 ) 。 In ch.在CH 。 viii. 1-4 Isaiah reaffirms his declaration (vii. 7-9) of a judgment swiftly coming to Damascus and Samaria.八。 1-4以賽亞重申他宣言( vii. 7月9日)判決迅速來到大馬士革和Samaria 。 But will Judah escape?但是,將猶太逃生? No, but the kernel of the nation will escape.否,但核心的國家將逃跑。 Judgment will bring about purification.判決將帶來淨化。 A deliverer already exists in the counsels of God, and he will restore the kingdom of David in an idealized form (ix. 1-7). Ch.阿遞送已經存在於律師的上帝,他將恢復在英國的大衛理想化形式( ix. 1-7 ) 。總。 ix.九。 8-x. 8 - X低。 4: A highly poetical picture of the approaching ruin of the Northern Kingdom, though there are also glances at Judah. 4 :一個高度詩意圖片的臨近破產的英國北部,但也有目光在猶太。 The rivalry of factions in the state and the fall of the incompetent rulers on the field of battle are graphically described.在競爭的派系在該國和屬於不稱職的統治者在戰場上的生動描述。

Reliance on Assyria.依賴於亞述。

Ch.總。 x. 5-xii. 5十二。 6: There is more religious thought, however, in the discourses contained in these chapters. 6 :有更多的宗教思想,然而,在話語中所載的這些章節。 The variety of imagery, too, is highly remarkable.各種各樣的圖像,也十分顯著。 Assyria (that is, its king; comp. the use of "France" and "England" in Shakespeare) is the staff or the ax in God's hand.亞述(即國王;補償。使用“法國”和“英格蘭”莎士比亞)是工作人員或斧上帝的手。 Its army is like a forest.它的軍隊就像一個森林。 Assyria's lust of conquest is like the sport of bird-nesting.亞述的慾望就像是征服運動的鳥築巢。 See the astonishingly rapid march of the armed hosts!看到驚人急行軍武裝東道主! Some with their leader "shake their hands" at the sacred mountain.一些與他們的領導人“動搖他們的手”在聖山。 The Davidic kingdom will, as it seems, be cut down. But so, too, Assyria will be cut down; and while a "shoot" (RV) will "come forth out of the stock of Jesse," no such prospect is held out for Assyria.英國將在Davidic ,因為它似乎被砍掉。不過,也亞述將降低;和而“拍” (右)將“出來了,股市的傑西” ,沒有這樣的前景是舉行為亞述。 Not to Babylon, but to Jerusalem, will the nations repair.不巴比倫,但耶路撒冷,將在聯合國修理。 Not in Assyria, but in the land of Israel, will the peace of paradise be exemplified.不亞述,但在以色列土地上,將和平的天堂,是例證。 Thither will all Israel's exiles be brought back, singing psalms of devout and grateful joy. Ch.那邊都將以色列的流亡者被帶回,唱歌詩篇的虔誠和感激的喜悅。總。 xxviii.-xxxiii.: These chapters also are full of variety. xxviii. -三十三。 :這些章節也豐富多彩。 From the first the prophet alternates between judgment and salvation.從第一先知候補之間的判斷和救贖。 The proud crown of the drunkards (princely drunkards!) of Ephraim is trodden down; for the residue there is a crown of glory (Samaria fell 722 BC).驕傲的王冠上的醉鬼(王侯醉鬼! )的埃弗拉伊姆是踐踏了;為殘留有一個官方的榮耀(薩馬利亞下跌722年) 。 But there are drunkards (priestly drunkards!) in Judah too, trusting in a "refuge of lies" instead of in the "sure foundation" stone (xxviii. 15-17).但也有醉鬼(祭司醉鬼! )在猶太太多,相信在“避難的謊言” ,而不是在“確保基礎”石( xxviii. 15日-17日) 。 At another time the teacher seems to have adopted a different tone.在其他時間,教師似乎已經採取了不同的音調。 A few, perhaps, became dejected by Isaiah's frequent reference to destruction.少數人,也許是沮喪的以賽亞的經常提到的破壞。 Would this plowing and thrashing go on forever?將本春耕和大勝永遠繼續下去? No; an earthly husbandman is too wise for that; and the heavenly husbandman knows best of all that destruction is justified only by the object of sowing some useful plant when the soil has been prepared (xxviii. 23-29).沒有;地上husbandman是太明智的;和天上的husbandman最熟悉的一切破壞是有道理只有對象的一些有用的植物播種時,土壤已編寫( xxviii. 23-29 ) 。

It is true, as ch.這是事實,因為總。 xxix.二十九。 shows, the great majority were quite otherwise impressed by Isaiah's preaching.顯示,絕大多數是相當深刻的印象,否則以賽亞的說教。 A deep lethargy clouded the senses of the rulers (verses 10-12).阿深昏睡雲感官統治者(詩10月12日) 。 But the crash of thunder will awaken them.但事故的雷聲將喚醒他們。 Within a year Jerusalem will be besieged, and in the midst of the siege God Himself will fall upon Jerusalem and punish her (1-4, 6).在一年之內將被圍困的耶路撒冷,並處於圍困上帝會落到耶路撒冷和懲罰她( 1月4日, 6 ) 。 But fear not; the foe will suffer most; God will not permit the nations to destroy Mount Zion (5, 7, 8).但是,沒有恐懼的敵人將受害最深;上帝不會允許聯合國銷毀錫安山( 5 , 7 , 8 ) 。 Wo to the formalists and to the unbelieving politicians of Judah!禾的formalists和不信的政治家猶太! (13-15). But all the best blessings are to the poor and the meek. ( 13-15 ) 。但是,所有最好的祝福是窮人和溫順。

Alliance with Egypt.聯盟與埃及。

The cause of Isaiah's wrath against the politicians was an alliance with Egypt which was being planned in secret.以賽亞的事業的憤怒是對政客的聯盟與埃及這是計劃中的秘密。 This is shown by ch. xxx.這表明總。三十。 Isaiah predicts the disappointment which awaits the ambassadors, and the terrible results which willfollow from this short-sighted statecraft.以賽亞預言失望而等待大使,可怕的結果willfollow這一短視治國。 But here again the usual contrast is introduced.但這裡又是通常的對比介紹。 Storm and sunshine compete with each other.風暴和陽光互相競爭。 The Golden Age will yet come; Nature will participate in the happiness of regenerate Judah.黃金時代將未到;自然將參加幸福再生猶太。 Assyria will be crushed, and meantime the Jews will sing, as in the night of the feast-day (the vigil of the Passover; comp. Ex. xii. 42).亞述將粉碎,並同時將唱的猶太人,因為在黑夜裡的節日,紀念日(守夜逾越節;補償。惠。十二。 42 ) 。 In ch.在CH 。 xxxi.-xxxii. xxxi. -三十二。 8 the prophet still hovers about the same theme, while in xxxii. 8先知仍然徘徊關於同一主題,而在三十二。 9-20 the careless security of the women is chastised (comp. iii. 16 et seq.), the desolation soon to be wrought by the invader is described, and, as a cheering contrast, the future transformation of the national character and of the physical conditions of life are once more confidently announced. 9月20日的粗心安全的婦女是批評( comp.三。 16起。 )荒蕪即將造成的入侵者所描述,並在歡呼的對比,未來的轉變,民族性格和物理的生活條件再一次滿懷信心地宣布。 Ch.總。 xxxiii.三十三。 is one of the most singular of the extant specimens of prophetic writing.是一種最奇異的現存標本預言寫作。 There is no apparent arrangement, and some of the verses seem to be quite isolated.沒有明顯的安排,以及一些詩句似乎相當孤立。 It is a kind of vision which is described.它是一種理想的方法。 The land is being laid waste.土地被荒蕪。 O Lord, help!主啊,救命啊! But see!但是見! the hostile hordes suddenly disappear; Zion's God is her security.成群的敵對突然消失;錫安的上帝是她的安全。 Alas!唉! not yet.尚未。 The highways still lie waste. The whole country from Lebanon to Sharon mourns.公路仍然存在浪費。整個國家從黎巴嫩撤軍,沙龍表示哀悼。 Yes, it is God's time to arise.是的,這是上帝的時候出現。 He has, in fact, arisen, and the "godless" (the converted Jews) tremble, while the righteous are assured of salvation.他,事實上,出現和“ godless ” (換算猶太人)發抖,而正義是有保證的救恩。 How happy will the retrospect of their past troubles make them!多麼幸福會回顧過去的麻煩讓他們! (verse 18). (詩18 ) 。 Then, too, it will be plain that Zion's load of guilt has been removed.然後,也將清楚地表明錫安的負荷認罪已被刪除。

