Epistle to the Hebrews書信的希伯來書

General Information 一般信息

The Epistle to the Hebrews is the only New Testament letter not introduced by the name of its author.在書信的希伯來人是唯一沒有新約全書信介紹了該名稱的作者。 Traditionally, it has been ascribed to Saint Paul, but modern scholars suggest that it may have been written by another author, perhaps a disciple of Paul.傳統上,它一直為其聖保羅,但現代學者認為,它可能已被其他作者寫的,也許是門徒保羅。 The letter has a symbolic style and sustained argument that mark it as a Hellenistic work based on the Jewish tradition.信中有一個象徵性的風格和持續的論點,即標誌著它作為工作的基礎上希臘的猶太傳統。 It was probably written between AD 60 and 90 to a general audience.這可能是書面公元60至90進行了一般性的受眾。

The epistle falls into two parts.在書信分為兩部分。 In the first part, Jesus Christ is described as superior to Moses; he is seen as the high priest who replaces the Levitical priesthood and who establishes a new Covenant to be accepted by faith (chaps. 1 - 10). In the second part, the author gives counsel on persevering faithfully in the new covenant (chaps. 10 - 13). Christians are urged to follow the example of Old Testament heroes of faith. The epistle's teachings on the person of Christ have been important to theology.在第一部分中,耶穌基督被稱為卓越的摩西,他被看作是大祭司誰取代誰Levitical鐸和建立了一個新的公約被接受的信仰(第1 - 10 ) 。在第二部分中,作者賦予律師堅持不懈地在新的公約(第10 - 13 ) 。基督徒呼籲仿效舊約英雄的信念。 在書信的教導的人基督已重要的神學。

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Bibliography 參考書目
GW Buchanan, To the Hebrews (1972); H Montefiore, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1964); A Saphir, Epistle to the Hebrews (1983); RM Wilson, Hebrews (1987).毛重布坎南,向希伯來人( 1972年) ; H蒙特弗洛爾,評上的希伯來書信( 1964年) ;阿Saphir ,書信向希伯來人( 1983年) ;室威爾遜希伯來書( 1987年) 。


Epistle to the Hebrews書信的希伯來書

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Pre-Eminence of Christ.至高無上的基督。 Christ is superior to Angels and to Moses.基督優於天使和摩西。 (1:1-4:13) ( 1:1-4:13 )
  2. Priesthood of Christ.基督的司祭。 Christ is a Priest like Melchizedek (4:14-10:18)基督是一位神父像麥基洗德( 4:14-10:18 )
  3. Perseverance of Christians.堅持不懈的基督徒。 (10:19-12:29) ( 10:19-12:29 )
  4. Postscript, exhortations, personal concerns, benediction (13:1-25)後記,規勸,個人的關注,祝福( 13:1-25 )


He'brews

General Information 一般信息

Hebrews (Acts 6:1) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek.希伯來書(使徒6:1 )是希伯來文講猶太人,不同於那些誰以希臘。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle to the He'brews書信的He'brews

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1.) Its canonicity. ( 1 。 )及其正規。 All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books.所有的結果,重要的和歷史的研究,以這種特別的書信已受到充分證明其權利,在新約全書佳能激勵之間的其他書籍。 (2.) Its authorship. ( 2 。 )及其作者。 A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced.有相當不同的意見,關於這一問題已在不同的時間提前。 Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companion.有些人堅持認為,它的作者是西拉斯,保羅的同伴。 Others have attributed it to Clement of Rome, or Luke, or Barnabas, or some unknown Alexandrian Christian, or Apollos; but the conclusion which we think is best supported, both from internal and external evidence, is that Paul was its author.另一些人歸咎於克萊門特的羅馬,或盧克,或巴爾納巴斯,或一些不知名的亞歷山大基督教,或阿波羅;但最後我們認為是最好的支持,無論從內部和外部的證據是,保羅是作者。 There are, no doubt, many difficulties in the way of accepting it as Paul's; but we may at least argue with Calvin that there can be no difficulty in the way of "embracing it without controversy as one of the apostolical epistles."毫無疑問,許多困難的方式接受它作為保羅的;但我們至少可以爭辯卡爾文就不可能有困難的方式以“擁抱它作為一個沒有爭議的使徒書信。 ” (3.) Date and place of writing. ( 3 。 )日期和地點的書面答复。 It was in all probability written at Rome, near the close of Paul's two years' imprisonment (Heb. 13:19,24).這是寫在所有的概率在羅馬附近的密切保羅的2年徒刑( Heb. 13:19,24 ) 。

