Inspiration啟示

General Information 一般信息

Inspiration is the special influence of the Holy Spirit guiding certain persons to speak or write what God wanted communicated to others, without suspending their individual activity or personality (1Cor. 2:13; 2Tim. 3:16; 1Peter 1:10,11; 2Peter 1:19-21).啟示是特別影響聖靈指導某些人說話或寫什麼上帝想要傳達給其他人,沒有暫停其個人活動或個性( 1Cor.二時13 ; 2Tim 。 3:16 ; 1Peter 1:10,11 ; 2Peter 1:19-21 ) 。


Inspira'tion

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Inspiration was that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (RV, "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2 Tim. 啟示是,特殊或超自然的神聖影響vouchsafed誰寫的那些聖經,使他們的著作萬無一失。 “全部聖經是上帝的啟示” (房車, “每一個靈感上帝聖經” ) , 2蒂姆。 3:16. 3:16 。 This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," ie, "breathed into by God" in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will.這是真正的所有的“聖書” ,而不是意義上的作品,他們正在或超自然的天才的洞察力,而是作為“ theopneustic ” ,即“呼吸到了上帝”在這樣的意義上說,作家是超自然指導表示正是上帝打算他們表達的一個啟示,他的思想和意志。 The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted.的證詞神聖作家本身這一事實充分表明,如果他們是萬無一失作為教師的理論,那麼理論的全體會議靈感必須接受。

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There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God; none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. 中沒有任何錯誤,因為它的聖經來自上帝;沒有已被證明存在。難點和現象,我們不能解釋沒有錯誤。 All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.所有這些書的舊約和新約的啟發。 我們不說,它們包含,但他們是神的話語。禮物的靈感使作家機關的上帝,對通信的萬無一失的主意,將在非常的方式和文字,其中最初考慮。 As to the nature of inspiration we have no information.至於自然的靈感,我們沒有資料。 This only we know, it rendered the writers infallible.這只是我們知道,它使作家萬無一失。 They were all equally inspired, and are all equally infallible.他們都同樣鼓舞,都同樣萬無一失。 The inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their characters.靈感的神聖作家並未改變它們的字符。 They retained all their individual peculiarities as thinkers or writers.他們保留他們所有的個人特點為思想家或作家。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Inspiration of the Bible聖經的啟示

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The subject will be treated in this article under the four heads:這個問題將被視為本條中的四個首長:

I. Belief in Inspired books;一,信仰激勵的書籍;

II.二。 Nature of Inspiration;大自然的啟示;

III.三。 Extent of Inspiration;程度的啟示;

IV.四。 Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible.新教次數的啟示聖經。

I. BELIEF IN INSPIRED BOOKS一,信仰INSPIRED書籍

A. Among the Jews答:在猶太人

The belief in the sacred character of certain books is as old as the Hebrew literature.信仰的神聖性,某些書籍一樣古老的希伯萊文學。 Moses and the prophets had committed to writing a part of the message they were to deliver to Israel from God.摩西和先知的書面承諾的一部分,他們的信息提供給以色列的上帝。 Now the naby (prophet), whether he spoke or wrote, was considered by the Hebrews the authorized interpreter of the thoughts and wishes of Yahweh.現在naby (先知) ,他是否以或寫信,審議了希伯來書核定口譯的想法和願望耶和華。 He was called, likewise, "the man of God," "the man of the Spirit" (Hosea 9:7).他要求,同樣, “上帝的人” , “該名男子的精神” (何西阿9點07 ) 。 It was around the Temple and the Book that the religious and national restoratiion of the Jewish people was effected after their exile (see 2 Maccabees 2:13-14, and the prologue of Sirach in the Septuagint).這是圍繞寺和書籍的宗教和民族restoratiion猶太人民是實施後流亡(見2馬加比2:13-14 ,並序幕的Sirach的譯本) 。 Philo (from 20 BC to AD 40) speaks of the "sacred books", "sacred word", and of "most holy scripture" (De vita Moysis, iii, no. 23).斐羅(從20年到公元40 )談到“聖書” , “神聖的字眼” ,和“最神聖的經文” (者維Moysis ,三,沒有。 23 ) 。 The testimony of Flavius Josephus (AD 37-95) is still more characteristic; it is in his writings that the word inspiration (epipnoia) is met for the first time. He speaks of twenty-two books which the Jews with good reason consider Divine, and for which, in case of need, they are ready to die (Contra Apion., I, 8).的證詞弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫(公元37-95 )仍然較為特徵,它是在他的著作這個詞的靈感( epipnoia )是首次會晤。他談到了2002年的書籍猶太人有很好的理由認為神,並為其中,在有需要時,他們準備死亡(康特拉阿皮翁。 ,我, 8 ) 。 The belief of the Jews is the inspiration of the Scriptures did not diminsh from the time in which they were dispersed throughout the world, without temple, without altar, without priests; on the contrary this faith increased so much that it took the place of everything else.信仰是對猶太人的啟示聖經沒有diminsh從時間,他們分散在世界各地,沒有廟宇,沒有祭壇,沒有司鐸,相反這個信念增加這麼多,它取代了一切其他的。

B. Among the Christians灣在基督徒

The gospel contains no express declaration about the origin and value of the Scriptures, but in it we see that Jesus Christ used them in conformity with the general belief, ie as the Word of God.福音中沒有明確聲明的起源和價值聖經,但在這我們看到耶穌基督用它們符合一般的信念,即作為神的話語。 The most decisive texts in this respect are found in the Fourth Gospel, v, 39; x, 35.最具決定性的案文在這方面被發現的第四次福音,第五,第39條;十, 35 。 The words scripture, Word of God, Spirit of God, God, in the sayings and writings of the Apostles are used indifferently (Romans 4:3; 9:17).聖經的話,上帝的話語,聖靈,上帝,在諺語和著作使徒用於漠然(羅馬書4:3 ; 9點17 ) 。 St. Paul alone appeals expressly more than eighty times to those Divine oracles of which Israel was made the guardian (cf. Romans 3:2).聖保祿單獨上訴明確超過80倍,這些神聖的神諭,其中以色列是監護人(參見羅馬書3:2 ) 。 This persuasion of the early Christians was not merely the effect of a Jewish tradition blindly accepted and never understood.這說服早期基督徒不只是影響的一個猶太傳統盲目接受和不理解。 St. Peter and St. Paul give the reason why it was accepted: it is that all Scripture is inspired of God (theopneustos) (2 Timothy 2:16; cf. 2 Peter 1:20 21).聖彼得和聖保羅的原因使人們接受:它是所有聖經是上帝的啟示( theopneustos ) (提摩太后書2時16分;比照。彼得後書1:20 21 ) 。 It would be superfluous to spend any time in proving that Tradition has faithfully kept the Apostolic belief in the inspiratiion of Scripture.這將是多餘的花費任何時間在證明這一傳統忠實地保持了使徒的信念, inspiratiion的聖經。 Moreover, this demonstaration forms the subject-matter of a great number of works (see especially Chr. pesch, "De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae", 1906, p. 40-379).此外,這demonstaration形式的事由大量的工程(見特別是染色體。佩施“者inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae ” , 1906年,第40-379 ) 。 It is enough for us to add that on several occasions the Church has defined the inspiration of the canonical books as an article of faith (see Denzinger, Enchiridion, 10th ed., n. 1787, 1809).這是足以讓我們補充說,在好幾個場合教會界定了靈感的典型書籍作為一個信條(見Denzinger , Enchiridion ,第10版。 ,聯合國1787年, 1809年) 。 Every Christian sect still deserving that name believes in the inspiration of the Scriptures, although several have more or less altered the idea of inspiration.每一個基督徒節仍然值得這個名字相信聖經的啟示,雖然有幾個或多或少改變了想法,靈感。

C. Value of this Belief角價值這一信念

History alone allows us to establish the fact that Jews and Christians have always believed in the inspiration of the Bible.歷史使我們能夠單獨建立一個事實,即猶太人和基督徒一直認為在聖經的啟示。 But what is this belief worth? Proofs of the rational as well as of the dogmatic order unite in justifying it. Those who first recognized in the Bible a superhuman work had as foundation of their opinion the testimony of the Prophets, of Christ, and of the Apostles, whose Divine mission was sufficiently established by immediate experience or by history.但什麼是這種信念的價值有多少?證明合理以及武斷地團結在以證明它。這些誰第一個承認聖經超人的工作作為基礎,他們的意見的證詞先知,基督,和使徒,其神聖的使命是充分確定的立即經驗或歷史。 To this purely rational argument can be added the authentic teaching of the Church.這一純粹理性的論點可以說,真正的教學教會。 A Catholic may claim this additional certitude without falling into a vicious circle, because the infallibility of the Church in its teaching is proved independently of the inspiration of Scripture; the historical value, belonging to Scripture in common with every other authentic and truthful writing, is enough to prove this.天主教會聲稱這種額外確信,而不陷入惡性循環,因為犯錯誤的教會在其教學實踐證明獨立的啟示聖經;的歷史價值,屬於聖經中與所有其他真實和真實的寫作,是足以證明這一點。