Book of Judgments.圖書判決。

The idea which pervades the first of the five lesser books (ch. xiii.-xxiii., xxiv.-xxvii., xxxiv.-xxxv., xxxvi.-xxxix., and xl.-lxvi.) which still await consideration may be expressed in Isaiah's own words (they are taken here provisionally to be Isaiah's): "This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations" (xiv. 26).其中貫穿的想法的第一個五年較小書籍(章xiii. -二十三。 , xxiv. -二十七。 , xxxiv. -三十五。 , xxxvi. -三十九。 ,並xl. - lxvi 。 )這可能仍在等待審議來表示以賽亞自己的話(他們是在這裡暫時是以賽亞的) : “這是專用的目的是對整個地球:這是一方面是伸出籲請所有國家” ( xiv. 26 ) 。 It is, in fact, a Book of Judgments on the nations, except that four passages have found admission into it which relate, not to the world outside, but to the little people which, as Isaiah may have thought, out-weighed in the eyes of God all the other nations put together.它實際上是一本關於聯合國的判決,但已發現四個通道進入它涉及,而不是外面的世界,但很少人的,如以賽亞可能思想,進行權衡的上帝眼中的所有其他國家的總和。 These four passages are as follows:這四個段落如下:

Ch.總。 xiv.十四。 24-27 is a short prophecy declaring the purpose of Israel's God to tread Assyria under foot upon the "mountains" of Judah, to which is appended a solemn declaration, part of which is quoted above (verses 26, 27). 24日至27日是一個很短的預言宣布的目的,以色列的上帝腳下踏下亞述的“山”的猶太,這是appended莊嚴宣誓,其中一部分是上面引述(詩句26日, 27日) 。 In ch.在CH 。 xvii.十七。 12-14 there is a graphic prophecy of the destruction of the "many nations" which attack Jerusalem (comp. viii. 9, 10; xxix. 7, 8); no special nation is singled out. 12月14日有一個圖形預言破壞“許多國家”的攻擊耶路撒冷( comp.八。 9日, 10日;二十九。 7日, 8日) ;沒有特別的民族是挑出。 In ch.在CH 。 xxii.二十二。 1-14 there is an indignant rebuke of the people of Jerusalem, who are in no degree sobered by the danger, just now removed, from the Assyrians; instead of examining into their ways, ceasing to do evil, and learning to do well, they indulge in wild revelry. 1月14日有一個憤怒指責人民的耶路撒冷,沒有誰是在清醒程度的危險,剛才刪除,從亞述人,而不是把他們的研究方法,不再做邪惡,和學習做好,他們沉迷於野生狂歡。 In ch.在CH 。 xxii.二十二。 15-25 an invective against the vizier of the day (Shebna) is followed by a promise of his office to a worthier man (Eliakim), to which an appendix is attached announcing this second vizier's fall. 15-25一個謾罵對總督的一天( Shebna )其次是許諾他的辦公室到有價值的人( Eliakim ) ,其中的附錄附在宣布第二總督的下降。

Of the judgments upon definite nations, other than the Jewish, the first (ch. xiii.) declares the doom of Babylon, and to it is appended a fine, artistic ode of triumph on the King of Babylon (xiv. 4b-21).判決後,明確國家以外的其他猶太人,第一(章十三。 )宣布末日巴比倫,並給它附加罰款,藝術模式的勝利對巴比倫國王( xiv. 4B條- 21 ) 。 Observe that the prophet distinctly speaks as if the Medes were already mustering for the march on Babylon.觀察到明顯的先知說話猶如瑪代已經鼓起的3月巴比倫。 Is it to be supposed that Isaiah was at the time in an ecstasy?它是假定以賽亞當時的迷魂藥? Ch.總。 xiv.十四。 22-23 is a prophecy, summing up Babylon's doom in more prosaic style. Ch. 22-23是一個預言,總結巴比倫的末日在平淡無奇的風格。總。 xiv.十四。 28-32 contains the doom of the Philistines, who are in premature exultation at the "breaking" of some terrible "rod." 28-32包含末日的非利士人,誰是早產大喜在“突破”的一些可怕的“棒” 。 Ch. xv.-xvi.總。 xv. -十六。 12 are highly dramatic; they begin with a picture of the consternation of the Moabites at the havoc wrought by an invader, describe the flight' of the people in much detail, mention how an appeal to Mount Zion for help was rejected, make sympathetic references to the lamentations of the Moabites over their ruined vines, and then, without any apparent connection, assert that no appeal to Chemosh for aid will be effectual. 12高度戲劇性,他們首先了解驚愕的莫亞比特人的破壞所造成的侵略者,說明飛行'的人,越詳細,提到如何呼籲錫安山幫助被否決,使交感神經引用在悲嘆的莫亞比特人自己毀掉葡萄園,然後,沒有任何明顯的聯繫,聲稱沒有呼籲Chemosh援助將是行之有效的。 To this is added (verses 13, 14) a solemn declaration that the prophecy which had been delivered at some previous period shall be fulfilled within three years.另外還得加上(詩句13日, 14日)莊嚴宣誓,預言已交付一些前一時期應在三年內完成。

Ch.總。 xvii.十七。 1-11 is directed against Damascus (that is, Syria) and Ephraim (that is, Israel). 1月11日是針對大馬士革(即敘利亞)和埃弗拉伊姆(即以色列) 。 These two powers have set themselves against the true God, and must suffer the same doom.這兩個權力為自己規定的真神,並且必須遭受同樣的厄運。 However, the few who are left in Israel will turn to the holy God, and give up lower forms of worship.然而,誰是少數留在以色列將轉向羅馬上帝,放棄低形式的崇拜。

Ch.總。 xviii.十八。 was apparently intended to be an address to Ethiopia.顯然是要成為一個地址到埃塞俄比亞。 But already (verse 3) the prophet turns to the world at large, and bids men take heed of the signs of the divine approach.但是,已經(詩3 )先知輪流整個世界,並出價男子留意的跡象神聖的辦法。 When the power hostile to God is ripe for destruction, it will be cut off.當權力敵視上帝是成熟的破壞,這將被切斷。 Then will the Ethiopians send presents to Jerusalem.然後將埃塞俄比亞人發送給耶路撒冷。 The doom, therefore, is really confined to verses 4-6.末日論,因此,確實是局限於詩句4-6 。

Ch.總。 xix.十九。 describes the utter collapse of Egypt, owing to its conquest by a "cruel lord" (verse 4).介紹了徹底崩潰的埃及,由於其征服了“殘忍上帝” (詩4 ) 。 The main interest, however, lies in verses 18-24, which apparently contain circumstantial predictions of the establishment of Jewish colonies in five cities of Egypt, including the "city of the sun"; of the erection of a sanctuary in Egypt to Israel's God; of the deliverance of the Jews (?) in Egypt in their sore distress; of the conversion of the Egyptians; and of the providential discipline of Egypt, which henceforth will be a member of a sacred triad of closely connected nations-Egypt, Assyria, and Israel.主要的利益,然而,在於詩句18-24 ,顯然包含間接預測建立猶太人殖民地在5個城市的埃及,其中包括“城市的太陽” ;的架設庇護埃及對以色列的上帝;的拯救猶太人( ? )在埃及的疼痛困擾;轉換的埃及人;和天賜紀律埃及,這將是今後的一個成員的神聖三位一體的緊密相連的國家,埃及,亞述和以色列。

The prophecy in ch.預言在CH 。 xx.二十。 gives a second judgment upon Egypt, and a perfectly new judgment on Ethiopia.給出了埃及第二次判決後,和一個完全新的判斷埃塞俄比亞。 It stands in marked contrast both to ch.它隨時都在明顯的對比,以總。 xviii.十八。 and to ch.和膽固醇。 xix.十九。 Its possession of a historical introduction would have led to its being grouped with ch.它所擁有的歷史簡介會導致其組合與CH 。 vii.-ix. 7 and ch. 7和CH 。 xxxvi.-xxxix.; but doubtless it was too short to stand alone. xxxvi. -三十九。 ;但毫無疑問,這是太短,無法獨立。

