Book of Hosea, Osee何西阿書, Osee

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Minor Prophets in the Old Testament of the Bible.該何西阿書是書籍的小先知在舊約聖經。 Its name is taken from the prophet Hosea, who lived in the northern kingdom between 755 and 725 BC.它的名字是取自先知何西阿,誰住在英國北部的755和725年。 The book is divided into two parts.這本書分為兩部分。 The first part (chaps. 1 - 3) tells the story of Hosea's marriage to an unfaithful wife.第一部分(第1 - 3 )講述了何西阿的婚姻的不忠的妻子。 Hosea used this personal tragedy as a parable of the relationship between God and Israel.何西阿利用這一個人的悲劇作為一個比喻之間的關係上帝和以色列。 In the second part (chaps. 4 - 14) the theme of unfaithfulness is developed.在第二部分(第4 - 14日)的主題是不忠發達。 The prophet rebukes corrupt leaders and priests and chastises the Israelites for their superstition and idolatry. Hosea was the first biblical writer to use the imagery of marriage as an illustration of the relationship between God and his people.先知指責腐敗的領導人和神父和斯菲爾以色列人的迷信和偶像崇拜。 何西阿是第一聖經作家使用圖像的婚姻作為例子,說明上帝之間的關係和他的人民。

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Bibliography 參考書目
JL Mays, Hosea, A Commentary (1969); G Cohen, and HR Vandermey, eds., Hosea and Amos (1981); JM Ward, Hosea, A Theological Commentary (1966).巨浪梅斯,何西阿,評( 1969年) ; G科恩和人力資源Vandermey合編。 ,何西阿和Amos ( 1981年) ; JM區,何西阿,神學評論( 1966年) 。


Book of Hosea, Osee何西阿書, Osee

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Hosea's unhappy marriage and its results (1-3)何西阿的不愉快的婚姻,其結果( 1-3 )
  2. Priests condone immorality (4)神父寬恕不道德行為( 4 )
  3. Israel's sin will be punished unless she repents (5)以色列的罪惡將受到懲罰,除非她懺悔( 5 )
  4. Israel's sin is thoroughgoing; her repentance half-hearted (6)以色列的罪惡是徹底的;她懺悔半心半意( 6 )
  5. Inner depravity and outward decay (7)內蒙古墮落和外向衰變( 7 )
  6. Nearness of Judgment (8)貼近判斷( 8 )
  7. Impending calamity (9)即將到來的災難( 9 )
  8. Israel's guilt and punishment (10)以色列的罪行和處罰( 10 )
  9. God pursues Israel with Love (11)以色列奉行上帝愛( 11 )
  10. Exhortation to repentance, with promised restoration (12-14)勸勉悔改,並承諾恢復( 12月14日)


Hose'a

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Hosea, salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name.何西阿,救贖的兒子Beeri ,和一書的作者的預言,同時他的名字。 He belonged to the kingdom of Israel.他屬於以色列王國。 "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled the land, and 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as our king." “他Israelitish原產地證明了這獨特的,粗糙, Aramaizing詞,指著北部巴勒斯坦的親密朋友,他表現出與地方埃弗拉伊姆( 5:1 ;六時08分, 9 ; 12:12 ; 14 : 6 ,等等) ;的通道像1:2 ,而英國是風格的土地, 7時05分,在Israelitish王被指定為我們的國王。 “ The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1: 1, 2).期間,他的部(延伸到一些六十年)是中指出superscription ( Hos. 1 : 1 , 2 ) 。 He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.他是唯一的預言以色列誰留下任何書面的預言。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Prophecies of Hose'a預言Hose'a

Advanced Information 先進的信息

This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets."這本書首秩序的“小先知。 ” "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." “的可能原因的位置何西阿可能是徹底的民族性格,他神諭,其長度,他們認真基調,生動的表述。 ” This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity.這是最長的預言書之前獲釋。 Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline and fall.何西阿預言在黑暗和憂鬱的時期,以色列的歷史,期間,以色列的衰亡。 Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters.他們的罪孽給他們帶來了巨大的民族災難。 "Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." “他們的兇殺案和私通,他們做偽證和盜竊,他們的偶像崇拜和impiety ,是譴責和諷刺的忠實程度。 ” He was a contemporary of Isaiah.他是當代的以賽亞。 The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation.這本書可分為兩部分,第一部分包含章節1-3 ,並象徵性地代表著偶像崇拜的以色列根據圖像借婚姻關係。

The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel.這些數字的婚姻和通姦是常見的舊約著作代表之間的關係的精神耶和華和以色列人民。 Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration. The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.在這裡,我們看到以色列和叛教的懲罰,其未來的懺悔,寬恕與恢復。第二部分,其中載4月14日,是一個總結何西阿的話語,充滿了譴責, threatenings ,規勸,許諾,與啟示憐憫。 Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt.報價何西阿發現馬特。 2:15; 9:15; 12:7; Rom. 2:15 , 9:15 ; 12時07分;光盤。 9:25, 26. 9時25分, 26 。 There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.).有,此外,各種暗示它在其他地方(路加福音23:30 ;牧師6點16分,壓縮機。飯店。 10點08 ;光盤。 9時25分, 26 ;彼前。 2時10分,壓縮機。居者有其屋。 1:10等) 。 As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell."至於風格的作家,有人說, “每個詩形式整個本身,就像一個沉重的代價在葬禮喪鐘。 ” "Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha (9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (8:7; 9:15; 10:5; 11:5; 12:11)." “反演(七時08分, 9點11 , 13 , 12 : 8 ) , anacolutha ( 9點06 ; 12點08分,等等) ,省略號( 9時04分; 13點09分,等等) , paranomasias ,並發揮後話,是非常特點何西阿( 8點07分; 9:15 ; 10:5 ; 11時05 ; 12:11 ) 。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Osee

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

NAME AND COUNTRY姓名和國家

Osee (Hôsheá‘–Salvation), son of Beeri, was one of the Minor Prophets, and a subject of the Ephraimite Kingdom which he calls "the land", whose king is for him "our king", and the localities of which are familiar to him, while he speaks of Juda but seldom and does not even make mention of Jerusalem. Osee ( Hôsheá' -救國) ,兒子Beeri ,是未成年人的先知,和一個主題Ephraimite王國他稱之為“土地” ,他們的國王是他的“我們的國王” ,而這些地方熟悉他,而他講的和猶大,但很少甚至沒有提及耶路撒冷。