II.二。 NATURE OF INSPIRATION自然的靈感

A. Method to be followed答:應遵循的方法

(1) To determine the nature of Biblical inspiration the theologian has at his disposal a three fold source of information: the data of tradition, the concept of inspiration, and the concrete state of the inspired text. ( 1 )要確定的性質,聖經啟示的神學家已經在他掌握的3倍資料來源:數據的傳統的概念,靈感,和具體國家的靈感文字。 If he wishes to obtain acceptable results he will take into account all of these elements of solution.如果他希望獲得可以接受的結果,他將考慮到所有這些因素的解決辦法。 Pure speculation might easily end in a theory incompatible with the texts.純粹是猜測可能很容易在月底的理論相抵觸的法規。 On the other hand, the literary or historical analysis of these same texts, if left to its own resources, ignores their Divine origin.另一方面,文學或歷史的分析,這些相同的文字,如果任其自己的資源,忽略了其神聖的起源。 Finally, if the data of tradition attest the fact of inspiration, they do not furnish us with a complete analysis of its nature.最後,如果傳統的數據證明了這一事實的啟發,他們沒有我們提供的全面分析其性質。 Hence, theology, philosophy, and exegesis have each a word to say on this subject.因此,神學,哲學和註釋都一個字地說了這個問題。 Positive theology furnishes a starting point in its traditional formulae: viz., God is the author of Scripture, the inspired writer is the organ of the Holy Ghost, Scripture is the Word of God.積極神學提供一個起點,其傳統的公式:即。 ,上帝是聖經的作者,作家的靈感是機關的聖靈,聖經是神的話語。 Speculative theology takes these formulæ, analyses their contents and from them draws its conclusions.投機神學考慮這些公式,分析其內容和借鑒他們的結論。 In this way St. Thomas, starting from the traditional concept which makes the sacred writer an organ of the Holy Ghost, explains the subordination of his faculties to the action of the Inspirer by the philosophical theory of the instrumental cause (Quodl., VII, Q. vi, a. 14, ad 5um).以這種方式聖托馬斯,從傳統的概念,使神聖的作家機關的聖靈,解釋屈從他的院系所採取的行動鼓舞了哲學理論的工具事業( Quodl. ,七,問:六,答: 14 ,廣告5um ) 。 However, to avoid all risk of going astray, speculation must pay constant attention to the indications furnished by exegesis.然而,為了避免所有的風險誤入歧途,投機必須經常注意的適應證提供註釋。

(2) The Catholic who wishes to make a correct analysis of Biblical inspiration maust have before his eyes the following ecclesiastical documents: (a) "These books are held by the Church as sacred and canonical, not as having been composed by merely human labour and afterwards approved by her authority, nor merely because they contain revelation without error, but because, written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, they have God for their author, and have been transmitted to the Church as such." ( 2 )天主教誰願意做出正確的分析聖經啟示maust收到他的眼睛下面的教會文件: ( a ) “這些書是由教會的神聖和規範,而不是已經組成只是人類勞動後來她管理局批准的,也僅僅是因為它們包含的啟示,沒有錯誤,但因為書面的啟示聖靈,他們有上帝的作者,並已轉交給教會等。 “ (Concil. Vatic., Sess. III, const. dogm, de Fide, cap. ii, in Denz., 1787). ( Concil. Vatic 。 , Sess 。三,常量。 dogm ,日善意,帽子。二,在Denz 。 , 1787年) 。 (b) "The Holy Ghost Himself, by His supernatural power, stirred up and impelled the Biblical writers to write, and assisted them while writing in such a manner that they conceived in their minds exactly, and determined to commit to writing faithfully, and render in exact language, with infallible truth, all that God commanded and nothing else; without that, God would not be the author of Scripture in its entirety" (Encycl. Provid. Deus, in Dena., 1952). (二) “的聖靈自己,用他自己的超自然的力量,激起了和促使聖經作家撰寫,並協助他們,而書面的方式,他們的設想在頭腦到底,並決心致力於書面忠實,和提供準確的語言中,與做人的真理,所有上帝指揮而已,沒有說,上帝不會聖經作者的全部“ ( Encycl.提供商。殺出,在德娜。 , 1952年) 。

B. Catholic View灣天主教查看

Inspiration can be considered in God, who produces it; in man, who is its object; and in the text, which is its term.啟示可視為上帝,誰生產它的人,誰是它的對象;和文字,這是其任期。

(1) In God inspiration is one of those actions which are ad extra as theologians say; and thus it is common to the three Divine Persons. ( 1 )在上帝的啟示是其中的一個行動,這是額外的廣告神學說; ,因此是很常見的三大神聖者。 However, it is attributed by appropriation to the Holy Ghost.然而,由於按撥款的聖靈。 it is not one of those graces which have for their immediate and essential object the sanctification of the man who received them, but one of those called antonomastically charismata, or gratis datae, because they are given primarily for the good of thers.它不是一個人青睞有立即和基本對象的成聖的人誰得到它們,但這些所謂的antonomastically charismata ,或免費提供datae ,因為它們主要用於提供良好的thers 。 Besides, inspiration has this in common with every actual grace, that it si a transitory participation of the Divine power; the inspired wirter finding himself invested with it only at the very moment of writing or when thinking about writing.此外,啟發了這個共同的每一個實際的寬限期,這州市過渡參與神聖權力;的靈感wirter發現自己的投資與它只有在非常時刻,書面或當思考寫作。

(2) Considered in the man on whom is bestowed this favour, inspiration affects the will, the intelligence and all the executive faculties of the writer. ( 2 )審議的男子是誰賦予這個贊成,靈感影響的意志,智慧和所有的行政學院的作家。 (a) Without an impulsion given to the will of the writer, it cannot be conceived how God could still remain the principal cause of Scripture, for, in that case, the man would have taken the initiative. ( a )在一個衝擊的將給予的作家,就不能設想如何上帝可能仍然是主要根源聖經,因為在這種情況下,該名男子將採取主動行動。 Besides that the text of St. Peter is peremptory: "For prophecy came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God spoke, inspired by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21).此外,案文聖彼得是強制性的: “對於預言是不是由人的意願在任何時候:但羅馬男子上帝以啟發的聖靈” (彼得後書1時21分) 。 The context shows that there is question of all Scripture, which is a prophecy in the broad sense of the word (pasa propheteia graphes).背景顯示,有問題的所有經文,這是一個預言在廣泛意義上的字(帕薩propheteia graphes ) 。 According to the Encyclical Prov.根據通諭省。 Deus, "God stirred up and impelled the sacred writers to determine to write all that God meant them to write" (Denz., 1952).上帝, “上帝引發和推動的神聖作家以確定寫入所有上帝意味著他們寫” ( Denz. , 1952年) 。 Theologians discuss the question whether, in order to impart this motion, God moves the will of the writer directly or decides it by proposing maotvies of an intellectual order.神學討論的問題是,為了傳授這項議案,上帝的意志行動的作家直接或決定提出maotvies它的智力秩序。 At any rate, everybody admits that the Holy Ghost can arouse or simply utilize external influences capable of acting on the will of the sacred writer.無論如何,每個人都承認,聖靈可以調動或者僅僅利用外部影響能力採取行動的意願神聖的作家。 According to an ancient tradition, St. Mark and St. John wrote their Gospels at the instance of the faithful.根據一個古老的傳統,聖馬克及聖約翰寫在他們的福音實例信徒。