Ch.總。 xxi.二十一。 contains three "burdens" (or oracles)- that of the "wilderness of the sea" (RV), relative to the destruction of Babylon by Elam and Media (contingents in the assailing army?), that of Dumah (that is, Edom), and that of the "Dedanites" (RV), entitled by the early editors of the Hebrew text "in Arabia," words apparently derived from the opening words "in the forest in Arabia." The oracles in ch.包含了三個“包袱” (或神諭) -即“荒野的海洋” (右) ,相對的破壞巴比倫的伊拉姆和媒體(特遣隊在調戲軍隊? ) ,即度瑪(即以東) ,並在“ Dedanites ” (右) ,題為早期編輯的希伯來文“在沙特阿拉伯, ”話顯然來自開頭語“在森林裡在沙特阿拉伯。 ”的神諭,在CH 。 xxi.二十一。 contain great textual difficulties. The only remaining prophecy in this section is that on Tyre.包含偉大篇章困難。剩下的唯一的預言在本節是輪胎。 It has a strongly elegiac character, and its reference is much disputed. Here, again,textual problems have to be settled before any attempts at exegesis.它有一個強烈輓歌性質,其範圍是非常有爭議的。在這裡,再次,文字的問題得到解決之前,任何企圖註釋。 But it is clear that the standpoint of verses 15-18 is not that of verses 1-14.但是很顯然,角度15-18詩句是不是詩句1月14日。 It is an epilogue, and expresses a much more hopeful spirit than the original prophecy.這是一個尾聲,並表示一個更加充滿希望的精神比原來的預言。 Tyre will one day be of importance to the people of Jerusalem; its prosperity is therefore to be desired.輪胎將有一天會的重視人民耶路撒冷;的繁榮,因此不能令人滿意。 Here, then, the note of variety or contrast is as strongly marked as in any part of Isaiah.在這裡,然後,說明品種或對比強烈標示為的任何部分以賽亞。

Still more remarkable is the variety in the contents of the second of the lesser books (ch. xxiv.-xxvii.).更引人注目的是不同的內容的第二個較小的書籍(章xxiv. -二十七。 ) 。 It is observed by RG Moulton that, dramatic as this fine passage is, one looks in vain for temporal succession, and finds instead "the pendulum movement dear to Hebrew imagination, alternating between judgment and salvation."這是觀察的RG莫爾頓認為,戲劇罰款通道,因為這是一個期待落空顳繼承,並認為不是“鐘擺運動珍視希伯來語想像力之間輪流進行,判斷和救贖。 ” However, the parts of this "rhapsody" can not safely be distributed among the dramatis personæ, for it is no literary whole, but a "rhapsody" in a sense not intended by Moulton, a collection of fragments, large or small, stitched, as it were, together.然而,這一部分的“狂想曲”就無法安全地分佈在劇中人,因為它沒有文學整體,而是一個“男人四十”在某種意義上用意並非莫爾頓,收集碎片,大國還是小國,縫合,因為它是一起。 It might also be called a "mosaic," and, since very little, if any, attempt has been made to fuse the different elements, one might, with much advantage, read this composite work in the following order:也可能是所謂的“馬賽克” ,並自很少,如果有的話,已試圖保險絲的不同要素,人們可能,很多的優勢,閱讀此複合工作按以下順序:

(1) xxiv. ( 1 )二十四。 1-23: The Last Judgment. 1月23日:最後的審判。

(2) xxv. ( 2 )二十五。 6-8: The Feast of Initiation into communion with God, spread not only for Israel, but for all peoples. 6月8日:七七開始到與上帝,蔓延不僅對以色列,而且對所有人民。

(3) xxvi. ( 3 ) 26 。 20, 21: Summons to the Jews to shut themselves up, while God carries out the awful doom of the wicked (comp. Ex. xii. 22b, 23). 20日, 21日:傳票猶太人把自己關了,而上帝進行了可怕的末日的邪惡( comp.惠。十二。 22B款, 23條) 。

(4) xxvii. ( 4 )二十七。 1, 12: Mystic prophecy of the Leviathan's doom, and the restoration of the entire body of dispersed Jews. 1 , 12 :神秘的預言的利維坦的厄運,並恢復整個身體的分散猶太人。

(5) xxvii. ( 5 )二十七。 7-11: Conditions of salvation for the Jews. 7月11日:條件拯救猶太人。

(6) xxvi. ( 6 ) 26 。 1-19: Song of praise for the deliverance of the Righteous, which passes into a meditative retrospect of recent events, and closes with a prophecy of the resurrection of those who have been faithful unto death. 1月19日:歌讚揚解脫的正義,這通行證進入冥想回顧最近發生的事件,並關閉了預言的復活那些誰忠實你們已經死亡。

(7) xxv. ( 7 )二十五。 1-5: Song of praise for the destruction of an insolent city. 1月5日:宋讚揚破壞一個無禮的城市。

(8) xxv. ( 8 )二十五。 9-12: Praise for deliverance, and anticipations of the downfall of Moab. 9月12日:讚揚解脫,和預期的倒台莫阿布。

(9) xxvii. ( 9 )二十七。 2-5: Song concerning God's vineyard, Israel. Ch. 2月5日:宋關於上帝的葡萄園,以色列。總。 xxxiv.-xxxv. xxxiv. -三十五。 show the same oscillation between judgment and salvation which has been previously noted.表現出同樣的振盪之間的判斷和救贖已如前所述。 The judgment upon all nations (especially Edom) is depicted in lurid tints; upon this, with no link of transition, follows a picture of salvation and of the restoration of the Jewish exiles.判決後,所有國家(特別是以東)是描述爚色彩;在此,沒有鏈接的過渡,如下圖片的救恩和恢復猶太人流亡者。

Ch.總。 xxxvi.-xxxix. xxxvi. -三十九。 are a mixture of narrative, prophecy, and poetry. The great deliverance from Assyria under Hezekiah, in which Isaiah plays an important part, is related.是一種混合的說明,說預言,和詩歌。偉大的解救下Hezekiah從亞述,其中以賽亞發揮的一個重要組成部分,是有關的。 An ode on the fall of the King of Assyria (recalling xiv. 4b-21) shows Isaiah (if it be Isaiah) to be a highly gifted poet (xxxvii. 21b-29); and a kind of psalm (see xxxviii. 20), ascribed to Hezekiah, tells how the speaker had recovered from a severe illness, and recognized in his recovery a proof of the complete forgiveness of his sins.一個模式的秋天國王亞述(回顧十四。 4B條- 21 )顯示以賽亞(如果它是以賽亞)是一個天才的詩人( xxxvii.第二十一期乙- 29 ) ;和一種詩篇(見三十八。 20 ) ,歸因於Hezekiah ,講述如何揚聲器已恢復從一個嚴重的疾病,並承認在他的恢復證明完全寬恕他的罪過。 A historical preface elucidates this.歷史前言闡明這一點。 Both the ode in ch.無論是在CH頌歌。 xxxvii.三十七。 and the psalm in ch. xxxviii.和詩篇,在CH 。三十八。 are accompanied with circumstantial prophecies, not in a poetic style, addressed to Hezekiah.是伴隨著間接的預言,而不是在一個詩的風格,給Hezekiah 。 Ch.總。 xxxix.三十九。 contains a prediction of a Babylonian captivity, also addressed to Hezekiah, and a historical preface.載有預測的巴比倫囚禁,也給Hezekiah和歷史前言。

The Question of Ch.總的問題。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。

There still remain ch.仍有總。 xl.-lxvi., which follow abruptly on ch. xxxvi.-xxxix., though a keen eye may detect a preparation for "Comfort ye, comfort ye," in the announcement of the spoiling of Jerusalem and the carrying away of Hezekiah's sons to Babylon in ch. xxxix. xl. - lxvi 。 ,它的後續突然對CH 。 xxxvi. -三十九。 ,儘管熱衷眼可檢測準備“慰安婦葉,舒適葉” ,在宣布破壞耶路撒冷和載走的Hezekiah的兒子巴比倫在CH 。三十九。 Ch.總。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。 are often called "The Prophecy of Restoration," and yet it requires no great cleverness to see that these twenty-seven chapters are full of variety in tone and style and historical background.通常被稱為“預言恢復, ”但它並不需要很大的巧妙地看到,這些27章豐富多彩的色調和風格和歷史背景。 A suggestion of this variety may be presented by giving a table of the contents.一項建議,該品種可能提出讓一個表格的內容。 Alike from a historical and from a religious point of view, these chapters will reward the most careful study, all the more so because controversy is rendered less acute respecting these prophecies than respecting the prophecies in ch.不論從歷史,從宗教的角度來看,這些章節將獎勵最認真的研究,更是因為爭議而變得那麼尖銳尊重這些預言的預言比尊重在CH 。 i-xxxix.一至三十九。 The word "prophecies," however, has associations which may mislead; they are better described as "unspoken prophetic and poetical orations."單詞“預言” ,但是,協會可能誤導;它們更好地形容為“默契先知和詩意的演講。 ”

(1) Good news for the Exiles (xl. 1-11). ( 1 )好消息的流亡者( xl. 1月11日) 。

(2) Reasoning with the mental difficulties of Israel (xl. 12-31). ( 2 )推理的心理困難,以色列( xl. 12月31日) 。