TIME OF HIS MINISTRY時,其部

According to the title of the book, Osee prophesied during the reign of Jeroboam II in Israel, and in the time of Ozias, Joatham, Achaz, and Ezechias, kings of Juda, hence from about 750 to 725 BC The title, however, is not quite satisfactory and does not seem to be the original one, or, at least, to have been preserved in its primitive form.根據圖書的書名, Osee預言時期的耶羅波安二世在以色列,並在規定的時間內的Ozias , Joatham , Achaz和埃澤希亞甚,國王的猶大,因此,從大約公元前750至725的標題,但是,不太令人滿意,似乎沒有原來的那個, ,或至少已被保存在它的原始形式。 None of the historical allusions with which the prophecy is filled appears to be connected with any event later than the reign of Manahem (circa 745-735); there is nothing concerning the Syro-Ephraimite war against Juda, nor the terrible intervention of Tiglath-Pileser III (734-733).無歷史典故與該預言充滿似乎與任何情況下不遲於在位Manahem (大約745-735 ) ;沒有任何關於Syro - Ephraimite戰爭的猶大,也不是可怕的干預Tiglath - Pileser三( 734-733 ) 。 The era of the Prophet, therefore, if it is to be judged from his writings, ought to be placed about 750-735; he was perhaps contemporaneous with the closing years of Amos and certainly with the first appearance of Isaias.時代的先知,因此,如果要判斷從他的著作,應該放在約750-735 ;他也許是同時代的最後幾年中,當然與阿莫斯納曼首次出現的伊薩亞。 The reign of Jeroboam II was marked by great and glorious external prosperity; but this prosperity contributed to make the political and religious decadence more rapid.在位耶羅波安二世的特點是偉大而光榮的外部繁榮;但這種繁榮作出貢獻的政治和宗教頹廢更迅速。 Political dissolution was approaching.政治解體接近。 Zachary, son of Jeroboam, was assassinated after a reign of six months.扎卡里的兒子耶羅波安,被暗殺後,在位六個月。 His murderer, Sellum, retained the sceptre but one month, and was put to death by Manahem, who occupied the throne for ten years, 745-735.他的兇手, Sellum ,保留了權杖,但一個月,並把死亡Manahem ,誰佔領了王位十年, 745-735 。 Israel was hastening to its ruin, which was to be completed by the taking of Samaria by Sargon (722).以色列正在加速其毀滅,這是必須完成所採取的撒馬利亞薩爾貢( 722 ) 。

THE BOOK OF OSEE之書OSEE

It always occupies the first place among the twelve minor prophets, most probably on account of its length.它總是佔據首位的12輕微先知,最有可能考慮到其長度。 In point of time Amos preceded it.在時間點阿莫斯納曼之前。 The book is divided into two distinct parts: cc.這本書分為兩部分:連鑄。 i-iii, and cc.一至三,和CC 。 iv-xiv. (a) In the first part, Osee relates how, by order of Jahve, he wedded Gomer, a "wife of fornications", daughter of Debelaim, in order to have of her "children of fornications":–symbols, on the one hand, of Israel, the unfaithful spouse who gave to Baal the homage due to Jahve alone; and, on the other, figures of the children of Israel, who in the eyes of Jahve, are but adulterous children.四,十四。 ( a )在第一部分,涉及如何Osee的命令Jahve ,他堅持Gomer ,一個“妻子fornications ”的女兒, Debelaim ,為了她的“兒童fornications ” :符一方面,以色列,不忠配偶誰給巴爾的敬意,由於Jahve單獨,另一方面,數據的兒童以色列,誰的眼神中Jahve ,只是通姦兒童。 The outraged husband incites the children against their guilty mother, whom he prepares to punish: while for the children themselves is reserved a fate in keeping with their origin.憤怒的丈夫煽動的兒童的母親對他們的承認,他準備懲罰:而對兒童本身的命運是保留符合其原產地。 The first is named Jezrahel–the reigning dynasty is about to expiate the blood shed by its ancestor Jehu in the valley of Jezrahel. The second is a daughter, Lô-Ruhamah, "disgraced"–Jahve will be gracious no more to his people.首先是名為Jezrahel -王朝的統治即將贖罪的流血其祖先Jehu在山谷Jezrahel 。第二個是一個女兒,羅Ruhamah , “丟臉” , Jahve將殷勤,他沒有更多的人。 The third is called Lô- ‘Ammi, "not my people"–Jahve will no longer recognize the children of Israel as his people.第三是所謂的古' Ammi , “不是我的人” , Jahve將不再承認兒童以色列作為他的人民。 However, mercy will have the last word.但是,憐憫將有最後的發言權。 Osee is commanded to receive Gomer again and to prepare her, by a temporary retirement, to renew conjugal intercourse–Israel was to prepare herself in captivity to resume with Jahve the relationship of husband and wife. Is the marriage of Osee historical or purely allegorical? Osee是指揮收到Gomer準備再次和她的一個臨時退休,延長夫妻關係,以色列正在準備自己在囚禁恢復與Jahve的關係,丈夫和妻子。難道結婚Osee歷史或純粹的寓言? The hypothesis most in favour at present says that the marriage is historical, and the grounds for it are, (1) the obvious sense of the narrative; (2) the absence of any symbolical sense in the words Gomer and Debelaim; (3) that the second child is a daughter. It appears to us, however, with Davidson (Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", II, 421 sqq.) and Van Hoonacker, that the first reason is not convincing.假設在最有利於本說,婚姻是歷史的,它的理由是, ( 1 )明顯的意義上的說明; ( 2 )沒有任何象徵意義的話Gomer和Debelaim ; ( 3 )的第二個孩子是一個女兒。在我們看來,然而,戴維森(黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經” ,二, 421 sqq 。 )和Van Hoonacker ,即第一個理由是不能令人信服的。 A careful reading of cc.認真閱讀抄送。 i-iii discloses the fact that the action is extremely rapid, that the events are related merely in order to express a doctrine, and, moreover, they appear to take place within the single time requisite to one or two speeches.一至三披露這一事實,是極其迅速的行動,該事件有關的只是為了表達一種理論,而且,他們似乎發生在單一時間必要的一個或兩個講話。 And yet, if these events are real, a large part of the Prophet's life must have been spent in these unsavoury circumstances.然而,如果這些事件是真實的,有很大一部分先知的生活必須花費了這些醜惡的情況。 And again, the names of the children appear to have been bestowed just at the time that their meaning was explained to the people.再次,姓名的兒童似乎被賦予公正的時候,他們的意思是人民解釋。 This is especially the case with regard to the last child: "Call his name, Not my people: for you are not my people …" Another reason for doubting this hypothesis is that it is difficult to suppose that God ordered His Prophet to take an unfaithful wife mearely with a view to her being unfaithful and bearing him adulterous children.特別是在對最後一個孩子: “呼叫他的名字,而不是我的人:你是不是我的人... ”的另一個理由懷疑這一假設是,它是很難假設上帝命令他的先知採取不忠妻子mearely以她的不忠,同時他通姦的兒童。 And how are we to explain the fact that the prophet retained her notwithstanding her adultery till after the birth of the third child, and again received her after she had been in the possession of another?和我們如何解釋這一事實先知保留她儘管她通姦到出生後的第三個孩子,又收到了她,她已擁有的另一個? That the second child was a daughter may be explained by dramatic instinct, or by some other sufficiently plausible motive.這第二個孩子是一個女兒可能被解釋為戲劇性的本能,或其他某種充分合理的動機。 There remain the names Gomer and Debelaim.仍然存在的名字Gomer和Debelaim 。 Van Hoonacker proposes as possible translations: consummation (imminent ruin), doomed to terrible scourges; or top (of perversity), addicted to the cakes of figs (oblations offered to Baal).凡Hoonacker建議盡可能翻譯:完善(即將崩潰) ,注定要可怕的災禍;或頂端(的變態) ,沉迷於月餅的無花果( oblations提供巴爾) 。 Nestle also translates Bath Debelaim by daughter of the cakes of figs, but in the sense of a woman to be obtained at a small price (Zeitsch. für alttest. Wissenschaft, XXIX, 233 seq.).雀巢還翻譯浴Debelaim的女兒蛋糕的無花果,但意義上的婦女得到一個小價格( Zeitsch. f黵alttest 。科學,第29屆, 233起。 ) 。 These are but conjectures; the obscurity may be due to our ignorance.這些僅僅是猜測;的默默無聞,可能是由於我們的無知。 Certain it is at least that the allegorical meaning, adopted by St. Jerome, satisfies critical exigencies and is more in conformity with the moral sense.某些它至少該寓言的意義,通過聖杰羅姆,滿足關鍵的迫切需要,更符合道德的意義。 The doctrinal meaning is identical in either case and that is the only consideration of real importance.理論的含義是相同的在這兩種情況下,這是唯一的考慮實際的重要性。