It was certainly written before the destruction of Jerusalem (13:10).當然是書面的破壞之前,耶路撒冷( 13:10 ) 。 (4.) To whom addressed. ( 4 。 )誰解決。 Plainly it was intended for Jewish converts to the faith of the gospel, probably for the church at Jerusalem.顯然,它的目的是為猶太人皈依信仰的福音,也可能是教會在耶路撒冷。 The subscription of this epistle is, of course, without authority.認購本書信,當然,沒有權威。 In this case it is incorrect, for obviously Timothy could not be the bearer of it (13:23). (5.) Its design was to show the true end and meaning of the Mosaic system, and its symbolical and transient character.在這種情況下,是不正確的,因為顯然蒂莫不能承載的IT ( 13時23分) 。 ( 5 。 )它的設計是為了顯示真正的結束和意義花葉系統,它的象徵和瞬態特性。 It proves that the Levitical priesthood was a "shadow" of that of Christ, and that the legal sacrifices prefigured the great and all-perfect sacrifice he offered for us.這證明Levitical鐸是一個“影子”的基督,這預示法律犧牲一切的偉大和完美的犧牲,他為我們提供。 It explains that the gospel was designed, not to modify the law of Moses, but to supersede and abolish it.它解釋說,福音的目的,也不得修改摩西律法,但以取代和廢除。 Its teaching was fitted, as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize from Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain Jewish Christians.教學是適合的,因為它的目的是,檢查的傾向apostatize由基督教和猶太教回到現在發現自己在某些猶太基督徒。

The supreme authority and the transcendent glory of the gospel are clearly set forth, and in such a way as to strengthen and confirm their allegiance to Christ.的最高權威和至高無上的榮耀的福音是明確規定,並以這樣一種方式,以加強和確認其效忠基督。 (6.) It consists of two parts: (a) doctrinal (1-10:18), (b) and practical (10:19-ch. 13). There are found in it many references to portions of the Old Testament. It may be regarded as a treatise supplementary to the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians, and as an inspired commentary on the book of Leviticus. ( 6 。 )它由兩部分組成: (一)理論( 1-10:18 ) , ( b )和實用( 10:19路。 13 ) 。有發現它多次提到部分舊約全書。它可被視為論文補充書信的羅馬書和加拉太,作為靈感的評注本書的利未記。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle to the Hebrews書信的希伯來書

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) Language and Style; (IV) Distinctive Characteristics; (V) Readers to Whom it was Addressed; (VI) Author; (VII) Circumstances of the Composition; (VIII) Importance.這將被視為下個標題: (一)論證; (二)理論內容; (三)語言和風格; (四)特色; (五)讀者對象是誰; (六)作者; (七)情節組成; (八)的重要性。

I. ARGUMENT一,論據

In the Oldest Greek manuscripts the Epistle to the Hebrews (pros Hebraious) follows the other letters to the Churches and precedes the pastoral letters.最老的書信手稿希臘的猶太人(利弊Hebraious )如下其他給教會和之前的牧函。 In the later Greek codices, and in the Syriac and Latin codices as well, it holds the last place among the Epistles of St. Paul; this usage is also followed by the textus receptus, the modern Greek and Latin editions of the text, the Douay and Revised Versions, and the other modern translations.在後來的希臘codices ,並在敘利亞和拉丁美洲codices以及,它所擁有的最後的地方之間的書信聖保羅;這種用法也隨後textus receptus ,現代希臘文和拉丁文版的文本, Douay和修訂稿,以及其他現代翻譯。

Omitting the introduction with which the letters of St. Paul usually begin, the Epistle opens with the solemn announcement of the superiority of the New Testament Revelation by the Son over Old Testament Revelation by the prophets (Hebrews 1:1-4).省略引進與該通知書聖保祿通常首先,書信打開莊嚴宣布的優越性新約全書啟示的兒子舊約先知的啟示(希伯來書1:1-4 ) 。 It then proves and explains from the Scriptures the superiority of this New Covenant over the Old by the comparison of the Son with the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant (i, 5-ii, 18), with Moses and Josue as the founders of the Old Covenant (iii, 1-iv, 16), and, finally, by opposing the high-priesthood of Christ after the order of Melchisedech to the Levitical priesthood after the order of Aaron (v, 1-x, 18).然後證明和解釋從聖經的優越性這一新盟約了舊的比較兒子天使作為調解人舊盟約(一, 5 - 2 , 18 ) ,與摩西和若蘇埃作為創始國老公約(三, 1至四, 16 ) ,並最終通過反對高鐸的基督的命令後Melchisedech的Levitical鐸的命令後,阿倫(五, 1一X 18 ) 。 Even in this mainly doctrinal part the dogmatic statements are repeatedly interrupted by practical exhortations.即使在這種理論的一部分,主要的教條報表一再打斷了實際的規勸。 These are mostly admonitions to hold fast to the Christian Faith, and warnings against relapse into the Mosaic worship.這些大多是告誡,以堅守基督教信仰,並警告陷入花葉崇拜。 In the second, chiefly hortatory, part of the Epistle, the exhortations to steadfastness in the Faith (x, 19-xii, 13), and to a Christian life according to the Faith (xii, 14-xiii, 17), are repeated in an elaborated form, and the Epistle closes with some personal remarks and the Apostolic salutation (xiii, 18-25).第二,主要勸告,部分書信,以堅定的規勸的信仰中(十, 19 - 12 , 13 ) ,並按照基督教生命的信仰( 12 , 14 - 13 , 17 ) ,重複在擬定的形式,和書信關閉一些個人意見和使徒稱謂( 13 , 18-25 ) 。