(3) The Lord, the only true God, proved to be so by the prophecy concerning Cyrus (xli. 20). ( 3 )主,唯一的真神,證明是這樣的預言關於賽勒斯( xli. 20 ) 。

(4) Dispute between the true God and the false deities (xli. 21-29). ( 4 )之間的爭端的真神和假神( xli. 21-29 ) 。

(5) Contrast between the ideal and the actual Israel, with lofty promises (xlii. 1-xliii. 7). ( 5 )理想的對比和實際以色列,以高尚的承諾( xlii. 1 -四十三。 7 ) 。

(6) How Israel, blind as it is, must bear witness for the true God, who is the God of prophecy: the argument from prophecy is repeatedly referred to (xliii. 8-13). ( 6 )如何以色列,因為它是盲目的,必須見證的真正的上帝,誰是上帝的預言:預言的論據是多次提到( xliii. 8月13日) 。

(7) The fall of Babylon and the second Exodus (xliii. 14-21). ( 7 )屬於巴比倫和第二次出埃及記( xliii. 14-21 ) 。

(8) The Lord pleads with careless Israel (xliii. 22-xliv. 5). ( 8 )主懇求不小心以色列( xliii. 22 -四十四。 5 ) 。

(9) Once more, the argument for the true God from prophecy, together with a sarcastic description of the fabrication of idols (xliv. 6-23). ( 9 )再次論點的真正的上帝的預言,連同挖苦說明製造偶像( xliv. 6月23日) 。

(10) The true object of the victories of Cyrus-Israel's deliverance (xliv. 24-xlv. 25). ( 10 )的真正目標勝利居魯士,以色列的解脫( xliv. 24第四十五。 25 ) 。

(11) The deities of Babylon contrasted with the God of Israel (xlvi. 1-13). ( 11 )神巴比倫對照的是上帝的以色列( xlvi. 1月13日) 。

(12) A song of derision concerning Babylon (xlvii. 1-15). ( 12 )的歌聲嘲笑有關巴比倫( xlvii. 1月15日) 。

(13) The old prophecies (those on Cyrus' victories) were great; the new ones (those on Israel's restoration) are greater (xlviii.). ( 13 )歲的預言(關於賽勒斯'勝利)是偉大的;在新的(那些對以色列恢復)更大( xlviii. ) 。

(14) Israel and Zion, now that they are (virtually) restored, are the central figures in the divine work (xlix. 1-13). ( 14 )以色列和錫安,現在,他們(幾乎)恢復,是中心人物神聖工作( xlix. 1月13日) 。

(15) Consolations for Zion and her children (xlix. 14-l. 3). ( 15 )安慰的錫安和她的孩子( xlix. 14升。 3 ) 。

(16) The true servant of the Lord, at once confessor and martyr, soliloquizes (l. 4-11). ( 16 )真正的上帝的僕人,一次懺悔和烈士, soliloquizes (湖4月11日) 。

(17) Exhortation and comfort, with a fervid ejaculatory prayer (li. 1-16). ( 17 )勸勉和安慰,以激越射精管祈禱( li. 1月16日) 。

(18) Words of cheer to prostrate Zion (li. 17-lii. 12). ( 18 )詞的歡呼,以俯臥錫安( li. 17崇禮。 12 ) 。

(19) The martyrdom of the true servant of the Lord, and his subsequent exaltation (lii. 13-liii. 12). ( 19 )殉難的真正的上帝的僕人,他隨後提升( lii. 13 liii 。 12 ) 。

(20) Further consolations for Zion, who is once more the Lord's bride, under a new and everlasting covenant (liv.). ( 20 )進一步安慰的錫安,誰是一次上帝的新娘,在一個新的和永恆的盟約( liv. ) 。

(21) An invitation to the Jews of the Dispersion to appropriate the blessings of the new covenant, followed by more prophecies of deliverance (lv.). ( 21 )邀請猶太人分散到適當的祝福新的盟約,其次是更預言解脫( lv. ) 。

(22) Promises to proselytes and to believing eunuchs (lvi. 1-8). ( 22 )承諾proselytes並相信宦官( lvi. 1月8日) 。

(23) An invective against the bad rulers of Jerusalem and against the evil courses of heretical or misbelieving persons, with promises to humble-minded penitents (lvi. 9-lvii. 21). ( 23 )的謾罵壞統治者對耶路撒冷和反對邪惡的邪教課程或misbelieving人,承諾謙虛態度penitents ( lvi. 9第五十七。 21 ) 。

(24) Practical discourse on fasting and Sabbath-observance (lviii.). ( 24 )實用論空腹和安息日遵守( lviii. ) 。

(25) Partly denunciation of immorality, partly confession of sins (lix. 1-15a). ( 25 )部分譴責不道德的行為,部分招供的罪孽( lix. 1 - 15A條) 。

(26) A vision of deliverance, with a promise of the permanence of regenerate Israel's mission (lix. 15b-21). ( 26 )的遠見解脫,以承諾的持久性,恢復以色列的使命( lix.第15B - 21 ) 。

(27) A poetic description of glorified Zion (lx.). ( 27 )詩描述美化錫安( lx. ) 。

(28) The true servant of the Lord, or, perhaps, the prophetic writer, soliloquizes concerning the gracious message entrusted to him, and the Lord confirms his word (lxi. 1-12). ( 28 )真正的上帝的僕人,或者,也許,預言作家, soliloquizes關於殷勤信息託付給他,並證實了他的主詞( lxi. 1月12日) 。

(29) Vision of the divine warrior returning from Edom (lxiii. 1-6). ( 29 )視覺神聖戰士返回以東( lxiii. 1-6 ) 。

(30) Exhausted and almost despairing, Israel complains to the Lord (lxiii. 7-lxiv. 12). ( 30 )用盡,幾乎絕望,以色列抱怨耶和華( lxiii. 7 lxiv 。 12 ) 。

(31) Threatenings to the heretical and misbelieving faction, and promises to the faithful (lxv.). ( 31 ) Threatenings到邪教和misbelieving派別,並承諾將忠實地( lxv. ) 。

(32) Polemic against those who would erect a rival temple to that of Jerusalem (lxvi. 1-4). ( 32 )對那些論戰誰將豎立一個競爭對手寺廟的耶路撒冷( lxvi. 1-4 ) 。

(33) The fates of Jerusalem and all her opponents contrasted (lxvi. 5-24). ( 33 )的命運耶路撒冷和所有的對手對比( lxvi. 5月24日) 。

The Critical Problem.的關鍵問題。

The reader who has not shrunk from the trouble of the orderly perusal of Isaiah which is here recommended will be in a position to judge to some extent between the two parties into which, as it may strike one who is not an expert, the theological world is divided. The study of criticism, as it is commonly called, apart from exegesis, is valueless; he is the best critic of Isaiah who knows the exegetical problems best, and to come into touch with the best critics the student must give his days and nights to the study of the text of this book.讀者誰不只是麻煩有序閱讀以賽亞這是在這裡建議將有能力來判斷在一定程度上雙方到其中,因為它可能罷工一個誰不是一個專家,世界的神學分。這項研究的批評,因為它通常被稱為,除了註釋,是毫無價值,他是最好的批評以賽亞誰知道最好的訓詁問題,並開始接觸,最好的批評,學生必須放棄他的日子夜的研究,這本書的文本。 An attempt will now be made to give some idea of the main critical problem.企圖將現在必須作出有一定的想法,主要的關鍵問題。 Many persons think that the question at issue is whether ch.許多人認為,涉及的問題是,是否總。 i.-xxxix.一,第39屆。 were (apart from slight editorial insertions) written by Isaiah, and ch.分別為(除輕微編輯插入)以賽亞所寫的,和CH 。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。 by some other writer of a much later age.其他一些作家的年齡更晚。 This is a mistake.這是一個錯誤。 A series of prophetic announcements of deliverances from exile is interspersed at intervals throughout the first half of Isaiah, and the date of these announcements has in each case to be investigated by the same methods as those applied to the different parts of Isa.一系列的預言宣布deliverances從流亡的時間間隔是穿插在整個上半年的以賽亞,和這些通知之日起已在每一種情況下進行調查,以同樣的方法為那些適用於不同地區的伊薩。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。