(b) The second part of the book is the practical and detailed application of the first. ( b )第二部分是本書的實際和詳細的首次應用。 Van Hoonacker divides it into three sections, each of which terminated with a promise of salvation (iv-vii, 1a … vii, 1b-xi … xii-xiv).凡Hoonacker劃分成三個部分,每個終止承諾救贖(第四至第七,第1a ...七, 1B款喜...第十二至十四) 。 We may accept this division if we also admit his ingenious interpretation of vi, 11-viii, 1a:–And yet Juda, I shall graft on thee a branch (of Ephraim) when I shall re-establish my people; when I shall heal Israel.我們可以接受該司如果我們還承認他的巧妙解釋六,第11至第八,第1a :和尚未猶大,我將移植對你的一個分支(的埃弗拉伊姆)時,我將重新建立我的人,當我將治愈以色列。 In the first section he speaks almost exclusively of religious and moral corruption.在第一部分,他說幾乎完全的宗教和道德腐敗。 The princes and especially the priests are chiefly responsible for this and it is on them that the punishment will principally fall; and as he speaks simply of the "house of the king" it would appear that the dynasty of Jehu still occupied the throne.王子特別是司鐸是主要負責本,是對他們的處罰將主要下降;和他講簡單的“國王之家”這樣看來,唐朝的Jehu仍然佔領王位。 It is different in the following chapters.不同之處在於它在以下各章。 In vii, 1a- viii, the political and social disorders are especially emphasized.在七, 1A至八,政治和社會疾病的特別強調。 At home there are conspiracies, regicides, anarchy, while abroad alliances with foreign powers are sought.在家裡有陰謀, regicides ,無政府狀態,而國外的聯盟,尋求外國勢力。 No doubt Menahem was already reigning.毫無疑問梅納海姆已經在位。 And yet the religious disorders remained the principal object of the prophet's reprobation.然而,宗教障礙仍然是主要的對象先知的非難。 And in spite of all, mercy ever retains its prerogatives.儘管所有,任何時候都保持其擺佈的特權。 Jahve will gather together again some day His scattered children. In the last section it is felt that the final catastrophe is close at hand; and, nevertheless, once again, love remains victorious. Jahve將聚集一堂有一天他再次散佈兒童。在最後一節我們認為,最後的災難近在咫尺;和,然而,再次,愛情仍然是取得勝利。 The book ends with a touching exhortation to the people to turn to God who on His part promises the most tempting blessings.這本書結尾感人告誡人們轉向上帝誰對他的承諾是最誘人的祝福。 An epiphonema reminds at last every one that the good and the wicked shall receive the retribution each has merited.一個epiphonema提醒每一個最後的良好和邪惡的,應領取的報復都有值得。

STYLE AND TEXT風格和文字

St. Jerome has described in a few words the style of our Phrophet: "Osee commaticus est, et quasi per sententias loquens."聖杰羅姆中描述了幾句話的風格我們Phrophet : “ Osee commaticus預測,等準每sententias loquens 。 ” (PL, XXVIII, 1015.) An intense emotion overpowers the Prophet at the sight of his dying country. (特等,二十八, 1015年) 。緊張情緒overpowers先知在看到他臨死的國家。 He manifests this grief in short broken phrases with little logical sequence, but in which is revealed a tender and afflicted heart.他的表現在此悲痛短期打破詞組很少邏輯順序,但在這揭示了招標和折磨的心。 Unfortunately the notorious obscurity of the Prophet hides many details from our view; this obscurity is due also to many allusions which we cannot grasp, and to the imperfect condition of the text.不幸的是臭名昭著的默默無聞先知隱藏許多細節由我們認為,這是因為還默默無聞的許多典故,我們不能把握,以及不完善的條件的文字。 The question has been raised as to whether we possess it at least in its substantial integrity.這個問題已經提出,我們是否擁有它,至少在其大量的完整性。 Some critics claim to have discovered two main series of interpolations; the first, of small extent, consists of texts relative to Juda; the second, which is of far greater importance, consists of the Messianic passages which, it is said, lie outside the range of the prophet's vision.一些批評者宣稱,他們發現了兩個主要的一系列插值;第一,小範圍,包括文字與猶大;第二,這是重要得多,包括彌賽亞通道,這是說,不在一系列的先知的遠見。 It is possible to detect several probable glosses in the first series: the second assertion is purely arbitrary.這是可能發現一些可能掩蓋在第一系列:第二個說法純粹是武斷的。 The Messianic texts have all the characteristics of Osee's style; they are closely connected with the context and are entirely in accordance with his general doctrines.彌賽亞文本的所有特徵Osee的風格,它們是密切相關的背景和完全按照他的一般理論。

TEACHING教學

It is fundamentally the same as that of Amos:–the same strict Monotheism, the same ethical conception which paves the way for the Beati pauperes and the worship which must be in spirit and in truth.它基本上是一樣的阿莫斯納曼: -同嚴格的一神論,同樣的道德觀鋪平了道路的Beati pauperes和崇拜必須在精神上和在真理。 Only Osee lays much more stress on the idolatry which perhaps had been increased in the interval and was in any case better known to the Ephraimite Prophet than to his Judean predecessor.只有Osee奠定更強調崇拜這或許已經增加了間隔,並在任何情況下,更好地了解了Ephraimite先知朱迪亞比他的前任。 And Amos had in return a much more extended historical and geographical horizon. Osee sees but the dying Israel.和Amos在返回一個更延長歷史和地理的視野。 Osee認為,但死於以色列。 His characteristic point of view is the bond between Jahve and Israel.他特有的觀點是債券和以色列之間Jahve 。 Jahve is the spouse of Israel, the bride of Jahve,–a profoundly philosophical and mystical image which appears here for the first time and which we find again in Jeremias, Ezechiel, Canticle of Canticles, Apocalypse, etc. Jahve是以色列的配偶,新娘的Jahve ,一個深刻的哲學和神秘的形象,似乎第一次來這裡,我們再次找到在赫雷米亞斯, Ezechiel ,頌歌的Canticles ,啟示錄等