II.二。 DOCTRINAL CONTENTS理論目錄

The central thought of the entire Epistle is the doctrine of the Person of Christ and His Divine mediatorial office.中央認為整個書信是理論的人是耶穌和他的神聖mediatorial辦公室。 In regard to the Person of the Saviour the author expresses himself as clearly concerning the true Divine nature of Christ as concerning Christ's human nature, and his Christology has been justly called Johannine.在關於人的救世主作者明確表示自己的真實基督神性的是關於基督的人性,和他的基督一直呼籲公正Johannine 。 Christ, raised above Moses, above the angels, and above all created beings, is the brightness of the glory of the Father, the express image of His Divine nature, the eternal and unchangeable, true Son of God, Who upholdeth all things by the word of His power (i, 1-4).基督,上文提到摩西,上述的天使,最重要的創建人,是亮度的榮耀父,形象的表達他的神聖性,永恆的和一成不變的,真正的上帝之子,誰upholdeth的一切事物詞的權力(一, 1月4日) 。 He desired, however, to take on a human nature and to become in all things like unto us human beings, sin alone excepted, in order to pay man's debt of sin by His passion and death (ii, 9-18; iv, 15, etc.).他希望,但是,採取對人類的本性,並成為在所有的事情告訴我們一樣的人,罪單獨例外,為了支付人的債務,他的罪過的激情和死亡(二, 9月18日;四, 15等) 。 By suffering death He gained for Himself the eternal glory which He now also enjoys in His most holy humanity on His throne at the right hand of the Father (i, 3; ii, 9; viii, 1; xii, 2, etc.).死亡的痛苦,他為自己獲得永恆的榮耀,他現在還喜歡在他的最神聖的人類對他的王位在右手的父親(一, 3 ;二,第9條;八, 1 ;十二, 2等) 。 There He now exercises forever His priestly office of mediator as our Advocate with the Father (vii, 24 sq.).在那裡,他現在他的祭司演習永遠辦事處調解作為我們倡導父(七, 24平方米) 。

This doctrine of the priestly office of Christ forms the chief subject-matter of the Christological argument and the highest proof of the pre-eminence of the New Covenant over the Old.這一理論的祭司辦公室基督形式首席標的物的基督論點和最高證明了卓越的新盟約了舊。 The person of the High-priest after the order of Melchisedech, His sacrifice, and its effects are opposed, in an exhaustive comparison, to the Old Testament institutions.人高神父的命令後Melchisedech ,他的犧牲,其後果是反對,在詳盡的比較,以舊約機構。 The Epistle lays special emphasis on the spiritual power and effectiveness of Christ's sacrifice, which have brought to Israel, as to all mankind, atonement and salvation that are complete and sufficient for all time, and which have given to us a share in the eternal inheritance of the Messianic promises (i, 3; ix, 9-15, etc.).在書信規定特別強調精神力量和有效性的基督的犧牲,這使以色列作為全人類,贖罪和拯救的是完整的和足夠的所有時間,並已給我們分享的永恆繼承承諾的彌賽亞( 1 , 3 ;九, 9月15日,等等) 。 In the admonitory conclusions from these doctrines at the end we find a clear reference to the Eucharistic sacrifice of the Christian altar, of which those are not permitted to partake who still wish to serve the Tabernacle and to follow the Mosaic Law (xiii, 9 sq.).在警示結論從這些理論在年底,我們發現一個明確的參照體犧牲基督教祭壇,其中那些不允許參加誰仍希望服務幕,並按照摩西律法(十三, 9平方米。 ) 。