The "parts" of Isa.的“零件”的ISA 。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。 are referred to because here again there exists a widely prevalent error.被稱為是因為在這裡再次存在廣泛流行的錯誤。 That the second part of Isaiah has no literary unity will be obvious to any reader of the preceding synopsis.這第二部分的以賽亞沒有文學團結將是明顯的,以任何讀者前面故事大綱。 To argue the question whether the so-called Book of Isaiah has one or two authors is to beat the air.爭論的問題是所謂的以賽亞書有一個或兩個作者是擊敗空氣。 If there was more than one Isaiah, there must have been more than two, for the same variety of idea, phraseology, and background which is by so many scholars taken to prove that "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God" (xl. 1) was not written by Isaiah can be taken to prove that "Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and declare unto my people their transgressions" (lviii. 1, RV) was not written by the author of "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people."如果有一個以上的以賽亞,必須有兩個以上的,為同一品種的想法,用語,和背景是由如此眾多的學者採取證明“慰安婦葉,舒適曄我國人民, saith你的神” ( xl. 1 )沒有書面的以賽亞可以採取證明“有哭出聲,備件沒有,抬起你的聲音就像一個小號,並宣布給我國人民的越軌” ( lviii. 1 ,右)沒有寫的作者的“慰安婦葉,舒適曄我的人。 ”

The "Variety" of Isaiah.的“多姿多彩”的以賽亞。

By "variety" is not, of course, meant total, absolute difference.以“品種”當然不是,這意味著,共計絕對差。 It stands to reason that a great prophet like Isaiah would exert considerable influence on subsequent prophetic writers.它合乎道理,一個偉大的先知以賽亞將像施加很大的影響以後的先知作家。 There is no justification, therefore, for arguing that because the phrases "the Holy One of Israel" and "the Mighty One of Israel" occur in both halves of Isaiah (the second phrase, however, is varied in Isa. xl. et seq. by the substitution of "Jacob" for "Israel"), the same prophet must have written both portions.沒有任何理由,因此,認為由於詞組“羅馬的一個以色列”和“強大的一個以色列”發生的兩以賽亞(第二句話,但是,不同的是在ISA 。儀。條及以後各條。所取代“雅各布”為“以色列” ) ,同樣的先知都必須有書面的部分。 A correspondence of isolated phrases which is not even uniformly exact is of little value as an argument, and may be counterbalanced by many phrases peculiar to the disputed prophecies.對應的詞組是孤立甚至沒有統一的確切的是沒有什麼價值作為參數,並可能抵消許多詞組特有的有爭議的預言。 Still more unwise would it be to argue, from a certain general likeness between the idea of God in the prophecies of the two parts of Isaiah, that the two parts had the same prophetic author, especially now that the extent of Isaiah's contributions to the first half of the book is being so keenly debated.更將是不明智的爭論,從某些一般相似的想法之間上帝的預言中的兩個部分以賽亞,這兩個地區有同樣的預言作者,特別是現在的程度,以賽亞的貢獻第一一半的書是如此強烈地辯論。 Most unwise of all would it be to attach any weight to a tradition of Isaiah's authorship of the whole book which goes back only to Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) xlviii.最不明智的將是所有附加任何重量的傳統以賽亞書的作者的整本書可以追溯到只Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach )四十八。 24, 25: "By a spirit of might he saw the end, and comforted the mourners of Zion, forever he declared things that should be, and hidden things before they came" (Hebr.). 24日, 25日: “的精神,他看到的可能結束,並安慰錫安的哀悼,他宣布永遠的事情,應該和隱藏的東西之前,他們” ( Hebr. ) 。

Two eminent Jewish rabbis, Abraham ibn Ezra and Isaac Abravanel, were the first who showed a tendency to disintegrate the Book of Isaiah, but their subtle suggestion had no consequences. Practically, the analytic criticism of Isaiah goes back to Koppe, the author of the notes to the German edition of Bishop Lowth's "Isaiah" (1779-81).兩位傑出的猶太拉比亞伯拉罕本以斯拉和Isaac阿布拉瓦內爾,是第一誰表明一種趨勢,瓦解以賽亞書,但其微妙的建議沒有後果。實際上,分析批評以賽亞追溯到科佩的作者附註德語版的主教Lowth的“以賽亞書” ( 1779年至1781年) 。 The chief names connected with this criticism in its first phase are those of Hitzig, Ewald, and Dillmann; a new phase, however, has for some time appeared, the opening of which may perhaps be dated from the article "Isaiah" in "Encyc. Brit."首席名字與這種批評在其第一階段是對希齊格,埃瓦爾德和Dillmann ;一個新的階段,但是,一段時間以來出現了,它的開放或許可以追溯到文章“以賽亞書”中的“ Encyc 。英國人。 “ (1881) and two articles in "JQR" (July and Oct., 1891), all by TK Cheyne; to which may be added the fruitful hints of Stade in his "Gesch. des Volkes Israel" (1889, vol. i.), and the condensed discussions of Kuenen in the second edition of his "Investigations into the Origin and Collection of the Books of the Old Testament" (part ii., 2d ed., 1889). ( 1881年)和兩篇文章在“ JQR ” ( 7月和10月, 1891年) ,所有的傳統知識進益;到這可能是添加了富有成果的暗示球場在他的“ Gesch 。沙漠Volkes以色列” ( 1889年,第二卷。島) ,以及濃縮討論Kuenen在第二版的“調查的起源和收藏的圖書舊約” (第二部分。 ,二維版。 , 1889年) 。 To these add Duhm's and Marti's recent commentaries, and the "Introduction" (1895) by TK Cheyne.這些增益Duhm和馬蒂最近的評注,以及“導言” ( 1895年)的傳統知識進益。 Prof. GA Smith's two volumes on Isaiah reflect the variations of opinion in a candid mind, influenced at first, somewhat to excess, by the commentary of Dillmann.史密斯教授遺傳算法的兩卷的以賽亞的變化反映的意見在坦誠的思想影響,在第一,有些過度,由評Dillmann 。 For a convenient summary of the present state of criticism the reader may consult Kautzsch's "Outline of the History of the Literature of the Old Testament" (1898), translated by John Taylor, and "Isaiah," in Cheyne-Black, "Encyc. Bibl."為方便簡要現狀的批評,讀者可諮詢Kautzsch的史大綱“的文學舊約” ( 1898 ) ,翻譯約翰泰勒和“以賽亞書” ,在陳一黑, “ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 “ (1901). ( 1901年) 。 The former work shows how much light is thrown on the different parts of the Book of Isaiah by reading them as monuments of definite historical periods.前工作表明多少光扔在不同地區的以賽亞書通過閱讀這些古蹟一定歷史時期。 For a much less advanced position Driver's "Life and Times of Isaiah" (1st ed., 1888) may be consulted; for an impartial sketch of different theories consult the sixth edition of the same writer's "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament."為更先進的立場驅動的“生命與時代以賽亞” (第1版。 , 1888年)可查閱;為一個公正的素描不同理論徵詢第六版相同的作家的“文學概論舊約。 “

Periods of the Prophecy.時期的預言。

It must suffice here to give a few hints as to the probable periods of the chief prophecies.它必須足夠這裡給一些提示,以期在可能的首席預言。 Three great national crises called forth the most certainly genuine prophecies of Isaiah-the Syro-Israelitish invasion (734), the siege and fall of Samaria (722), and the campaign of Sennacherib (701).三個偉大的民族危機提出所謂的最肯定真正的預言以賽亞-的Syro - Israelitish入侵( 734 ) ,圍困和秋季薩馬里亞( 722 ) ,以及運動的森納赫里布( 701 ) 。 Among the non-Isaian prophecies, there are two exilic prophecies of the fall of Babylon (xiii. 1-xiv. 23, and, as most suppose, xxi. 1-10); a probably post-exilic prophecy, or elegy, on the ruin of Moab (xv.-xvi.); prophecies on Egypt and on Tyre, both post-exilic, and the former furnished with a late appendix belonging to the Greek period.在非Isaian預言,有兩個放逐預言秋天巴比倫( xiii. 1 - 14 。 23日,並在最假設,二十一。 1月10日) ;很可能後放逐的預言,或輓歌,對的廢墟莫阿布( xv. -十六。 ) ;預言對埃及和輪胎,無論後放逐,並配有前後期附錄屬於希臘時期。 The strange and difficult work here called a "rhapsody" or a "mosaic" (ch. xxiv.-xxvii.) belongs at earliest to the fall of the Persian and the rise of the Greco-Macedonian empire.奇怪的和困難的工作,這裡所謂的“狂想曲”或“馬賽克” (章xxiv. -二十七。 )屬於最早在秋季波斯和崛起希臘馬其頓帝國。 Ch.總。 xxxiv.-xxxv. xxxiv. -三十五。 are so weak that it is not worth while to dogmatize on their date, which is certainly very late.如此薄弱,這是不值得的,而以獨斷的日期,這無疑是非常晚的。 The Prophecy of Restoration is, of course, a late exilic work; it is disputed whether it closes properly at ch. xlviii.預言的恢復,當然是晚放逐的工作,這是有爭議的,是否正確地關閉在總。四十八。 or at ch.或在總。 lv.呂。 The subsequent prophecies are additions, belonging presumably to the times of Nehemiah and Ezra.隨後預言正在增加,屬於推測的時代尼希米記和以斯拉。 The latest editor of ch.最新的編輯器的CH 。 xl.-lxvi. xl. - lxvi 。 seems to have given a semblance of unity to thevarious prophecies by dividing the entire mass into three nearly equal books, the two former of which close with nearly the same words (xlviii. 22, lvii. 21).似乎給了最起碼的統一thevarious預言除以整個質量分為三個幾乎相等的書籍,這兩個前的接近,幾乎在同樣的話( xlviii. 22第五十七。 21 ) 。