What becomes of human liberty under the influence of Divine inspiration?什麼成為人類自由的影響下,神的啟示? In principle, it is agreed that the Inspirer can take away from man the power of refusal.從原則上講,它是一致認為,鼓動可以從人的權力拒絕。 In point of fact, it is commonly admitted that the Inspirer, Who does not lack means of obtaining our consent, has respected the freedom of His instruments.事實上,人們普遍承認,鼓動,是誰並不缺乏手段獲得我們的同意,尊重他的自由的手段。 An inspiration which is not accompanied by a revelation, which is adapted to the normal play of the faculties of the human soul, which can determine the will of the inspired writer by motives of a human order, does not necessarily suppose that he who is its object is himself conscious of it.啟發這不是伴隨著一個啟示,這是適應正常發揮的院系的人的靈魂,它可以決定的意願,激發作家的動機人類秩序,不一定猜想,他是誰對象是他自己意識到它。 If the prophet and the author of the Apcoalypse know and say that their pen is guided by the Spirit of God, other Biblical authors seem rather to have been led by "some mysterious influence whose origin was either unknown or not clearly discerned by them."如果先知和作者Apcoalypse知道和說,他們的筆是精神的指引下上帝,其他聖經而作者似乎已經由“一些神秘的影響,其原產地是身份不明或沒有清楚地看出了他們。 ” (St. Aug., De Gen. ad litt., II, xvii, 37; St. Thomas II-II, Q. clxxi, a. 5; Q. cixxiii, a.4). (街8月,德將軍廣告利特。 ,二, 17 , 37 ;聖托馬斯二,二,問: clxxi ,答: 5 ;問: cixxiii , A.4節) 。 However, most theologians admit that ordinarily the writer was conscious of his ow inspiration.然而,大多數神學家承認,通常是有意識的作家,他現在的靈感。 From waht we have just said it follows that inspiration does not necessarily imply exstasy, as Philo and, later, the Montanists thought.從我們剛才所說因此,靈感並不一定意味著exstasy ,因為斐羅,以及後來的Montanists思想。 It is true that some of the orthodox apologists of the second century (Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, St. Justin) have, in the description which they give of Biblical inspiration, been somehat influenced by the ideas of divination then current amongst the pagans. They are too prone to represent the Biblical writer as a purely passive intermediary, something after the style of the Pythia.誠然,一些東正教辯護士的第二個世紀(那哥拉,西奧菲勒的安提阿,聖賈斯汀)有,在描述中,他們給予的聖經靈感,被somehat影響的想法占卜當前中的異教徒。他們太容易代表聖經作家作為一個純粹的被動的中介,而之後的樣式Pythia 。 Nevertheless, they did not make him out to be an energumen for all that.然而,他們沒有讓他的是一個energumen的一切。 The Divine intervention, if one is conscious of it, can certainly fill the human soul with a certain awe; but it does not throw it into a state of delirum.神的干預,如果一個人意識到它,一定能夠填補人類靈魂具有一定震懾,但它不把它變成一個國家的delirum 。

(b) To induce a person to write is not to take on oneself the responsibility of that writing, more especially it is not to become the author of that writing. (二)誘使人寫不承擔自己的責任,寫,尤其是它不成為作者的寫作。 If God can claim the Scripture as His own work, it is because He has brought even the intellect of the inspired writer under His command.如果上帝可以聲稱聖經作為自己的工作,那是因為他帶來了甚至是智慧的啟發作家在他的指揮下。 However, we must not represent the Inspirer as putting a ready amde book in the mind of the inspired person.但是,我們絕不能代表鼓動如把一個現成的amde書在考慮到人的靈感。 Nor has He necessarily to reveal the contens of the work to be produced. No matter where the knowledge of the writer on this point comes from, whether it be acquired naturally or due to Divine revelation, inspiration has not essentially for its object to teach somethin new to the sacred writer, but to render him capable of writing with Divine authority.也沒有一定的含量揭示的某些工作。無論知識的作家在這一點上來自於,不管它是後天自然或因天啟,沒有靈感的對象主要是教somethin新的神聖作家,但使他能夠與神的書面授權。 Thus the author of the Acts of the Apostles narrates events in which he himself took part, or which were related to him.因此,作者使徒行傳敘述事件中,他本人參加,或者有相關的給他。 It is highly probable that most of the sayings of the Book of Proverbs were familiar to the sages of the East, before being set down in an inspired writing.很可能,大多數的圖書成語諺語是熟悉的聖賢東,然後在規定的啟發寫作。 God, inasmuch as he is the principal cause, when he inspires a writer, subordinates all that writer's cognitive faculties so as to make him accomplish the different actions which would be naturally gone through by a man who, first of all, has the design of composing a book, then gets together his materials, subjects them to a critical examination, arranges them, makes them enter into his plan, and finally brands them with the mark of his personality -- ie his own pecualiar style.上帝,因為他是主要的原因,當他激勵一個作家,下屬所有作家的認知院系,以使他完成不同的行動,這將是自然經歷了一個男人誰,首先,已設計撰寫了一本書,然後會連同他的材料,科目他們進行嚴格審查,並安排他們,使他們進入他的計劃,並最終與他們的品牌標誌,他的個性-即他自己的pecualiar風格。 The grace of inspiration does not exempt the writer from personal effort, nor does it insure the perfection of his work from an artistic point of view.寬限期的靈感並不免除作家從個人的努力,也沒有投保的完善他的工作從藝術的角度來看。 The author of the Second Book of Machabeees and St. Luke tell the reader of the pains they took to document their work (2 Maccabees 2:24-33; Luke 1:1-4).的作者,第二卷和聖盧克Machabeees告訴讀者,他們的痛苦了他們的工作文件( 2馬加比2:24-33 ;路加福音1:1-4 ) 。 The imperfections of the work are to be attributed to the instrument.的不完善的工作要歸因於該文書。 God can, of course, prepare this instrument beforehand, but, a the time of using it, He does not ordinarily make any change in its conditions.上帝可,當然,這一文書事先準備,但是,一個在使用它時,他並沒有作出任何改變通常在其條件。 When the Creator applies His power to the faculties of a creature outside of the ordinary way, he does so in a manner in keeping with the natural activity of these faculties.當造物主適用權力院系的產物以外的普通方法,他這樣做的方式符合天然活性這些學院。 Now, in all languages recourse is had to the comparison of light to explain the nature of the human intelligence.現在,在所有的語言是不得不求助於比較輕解釋的性質,人類的智慧。 That is why St. Thomas (II-II, Q. clxxi, a. 2; Q. clxxiv, a. 2, ad 3um) gives the name of light or illumination to the intellectual motion communicated by God to the sacred wirter.這就是為什麼聖托馬斯(二,二,問: clxxi ,答: 2 ;問: clxxiv ,答: 2 ,廣告3um )提供的名稱或照明燈的智力運動傳達上帝的神聖wirter 。 After him, then, we may say that this motion is a pecualir supernatural participation of the Divine light, in virtue of which the writer conceives exactly the work that the Holy Ghost wants him to write.他之後,然後,我們可以說,這項議案是一個pecualir超自然參與聖光,在憑藉的正是作家設想的工作,聖靈希望他給我們寫信。 Thanks to this help given to his intellect, the inspired writer judges, with a certitude of Divene order, not only of the opportuneness of the book to be written, but also of the truth of the details and of the whole.由於這個幫助給予他的智力,激發作家的法官,以肯定的Divene秩序,不僅opportuneness本書來寫,而且還對真理的細節和整個。 However, all theologians do not analyse exactly in the same manner the influence of this light of inspiration. (c) The influence of the Holy Ghost had to extend also to all the executive faculties of the sacred writer -- to his memory, his imagination, and even to the hand with which he formed the letters.然而,所有的神學家不分析完全以同樣的方式的影響,這一點啟發。 (三)影響聖靈不得不延長也給所有行政學院的神聖作家-他的記憶,他的想像,甚至手,使他形成了信件。 Whether this influence proceed immediatley from the action of the Inspirer or be a simple assistance, and, again, whether this assistance be positive or merely negative, in any case everyone admits that its object is to remove all error from the inspired text. Those who hold that even the words are inspired believe that it also forms an integral part of the grace of inspiration itself.這是否影響立即著手從行動的鼓動或是一個簡單的援助,並再次,不論這種援助是積極或消極的只是,在任何情況下,每個人都承認,其目標是消除所有的錯誤文字的靈感。那些誰持有的話,即使是啟發認為,這也構成的一個組成部分,寬限期的靈感本身。 However that may be, there is no denying that the inspiration extends, in one way or aother, and as far as needful, to all those who have really cooperated in the composition of the sacred test, especially to the secretaries, if the inspired person had any.不過可能是,無可否認,靈感延伸,以這種或那種方式aother ,並盡可能必要的,所有這些誰真正合作的組成神聖的考驗,特別是秘書,如果鼓舞人有任何。 Seen in this light, the hagiographer no longer appears a passive and inert instrument, abased as it were, by an exterior impulsion; on the contrary, his faculties are elevated to the service of a superior power, whihc, although distinct, is none the less intimately present and interior.從這個角度來看,該hagiographer似乎不再被動和惰性文書,自卑,因為它是由一個外部衝擊,相反,他是學院提升到一個卓越的服務能力,其中,雖然不同的,是沒有的不到密切當前和內飾。 Without losing anything of his personal life, or of his liberty, or even of his spontaneity (since it may happen that he is not conscious of the power which leads him on), man becomes thus the interpreter of God.不失去任何東西,他的個人生活,或他的自由,甚至他的自發性(因為它可能會發生,他不自覺的動力,導致他的) ,從而成為一名口譯員的上帝。 Such, then is the most comprehensive notion of Divine inspiration.例如,則是最全面的概念,神聖的靈感。 St. Thomas (II-II, Q., cixxi) reduces it to the grace of prophecy, in the broad sense of the word.聖托馬斯(二,二,問, cixxi )降低了它的恩惠的預言,在廣泛意義上的。