In the Christological expositions of the letter other doctrines are treated more or less fully.在基督的信中論述的其他理論的待遇或多或少充分。 Special emphasis is laid on the setting aside of the Old Covenant, its incompleteness and weakness, its typical and preparatory relation to the time of the Messianic salvation that is realized in the New Covenant (vii, 18 sq.; viii, 15; x, 1, etc.).特別強調的是放在撇開舊盟約,它的不完備性和薄弱的環節,它的典型和籌備有關時間的彌賽亞救贖這是實現新盟約(第七章, 18平方米;八, 15 ;第十1 ,等等) 。 In the same manner the letter refers at times to the four last things, the resurrection, the judgment, eternal punishment, and heavenly bliss (vi, 2, 7 sq.; ix, 27, etc.).以同樣的方式在該信中提到的4倍,去年的事情,復活,判決,永恆的處罰,並天上布利斯(六,第2 ,第7平方米;九, 27日,等等) 。 If we compare the doctrinal content of this letter with that of the other epistles of St. Paul, a difference in the manner of treatment, it is true, is noticeable in some respects.如果我們的理論內容,這封信與其他書信的聖保羅,不同的方式處理,這是真的,是很明顯的在某些方面。 At the same time, there appears a marked agreement in the views, even in regard to characteristic points of Pauline doctrine (cf. J. Belser, "Einleitung" 2nd ed., 571-73).與此同時,似乎有明顯的協議的看法,即使是在關於特徵點的波利娜理論(參見學者Belser , “導論”第2版。 , 571-73 ) 。 The explanation of the differences lies in the special character of the letter and in the circumstances of its composition.該解釋的差異在於特殊性質的文字和在這種情況下其組成。

III.三。 LANGUAGE AND STYLE語言和風格

Even in the first centuries commentators noticed the striking purity of language and elegance of Greek style that characterized the Epistle to the Hebrews (Clement of Alexandria in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xiv, n.2-4; Origen, ibid., VI, xxv, n. 11-14).即使是在第一世紀評論員注意到了驚人的純潔的語言和高雅的希臘風格的特點是書信的希伯來人(克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞的優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ” ,六,十四, n.2 - 4 ;奧利,同上。 ,六,二十五,聯合國11月14日) 。 This observation is confirmed by later authorities. In fact the author of the Epistle shows great familiarity with the rules of the Greek literary language of his age.這一觀察也證實了後來當局。事實上作者的書信顯示偉大熟悉規則的希臘文學語言把他的年齡。 Of all the New Testament authors he has the best style.所有的新約作者,他的最好方式。 His writing may even be included among those examples of artistic Greek prose whose rhythm recalls the parallelism of Hebrew poetry (cf. Fr. Blass, "[Barnabas] Brief an die Hebraer". Text with indications of the rhythm, Halle, 1903).他的寫作,甚至可能包括在這些例子希臘散文藝術的節奏回顧並行希伯來詩歌(見神父。布拉斯“ [巴爾納巴斯]簡一死Hebraer ” 。文字顯示的節奏,哈雷, 1903年) 。 As regards language, the letter is a treasure-house of expressions characteristic of the individuality of the writer.至於語言,這封信是一個寶庫表達的個性特徵的作家。 As many as 168 terms have been counted which appear in no other part of the New Testament, among them ten words found neither in Biblical or classical Greek, and forty words also which are not found in the Septuagint.多達168個條款已經出現在沒有其他部分的新約,其中包括十個字發現既不在聖經或古典希臘,和四十字也未發現在七十。 One noticeable peculiarity is the preference of the author for compound words (cf. E. Jacquier, "Histoire des livres du NT", I, Paris, 1903, 457-71; Idem in Vig., "Dict. de la Bible". III, 530-38).一個顯著特點是作者偏愛的複合詞(參見體育Jacquier , “史里弗杜元” ,我,巴黎, 1903年, 457-71 ;同上在維格。 “快譯通。德拉薩聖經” 。三, 530-38 ) 。 A comparison of the letter as regards language and style with the other writings of St. Paul confirms in general the opinion of Origen that every competent judge must recognize a great difference between them (in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xxv, n. 11).比較信至於語言和風格與其他著作聖保祿證實一般認為,俄利根,每一個主管法官必須承認一個偉大差異(中優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ” ,六,二十五第11號) 。

IV.四。 DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS與眾不同的特點

Among other peculiarities we should mention:除其他特點,我們應提到:

The absence of the customary form of the Pauline letters.缺席的情況下形成的習慣波利娜字母。 The usual opening with the Apostolic greeting and blessing is entirely lacking; nor is there any clear evidence of the epistolary character of the writing until the brief conclusion is reached (xiii, 18-25).通常的開放與使徒的問候和祝福是完全缺乏;也沒有任何明確的證據的書信寫作的特點,直到簡短的結論達成(十三, 18-25 ) 。 On this account some have preferred to regard the letter rather as a homily, but this is plainly incorrect.此帳戶的一些人寧願把信而不是作為一個講道,但這顯然是不正確的。 According to the statement of the author it is an admonition and exhortation (logos tes karakleseos, xiii, 22), which, above all, presupposes a well-defined situation of an actually existing individual Church.聲明作者是告誡和規勸(徽標測試karakleseos ,十三, 22歲) ,其中最重要的是,前提是明確界定的情況的一個實際存在的個別教會。