A. The Ancient Alliance答:古代聯盟

Jahve has taken to Himself His spouse by redeeming her out of the bondage of Egypt. Jahve採取了他的配偶對自己的救贖她的桎梏的埃及。 He has united Himself to her on Sinai.他曾親自給她聯合國的西奈半島。 The bride owed fidelity and exclusive love, trust, and obedience to the spouse; but alas!新娘欠高保真和排他性的愛,信任,服從配偶;但是唉! how has she observed the conjugal compact?如何把她的婚姻契約? Fidelity.–She has prostituted herself to the Baals and Astartes, degrading herself to the level of the infamous practices of the Canaanite high places. Fidelity. ,她賣淫自己的Baals和Astartes ,有辱自己的水平,臭名昭著的做法迦南高的地方。 She has worshipped the calf of Samaria and has given herself up to every superstition.她崇拜小腿的撒馬利亞,並給予她最多每迷信。 No doubt she has also paid homage to Jahve, but a homage wholly external and carnal instead of the adoration which must be above all things internal and which He Himself exacts: "With their flocks, and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, and shall not find him…" (v, 6).毫無疑問,她還參拜Jahve ,而是一種敬意全外部和肉體,而不是崇拜必須高於一切事物內部和其本人付出: “由於他們的羊群,與他們的牲畜,他們將繼續尋求主,並不得找到他... “ (五,六) 。 "For I desire mercy and not sacrifice: and the knowledge of God more than holocausts" (vi, 6). “因為我的願望憐憫,而不是犧牲:和知識的上帝超過大屠殺” (六, 6 ) 。 Trust has failed in like manner.信託未能像方式。 Costly alliances were sought with other nations as though the protection of the spouse were not sufficient:–"Ephraim hath given gifts to his lovers (viii, 9). He hath made a covenant with the Assyrians, and carried oil into Egypt" (Vulgate, xii, 1).昂貴的聯盟,尋求與其他國家就好像保護配偶是不夠的: - “埃弗拉伊姆上帝給他的情人禮物(八,九) 。他提出了盟約上帝的亞述人,並進行石油進入埃及” (武加大,第十二章, 1 ) 。 The very favours which she has received from Jahve in her ingratitude she ascribes to false gods.非常贊成,她已經收到來自Jahve在她忘恩負義她賦予假神。 She said: "I will go after my lovers, that gave me my bread, and my water, my wool, and my flax" (Vulgate, ii, 5).她說: “我將在我的情人,這給了我我的麵包,和我的水,我的羊毛,亞麻和我” (武加大,二,五) 。 Obedience:–All the laws which govern the pact of union have been violated: "Shall I write to him [Ephraim] my manifold laws which have been accounted as foreign" (viii, 12).服從: ,所有的法律,管轄協議的聯盟受到侵犯: “要我寫信給他[埃弗拉伊姆]我的多方面的法律,已經佔外國” (第八章, 12條) 。 It is a question here at least primarily of the Mosaic legislation.這是一個問題,至少在這裡,主要的馬賽克立法。 Osee and Amos in spite of contrary opinion knew at least in substance the contents of the Pentateuch. Anarchy is therefore rife in politics and religion: "They have reigned but not by me: they have been princes, and I knew not: of their silver, and their gold they have made idols to themselves" (viii, 4). Osee和Amos儘管相反的意見至少知道在實質的內容,摩西五。無政府狀態因此充斥在政治和宗教: “他們已經統治,但不是由我說:他們已經王子,我不知道:他們的銀,他們的金牌,他們已經向自己的偶像“ (八, 4 ) 。

The root of all these evils is the absence of "knowledge of God" (iv-v) for which the priest especially and the princes are to blame, an absence of theoretical knowledge no doubt, but primarily of the practical knowledge which has love for its object.的根源,所有這些罪惡是沒有“知識的上帝” (四,五) ,而尤其是牧師和王子是責怪,沒有理論知識毫無疑問,但主要是實用知識而愛其目標。 It is the absence of this practical knowledge chiefly that Osee laments.這是沒有這個實用的知識,主要是Osee感嘆。 The Prophet employs yet another symbol for the bond of union. He sets forth in some exquisite lines the symbol of the chosen son.先知員工的又一象徵債券的聯盟。他提出了一些精緻的線條的象徵,選擇的兒子。 Jahve has given birth to Israel by redeeming it out of the bondage of Egypt. Jahve日前產下的救贖以色列脫離桎梏的埃及。 He has borne it in his arms, has guided its first feeble steps and sustained it with bonds of love; he has reared and nourished it (xi, 1 sq.) and the only return made by Ephraim is apostasy.他已承擔在他的懷裡,指導其第一微弱的步驟和持續它與債券的愛情;他飼養和培育它(十一, 1平方米) ,以及只返回所作的埃弗拉伊姆是叛教。 Such is the history of the covenant.這就是歷史上的盟約。 The day of retribution is at hand; it has even dawned in anarchy, civil war, and every kind of scourge. The consummation is imminent.這一天是報復手頭上;它甚至到來的無政府狀態,內戰,和每一種禍害。完善迫在眉睫。 It would seem that repentance itself would be unable to ward it off.看來,懺悔本身將無法抵禦它關閉。 As later Jeremias, so now Osee announces to his people with indescribable emotion the final ruin: Jezrahel "Disgraced".後來赫雷米亞斯,所以現在Osee宣布他的人民情緒與無法形容的最後毀滅: Jezrahel “名譽掃地” 。 "Not my people." “不是我的人。 ” The children of Israel are about to go into exile, there they "shall sit many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without altar, and without ephod and without teraphim" (iii, 4).兒童的以色列即將流亡,他們在那裡“應坐多少天沒有國王,沒有王子,沒有犧牲,沒有祭壇,並在ephod和teraphim ” (三,四) 。 National authority shall come to an end and public national religion will be no more.國家主管部門應告一段落國家宗教和公眾不會再有。