(3) Considered in its term, inspiration is nothing else but the biblical text itself. ( 3 )在其任期,靈感是沒有別的,但聖經經文本身。 This text was destined by God, Who inspired it, for the universal Church, in order that it might be authentically recognized as His written word. This destination is essential.這一案文是注定的上帝,誰的啟發,因為普世教會,為了這可能是真正認識到他的文字。這一目標是必不可少的。 Without it a book, even if it had been inspired by God, could not become canonical; it would have no more value than a private revelation.沒有它的書籍,即使它借鑒了上帝,不能成為典範,它不會有任何更多的價值比一個私人啟示。 That is why any writing dated from a later period than the Apostolical age is condemned ipso facto to be excluded from the canon.這就是為什麼任何書面文件日期從後期比使徒時代譴責事實上被排除在佳能。 The reason of this is that the deposit of the public revelation was complete in the time of the Apostles.原因是,公眾存款的啟示是在規定的時間內完成的使徒。 they alone had the mission to give to the teaching of Christ the development which was to be opportunely suggested to them by the Paraclete, John 14:26 (see Franzelin, De divina Traditione et Scriptura (Rome, 1870), thesis xxii).它們本身的任務,使教學基督的發展,要及時向他們建議的聖靈,約翰14時26 (見Franzelin ,者神聖Traditione與聖經(羅馬, 1870年) ,論文22 ) 。 Since the Bible is the Word of God, it can be said that every canonical text is for us a Divine lesson, a revelation, even though it may have been written with the aid of inspiration only, and without a revelation properly so called.因為聖經是神的話語,可以說,每一個典型的案文對我們來說是一項神聖的教訓,一個啟示,即使它可能已被書面的幫助下,只有靈感,並沒有所謂正確的啟示。 For this cause, also, it is clear that an inspired text cannot err.為了這項事業,也很清楚,一個靈感文字不能犯錯誤。 That the Bible is free from error is beyond all doubt, the teaching of Tradition.聖經是免費的錯誤是毫無疑問,教學中的傳統。 The whole of Scriptural apologetics consists precisley in accounting for this exceptional prerogative.整個聖經護教學包括precisley會計這一特殊特權。 Exegetes and apologists have recourse here to considerations which may be reduced to the following heads: Exegetes和辯護士求助於這裡的考慮可能會降低到以下首長:

the original unchanged text, as it left the pen of the sacred writers, is alone in question.原來不變的文字,因為它離開了筆的神聖作家,是單獨的問題。

As truth and error are properties of judgment, only the assertiions of the sacred writer have to be dealt with.真相與錯誤的性質的判斷,只有assertiions的神聖作家必須處理。 If he makes any affirmation, it is the exegete's duty to discover its meaning and extent; whether he expresses his own views or those of others; whether in quoting another he approves, disapproves, or keeps a silent reserve, etc.如果他作出任何肯定,這是exegete的職責,發現其含義和範圍;他是否對自己的意見或其他人;無論是在他引述另一核准,不贊成,或保持沉默的儲備金等

The intention of the writer is to be found out according to the laws of the language in which he writes, and consequently we must take into account the style of literatur he wished to use.的意圖,作者是要找到了根據法律的語言,他寫道,因此,我們必須考慮到風格的文學,他希望利用。 All styles are compatible with inspiration, because they are all legitimate expressions of human thought, and also, as St. Augustine says (De Trinitate, I, 12), "God, getting books written by men, did not wish them to be composed in a form differing from that used by them."所有樣式符合靈感,因為它們都是合法的表達人的思想,而且,作為聖奧古斯丁說(者Trinitate ,我12 ) , “上帝,讓書的男人,不希望他們能夠組成在不同的形式所用他們。 “ Therefore, a distinciton is to be made between the assertion and the expression; it is by means of the latter that we arrive at the former.因此, distinciton是之間必須作出的斷言和表達,它是通過後者,我們到達前。

These general principles are to be applied to the different books of the Bible, mutatis mutandis, according to the nature of the matter contained in them,the special purpose for which their author wrote them, the traditional explanation which is given of them, the traditional explanation which is given of them, and also according to the decisions of the Church.這些一般原則是適用於不同的書籍,聖經,比照根據的事項的性質在其中,特別目的,他們的作者寫道,他們傳統的解釋是,他們的傳統解釋是,他們還根據決定的教會。

C. Erroneous Views Proposed by Catholic Authors角錯誤觀點的提出天主教作者

(1) Those which are wrong because insufficient. ( 1 )那些錯誤的,因為不夠的。

(a) The approbation given by the Church to a merely human writing cannot, by itself, make it inspired Scripture. (一)認可所給予教會只是一個人的書面不能本身,使之激勵聖經。 The contrary opinion hazarded by Sixtus of Siena (1566), renewed by Movers and Haneberg, in the nineteenth centruy, was condemned by the Vatican Council.了相反的意見冒險的西斯篤錫耶納( 1566年) ,新的推動者和Haneberg ,在十九世紀,是譴責梵蒂岡會議。 (See Denz., 1787). (見Denz 。 , 1787年) 。

(b) Biblical inspiration even where it seems to be at its minimum -- eg, in the historical books -- is not a simple assistance given to the inspired writers to prevent him from erring, as was thought by Jahn (1793), who followed Holden and perhaps Richard Simon. (二)聖經的啟示,即使它似乎是在其最起碼的-例如,在歷史的書-這不是一個簡單的援助給予靈感的作家,以防止他犯錯誤,因為被認為是雅恩( 1793年) ,誰其次,或許理查德霍頓西蒙。 In order that a text may be Scripture, it is not enough "that it contain revelation without error" (Conc. Vatic., Denz., 1787).為了使文字可能是聖經,這是不夠的“ ,它包含的啟示沒有錯誤” ( Conc. Vatic 。 , Denz 。 , 1787年) 。

(c) A book composed from merely human resources would not become an inspired text, even if approved of, afterwards, by the Holy Ghost. (三)一本書組成,從單純的人力資源將不會成為一個靈感的文字,即使批准的,隨後,由聖靈。 This subsequent approbation might make the truth contained in the book as credible as if it were an article of the Divine Faith, but it would not give a Divine origin to the book itself.這可能會使以後的讚許中所載的事實是可信的這本書,好像這是一篇文章的神聖信仰,但它不會放棄神聖原產地為這本書本身。 Every inspiration properly so called is antecedent, so much so that it is a contradiciton in terms to speak of a subsequent inspiration.每一個靈感妥善所謂是先行,所以它是一個contradiciton在談論以後的靈感。 This truth seems to have been lost sight of by those moderns who thought they could revive-at the same time making it still less acceptable -- a vague hypothesis of Lessius (1585) and of his disciple Bonfrère.這一事實似乎已經忘記了這些現代人誰以為自己可以恢復,同時使它更可以接受的-一個模糊的假說Lessius ( 1585 )和他的弟子邦弗雷雷。

(1) Those which err by excess ( 1 )那些錯誤過剩

A view which errs by excess confounds inspiration with revelation.這種看法errs過剩困惑的靈感與啟示。 We have just said that these two Divine operations are not only distinct but may take place separately, although they may also be found together.我們剛才說,這兩個神聖的行動不僅是不同的,但可能需要分開,雖然他們也可以在一起。 As a matter of fact, this is what happens whenever God moves the sacred writer to express thoughts or sentiments of which he cannot have acquired knowledge in the ordinary way.事實上,這是會發生什麼事時,上帝的神聖作家舉動表達思想或感情,他不能獲得知識的普通方法。 There has been some exaggeration in the accusation brought against early writers of having confounded inspiration with revelation; however, it must be admitted that the explicit distinction between these two graces has become more and more emphasized since the time of St. Thomas.已有一些誇張的指控提起早期作家有困惑的靈感與啟示,但必須承認,明確區分這兩個一席之地已經成為越來越多的強調,因為時間的聖托馬斯。 This is a very real progress and allows us to make a more exact psychological analysis of inspiration.這是一個非常實際的進展,使我們能夠作出更準確的心理分析的靈感。

III.三。 EXTENT OF INSPIRATION範圍內的靈感

The question now is not whether all the Biblical books are inspired in every part, even in the fragments called deuterocanonical: this point, which concerns the integrity of the Canon, has been solved by the Council of Tent (Denz., 784). but are we bound to admit that, in the books or parts of books which are canonical, there is absolutely nothing, either as regards the matter or the form, which does not fall under the Divine inspiration?現在的問題是不是所有的聖經書籍靈感在每一部分,甚至在片段稱為deuterocanonical :這一點,它涉及的完整性佳能,已經得到解決,安理會的帳篷( Denz. , 784 ) 。但我們一定會承認,在書籍或部分圖書的規範,絕對沒有,要么至於事項或形式,這並不屬於神聖的靈感?