The method of citing from the Old Testament.該方法的理由從舊約。 The author in his instruction, demonstration, and exhortation draws largely from the copious treasures of the Old Testament.作者在他的指導,示範,並告誡主要吸取了豐富的寶藏舊約。 All the citations follow the text of the Septuagint even where this varies from the Masoretic text, unless the citation is freely rendered according to the sense and without verbal exactness (examples, i, 6; xii, 20; xiii, 5).所有引文遵循文譯本甚至在此不同的馬所拉文本,除非是免費提供的引文根據常識和語言準確(例子,我, 6 ;十二, 20 ; 13 , 5 ) 。 In the other Pauline letters, it is true, quotations from the Old Testament generally follow the Greek translation even when the text varies, but the Apostle at times corrects the Septuagint by the Hebrew, and at other times, when the two do not agree, keeps closer to the Hebrew.在其他波利娜信件,這是真的,報價從舊約一般按照希臘翻譯即使在不同的文字,但有時使徒糾正七十的希伯來文,並在其他時間,如果這兩個不同意,保持更密切的希伯來文。

In regard to the formula with which the citations are introduced, it is worthy of note that the expression "It is written", so commonly used in the New Testament, occurs only once in the Epistle to the Hebrews (x, 7).關於公式的引用介紹,值得注意的是,表達“這是寫” ,所以常用在新約,只發生一次書信向希伯來書(十, 7 ) 。 In this Epistle the words of Scripture are generally given as the utterance of God, at times also of Christ or the Holy Spirit.在這書信聖經的話一般是作為上帝的話語,有時還基督或聖靈。

V. READERS TO WHOM IT WAS ADDRESSED五,讀者對象是誰

According to the superscription, the letter is addressed to "Hebrews".據superscription ,這封信是給“希伯來書” 。 The contents of the letter define more exactly this general designation.信函的內容界定更確切地說這個一般指定。 Not all Israelites are meant, but only those who have accepted the faith in Christ. Furthermore, the letter could hardly have been addressed to all Jewish Christians in general.並非所有的以色列人都意味著,但只有那些誰接受了基督。此外,信中幾乎已給所有猶太基督徒一般。 It presupposes a particular community, with which both the writer of the letter and his companion Timothy have had close relations (xiii, 18-24), which has preserved its faith in severe persecutions, and has distinguished itself by works of charity (x, 32-35), which is situated in a definite locality, whither the author hopes soon to come (xiii, 19, 23). The place itself may also be inferred from the content with sufficient probability.它的前提某一特定社會,與這兩個作家的文字和他的同伴蒂莫有密切的關係( 13 , 18-24 ) ,其中保留了其信心,嚴重的迫害,並尊敬自己的作品慈善(第十32-35段) ,這是坐落在一個明確的地方,何處作者希望盡快來( 13 , 19 , 23 ) 。這個地方本身也可以推斷出的內容有足夠的概率。 For although many modern commentators incline either to Italy (on account of xiii, 24), or to Alexandria (on account of the reference to a letter of Paul to the Alexandrians in the Muratorian Canon and for other reasons), or leave the question undecided, yet the entire letter is best suited to the members of the Jewish Christian Church of Jerusalem.因為儘管許多現代評論家傾斜要么意大利(到十三, 24歲) ,或以亞歷山大(上到交信保的Alexandrians在穆拉多利佳能和其他原因) ,或假的問題作出決定,但整個信是最適合的成員猶太基督教會在耶路撒冷。 What is decisive above all for this question is the fact that the author presupposes in the readers not only an exact knowledge of the Levitical worship and all its peculiar customs, but, furthermore, regards the present observance of this worship as the special danger to the Christian faith of those addressed.什麼是決定性的上述所有關於這個問題的事實是,作者在讀者的前提不僅是確切了解Levitical崇拜及其所有獨特的習俗,但此外,關於本紀念這個禮拜的特殊危險基督教信仰的人處理。 His words (cf. particularly x, 1 sq.) may, if necessary, perhaps permit of another interpretation, but they indicate Jerusalem with the highest probability as the Church for which the letter is intended.他的話(見特別是十, 1平方米)可能,如果有必要,也許許可證的另一種解釋,但它們表明耶路撒冷最高概率教會該信的目的是。 There alone the Levitical worship was known to all by the daily offering of sacrifices and the great celebrations of the Day of Atonement and of other feast-days.有單獨的Levitical崇拜是眾所周知的日常生活提供了很大的犧牲和慶祝活動的贖罪日和其他節日天。 There alone this worship was continuously maintained according to the ordinances of the Law until the destruction of the city in the year 70.有單獨這個禮拜是繼續保持根據條例的規定,直至毀滅的城市在今年70 。