B. The New Covenant B.新盟約

Yet the love of Jahve will change even this evil into a remedy.然而,愛Jahve將改變甚至把這種罪惡的補救措施。 The unworldly princes now separated from the people, will no longer draw them into sin.現在的unworldly王子脫離人民,將不再吸引他們到黃大仙。 The disappearance of the external national religion will cause the idolatrous sacrifices, symbols, and oracles to disappear at the same time.失踪的外部國家宗教會導致盲目崇拜的犧牲,符號和神諭消失在同一時間。 And the road will be open to salvation; it will come "at the end of days".和路線將開放給救贖;它會“結束時,天” 。 Jahve cannot abandon forever His chosen son. Jahve永遠不能放棄他選擇的兒子。 At the very thought of it He is filled with compassion and his heart is stirred within him.在非常想到這一點,他充滿了同情和他的心是他挑起的。 Accordingly after having been the lion which roars against his guilty people He will roar against their enemies, and His children will come at the sound of His voice from all the lands of their exile (xi, 10 sq.).因此以後的獅子怒吼人民對他的有罪,他將注重成果的年度報告對他們的敵人,和他的孩子們將在聲音,他的聲音從所有的土地,他們的流亡(十一, 10平方米) 。 It will be, as it were, a new exodus from Egypt, Juda will be reinstated and a remnant of the tribe of Ephraim shall be joined with him (vi, 11- vii, 1a).這將是,因為它是一個新的外流來自埃及,猶大將恢復和殘餘部落埃弗拉伊姆應同他(六, 11 -七, 1A )款。 "The children of Israel shall return and shall seek the Lord their God, and David their king" (iii, 5). “孩子們的以色列應歸還,並應尋求耶和華他們的神,和大衛國王” (三,五) 。 The new alliance shall never be broken: it shall be contracted in justice and in righteousness, in kindness and in love, in fidelity and knowledge of God.新成立的聯盟將永遠不會被打破:它應在合同中的正義和正氣,在善意和愛心,在保真度和知識的上帝。 There shall be reconciliation with nature and peace among men and with God.應和解與和平與大自然之間的男性和與上帝。 Prosperity and unlimited extension of the people of God shall come to pass, and the children of this new kingdom shall be called the sons of the living God.繁榮和無限期延長人民的上帝應成為過去,孩子們的這一新的王國定名為兒子活著的上帝。 Great shall be the day of Jezrahel (the day when "God will sow"); (ch. ii), ch.大須當天Jezrahel (有一天, “上帝會播下” ) ; (章第二節) ,甲烷。 i, 1-3 (Vulgate, i, 10-ii, 1) ought likely to be set at the end of ch.一, 1月3日(拉丁文聖經,我, 10 - 2 , 1 )應可能定在年底的總。 ii.二。 Cf.比照。 Condamin in "Revue biblique", 1902, 386 sqq. Condamin在“雜誌biblique ” , 1902年, 386 sqq 。 This is an admirable sketch of the Church which Christ is to found seven and a half centuries later.這是一個令人欽佩的素描教會基督是發現7個半世紀後。 The doctrine of Osee, like that of Amos, manifests a transcendence which his historical and religious surroundings cannot explain.理論的Osee一樣,阿莫斯納曼,體現了超越他的歷史和宗教的環境無法解釋。 Digitus Dei est hic. Digitus上帝市盈率嗝。

Publication information Written by Jean Calès.出版信息書面由Jean目。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron 。 With thanks to Fr.神父與感謝。 John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.約翰Hilkert和聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,第十一。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Among Catholic commentaries cf.在天主教會評論比照。 especially VAN HOONACKER, Les douze petits prophètes (Paris, 1908).尤其是車HOONACKER ,法國douze小prophètes (巴黎, 1908年) 。 Among Protestant works HARPER, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea (Edinburgh, 1905), a commentary of Liberal tendencies.在新教工程哈珀,一個關鍵和訓詁評阿莫斯納曼和何西阿(愛丁堡, 1905年) ,發表評論的自由傾向。


Book of Hosea何西阿書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Contents and Analysis.內容和分析。

Time of Composition.時間組成。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Authenticity and Integrity of the Book.真實性和完整性的圖書。

Importance for Israel's Religious Development.重要的以色列的宗教發展。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The contents of the book may be summarized as follows: Part i., ch.在這本書的內容可概括如下:第一部分,甲烷。 i.-iii.-Two symbolical actions:一, iii. ,兩個象徵行動:

(a) At the command of Yhwh, Hosea takes to wife an adulterous woman, as a symbol of the people of Israel, who have deserted their God and must be punished for their desertion, but who will be restored to Yhwh's favor after a time of probation. ( a )在指揮Yhwh ,何西阿考慮到妻子的通姦的女人,作為一個象徵,以色列人民的,誰也拋棄他們的神和必須受到懲罰的逃兵,但誰將恢復Yhwh的支持經過一段時間緩刑。

(b) At the further command of Yhwh, Hosea is once more married to his former, unfaithful wife, as a symbol of the enduring love of Yhwh for His people in spite of their faithlessness. ( b )在進一步指揮Yhwh ,何西阿再次結婚,他的前,不忠的妻子,作為一個象徵,持久的愛Yhwh為他的人民,儘管他們faithlessness 。