A. Inspiration of the Whole Subject Matter答:啟示全體題材

For the last three centuries there have been author-theologians, exegetes, and especially aplogists -- such as Holden, Rohling, Lenormant, di Bartolo, and others -- who maintained, with more or less confidence, that inspiration was limited to moral and dogmatic teaching, excluding everything in the Bible relating to history and the natural sciences.在過去的三個世紀有作家,神學家, exegetes ,特別是aplogists -如霍頓, Rohling , Lenormant ,邸巴爾托羅,和其他人-誰保持,更多或更少的信心,這靈感僅限於道德和教條式的教學,但不包括一切有關聖經的歷史和自然科學。 They think that, in this way, a whole mass of difficulties against the inerrancy of the bible would be removed. but the Church has never ceased to protest against this attempt to restrict the inspiration of the sacred books.他們認為,以這種方式,整個大的困難對無誤的聖經將被刪除。而且教會從來沒有停止過,抗議這一企圖限制靈感的神聖書籍。 This is what took place when Mgr d'Hulst, Rector of the Institut Catholique of paris, gave a sympathetic account of this opinion in "Le Correspondant" of 25 Jan., 1893.這是發生了什麼事情時,經理德許爾斯特,校長巴黎天主教學院,發表了同情到這一意見, “樂通訊員” 1月25日, 1893年。 The reply was quickly forthcoming in the Encyclical Providentissimus Deus of the same year.答复很快即將在通諭Providentissimus殺出同年。 In that Encyclical Leo XIII said:在這通諭利奧十三世說:

It will never be lawful to restrict inspiration merely to certain parts of the Holy Scripture, or to grant that the sacred writer could have made a mistake. Nor may the opinion of those be tolerated, who, in order to get out of these difficulties, do not hesitate to suppose that Divine inspiration extends only to what touches faith and morals, on the false plea that the true meaning is sought for less in what God has said than in the motive for which He has said it.它永遠不會是合法的,限制的靈感只是某些部分的聖經,或給予的神聖作家可能犯了一個錯誤。也可能認為這些是不能容忍的,誰,為了擺脫這些困難,請不要猶豫,假設神聖靈感僅適用於涉及什麼信仰和道德上的錯誤主張的真正含義是在尋求不到什麼上帝說比的動機,他說, 。 (Denz., 1950) ( Denz. , 1950年版)

In fact, a limited inspiration contradicts Christian tradition and theological teaching.事實上,在有限的靈感違背基督教的傳統和神學教學。

B. Verbal Inspiration灣言語啟示

Theologians discuss the question, whether inspiration controlled the choice of the words used or operated only in what concerned the sense of the assertions made in the Bible.神學討論這個問題,無論是靈感的選擇控制字使用或操作只有在什麼意義上的有關說法在聖經。 In the sixteenth century verbal inspiratiion was the current teaching.在16世紀的口頭inspiratiion是當前教學。 The Jesuits of Louvain were the first to react against this opinion. They held "that it is not necessary in order that a text be Holy Scripture, for the Holy Ghost to have inspired the very material words used."耶穌魯汶首先作出反應的這一看法。他們認為“這是沒有必要為了一個文本聖經,為聖靈有啟發非常材料用字。 ” The protests against this new opinion were so violent that Bellarmine and Francisco Suárez thought it their duty to tone down the formula by declaring "that all the words of the text have been dictated by the Holy Ghost in what concerns the substance, but differently according to the diverse conditiions of the instruments."抗議這一新的見解是如此暴力的貝拉明和Francisco蘇亞雷斯認為他們有責任淡化公式宣布, “所有的話文本已取決於聖靈在涉及實質內容,但根據不同的各種不同的conditiions的手段。 “ This opinion went on gaining in precision, and little by little it disentangled itself from the terminology which it had borrowed from the adverse opinion, notably from the word "dictation."這一意見得到了在精度,並一點一點從它disentangled本身的術語它借來的不利輿論,特別是從Word “聽寫” 。 Its progress was so rapid that at the beginning of the nineteenth century it was more commonly taught than the theory of verbal inspiration.其進展如此之快,在19世紀初這是更常見的教導比口頭理論的啟發。 Cardinal Franzelin seems to have given it its definite form.紅衣主教Franzelin似乎給予其一定的形式。 During the last quarter of a century verbal inspiration has again found partisans, and they become more numerous every day.在過去四分之一世紀的口頭靈感再次發現游擊隊員,他們越來越多,每天。 However, the theologians of today, whilst retaining the terminology of the older school, have profoundly modified the theory itself.然而,今天的神學家,而保留的術語老年學校,深刻地改變了理論本身。 They no longer speak of a material dictation of words to the ear of the writer, nor of an interior revelation of the term to be employed, but of a Divine motion extending to every faculty and even to the powers of execution to the writer, and in consequence influencing the whole work, even its editing.他們不再談論材料聽寫的話耳朵的作家,也不是內部啟示長期被僱用,而是一項神聖的議案延伸到每一個教師,甚至的權力的執行的作家,和因此影響到整個工作,即使它的編輯。 Thus the sacred text is wholly the work of God and wholly the work of man, of the latter, by way of instrument, of the former by way of principal cause.因此,神聖的文字完全是上帝的工作和完全的工作的人,後者的形式,對文書,前方式主要根源。 Under this rejuvenated form the theory of verbal inspiration shows a marked advance towards reconcilation with the rival opinion. From an exegetical and apologetical point of view it is indifferent which of these two opinions we adopt.根據這一振興形式語言理論的啟發顯示了明顯的推動和解與競爭對手的意見。從訓詁和apologetical的角度來看它是漠不關心這兩種意見,我們通過。 All agree that the characteristics of style as well as the imperfections affecting the subject matter itself, belong to the inspired writer.大家都同意的特點,風格以及不完善影響標的物本身,屬於靈感的作家。 As for the inerrancy of the inspired text it is to the Inspirer that it must be finally attributed, and it matters little if God has insured the truth of His Scripture by the grace of inspiration itself, as the adherents of verbal inspiration teach, rather than by a providential assistance.至於無誤的啟發是文字的鼓舞,它必須是最後歸因,並無關緊要如果上帝已投保的真理他聖經的恩典的靈感本身,作為信徒的口頭傳授靈感,而不是由引發援助。

IV.四。 PROTESTANT VIEWS ON THE INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE PROTESTANT意見聖經啟示

A. At the Beginning of the Reformation答:在開始的改革

(1) As a necessary consequence of their attitude towards the Bible, which they had taken as their only rule of Faith, the Protestants were led at the very outset to go beyond the ideas of a merely passive inspiration, which was commonly received in the first half of the sixteenth century. ( 1 )作為一個必然後果,他們的態度聖經,他們已經採取作為其唯一法治誠信,新教徒領導首先要超越的想法只是一個被動的靈感,這是普遍接受的上半年的16世紀。 Not only did they make no distinction between inspiration and revelation, but Scripture, both in its matter and style, was considered as revelation itself.他們不僅不區分靈感和啟示,但聖經,無論是在物質和風格,被視為啟示本身。 In it God spoke to the reader just as He did to the Israelites of old from the mercy-seat.在它的上帝以給讀者只是像他那樣的老猶太人從憐憫座位。 Hence that kind of cult which some protestants of today call "Bibliolatry."因此這樣的邪教組織,一些新教徒今天稱之為“ Bibliolatry 。 ” In the midst of the incertitude, vagueness, and antinomies of those early times, when the Reformation like Luther himself, was trying to find a way and a symbol, one can discern a constant preoccupation, that of indissolubly joining religious belief to the very truth of God by means of His written Word.正值incertitude ,含糊其詞,並antinomies這些早期時代,像路德宗教改革自己,試圖找到一種方法和符號,人們可以看出不斷關注,是不可分割的加入宗教信仰非常真相上帝用他的文字。 The Lutherans who devoted themselves to composing the Protestant theory of inspiration were Melanchthon, Chemzitz, Quenstedt, Calov.誰的路德教致力於撰寫新教理論的靈感被梅蘭希頓, Chemzitz , Quenstedt , Calov 。 Soon, to the inspiration of the words was added that of the vowel points of the present Hebrew text.不久,以靈感的話補充說,在元音點本希伯來文。 This was not a mere opinion held by the two Buxtorfs, but a doctrine defined, and imposed under pain of imprisonment, and exile, by the Confession of the Swiss Churches, promulgated in 1675.這不是一個單純的輿論舉行的兩個Buxtorfs ,而是一個理論界定,並根據疼痛的監禁,流放,由供認瑞士基督教協進會, 1675年頒布的。 These dispositions were abrogated in 1724.這些特質在1724年被廢止。 The Purists held that in the Bible there are neither barbarisms nor solecisms; that the Greek of the New Testament is as pure as that of the classical authors.舉行的純化,在聖經既沒有barbarisms也不solecisms ; ,希臘的新約全書是因為這純粹的古典作家。 It was said, with a certain amount of truth, that the Bible had become a sacrament for the Reformers.有人說,與一定量的真理,聖經已成為聖禮的改革者。