VI.六。 AUTHOR作者

Even in the earliest centuries the question as to the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews was much discussed and was variously answered.即使在最早的幾個世紀的問題是,作者的書信的希伯來書明顯是不同的討論和回答。 The most important points to be considered in answering the inquiry are the following:最重要的點,被視為在回答調查如下:

(1) External Evidence ( 1 )外部證據

(a) In the East the writing was unanimously regarded as a letter of St. Paul. Eusebius gives the earliest testimonies of the Church of Alexandria in reporting the words of a "blessed presbyter" (Pantaenus?), as well as those of Clement and Origen (Hist. Eccl., VI, xiv, n. 2-4; xxv, n. 11-14). ( a )在東方的書面一致視為信聖保祿。最早的優西比烏提供的證詞的亞歷山大教會的報告的話來說: “神聖的牧師” ( Pantaenus ? ) ,以及克萊門特和俄利根( Hist. Eccl 。 ,六,十四,北2-4 ;二十五,聯合國11月14日) 。 Clement explains the contrast in language and style by saying that the Epistle was written originally in Hebrew and was then translated by Luke into Greek.克萊門特解釋了相反的語言和風格,說寫的書信原本以希伯來語,然後翻譯成希臘文的盧克。 Origen, on the other hand, distinguishes between the thoughts of the letter and the grammatical form; the former, according to the testimony of "the ancients" (oi archaioi andres), is from St. Paul; the latter is the work of an unknown writer, Clement of Rome according to some, Luke, or another pupil of the Apostle, according to others. In like manner the letter was regarded as Pauline by the various Churches of the East: Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Cappadocia, Mesopotamia, etc. (cf. the different testimonies in BF Westcott, "The Epistle to the Hebrews", London, 1906, pp. lxii-lxxii).奧利,另一方面,區分思想的文字和語法形式;前,根據的證詞“古人” (愛archaioi安德烈斯) ,是由聖保羅;後者是工作的未知作家,克萊門特的羅馬據一些路加福音,或另一名學生的使徒,根據其他國家。同樣的信被視為波利娜各教會東:埃及,巴勒斯坦,敘利亞,卡帕多西亞,美索不達米亞,等等(見不同證詞高爐Westcott , “的書信,以猶太人” ,倫敦, 1906年,頁。 lxii - lxxii ) 。 It was not until after the appearance of Arius that the Pauline origin of the Epistle to the Hebrews was disputed by some Orientals and Greeks. (b) In Western Europe the First Epistle of St. Clement to the Corinthians shows acquaintance with the text of the writing (chs. ix, xii, xvii, xxxvi, xlv), apparently also the "Pastor" of Hermas (Vis. II, iii, n.2; Sim. I, i sq.). Hippolytus and Irenaeus also knew the letter but they do not seem to have regarded it as a work of the Apostle (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", xxvi; Photius, Cod. 121, 232; St. Jerome, "De viris ill.", lix).直到後出現阿里烏斯的波利娜起源書信的希伯來是有爭議的一些東方人和希臘人。 ( b )在西歐第一使徒聖克萊門特的科林蒂安顯示結識的案文寫作( chs.九,十二,十七,三十六, XLV )號,顯然也是“牧師”的書( Vis.二,三, n.2 ;星際。我,我平方米) 。西波呂和依也知道信但他們似乎並沒有把它作為工作的使徒(優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ”二十六; Photius ,鱈魚。 121 , 232 ;聖杰羅姆, “德viris生病。 ”螺旋) 。 Eusebius also mentions the Roman presbyter Caius as an advocate of the opinion that the Epistle to the Hebrews was not the writing of the Apostle, and he adds that some other Romans, up to his own day, were also of the same opinion (Hist. Eccl., VI, xx, n.3).優西比烏還提到羅馬牧師凱厄斯作為倡導者認為,書信向希伯來書不是書面使徒,他補充說,其他一些古羅馬人,比他自己的一天,也持相同意見( Hist. Eccl 。 ,六,第二十條, n.3 ) 。 In fact the letter is not found in the Muratorian Canon; St. Cyprian also mentions only seven letters of St. Paul to the Churches (De exhort. mart., xi), and Tertullian calls Barnabas the author (De pudic., xx).事實上,信中找不到穆拉多利佳能;聖塞浦路斯還提到只有7個字母的聖保祿教堂(者告誡。沃爾瑪。 ,十一) ,和特土良呼籲巴爾納巴斯作者(者pudic 。 ,二十) 。 Up to the fourth century the Pauline origin of the letter was regarded as doubtful by other Churches of Western Europe.第四次世紀波利娜原籍的信被視為可疑的其他教會對西歐。 As the reason for this Philastrius gives the misuse made of the letter by the Novatians (Haer., 89), and the doubts of the presbyter Caius seem likewise to have arisen from the attitude assumed towards the letter by the Montanists (Photius, Cod. 48; F. Kaulen, "Einleitung in die Hl. Schrift Alten und Neuen Testaments", 5th ed., Freiburg, 1905, III, 211).的理由是Philastrius使濫用所作的信Novatians ( Haer. , 89 ) ,和懷疑的發起人凱厄斯似乎出現了同樣的態度,承擔對信Montanists ( Photius ,鱈魚。 48 ;樓Kaulen , “導論在模具Hl 。 Schrift老與Neuen聖經” ,第5版。弗賴堡, 1905年,三, 211 ) 。