Contents and Analysis.內容和分析。

Part ii., ch.第二部分。 ,甲烷。 iv.-xiv.-Hosea's prophetic sermon on the sinful and idolatrous people of Israel. iv. - xiv. -何西阿的先知講道的罪惡和以色列人民的盲目崇拜。 Announcement of the ruin that shall overtake Israel, now become morally and religiously degraded through the fault of its priests (iv. 1-14).宣布破產的應超越以色列,現在已成為道德和宗教退化通過故障的祭司( iv. 1月14日) 。 To this is added a warning to Judah (iv. 15-18).另外還得加上警告猶太( iv. 15-18 ) 。 Judgment is pronounced on the priests and the rulers who have led the people into sin, bringing upon them the inevitable punishment (v. 1-7).判決宣告的神父和統治者誰導致人民到黃大仙,使他們不可避免的懲罰(五1-7 ) 。 Description of the ruin that shall come upon Ephraim and Judah, which even the Assyrian king will not be able to turn away: Hosea in a vision anticipates its coming (v. 8-15).說明毀掉這應降臨以法蓮和猶大,甚至亞述國王將無法迴避:何西阿在遠景預測其未來(五8月15日) 。 The exhortation to repentance (vi. 1-3); Yhwh's answer censuring the inconstancy of the people (vi. 4-7); the moral degradation of Israel, and especially of its priests (vi. 8-11); the rulers are made responsible for the sins of the people, because they rejoice therein instead of preventing them, and because, despite the national distress, they continue in their spirit of revelry and revolt (vii.1-16).叮嚀悔改( vi. 1-3 ) ; Yhwh的回答譴責易變的人( vi. 4月7日) ;道德退化以色列,尤其是其祭司( vi. 8月11日) ;的統治者負責的罪過的人,因為他們感到高興有不是阻止他們,而且因為,儘管國家危難,他們繼續在他們的精神和反抗狂歡(七.1 - 16 ) 。 Renewed announcement of judgment upon Israel for its impiety, its idolatry, and its leagues with foreign nations; the punishment to be in the form of exile, into which the Israelites shall be led in spite of their fenced cities (viii. 1-14).再次宣布判決後,以色列impiety ,其偶像崇拜,以及其同外國的國家聯賽的處罰將在流亡的形式,將其應導致以色列人,儘管他們圍城市( viii. 1月14日) 。 In the distant land of exile they shall eat the bread of mourners, instead of rejoicing like the heathen over rich harvests and vintages (ix. 1-6), as a punishment for disregarding the warnings of the Prophets, who were persecuted even in the house of God (ix. 7-9).在遙遠的土地,流亡應吃麵包的葬禮,而不是像異教徒歡騰的豐收和葡萄酒( ix. 1月6日) ,作為一種懲罰無視警告的先知,誰受到迫害,即使在教堂( ix. 7月9日) 。 As they turned from Yhwh in the wilderness, so they must now go into exile because of their idolatry, since Yhwh will cast them away (ix. 10-17).正如他們從Yhwh在野外,所以他們現在必須流亡,因為他們崇拜的,因為Yhwh將投下他們離開( ix. 10月17日) 。 Their ingratitude for Yhwh's love, as shown in their idolatry, must be punished by the destruction of the altars and images of Samaria (x. 1-8).他們忘恩負義的Yhwh的愛所示,在其偶像崇拜,必須受到懲罰的破壞祭壇和圖像的撒馬利亞(十1月8日) 。 Israel's sins in general, prevalent among the people from olden times, deserve bitter punishment (x. 9-15).以色列的罪一般情況下,在人民群眾中流行的古代,值得痛苦的處罰(十, 9月15日) 。 In spite of Yhwh's loving care, they have ever been faithless to Him (xi. 1-7); therefore punishment will not be delayed: it will not, however, destroy, but purge them, leaving a remnant, Yhwh's infinite pity overcoming His anger (xi. 8-11).儘管Yhwh的親切關懷,他們曾經不忠實向他( xi. 1-7 ) ,因此將不會被處罰延遲:不會,但是,破壞,但清除它們,留下的殘餘, Yhwh的無限憐憫他克服憤怒( xi. 8月11日) 。 An examination of Israel's early history shows that Israel, as well as Judah, has always been faithless to Yhwh, its guilt being all the heavier in view of Yhwh's loving care (xii. 1-15).審查以色列的早期歷史表明,以色列,以及猶太,一直到Yhwh不忠實,認罪被所有重鑑於Yhwh的親切關懷( xii. 1月15日) 。 Because of Israel's idolatry Yhwh must destroy Israel's power and glory (xiii. 1-11); the sins of the people demand pitiless punishment, which, however, will not utterly destroy them (xiii. 12-xiv. 1).由於以色列的偶像崇拜Yhwh必須摧毀以色列的力量和榮耀( xiii. 1月11日) ;的罪過人民需求的無情懲罰,但不會完全摧毀他們( xiii. 12 - 14 。 1 ) 。 An appeal to Israel to return to Yhwh, and a promise of forgiveness to the repentant people (xiv. 2-10).呼籲以色列回到Yhwh ,並承諾免除人民的懺悔( xiv. 2月10日) 。

Time of Composition.時間組成。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The nature of Hosea's prophecies shows that he appeared at a time when the kingdom of Israel, which reached the zenith of its power under Jeroboam II.的性質,何西阿的預言表明,他似乎在這個時候以色列王國,而達到的最高境界下的權力,耶羅波安二。 (782-741 BC), had begun to decline (c. 750 BC). ( 782-741年) ,已開始下降(約750年) 。 The first part of the book, more particularly (ch. i.-iii.), dates from this time; for, according to i.第一部分的書籍,尤其是(章一至三。 ) ,日期從這個時候,因為,根據一 4, the crime of Jehu had not yet been atoned, it being avenged only after the murder (743 BC) of Zachariah, son of Jeroboam II. 4 ,犯罪的Jehu尚未彌補,它被復仇後,才謀殺( 743年)的海象,兒子耶羅波安二。 Hosea, however, continued his prophetic activity after the death of Jeroboam II., the period that marked the decline of the Northern Kingdom.何西阿,但是,繼續他的預言活動去世後耶羅波安二。 ,這個時期的顯著下降,北方王國。 This becomes evident especially from the passage vii.這很明顯是從通過七。 2, referring to the usurpers who were supplanted by their successors at short intervals (comp. II Kings xv. 10-14). 2 ,指的是篡奪所取代誰是其繼任者在短期間隔( comp.二世國王十五。 10月14日) 。 But nothing in the book itself, much less the statement in the superscription (part of which certainly is spurious) to the effect that he prophesied in the days of King Hezekiah, justifies the assumption that he lived to see the expedition of Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (745-728 BC) against Pekah of Israel (734 BC); for at that time a large part of the inhabitants of northern Israel and of the land east of the Jordan were led away captive by the Assyrians (II Kings xv. 29 et seq.), while, according to vi.但沒有在這本書本身,更不要說在發言中superscription (其中一部分肯定是虛假的) ,其大意是,他預言在未來的日子國王Hezekiah ,有理由假定他活著看到加快Tiglath - pileser的亞述( 745-728年)對Pekah以色列( 734年) ;為當時的很大一部分居民的以色列北部和東部地區的土地被帶離約旦俘虜的亞述(二國王十五。 29起。 ) ,同時,根據六。 8 and xii.第八和第十二。 12, Gilead still belonged to the kingdom of Israel. 12 , Gilead的仍屬於以色列王國。 Hence the second part of the book (ch. iv.-xiv.) must have been written between 738 and 735 BC, the "terminus a quo" of this prophecy being the year 738, because in that year King Menahem of Israel (741-737) was obliged to pay tribute to Assyria (II Kings xv. 17 et seq.).因此,第二部分圖書(章iv. - 14 。 )必須是書面的738和735年中, “總站一現狀”這一預言是一年738 ,因為在這一年國王梅納海姆以色列( 741 -737 )不得不讚揚亞述(二國王十五。 17起。 ) 。 In agreement with this assumption it is evident that Hosea borrowed from Amos, since the expression "bet awen" (iv. 15; v. 8; x. 5, 8) could have been derived only from Amos v.同意這一假設很明顯,何西阿借用阿莫斯納曼,因為表達“賭awen ” ( iv. 15 ;訴8 ;十5日, 8日)可能是衍生只能從阿莫斯納曼訴 5, and viii. 5 ,和第八。 14 is probably derived from Amos i. 14可能是來自阿莫斯納曼島 14 et seq. 14起。

Authenticity and Integrity of the Book.真實性和完整性的圖書。

The authenticity of Hosea's prophecies is evidenced by their eminently individualistic and subjective character, consistently maintained throughout.的真實性,何西阿的預言都證明了其突出的個人主義和主觀的性質,始終保持整個。 Various additions, however, seem to have crept into the original text.各種增加,但是,似乎已悄悄進入了原來的案文。 The enumeration of the four kings of Judah-Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah-is certainly spurious, Hosea being thereby made a contemporary of Isaiah.列舉的四大天王的猶太- Uzziah ,喬薩姆, Ahaz ,並Hezekiah ,肯定是虛假的,何西阿被從而提出了當代以賽亞。 In the text itself, also, there appear various distinct interpolations.在文本本身,也有出現各種不同的插值。 The passage i.通過一 7, indeed, seems to be a Judaic addition, referring to the saving of Jerusalem from the hands of the Assyrians by Hezekiah in 701 BC It has been objected that Judah was really less guilty in comparison with Israel, and could therefore be set up as a contrast, implying not a delay of judgment, but an intensification of it. 7 ,實際上,似乎是一個猶太此外,指的是節省了耶路撒冷的手中,亞述人的Hezekiah在公元前701一直反對,認為猶太真是太內疚相比,以色列,因此,可設置為對比,這意味著不能拖延判決,但強化它。