(2) In the seventeenth century began the controversies which, in course of time, were to end in the theory of inspiration now generally accepted by Protestants. The two principles which brought about the Reformation were precisely the instruments of this revolution; on the one side, the claim for every human soul of a teaching of the Holy Ghost, which was immediate and independent of every exterior rule; on the other, the right of private judgment, or autonomy of individual reasoning, in reading and studying the Bible. ( 2 )在17世紀開始的爭議,在一定的時間,結束了理論的啟示現在普遍接受的新教徒。兩個原則,改革帶來的文書正是這場革命;上一個一方,要求每個人的靈魂,是一個教學的聖靈,這是直接和獨立的每個外部規則;另一方面,私人權利的判決,或自主的個人推理,在閱讀和學習聖經。 In the name of the first principle, on which Zwingli had insisted more than Luther and Calvin, the Pietists thought to free themselves from the letter of the Bible which fettered the action of the Spirit.的名義,第一項原則,其中茨溫利堅持超過路德和加爾文的虔誠主義思想擺脫的信聖經的束縛行動的精神。 A French Huguenot, Seb.法國胡格諾派,勒布。 Castellion (d. 1563), had already been bold enough to distinguish between the letter and the spirit; according to him the spirit only came from God, the letter was no more than a "case, husk, or shell of the spirit." Castellion ( 4 1563年) ,已經敢於區分的文字和精神,根據他的精神不僅來自上帝,這封信是不超過一個“情況下,殼,或殼的精神。 ”

The Quakers, the followers of Swedenborg, and the Irvingites were to force this theory to its utmost limits; real revealation -- the only one which instructs and sanctifies -- was that produced under the immediate influence of the Holy Ghost.公誼會,斯韋登伯格的追隨者,並Irvingites了這一理論,迫使其最大的極限;真正的啟示-唯一一個指示和認可-是生產的直接影響下的聖靈。 While the Pietists read their Bible with the help of interior illumination alone, others, in even greater numbers, tried to get some light from philological and historical researches which had received their decisive impulse from the Renaissance.雖然虔誠主義閱讀聖經的幫助下,內部的照明,僅他人,在更大的數字,試圖得到一些輕型從語言學和歷史的研究得到了其決定性的衝動從文藝復興。 Every facility was assured to their investigations by the principle of freedom of private judgment; and of this they took advantage.一切設施保證他們的調查自由的原則私營判斷;與此,他們利用了。 The conclusions obtained by this method could not be fatal to the theory of inspiration by revelation.所得結論用這種方法不能致命的理論靈感的啟示。 In vain did its partisans say that God's will had been to reveal to the Evangelists in four different ways the words which, in reality, Christ had uattered only once; that the Holy Ghost varied His style accoring as he was dictation to Isaias or to Amos -- such an explanation was nothing short of an avowal of the ability to meet the facts alleged against them.徒勞的像它的游擊隊員說,天意已透露的福音在四個不同的方式的話,在現實生活中,基督已uattered只有一次;認為聖靈他的風格不同,他是根據向伊薩亞斯聽寫或阿莫斯納曼-這樣的解釋完全是一個avowal的能力,以滿足對他們的指控的事實。 As a matter of fact, Faustus Socinus (d. 1562) had already held that the words and, in general, the style of Scripture were not inspired.事實上,福斯圖斯Socinus ( 4 1562年)已經舉行了這樣的措辭,以及一般的風格聖經沒有靈感。 Soon afterwards, George Calixtus, Episcopius, and Grotinus made a clear distinction between inspiration and revelation.此後不久,喬治Calixtus , Episcopius ,並Grotinus明確區分靈感和啟示。 According to the last-named, nothing was revealed but the prophecies and the words of Jesus Christ, everything else was only inspired.根據最後的名稱,什麼也沒有發現,但預言和耶穌的話,其他一切只是啟發。 Still further, he reduces inspiration to a pious motion of the sould {see "Votum pro pace Ecclesiae" in his complete works, III (1679), 672}. The Dutch Arminian school then represented by J. LeClerc, and, in France, by L. Capelle, Daillé, Blondel, and other, followed the same course.進一步,他的靈感,以減少一個虔誠的運動可以(見“ Votum親教會的步伐” ,他完成的作品,三( 1679年) , 672 ) 。荷蘭Arminian學校然後派學者LeClerc ,並在法國,由L.卡佩勒Daillé ,布隆德爾,和其他,遵循同樣的過程。 Although they kept current terminology, they made it apparent, nevertheless, that the formula, "The Bible is the Word of God," was already about to be replaced by "The Bible contains the Word of God."雖然他們目前保持的術語,他們清楚,但是,該公式, “聖經是神的話語, ”已經將被改為“聖經包含神的話語。 ” Morever, the term word was to be taken in an equivocal sense. Morever ,任期詞應採取的模棱兩可意義。

B. Biblical Rationalism灣聖經理性

In spite of all, the Bible was still held as the criterion of religious belief. To rob it of this prerogative was the work which the eighteenth century set itself to accomplish.儘管所有的聖經仍然舉行為準繩的宗教信仰。剝奪它的這種特權的工作是18世紀為自己完成的任務。 In the attack then made on the Divine inspiration of the Scriptures three classes of assailants are to be distinguished.然後在攻擊中作出的神聖啟示聖經三類襲擊者是加以區別。

(1) The Naturalist philosophers, who were the forerunners of modern unbelief (Hobbes, Spinoza, Wolf); the English Deists (Toland, Collins, Woolston, Tindal, Morgan); the German Rationalists (Reimarus, Lessing); the French Encyclopedists (Voltaire, Bayle) strove by every means, not forgetting abuse and sarcasm, to prove how absurd it was to claim a Divine origin for a book in which all the blemishes and errors of human writings are to be found. ( 1 )自然主義哲學家,誰是現代不信教的先驅(霍布斯,斯賓諾莎,沃爾夫) ;英語Deists (托蘭德,柯林斯,伍斯頓,廷德爾,摩根) ;德國的理性主義(賴馬魯斯,萊辛) ;法國Encyclopedists (伏爾泰,培爾)竭力利用一切手段,也不要忘記虐待和嘲諷,證明這是多麼可笑要求神源的一本書,使所有的瑕疵和錯誤的人的作品將被發現。

(2) The critics applied to the Bible, the methods adopted for the study of profane authors. ( 2 )批評適用於聖經,所採用的方法研究的褻瀆作者。 They, from the literary and historic point of view, reached the same conclusion as the infidel philosophers; but they thought they could remain believers by distinguishing in the Bible between the religious and the profane element.他們從文學和歷史的角度來看,得出同樣的結論作為異教徒的哲學家,但他們認為他們可以保持信仰的區別在聖經之間的宗教和世俗的因素。 The latter they gave up to the free judgment of historical criticism; the former they pretended to uphold, but not without restrictions, which profoundly changed its import.後者放棄了他們的自由裁量的歷史批評;前他們假裝維護,但並非沒有限制,這深刻地改變了其進口。 According to Semler, the father of Biblical Rationalism, Christ and the Apostles accommodated themselves to the false opinions of their contemporaries; according to Kant and Eichborn, everything which does not agree with sane reason must be regarded as Jewish invention. Religion restricted within the limits of reason -- that was the point which the critical movement initiated by Grotius and LeClerc had in common with the philosophy of Kant and the theology of Wegscheider.據塞姆勒的父親聖經理性,基督和使徒們照顧自己的錯誤意見的同時代;根據康德和艾希博恩,一切不同意理智的理由必須被視為猶太人的發明。宗教限制的範圍內的原因-這是這一點的關鍵運動發起格羅提斯和LeClerc中共同與康德哲學和神學Wegscheider 。 The dogma of plenary inspiration dragged down with it, in its final ruin, the very notion of revelation (A. Sabatier, Les religions d'autorité et la religion de l'espirit, 2nd ed., 1904, p. 331).全體會議的教條靈感拖累有了它,在其最後破產,概念本身啟示(答:薩巴蒂爾,法國宗教德autorité等宗教法國埃斯普里特,第2版。 , 1904年,第331頁) 。