Emil G. Hirsch, Thomas Kelly Cheyne埃米爾赫斯基灣,托馬斯凱利潮

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

I. Commentaries, Translations, and Critical Editions: GD Luzzatto, Il Profeta Isaia, Padua, 1855 (Jewish); R.一評,翻譯,以及關鍵版本:廣東Luzzatto ,金正日Profeta Isaia ,帕多瓦, 1855年(猶太) ;河 Lowth, Isaiah, a new translation with preliminary dissertation and notes, London, 1778; E. Lowth ,以賽亞,一個新的翻譯初步論文並指出,倫敦, 1778年;大腸桿菌 Henderson, Book of the Prophet Isaiah, 2d ed.恆基兆業,圖書先知以賽亞,二維版。 ib.國際文憑。 1840; JA Alexander, Commentary, Edinburgh, 1865; TK Cheyne, The Book of Isaiah Chronologically Arranged, London, 1870; idem, Prophecies of Isaiah, a new translation, with commentary and appendixes, ib. 1840年;茉莉亞歷山大,評注,愛丁堡, 1865年;傳統知識進益,該以賽亞書順序安排,倫敦, 1870年;同上,以賽亞預言,一個新的翻譯,與評注和附錄,國際文憑。 1880-82; GA Smith, Isaiah, in Expositor's Bible, ib. 1880至1882年;大會史密斯,以賽亞,在Expositor的聖經,國際文憑。 1888-90; J. 1888年至1890年的J. Skinner, Isaiah, in Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, Cambridge, 1896-98; HG Mitchell, Isaiah, a Study of Chapters i.-xii.斯金納,以賽亞,在劍橋聖經為學校和學院,劍橋, 1896年至1898年;氫化米切爾,以賽亞,研究一章至第十二章。 New York, 1897; TK Cheyne, Isaiah, translation and notes, in SBOT New York and London, 1898 (Hebrew ed. with notes, Leipsic, 1899); Ed.紐約, 1897年;傳統知識進益,以賽亞書,翻譯,註釋,在SBOT紐約和倫敦, 1898年(希伯來文版。與債券, Leipsic , 1899年) ;埃德。 König, The Exiles' Book of Consolation, Edinburgh, 1899; Camp.柯尼格,流亡者'圖書安慰,愛丁堡, 1899年;營。 Vitringa, Commentary, 2 vols., Leeuwarden, 1714-1720; JC Döderlein, Esaias (translation with notes), Nuremberg, 1789; E. Vitringa ,評注,第2卷。 ,呂戈登, 1714至1720年;巴埃納Döderlein ,兼顧到(翻譯與註釋) ,紐倫堡, 1789年;大腸桿菌 Reuss, Les Prophètes, 1876; W. Reuss ,法國Prophètes , 1876年;總統 Gesenius, Der Prophet Jesaja Uebersetzt; mit einem Vollständigen Philologischen, Kritischen, und Historischen Commentar, Leipsic, 1820-21; F. Gesenius報先知Jesaja Uebersetzt ;麻省理工艾內姆Vollständigen Philologischen , Kritischen ,與Historischen Commentar , Leipsic , 1820年至1821年;樓 Hitzig, Der Prophet Jesaja, Heidelberg, 1833; H.希齊格報先知Jesaja ,海德堡, 1833年閣下; Ewald, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes, Tübingen, 1810-41 (2d ed. Göttingen, 1867-68; Eng. transl. by JF Smith, 1875-81); A.埃瓦爾德,模具Propheten萬老的Bundes ,蒂賓根大學, 1810至1841年( 2版。哥廷根, 1867年至1868年;工程。譯。由怡富史密斯, 1875年至1881年) ;答: Knobel, Der Prophet Jesaja, Leipsic, 1843 (3d ed. 1861); Franz Delitzsch, Biblischer Commentar über das Buch Jesaja, Leipsic 1866 (4th ed. entirely recast, 1889; Eng. transl. 1892); CJ Bredenkamp, Der Prophet Jesaja Erläutert, Erlangen, 1887; Conrad von Orelli, Die Propheten Jesaja und Jeremias, Nördlingen, 1887 (Eng. transl. by Banks, 1889); Aug.克諾貝爾報先知Jesaja , Leipsic , 1843年(三維版。 1861年) ;弗蘭茲德里, Biblischer Commentar黚er之書Jesaja , Leipsic 1866年(第4版。完全改寫, 1889年;工程。譯。 1892年) ;希傑登坎普報先知Jesaja Erläutert埃爾蘭根, 1887年;康拉德馮Orelli ,模具Propheten Jesaja和赫雷米亞斯,諾德林根, 1887年( Eng.譯。銀行, 1889年) ; 8月 Dillmann, Der Prophet Jesaja, Leipsic. Dillmann報先知Jesaja , Leipsic 。 1890; Duhm, Das Buch Jesaja, Göttingen, 1892; Aug. 1890年; Duhm ,達斯圖書Jesaja ,哥廷根, 1892年; 8月 Klostermann, Deuterojesaia, Munich, 1893 (a critical edition of ch. xl.-lxvi.); H. Klostermann , Deuterojesaia ,慕尼黑, 1893年(一個關鍵版的CH 。 xl. - lxvi 。 )閣下; Guthe and V. Ryssel, Jesaja, in Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift, vol. Guthe和五Ryssel , Jesaja ,在Kautzsch ,模具神聖Schrift ,第二卷。 xv., Freiburg-im-Breisgau and Leipsic, 1894; K.十五。弗賴堡進出口,布賴斯和Leipsic , 1894年的K. Marti, Das Buch Jesaja, Tübingen, 1900. II.馬蒂,達斯圖書Jesaja ,蒂賓根大學, 1900年。二。 Illustrative and Comprehensive Notes: SR Driver and Ad. Neubauer, The 53d Chapter of Isaiah According to Jewish Interpretations (with introduction by EB Pusey), Oxford, 1876-77;說明性的,綜合注:簡司機和廣告。紐鮑爾,該章以賽亞53D條根據猶太解釋(與採用電子束蒲賽) ,牛津, 1876年至1877年;

G. Vance Smith, The Prophecies Relating to Nineveh and the Assyrians, London, 1857; R.灣萬斯史密斯,預言關於尼尼微和亞述人,倫敦, 1857年;河 Payne Smith, The Authenticity and Messianic Interpretation of the Prophecies of Isaiah Vindicated, Oxford and London, 1862 (the lines of Jewish interpretations are well sketched); Sir E. Strachey, Jewish History and Politics in the Times of Sargon and Sennacherib, 2d ed.佩恩史密斯的真實性和彌賽亞解讀以賽亞的預言正確,牛津大學和倫敦, 1862年(按照猶太解釋清楚勾勒) ;主席先生閣下斯特雷奇,猶太歷史和政治時代的薩爾貢和森納赫里布,二維版。 London, 1874; TK Cheyne, Introduction, to the Book of Isaiah, ib.倫敦, 1874年;傳統知識進益,導言,向以賽亞書,國際文憑。 1895; W. 1895年,美國 Robertson Smith, The Prophets of Israel, Edinburgh, 1882 (2d ed. London, 1896); AH Sayce, Life of Isaiah, London, 1883; CHH Wright, Pre-Christian Jewish Interpretations of Isaiah liii.羅伯遜史密斯,以色列的先知,愛丁堡, 1882年( 2版。倫敦, 1896年) ;的AH Sayce ,生活以賽亞,倫敦, 1883年; CHH賴特,前基督教猶太解釋以賽亞liii 。 in The Expositor (London), May, 1888; SR Driver, Isaiah, His Life and Times, and the Writings Which Bear His Name, London, 1888; J.在Expositor (倫敦) , 5月, 1888年;簡驅動,以賽亞書,他的生活和時代,和寫作負有自己的名字,倫敦, 1888年的J. Kennedy, Argument for the Unity of Isaiah, ib.堅尼地,辯以賽亞的統一,國際文憑。 1891; CHH Wright, Isaiah, in Smith's Dict. 1891年; CHH賴特,以賽亞,在史密斯的快譯通。 of the Bible, 2d ed.聖經,二維版。 1893; 1893年;