And, again, since Hosea's descriptions of the future contain no allusion to a Messianic king of David's line, speaking merely of Yhwh and Israel without any intermediary, it has been assumed that any references to the Messianic hopes were added by a later Judaic hand, including the passages ii.同樣,因為何西阿的描述,未來包含任何針對救世主國王大衛的路線,只是講的Yhwh和以色列沒有任何中介,它一直承擔任何提及彌賽亞的希望又增加了一名後來猶太教另一方面,包括通道二。 1-3 and iv. 1月3日和第四。 15a, the words "and David their king" in iii. 15A條中, “和大衛國王”在三。 5, and "without a king, and without a prince" in iii. 5 , “沒有國王,沒有一個王子”在三。 4. 4 。 Although such interpolations are perfectly possible a priori, there are certain difficulties in admitting them. Thus, the passage ii.雖然這種插值是完全有可能的先驗,有一定的困難接納他們。因此,通過二。 1-3 could only have been misplaced from its original position as a speech of Hosea, and have become corrupted. In fact, the assumption of Kuenen and others that the words were originally added to ii. 1-3只能是放錯位置從原來的立場講話何西阿,並已成為損壞。事實上,擔任Kuenen和其他這兩個詞最初添加到二。 25, smooths away the greatest difficulty. And the further objections, that, according to this assumption, ii. 25 and ii, 2b-3 do not dovetail, and that ii. 25 ,平滑以外的最大困難。並進一步反對,說,根據這一假設,二。 25和II , 2b干擾素- 3不相吻合,而且二。 3, compared with ii. 25, could never have been the end of a longer speech, are answered by the assumption that it was only after this transposition that the text was changed in order to make a better ending, such secondary emendations being often traceable. 3 ,與二。 25 ,絕不可能已經結束了較長的講話中,都回答的假設,這是只有在這種轉變,這個案文是改變,以創造一個更美好的結局,這種繼發emendations正在往往溯源。

The other alleged interpolations, also, are somewhat doubtful.其他的指稱插值,還有些懷疑。 For instance, the expression "David, their king" (iii. 5a) finds its parallel in the repetition of "Yhwh" in 5b (in place of the which might have been expected), although this also may be a secondary emendation.例如,對“大衛國王” ( iii. 5A )條認定其平行在重複“ Yhwh ”在5B號(代替可能已經預料到的) ,儘管這也可能是次要校正。 Grave objections might also be brought against the assertion that in iv.嚴重反對也可提起斷言在四。 15a, if Hosea had been the author of this passage, Judah ought to have been the one addressed. 15A條,如果何西阿一直是作者通過,猶太應該一直是一個問題。 Finally, the authenticity of viii.最後,真實性八。 14 has been doubted on account of the resemblance to Amos ii. 14日已被懷疑的帳戶的相似之處阿莫斯納曼二。 4 et seq.; but, as it may be taken for granted that Hosea was acquainted withthe prophecies of Amos (see above), there is no reason whatever to set aside viii. 4起。可是,因為它可能會想當然地認為是熟悉withthe何西阿預言埃默斯(見上文) ,沒有任何理由擱置八。 14 as an interpolation. 14作為插值。

Importance for Israel's Religious Development.重要的以色列的宗教發展。

Amos and Hosea elevated the religion of Israel to the altitude of ethical monotheism, being the first to emphasize again and again the moral side of Yhwh's nature. Amos和何西阿升高的宗教以色列高度的道德一神教,首先強調一次又一次的道德方面Yhwh的性質。 Israel's faithlessness to Yhwh, which resisted all warnings, compelled Him to punish the people because of His own holiness; and these two prophets, recognizing that fact, were forced to the conclusion that Yhwh would not only punish Israel for the sake of His holiness, but would even allow Israel to perish in order to maintain the supremacy of His moral law.以色列的faithlessness以Yhwh ,其中抵制所有的警告,迫使他要懲罰的人,因為他自己的神聖;和這兩個先知,承認這一事實,是被迫的結論是, Yhwh不僅會傷害以色列為了陛下,但即使讓以色列滅亡,以保持他的道德至高無上的法律。 While Amos lays stress chiefly on justice and righteousness as those elements of the religious consciousness most acceptable to God, Hosea considers infidelity as the chief sin, of which Israel, the adulterous wife, has been guilty against her loving husband, Yhwh; and over against this he sets the unquenchable love of Yhwh, who, in spite of this infidelity, does not cast Israel away forever, but will take His people unto Himself again after the judgment.雖然阿莫斯納曼上主要注重公平和正義為內容的宗教意識最容易被接受的上帝,何西阿認為不忠的首席罪,其中以色列,通姦的妻子,曾犯的丈夫對她的愛, Yhwh ;和對這一點,他設置了難以抑制的愛的Yhwh ,誰,儘管這個不忠,不投永遠離開以色列,但會接替他的人後再次給自己的判斷。