(3) These philosophical historical controversiers about Scriptural authority caused great anxiety in religious minds. ( 3 )這些哲學歷史controversiers約聖經權威造成了極大的焦慮情緒的宗教思想。 There were many who then sought their salvation in one of the principles put forward by the earlly Reformers, notably by Calvin: to wit, that truly Christian certitude came from the testimony of the Holy Spirit.有許多誰然後要求他們在一個救贖的原則提出的earlly改革者,特別是加爾文:以智慧,真正基督教確信來自證詞聖靈。 Man had but to sound his own soul in order to find the essence of religion, which was not a science, but a life, a sentiment.男子聲音,但他自己的靈魂,以找到宗教的本質,這是不是科學,而是一種生活,一種情感。 Such was the verdict of the Kantian philosophy then in vogue.這種判決是康德哲學的再流行。 It was useless, from the religious point of view, to discuss the extrinsic claims of the Bible; far better was the moral experience of its intrinisc worth.這是無用的,從宗教的角度看,討論外在要求的聖經;好得多是道義上的經驗,其intrinisc價值。 The Bible itself was nothing but a hostory of the religious experiences of the Prophets, of Christ and His Apostles, of the Synagogue and of the Church.聖經本身只不過是hostory宗教經驗的先知,是耶穌和他的使徒,在猶太教堂和教會。 Truth and Faith came not from without, but sprang from the Christian conscience as their source.真理和信仰而不是從沒有來到,但源自基督教的良心作為其來源。 Now this conscience was awakened and sustained by the narration of the religious experiences of those who had gone before.現在,這個被喚醒良知和持續的敘事宗教經驗的人誰已經收到。 What mattered, then, the judgment passed by criticism on the historical truth of this narration, if it only evoked a salutary emotion in the soul?最重要的,那麼,該判決通過批評的歷史真相敘事,如果它只是一個有益的情緒誘發的靈魂? Here the useful alone was true.在這裡,有用的僅是真實的。 Not the text, but the reader was inspired.沒有文字,但讀者的啟發。 Such, in its broad outlines, was the final stage of a movement which Spener, Wesley, the Moravian Brethren, and, generally, the Pietists initiated, but of which Schleiermacher (1768-1834) was to be the theologian and the propagator in the nineteenth century.例如,在其廣泛的概括,是最後階段的運動Spener ,韋斯利,在摩拉維亞弟兄們,和一般的虔誠主義者發起的,但其中施( 1768年至1834年)將是神學和傳播的十九世紀。

C. Present Conditions角現狀

(1) The traditional views, however, were not abandoned without resistance. ( 1 )傳統觀點,但是,並沒有被遺棄的無阻力。 A movement back to the old idea of the theopneustia, including verbal inspiration, set in nearly everywhere in the first half of the nineteenth century.運動回到舊思想的theopneustia包括口頭靈感,幾乎在世界各地建立的第一個十九世紀下半葉。 This reaction was called the Réveil.這種反應被稱為Réveil 。 Among its principal promoters must be mentioned the Swiss L. Gaussen, W. Lee, in England, A. Dlorner in Germany, and, more recently, W. Rohnert.在其主要發起人必須提到瑞士屬杉,總統李登輝,在英格蘭,答: Dlorner在德國,以及最近美國Rohnert 。 their labours at first evoked interest and sympathy, but were destined to fail before the efforts of a counter-reaction which sought to complete the work of Schleiermacher.他們的辛勤勞動在第一誘發興趣和同情,但注定要失敗的努力,前反反應試圖完成的工作,施萊爾馬赫。 it was led by Alex, Vinet, Edm.它是由阿萊克斯, Vinet ,行政領導和管理。 Scherer, and E. Rabaud in France; Rich.謝勒,和E.拉博在法國;豐富。 Rothe and especially Ritschl in Germany; ST Coleridge, FD Maurice, and Matthew Arnold in England.兄弟,尤其是Ritschl在德國;秘治消化不良莫里斯和馬修阿諾德在英格蘭。 According to them, the ancient dogma of the theopneustia is not to be reformed, but given up altogether.據他們說,古老的教條的theopneustia不加以改革,但放棄了。 In the heat of the struggle, however, university professors like E. Reuss, freely used the historical method; without denying inspiration they ignored it.在激烈的鬥爭,但是,大學教授喜歡體育Reuss ,自由使用的歷史法;不否認啟發他們忽略它。

(2) Abstracting from accidental differences, the present opinion of the so-called progressive Protestants (who profess, nevertheless, to remain sufficiently orthodox), as represented in Germany by B. Weiss, RF Grau, and H Cremer, in England by W. Sanday, C. Gore, and most Anglican scholars, may be reduced to the following heads: (a) the purely passive, mechanical theopneustia, extending to the very words, is no longer tenable. ( 2 )提取意外分歧,本意見的所謂逐步新教徒(誰信奉,然而,為了保持足夠的東正教) ,在德國為代表的B.魏斯,射頻格勞和H克勒梅,在英格蘭的W 。桑迪,角戈爾,最聖公會學者,可減少以下首長: (一)純粹被動,機械theopneustia ,延伸到非常也就是說,不再是站不住腳的。 (b) Inspiration had degrees: suggestion, direction, elevation, and superintendency. (二)有度的啟示:建議,方向,高程和監督。 All the sacred writers have not been equally inspired.所有的神聖作家沒有得到同樣的啟發。 (c) Inspiration is personal that is, given directly to the sacred writer to enlighten, stimulate, and purify his faculties. This religious enthusiasm, like every great passion, exalts the powers of the soul; it belongs, therefore, to the spiritual order, and is not merely a help given immediately to the intellect. (三)是個人的啟示是,由於直接向神聖的作家以啟迪,激勵,淨化他的學院。這個宗教的熱情,像每個偉大的激情, exalts權力的靈魂;它所屬,因此,精神秩序,並不僅是一個幫助,立即向智力。 Biblical inspiration, being a seizure of the ntire man by the Divine virtue, does not differ essentially from the gift of the Holy Spirit imparted to all the faithful.聖經的啟示,被扣押的ntire人的神聖的美德,不會從本質上不同的禮物聖靈傳授給所有的信徒。 (d) It is, to say the least, an improper use of language to call the sacred text itself inspired. (四) ,至少可以說,一個不恰當使用語言文字的神聖電話本身的啟發。 At any rate, this text can, and actually does, err not only in profane matters, but also in those appertaining more or less to religion, since the Prophets and Christ Himself, notwithstanding His Divinity, did not possess absolute infallibility. (Cf. Denney, A Dict. of Christ and the Gospels, I, 148-49.) The Bible is a historical document which taken in its entirety contains the authentic narrative of revelation, the tidings of salvation.無論如何,這個文本可以,實際上確實錯誤不僅在世俗的事項,而且在這些附屬物或多或少宗教,因為先知和耶穌,儘管他的神,不具備絕對犯錯誤。 (參見鄧尼,阿快譯通。基督和福音,我, 148-49 。 )聖經是一個歷史文件,它採取的全部內容包含了真實的說明啟示,該消息的救恩。 (c) Revealed truth, and, consequently, the Faith we derive from it are not founded on the Bible, but on Christ himself; it is from Him and through Him that the written text acquires definitely all its worth. (三)揭示真相,因此,我們的信念源於它不是建立在聖經,而是基督本人,這是他並通過他的書面文字獲得肯定其所有的價值。 But how are we to reach the historical reality of Jesus -- His teaching, His institutions -- if Scripture, as well as Tradition, offers us no faithful picture?但是,我們如何達到的歷史現實耶穌-他的教導,他的機構-如果聖經,以及傳統,沒有忠實地為我們提供的圖片? The question is a painful one.現在的問題是一個痛苦的一個。 To establish the inspiration and Divine authority of the Bible the early Reformers had substituted for the teaching of the Church internal criteria, notably the interior testimony of the Holy Spirit and the spiritual efficacy of the text.建立激勵和神聖權威的聖經早期改革者已取代教學教會內部標準,尤其是內部的證詞聖靈和精神療效的文字。 Most Protestant theologians of the present day agree in declaring these criteria neither scientific nor traditional; and at any rate they consider them insufficient.大多數新教神學當今同意在宣布這些標準既不科學也不傳統;和無論如何他們認為,這些是不夠的。 (On the true criterion of inspiration see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.) They profess, consequently, to supplement them, if not to replace them altogether, by a rational demonstration of the autheticity and substantial trustworthiness of the Biblical text. (標準的真正的靈感見典聖經。 )他們信奉,因此,以補充他們,如果不是代替他們共有的一個合理的示範autheticity和大量可信的聖經經文。 The new method may well provide a starting-point for the fundamental theology of Revelation, but it cannot supply a complete justification of the Canon, as it has been so far maintained in the Churches of the Reformation.這種新方法很可能會提供一個起點的基本神學的啟示,但它不能提供一個完整的理由,佳能,因為它迄今保持在教會的改革。 Anglican theologians, too, like Gore and Sanday, gladly appeal tot he dogmatic testimony of the collective conscience of the universal Church; but, in so doing, they break with one of the first principles of the Reformation, the autonomy of the individual conscience.英國聖公會的神學家,也一樣,戈爾和桑迪,他高興地呼籲托特教條證詞的集體良知的普世教會,但在這樣做時,他們打破的第一個原則的改革,自主的個人的良知。