G. Douglas, Isaiah One and His Book One, London, 1895; CF Kirkpatrick, Doctrine of the Prophets, ib.灣道格拉斯以賽亞一個和他的著作之一,倫敦, 1895年;參看帕特里克,理論預言,國際文憑。 1892; Max L. Keliner, The Prophecies of Isaiah, an Outline Study in Connexion with the Assyrian-Babylonian Records, Cambridge, Mass., 1895; JF McCurdy, History, Prophecy, and the Monuments, New York and London, 1894; FH Krüger, Essai sur la Théologie d'Esaie xl.-lxvi. 1892年;最高研究Keliner ,以賽亞的預言,一個聯接研究大綱的亞述人,巴比倫人記錄,馬薩諸塞州劍橋, 1895年;怡富麥克庫迪,歷史,預言,和古蹟,紐約和倫敦, 1894年;跳頻克魯格, Essai河畔香格里拉神學德Esaie xl. - lxvi 。 Paris, 1861; CP Caspari, Beiträge zur Einleitung in das Buch Jesaja, Berlin, 1848; idem, Ueber den Syrisch-Ephraimit.巴黎, 1861年;處長卡斯帕里, Beiträge論導論中之書Jesaja ,柏林, 1848年;同上,論旦Syrisch - Ephraimit 。 Krieg Unter Jotham und Ahaz, Christiania, 1849; L.戰爭菩提樹下喬薩姆與Ahaz ,克里斯, 1849年;研究 Seinecke, Der Evangelist des Alten Testaments, Leipsic, 1870; H. Seinecke ,明鏡傳播者萬老聖經, Leipsic , 1870年閣下; Guthe, Das Zukunftsbild, des Jesaja, ib. Guthe ,達斯Zukunftsbild ,德Jesaja ,國際文憑。 1885; Fr. 1885年;神父。 Giesebrecht, Beiträge zur Jesaiakritik, Göttingen, 1890; M. Giesebrecht , Beiträge楚Jesaiakritik ,哥廷根, 1890年的M. Schian, Die Ebed-Jahwe Lieder, Halle, 1895); H. Schian ,模具Ebed - Jahwe歌,哈雷, 1895年)閣下; Lane, Die Ebed-Jahwe Lieder, Wittenberg, 1898; E.巷,模具Ebed - Jahwe歌,威滕伯格, 1898 ;大腸桿菌 Sellin, Serubbabel, Leipsic, 1898; A. Sellin , Serubbabel , Leipsic , 1898 ;答: Bertholet, Zu Jesaja liii.: Ein, Erklärungsversuch, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1899; H. Bertholet ,祖Jesaja liii 。 :艾因, Erklärungsversuch ,弗賴堡進出口,布賴斯, 1899年閣下; Winckler, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen, Leipsic, 1897; idem, Altorientalische Forschungen, ib. Winckler , Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen , Leipsic , 1897年;同上,古代Forschungen ,國際文憑。 1897; J. 1897年的J. Meinhold, Jesaja und Seine Zeit, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1898; idem, Die Jesajaerzählungen, Jesaja xxxvi.-xxxix. Meinhold , Jesaja和他的時代,弗賴堡進出口,布賴斯, 1898年;同上,模具Jesajaerzählungen , Jesaja xxxvi. -三十九。 Göttingen, 1898. See also the various histories of Israel, introductions to the Old Testament, and Old Testament theologies.EGHTKC哥廷根, 1898 。又見各種歷史以色列,介紹舊約,和舊約theologies.EGHTKC


Isaiah以賽亞

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The greatest of the Hebrew prophets of whom literary monuments remain.其中最大的希伯來先知人文學紀念碑仍然存在。 He resided at Jerusalem, and so contrasts with Micah, the prophet of the country districts.他居住在耶路撒冷,所以相比之下,米卡,先知的國家地區。 He was married (Isa. viii. 3), and had children (vii. 3, viii. 3).他是已婚( Isa.八。 3 ) ,並有子女( vii. 3 ,第八章。 3 ) 。 His bearing indicates that he could maintain his dignity in the highest society, as is shown by his freedom toward Ahaz (vii.) and his acquaintance with Uriah, the chief priest (viii. 2).他同時表示,他可以保持他的尊嚴的最高的社會,這是他的自由所表現出對Ahaz ( vii. )和他的熟人與尤賴厄,政務司鐸( viii. 2 ) 。 The heading in Isa.標題在ISA 。 i.字母i. 1 refers to Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah as the kings under whom he prophesied. This and similar headings, however, have no historical authority, being the work of later writers whose statements had no documentary basis and were purely inferential. 1指Uzziah ,喬薩姆, Ahaz ,並Hezekiah下的國王,他預言。這和類似的標題,但是,沒有任何歷史的權力,被後來的工作的作家,其報表沒有紀錄片基礎和純粹推理。 It is true, moreover, that no prophecy can be shown to be as early as Uzziah's time, except indeed the kernel of ch.這是真的,而且,沒有任何預言可以證明,早在Uzziah的時間,除非確實內核的CH 。 vi.六。 "In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord," etc. (vi. 1, RV), seems to come from a cycle of prophetic narratives, some of which (comp. viii. 1-3, 5; ii. 16), rightly or wrongly, claimed the authorship of Isaiah. “在這一年,國王Uzziah死亡我看到上帝”等( vi. 1 ,右) ,似乎來自一個週期的預言說明,其中一些( comp.八。 1月3日, 5 ;二。 16 ) ,正確或錯誤,聲稱著作權以賽亞。 Certainly the whole man is reflected in the grand vision of ch.當然,整個人也反映在大視覺的CH 。 vi.六。 No personal consideration holds him back (contrast Jeremiah) from offering himself as the Lord's spokesman, and though assured that no exhortation will affect the callous consciences of his hearers, he still goes in and out among his people as if hope existed; and perhaps (human nature is inconsistent) hope still persisted even when reason altogether denied its right.沒有個人考慮擁有他回來(對比耶利米)由提供自己是上帝的發言人,儘管放心,沒有告誡會影響他的冷酷無情的良知聽眾,他依然在和他的人民之間進行的,如果希望存在;也許(人類的本性是不)希望仍然存在,即使原因完全剝奪了權利。

The story of him who "by vileness made the great refusal" (to apply Dante's well-known words), who might have led his people to social and personal reformation, by the wise counsel of the prophet, is recorded in ch.他的故事誰“的卑劣取得的偉大拒絕” (適用於但丁眾所周知的話) ,誰可能導致他的人民對社會和個人的改造,由明智忠告先知,是記錄在CH 。 vii.七。 Isaiah was no statesman, and yet the advice which he gave the king was as good from a political as from a religious point of view.以賽亞沒有政治家,但他的意見了國王一樣好,從政治,從宗教的角度來看。 For why should Ahaz pay Assyria for doing work whichan enlightened regard for its own interest would certainly impel it to perform?對於為什麼要支付亞述Ahaz做工作whichan開明方面為自己的利益肯定會促使它來執行? Why should he take the silver and gold in the Temple and in the palace, and send it as tribute to the Assyrian king?為什麼要他採取銀色和金色的寺廟和宮殿,並把它作為敬意亞述國王?