After the fourth century these doubts as to the Apostolic origin of the Epistle to the Hebrews gradually became less marked in Western Europe.四世紀後這些懷疑使徒起源書信的希伯來逐漸不太明顯在西歐。 While the Council of Carthage of the year 397, in the wording of its decree, still made a distinction between Pauli Apostoli epistoloe tredecim (thirteen epistles of Paul the Apostle) and eiusdem ad Hebroeos una (one of his to the Hebrews) (H. Denzinger, "Enchiridion", 10th ed., Freiburg, 1908, n. 92, old n. 49), the Roman Synod of 382 under Pope Damasus enumerates without distinction epistoloe Pauli numero quatuordecim (epistles of Paul fourteen in number), including in this number the Epistle to the Hebrews (Denzinger, 10th ed., n. 84).雖然安理會的迦太基的一年397 ,在措詞上的命令,仍然作了區分聖保利阿波斯托利epistoloe tredecim ( 13書信保羅使徒)和eiusdem廣告Hebroeos協會(他的一個在希伯來) (閣下Denzinger , “ Enchiridion ” ,第10版。 ,弗賴堡, 1908年,北92 ,北49歲) ,羅馬主教的教宗達馬蘇382列舉下不加區分epistoloe聖保利號碼quatuordecim (書信中保羅14號) ,包括在這個數字的書信向希伯來( Denzinger ,第10版。 ,注84 ) 。 In this form also the conviction of the Church later found permanent expression.以這種形式也堅信教會後來發現永久表達。 Cardinal Cajetan (1529) and Erasmus were the first to revive the old doubts, while at the same time Luther and the other Reformers denied the Pauline origin of the letter.紅衣主教Cajetan ( 1529年)和伊拉茲馬斯首先恢復舊的疑慮,同時路德和其他改革者否認波利娜起源信。

(2) Internal Evidences ( 2 )內部證據

(a) The content of the letter bears plainly the stamp of genuine Pauline ideas. In this regard it suffices to refer to the statements above concerning the doctrinal contents of the Epistle (see II). (一) ,函件的內容負有完全的印花稅真正波利娜想法。在這方面,它足以提及上述聲明的理論內容的書信(見二) 。

(b) The language and style vary in many particulars from the grammatical form of the other letters of Paul, as in sufficiently shown above (see III). ( b )在語言和風格各不相同,許多細節的語法形式的其他信件的保羅,在充分所示(見三) 。

(c) the distinctive characteristics of the Epistle (IV) favour more the opinion that the form in which it is cast is not the work of the author of the other Apostolic letters. (三)特色的書信(四)有利於更認為,在這種形式是不是演員的工作,作者的其他使徒信。

(3) Most Probable Solution ( 3 )最大可能解決方案

From what has been said it follows that the most probable solution of the question as to the author is that up to the present time the opinion of Origen has not been superseded by a better one.從所說因此,最有可能解決的問題是,作者是,到現在認為,俄利根還沒有被取代的一個更好的一個。 It is, consequently, necessary to accept that in the Epistle to the Hebrews the actual author is to be distinguished from the writer.它是,因此,必須承認,在書信的希伯來人的實際作者是區別於作家。 No valid reason has been produced against Paul as the originator of the ideas and the entire contents of the letter; the belief of the early Church held throughout with entire correctness to this Apostolic origin of the Epistle.沒有任何站得住腳的理由對已製作保羅作為發端的想法和整個信函的內容;信仰初期教會舉行與整個正確性這一來源的使徒書信。