(3) The position of liberal Protestants (ie those who are independent of all dogma) may be easily defined. ( 3 )的立場自由派新教徒(即誰是完全獨立的,所有的教條)可輕易界定。 The Bible is just like other texts, neither inspired nor the rule of Faith.聖經是一樣的其他案文,既鼓舞,也沒有法治的信仰。 Religious belief is quite subjective.宗教信仰是相當主觀的。 So far is it from depending on the dogmatic or even historical authority of a book that it gives to it, itself, its real worth.到目前為止,它取決於教條,甚至歷史權威的一本書,它給它本身,其真正的實用價值。 When religious texts, the Bible included, are in question, history -- or, at least, what people generally believe to historical -- is largely a product of faith, whcih has transfigured the facts. The authors of the Bible may be called inspired, that is endowed with a superior perception of religious matters; but this religious enthusiasm does not differ essentially from that which animated Homer and Plato.當宗教經文,包括聖經,是有問題,歷史-或,至少,人們普遍認為,以歷史-主要是產品的信心,這變形事實。作者聖經可稱為靈感,這是上級賦予宗教問題的看法,但這一宗教的熱情沒有區別主要來自那些動畫荷馬和柏拉圖。 This is the denial of everything supernatural, in the ordinary sense of the word, as well in the Bible as in religion in general.這是剝奪一切超自然的,在普通意義的字,以及在聖經作為宗教一般。 Nevertheless, those who hold this theory defend themselves from the charge of infidelity, especially repudiating the cold Rationalism of the last century, which was made up exclusively of negations. They think that they remain sufficiently Christian by adhering to the religious sentiment to which Christ ahs given the most perfect expression yet known. Following Kant, Schleiermacher, and Ritschl, they profess a religion freed from all philosophical intellectualism and from every historical proof.儘管如此,這些誰持有這種理論為自己辯護的負責不忠,特別是批判理性主義的冷戰上個世紀,這是取得了完全的否定。他們認為,他們仍然堅持充分基督教的宗教感情,以基督綜合徵考慮到最完美的表達還不清楚。繼康德,施萊爾馬赫,並Ritschl ,他們信奉的宗教擺脫所有哲學智識和各個歷史證明。 Facts and formulae of the past have, in their eyes, only a symbolic and a transient value. Such is the new theology spread by the best-known professors and writers especially in Germany -- historians, exegetes, philologists, or even pastors of souls.事實和公式的過去,在他們眼裡,只有一個象徵性的和短暫的價值。這種新的神學是傳播最有名的教授,作家尤其是在德國-歷史學家, exegetes , philologists ,甚至牧師的靈魂。 We need only mention Harnack, HJ Holtzmann, Fried.我們只需要提及哈爾納克,黃建忠Holtzmann ,油炸。 Delitzsch, Cheyne, Campbell, A. Sabatier, Albert and John Réville.德里,陳,坎貝爾,答:薩巴蒂爾,阿爾貝和John雷維爾。 it is to this transformation of Christianity that "Modernism", condemned by the Encyclical Pascendi Gregis, owes its origin.這是這一轉變的基督教說, “現代主義” ,譴責了通諭Pascendi收聽廣播節目和收看欠其來源。

In modern Protestantism the Bible has decidely fallen from the primacy which the Reformation had so loudly conferred upon it.在現代基督教聖經已果斷下降到至高無上的改革,因此大聲賦予它。 The fall is a fatal one, becoming deeper from day to day; and without remedy, since it is the logical consequence of the fundamental principle put forward by Luther and Calvin.秋天是一種致命的一,加深每天;和補救辦法,因為它是合乎邏輯的結果的基本原則提出路德和加爾文。 Freedom of examination was destined sooner or later to produce freedom of thought.自由考試注定遲早會產生的思想自由。 (Cf. A. Sabatier, Les religions d'autorite et la religion de l'espirité, 2nd ed., 1904, pp. 399-403.) (參見答:薩巴蒂爾,法國宗教德autorite等宗教法國espirité ,第2版。 , 1904年,頁。 399-403 。 )

Publication information Written by Alfred Durand.出版信息書面由Alfred杜蘭德。 Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄的貝絲聖瑪麗。天主教百科全書,體積八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年10月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CATHOLIC WORKS.-FRANZELIN, Tractatus de divina traditione et scriptura (2nd ed., Rome, 1875), 321-405; SCHMID, De inspirationis bibliorum vi et ratione (Louvain, 1886); ZANECCHIA, Divina inspiratio Sacrae Scripturae (Rome, 1898); Scriptor Sacer (Rome, 1903); BILLOT, De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (Rome, 1903); CH. PESCH, De inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (Freiburg im Br., 1906); LAGRANGE in Revue Biblique (Paris, 1895), p.天主教WORKS. - FRANZELIN , Tractatus日神聖traditione等聖經(第二版。 ,羅馬, 1875年) , 321-405 ;施密德者inspirationis bibliorum六等理由(盧萬, 1886年) ; ZANECCHIA ,迪維納inspiratio Sacrae Scripturae (羅馬, 1898年) ;描述神聖(羅馬, 1903年) ; BILLOT ,者inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (羅馬, 1903年) ;甲烷。佩施,者inspiratione Sacrae Scripturae (弗賴堡一二。 , 1906年) ;拉格朗日在雜誌Biblique (巴黎, 1895年) ,磷。 (London,6 Nov., 1897, to 5 Feb., 1898); HUMMELAUER, Exegetisches zur Inspirationsfrage (Freiburg im Br., 1904); FONCK, Der Kampf um die Warheit der heil. (倫敦, 6月, 1897年,至5月, 1898年) ; HUMMELAUER , Exegetisches楚Inspirationsfrage (弗賴堡一二。 , 1904年) ; FONCK ,明鏡鬥爭之死Warheit詹尼弗海爾。 Schrift seit 25 Jahren (Innsburck, 1905); DAUSCH, Die Schrifitnspiration (Freiburg im Br., 1891); HOLZHEY, Die Inspiration de heil. Schrift seit 25 Jahren ( Innsburck , 1905年) ;道施,模具Schrifitnspiration (弗賴堡一二。 , 1891年) ; HOLZHEY ,模具啟示日詹尼弗海爾。 Schrift in der Anschauung des Mittelaters (Munich, 1895); CH. Schrift中的直觀之Mittelaters (慕尼黑, 1895年) ;甲烷。 PESCH, Zur neuesten Geschichte der Katholischen Inspirationslehre (Freiburg im Br., 1902)佩施,論neuesten史Katholischen Inspirationslehre (弗賴堡一二。 , 1902 )

PROTESTANT WORKS.-GUSSEN, Theopneustic (2nd ed., Paris, 1842), tr. PROTESTANT WORKS. - GUSSEN , Theopneustic (第二版。 ,巴黎, 1842年) ,文。 Pleanry Inspiration of Holy Scripture; LEE, Inspiration of Holy Scripture (Dublin, 1854); ROHNERT, Die Inspiration, der heil, Schrift und ihre Bestreiter (Leipzig, 1889); SANDAY, The oracles of God (London, 1891); FARRAR, The Bible, Its meaning and Supremacy (London, 1897); History of Interpretation (London 1886); A Clerical Symposium on Inspiration (London, 1884); RABAUD, Histoire de la doctrine de l inspriaation dans les pays de langue francaise depuis la Reforme jusqu a nos jours (Paris, 1883). Pleanry啟示聖經;議員,聖經的啟示(都柏林, 1854年) ; ROHNERT ,模具啟示報詹尼弗海爾, Schrift與ihre Bestreiter (萊比錫, 1889年) ;桑迪的神諭神(倫敦, 1891年) ; FARRAR ,聖經,其意義和霸權(倫敦, 1897年) ;歷史的解釋(倫敦1886年) ;文書研討會啟示(倫敦, 1884年) ;拉博,史學說中的日升inspriaation法國盧瓦爾河語言法國depuis香格里拉Reforme jusqu 1我jours (巴黎, 1883年) 。


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