It is to be noted that in ch.但必須指出的是,在CH 。 viii.八。 Isaiah's wife is called "the prophetess."以賽亞的妻子被稱為“預言家。 ” By her solidarity with her husband she is detached from the unholy people among whom she dwells, and made, as it were, sacrosanct.她的團結與她的丈夫,她脫離了邪惡的人其中她居住,並提出,因為它是,神聖不可侵犯的。 His children, too, are "signs and omens" of divine appointment; and one may conjecture that if Isaiah ever pictured the worst disaster coming to Jerusalem, he saw himself and his family, like Lot of old, departing in safety (for some work reserved for them by God) from the doomed city.他的孩子,也有“標誌和預兆”的神聖任用;和一個可以猜想,如果以賽亞以往想像的最嚴重的災害來到耶路撒冷,他認為他自己和家庭,如地段的老,離開安全(對於某些工作為他們保留的上帝)從注定城市。 Ch.總。 xx.二十。 describes the strange procedure by which Isaiah, as it were, "gave an acted prediction" of the fate in store for Mizraim and Cush (Egypt and Ethiopia), or, as others think, for Mizrim and Cush (North Arabia), on which the peoples of Palestine had counted so much as allies.介紹了奇怪的程序,以賽亞書,因為它是“ ,介紹了預測採取行動”的命運在商店Mizraim和Cush (埃及和埃塞俄比亞) ,或者在其他人認為,為Mizrim和Cush (北沙特阿拉伯) ,其中,巴勒斯坦人民已經清點這麼多的盟友。 From ch. xxxvi.-xxxix., perhaps, much assistance can not be expected in the biography of Isaiah, for in their present form they are certainly rather late.從總。 xxxvi. -三十九。也許,很多援助不能指望在傳記以賽亞,對於其現有的形式,他們當然是很晚。 No more can be said of Isaiah from direct documentary information.沒有更多可說的以賽亞從直接文件資料。 His words are his true biography.他的話是他的真實的傳記。 In them is seen the stern, unbending nature of the man, who loved his people much, but his God more.他們是看到了船尾,不屈的性質的人,誰愛他的人很多,但他的上帝更多。

Isaiah has all the characteristics of a classic writer-terseness, picturesqueness, and originality.以賽亞了所有的特點,一個典型的作家簡潔,如畫,和獨創性。 But was he also a poet?但他也是一個詩人? It is hard to think so.這是很難這麼認為。 Could such a man condescend to the arts necessary to the very existence of poetry?可這樣一個人屈尊藝術必要的生存詩歌? Isa.伊薩。 xxxvii.三十七。 22-29 is assigned to him. But the narration in which it is placed is thought by many critics to be late, and the phraseology of the poem itself seems to point away from Isaiah. 22-29是指派給他。但敘事中,把它放在被認為是許多批評遲到,和用語的詩本身似乎點遠離以賽亞。 On the late tradition of the martyrdom of Isaiah in the reign of Manasseh see Isaiah, Ascension of.EGHTKC關於過時的傳統殉難以賽亞的統治梅納西索見以賽亞,阿森松of.EGHTKC

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

According to the Rabbis Isaiah was a descendant of Judah and Tamar (Soṭah 10b).根據拉比以賽亞是猶太後裔和添馬艦( Soṭah 10B條) 。 His father was a prophet and the brother of King Amaziah (Meg. 15a).他的父親是一名先知和國王的弟弟Amaziah ( Meg. 15A條) 。 While Isaiah, says the Midrash, was walking up and down in his study he heard God saying, "Whom shall I send ?" Then Isaiah said, "Here am I; send me!"雖然以賽亞說,米德拉士,步行上下在其研究報告中,他聽到上帝說: “人應我送? ”然後以賽亞說: “在這裡我,給我! ” Thereupon God said to him," My children are trouble-some and sensitive; if thou art ready to be insulted and even beaten by them, thou mayest accept My message; if not, thou wouldst better renounce it" (Lev. R. x.).於是,上帝對他說: “我的孩子是麻煩一些,敏感,如果你是準備侮辱,甚至毆打他們,你mayest接受我的信息;如果沒有,你wouldst更好地放棄它” ( Lev.河x 。 ) 。 Isaiah accepted the mission, and was the most forbearing, as well as the most ardent patriot, among the Prophets, always defending Israel and imploring forgiveness for its sins.以賽亞接受了任務,而且是最忍,以及最熱情的愛國者,是先知,始終捍衛以色列和乞求原諒的罪孽。 He was therefore distinguished from all other prophets in that he received his communications directly from God and not through an intermediary (ib.).因此,他區別於其他所有的先知,他在收到他的信函直接來自上帝,而不是通過中間人( ib. ) 。 When Isaiah said, "I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips" (vi. 5) he was rebuked by God for speaking in such terms of His people (Cant. R. i. 6).當以賽亞說: “我住在處於一個人的嘴唇不潔” ( vi. 5 )他被指責上帝的發言中對他這樣的人( Cant.河一6 ) 。

In the order of greatness Isaiah is placed immediately after Moses by the Rabbis; in some respects Isaiah surpasses even Moses, for he reduced the commandments to six: honesty in dealing; sincerity in speech; refusal of illicit gain; absence of corruption; aversion for bloody deeds; contempt for evil (Mak. 24a).在該命令的偉大以賽亞放在後立即摩西的拉比;以賽亞書在某些方面甚至超過了摩西,因為他減少了誡命6 :誠實在處理;誠意講話;拒絕非法收益;沒有腐敗;厭惡的血腥的事蹟;蔑視邪惡( Mak. 24A條) 。 Later he reduced the six to two-justice and charity (ib.).後來,他減少了6到兩個正義和慈善( ib. ) 。 The chief merit of Isaiah's prophecies is their consoling character, for while Moses said, "Thou shalt perish in the midst of the nation," Isaiah announced deliverance.首席優點以賽亞的預言是他們安慰的性質,而摩西說: “你應該滅亡處於全國”以賽亞宣布解脫。 Ezekiel's consoling addresses compared with Isaiah's are as the utterances of a villager to the speech of a courtier (Ḥag. 14a).厄澤克爾的安慰地址與以賽亞的是作為話語的一名村民的講話的朝臣( Ḥag. 14A條) 。 Therefore consolation is awaiting him who sees Isaiah in a dream (Ber. 57b).因此,值得安慰的是等待他誰看到以賽亞在夢中( Ber. 57B章) 。

It is related in the Talmud that Rabbi Simeon ben 'Azzai found in Jerusalem an account wherein it was written that Manasseh killed Isaiah.這是有關在塔木德說,拉比西梅昂本' Azzai發現在耶路撒冷一個帳戶,其中有人寫的,梅納西索死亡以賽亞。 Manasseh said to Isaiah, "Moses, thy master, said, 'There shall no man see God and live' [Ex. xxxiii. 20, Hebr.]; but thou hast said, 'I saw the Lord seated upon his throne'" (Isa. vi. 1, Hebr.); and went on to point out other contradictions-as between Deut.索加瓦里說,以賽亞, “摩西,你的主人,說: '有沒有人應看到上帝和生活' [惠。三十三。 20 Hebr 。 ] ;但你說, '我看到了上帝坐在他的王位” ( Isa.六。 1 , Hebr 。 ) ;和還指出其他的矛盾,作為關係Deut 。 iv.四。 7 and Isa. 7和ISA 。 lv.呂。 6; between Ex. 6 ;之間惠。 xxxiii.三十三。 26 and II Kings xx. 6. 26日和二國王二十。 6 。 Isaiah thought: "I know that he will not accept my explanations; why should I increase his guilt?"以賽亞書認為: “我知道,他將不會接受我的解釋,我為什麼要增加他有罪? ” He then uttered the Unpronounceable Name, a cedar-tree opened, and Isaiah disappeared within it.然後,他說出的Unpronounceable名,雪松樹開了,以賽亞內消失。 Then Manasseh ordered the cedar to be sawn asunder, and when the saw reached his mouth Isaiah died; thus was he punished for having said, "I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips" (Yeb. 49b).然後梅納西索下令杉樹被鋸成四分五裂,當看到他的嘴達成以賽亞死亡,因此被處罰了,他說: “我住在處於一個人的不潔嘴唇” ( Yeb. 49b ) 。 A somewhat different version of this legend is given in the Yerushalmi (Sanhedrin x.).一種略為不同的版本的傳說是在耶路莎米(公會十) 。 According to that version Isaiah, fearing Manasseh, hid himself in a cedar-tree, but his presence was betrayed by the fringes of his garment, and Manasseh caused the tree to be sawn in half.根據這一版本以賽亞,擔心梅納西索,躲在一個雪松樹,但他的存在,是背叛了他的邊緣服裝,和梅納西索造成樹被鋸了一半。 A passage of the Targum to Isaiah quoted by Jolowicz ("Die Himmelfahrt und Vision des Prophets Jesajas," p. 8) states that when Isaiah fled from his pursuers and took refuge in the tree, and the tree was sawn in half, the prophet's blood spurted forth.一個通道的根,以以賽亞引述Jolowicz ( “模具升天與視覺之先知Jesajas , ”第8頁)指出,當以賽亞逃離他的追捕和避難的樹,和樹鋸了一半,先知的血液噴出等等。 From Talmudical circles the legend of Isaiah's martyrdom was transmitted to the Arabs ("Ta'rikh," ed. De Goeje, i. 644).SI Br.從Talmudical界的傳說以賽亞的殉道轉發給了阿拉伯人( “ Ta'rikh , ”男女。者Goeje島644 ) 。司一二。

Emil G. Hirsch, Thomas Kelly Cheyne, Isidore Singer, Isaac Broydé埃米爾赫斯基灣,托馬斯凱利進益,伊西多爾歌手,艾薩克Broydé

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