The writer, the one to whom the letter owes its form, had apparently been a pupil of the Apostle.作家,一個人欠的信的形式,顯然是學生宗徒。 It is not possible now, however, to settle his personality on account of the lack of any definite tradition and of any decisive proof in the letter itself.這是不可能的現在,但是,以解決他的個性考慮到沒有任何明確的傳統和任何決定性的信中證明自己。 Ancient and modern writers mention various pupils of the Apostle, especially Luke, Clement of Rome, Apollo, lately also Priscilla and Aquila.古代和現代作家提到各種學生宗徒,尤其是盧克,克萊門特的羅馬,阿波羅,最近還普里西拉和雕。

VII.七。 CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE COMPOSITION情節組成

An examination both of the letter itself and of the earliest testimonies of tradition, in reference to the circumstances of its composition, leads to the following conclusions:這兩個考試的信本身和最早的證詞傳統,在參考的情況,它的組成,導致了以下結論:

(1) The place of composition was Italy (13:24), and more precisely Rome (inscription at end of the Codex Alexandrinus), where Paul was during his first imprisonment (61-63). ( 1 )組成的地方是意大利( 13點24分) ,以及更準確地羅馬(題詞月底法典頸) ,其中保羅是在其第一監禁( 61-63 ) 。

(2) The date of its production should certainly be placed before the destruction of Jerusalem (70), and previous to the outbreak of the Jewish War (67), but after the death of James, Bishop of Jerusalem (62). ( 2 )生產日期當然應該擺在摧毀耶路撒冷( 70 ) ,和以往的爆發猶太戰爭( 67 ) ,但去世後,詹姆斯的耶路撒冷主教( 62 ) 。 According to ch.根據總。 xiii, 19, 23, the Apostle was no longer a prisoner.十三, 19 , 23 ,使徒已不再是一個囚犯。 The most probable date for its composition is, therefore, the second half of the year 63 or the beginning of 64, as Paul after his release from imprisonment probably soon undertook the missionary journey "as far as the boundaries of Western Europe" (St. Clement of Rome, "I Epistle to the Corinthians", v, n. 7), that is to Spain.最有可能的日期,其組成是,因此,今年下半年的63或64月初,因為他在獲釋後保羅從監禁可能很快進行了傳教之旅“至於西歐的邊界” (街克萊門特的羅馬, “我的哥林多書信” ,第五,第7號) ,這是西班牙。

(3) The reason for its composition is probably to be found in the conditions existing in the Jewish Christian Church at Jerusalem. ( 3 )原因可能是它的組成中可以找到在現有的條件猶太基督教會在耶路撒冷。 The faith of the Church might fall into great danger through continued persecution by the Jews, who had put James, the head of the community to a violent death.的信仰教會可能落入巨大危險繼續迫害的猶太人,誰提出詹姆斯,頭部的社會暴力致死。 Precisely at this period the services in the temple were celebrated with great pomp, as under Albinus (62-64) the magnificent building was completed, while the Christian community had to struggle with extreme poverty.正是在此期間,服務的寺廟是非常隆重慶祝,因為根據阿爾比努斯( 62-64 )的宏偉建築已經完成,而基督教社會必須鬥爭極端貧困之中。 The national movement which began shortly before the outbreak of the last Jewish war would increase the danger.民族運動開始不久,爆發前的最後猶太戰爭的危險會增加。 These circumstances might lead the Apostle to write the letter.這些情況可能導致使徒寫的信。

(4) The Apostle himself declares the aim of his writing to be the consolation and encouragement of the faithful (xiii, 22). ( 4 )使徒親自宣布他的寫作目的是安慰和鼓勵信徒( 13 , 22 ) 。 The argument and context of the letter show that Paul wished especially to exhort to steadfastness in the Christian Faith and to warn against the danger of apostasy to the Mosaic worship.論點和內容的信表明,保羅希望特別是敦促以堅定的基督教信仰,並警告的危險叛教的馬賽克崇拜。

VIII.八。 IMPORTANCE重要性

The chief importance of the Epistle is in its content of theological teaching. It is, in complete agreement with the other letters of St. Paul, a glorious testimony to the faith of the Apostolic time; above all it testifies to the true Divinity of Jesus Christ, to His heavenly priesthood, and the atoning power of His death.首席重要性書信是在其內容的神學教育。這是完全同意的其他信件的聖保羅,光榮證明了信仰的使徒時間;重要的是,這證明了真正的耶穌的神性基督,他的神聖牧師和贖罪權力去世。

Publication information Written by Leopold Fonck.出版信息作者利奧波德Fonck 。 Transcribed by Judy Levandoski.轉錄的朱迪Levandoski 。 Dedicated to Br. Terance Thielen, TOR The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.致力於一二。 Terance蒂倫,職權範圍的天主教百科全書,體積七。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat , 1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


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