Emil G. Hirsch, Victor Ryssel埃米爾赫斯基灣,維克多Ryssel

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

F. Hitzig, Die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten Erklärt (No. 1 of Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zum AT), 4th ed., by H. Steiner, Leipsic, 1881; CF Keil, Biblischer Commentar über die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten (in the Keil and Delitzsch series of Bible commentaries) ib.樓希齊格,模具Zwölf Kleinen Propheten Erklärt (第1號Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊zum AT )的,第4版。 ,閣下施泰納Leipsic , 1881年;參看Keil公司, Biblischer Commentar死亡Zwölf Kleinen黚er Propheten (在Keil和德里一系列的聖經評注)國際文憑。 1881; Orelli, Ezechiel und die Zwölf Kleinen Propheten (vol. v. of Kurzgefasster Commentar zu den Schriften, des A. und NT), Nördlingen, 1888; Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten Uebersetzt mit Noten, in Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, No. 5, Berlin, 1892; Nowack, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum AT iii. 1881年; Orelli , Ezechiel與模具Zwölf Kleinen Propheten (第一卷訴的Kurzgefasster Commentar楚蘭旦著作,德答:與新界) ,諾德林根, 1888年;豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten Uebersetzt麻省理工範諾,在Skizzen與Vorarbeiten ,第5號,柏林, 1892年; Nowack ,在Nowack的Handkommentar zum在三。 4, Göttingen, 1897; Simson, Der Prophet Hosea, Uebersetzt und Erklärt, Hamburg and Gotha, 1851; A. 4 ,哥廷根, 1897年;西姆松報先知何西阿, Uebersetzt與Erklärt ,漢堡和戈塔, 1851年;答: Wünsche, Der Prophet Hosea Uebersetzt und Erklärt mit Benutzung der Targumim und der Jüdischen Ausleger Raschi, Aben Esra und David Kimchi, Leipsic, 1868; Töttermann, Die Weissagung Hoseas bis zur Ersten Assyrischen Deportation, i.-vi. Wünsche報先知何西阿Uebersetzt與Erklärt麻省理工學院Benutzung之Targumim與德國Jüdischen Ausleger Raschi ,母親阿本Esra與大衛泡菜, Leipsic , 1868年; Töttermann ,模具Weissagung Hoseas之二論Ersten Assyrischen驅逐出境, i.-vi. 3, Helsingfors, 1879; Nowack, Der Prophet Hosea, Berlin, 1880; TK Cheyne, Hosea, with Notes and Introduction, Cambridge, 1884 (reprinted 1889); FFP Valeton, Amos en Hosea, Nimeguen, 1894; De Visser, Hosea, de Man des Geestes, Utrecht, 1886; Houtsma, in Theologisch Tijdschrift, 1875, p. 3 ,赫爾辛基, 1879年; Nowack報先知何西阿,柏林, 1880年;傳統知識進益,何西阿,與債券和介紹,劍橋, 1884年( 1889年重印) ;生物體莪阿莫斯納曼恩何西阿, Nimeguen , 1894年;者Visser表示何西阿,德曼公司Geestes ,烏得勒支, 1886年; Houtsma ,在Theologisch Tijdschrift , 1875年,第 55; Oort, ib. 55 ;奧爾特,國際文憑。 1890, pp. 1890年,頁。 345 et seq., 480 et seq.; J. 345起。 , 480起。 ;學者 Bachmann, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen, ch.巴赫曼, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen ,甲烷。 i.-vii., Berlin, 1894; Billeb, Die Wichtigsten Sätze der Alttestamentlichen Kritik vom Standpunkt der Propheten Hosea und Amos aus Betrachtet, Halle, 1893; Patterson, The Septuaginta Text of Hosea Compared with the Masoretic Text, in Hebraica, vii.一至七。 ,柏林, 1894年; Billeb ,模具Wichtigsten Sätze之Alttestamentlichen批判論Standpunkt之Propheten何西阿與阿莫斯納曼澳大利亞Betrachtet ,哈雷, 1893年;帕特森的Septuaginta文字何西阿與馬所拉文本, Hebraica ,七。 190 et seq.; P. 190起。 ;體育 Ruben, Critical Remarks upon Some Passages of the Old Testament, iv.-xi., London, 1896.EGHV Ry.魯文,批評某些段落時舊約, iv.-xi. ,倫敦, 1896.EGHV性。


Hosea, the Prophet何西阿,先知

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

Hosea must have been a citizen of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and must have remained there permanently during the period of his prophetic activity; for "the land" (i. 2) means Israel, and "our king" (vii. 5) the king of the Northern Kingdom.何西阿必須是公民,北方以色列王國,必須保持有長期在此期間,他預言活動;為“土地” (一, 2 )是指以色列, “我們的國王” ( vii. 5 )國王北方王國。 According to the superscription of the book, Hosea was the son of Beeri, and, from what he says (i.-iii.) about his marriage, he had a wife who was faithless to him.據superscription本書,何西阿是兒子Beeri ,並從他所說的話(一至三。 )關於他的婚姻,他的妻子是誰給他不忠實。 When she fled from his house, he had to redeem her from the person into whose hands she had given herself.當她逃離他的房子,他不得不贖回她的人到她的手給自己。 It has been assumed by some that this account has no historical basis, being merely an allegory.它一直承擔一些,這個帳戶沒有歷史根據,僅僅是一個寓言。 It is not, however, correct to maintain that the narrative is an allegory merely because the names can be interpreted allegorically, "Gomer the daughter of Diblaim" evidently meaning "destruction in consequence of idolatry" ( = properly, "cakes of figs," which according to iii 1 [] were offered as an oblation). There seems also to be intended an assonance with "Shomron bat Efrayim."這不是,但是,保持正確的說明是一個寓言僅僅因為名字可以解釋allegorically , “ Gomer的女兒Diblaim : ”很顯然,意思是“毀滅後果偶像” ( =得當, “蛋糕的無花果”而根據三1 [ ]提供了作為祭品) 。似乎還擬一個諧音為“ Shomron的蝙蝠Efrayim 。 ” The narrative must be regarded as historical, and the faithlessness of the woman as a fact.說明必須被視為歷史,和faithlessness的婦女作為一個事實。 Hosea, however, knew nothing of her character at the time of his marriage, on the contrary, it was made manifest to him only afterward, as if through a special intervention of God, in order to serve to the prophet as a symbol of Israel's unfaithfulness to the Lord.何西阿,然而,不知道她的性格的時候,他的婚姻,相反,它體現了對他只有後,如通過特別干預的上帝,以服務於先知,象徵以色列的不忠主。 Other views derived from the Book of Hosea-for instance, that of Ewald, that the prophet was obliged to retire to Judah on account of the increasing hostility toward him, and that he there wrote his book, or that he belonged to the caste of priests-lack support, as do the stories concerning the prophet found in the later Jewish and the Christian traditions.其他意見來自何西阿書,例如,對埃瓦爾德,即先知不得不退出猶太考慮到日益增加的敵視他,他有他的書中寫道,或者說,他屬於種姓司鐸,缺乏支持,因為這樣的故事關於先知發現在後來的猶太和基督教的傳統。 For example, "Yuḥasin," 12a identifies with (I Chron. v. 6), and assumes that Hosea belonged to the tribe of Benjamin-an assumption entirely impossible on historical grounds, as the addition in I Chron.例如, “ Yuḥasin , ” 12A條認同(一專欄。訴6人) ,並假定何西阿屬於部落的本傑明,假設完全不可能對歷史的理由,因為除了在我專欄。 v. 5 shows.五, 5顯示。 According to the Christian tradition, Hosea was a native of Beelmoth (Ephraem Syrus) or Belemoth (pseudo-Epiphanius and Isidorus) or Belemon (pseudo-Dorotheus), and belonged to the tribe of Issachar; while, according to Jerome, the prophet was a native of Beth-shemesh The Jewish tradition says ("Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," p. 19) that he died at Babylon, and that his body, having been carried by a camel to Safed in upper Galilee, was buried there.根據基督教傳統,何西阿是一個土生土長的Beelmoth ( Ephraem希如斯)或Belemoth (偽埃皮法尼烏斯和Isidorus )或Belemon (偽Dorotheus ) ,以及屬於部落的薩迦;同時,根據傑爾姆,是先知一個土生土長的貝絲,謝梅什猶太傳統說( “ Shalshelet公頃,卡巴拉, ”第19頁) ,他死在巴比倫,而且他的身體,已經進行了駱駝薩在上加利利,是埋葬在這裡。 All these stories are, however, historically worthless.EGHV Ry.所有這些故事,然而,歷史上worthless.EGHV性。

Emil G. Hirsch, Victor Ryssel埃米爾赫斯基灣,維克多Ryssel

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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