Books of Ezra and Nehemiah, Esdras I and II圖書以斯拉和尼希米記,埃斯德拉斯I和II

General Information 一般信息

Ezra and Nehemiah are two books of the Old Testament of the Bible, originally one work in the Hebrew canon.以斯拉和尼希米記兩本書是舊約聖經,原來一個工作在希伯來文佳能。 Written between 450 and 250 BC and named for two political and religious reformers in the postexilic Jewish community, they relate aspects of Jewish history from 538 BC to about 420 BC.之間撰寫的450和250 BC和的名字命名的兩個政治和宗教的改革者在postexilic猶太社區,它們涉及的方面猶太人的歷史從公元前538到420年。 Because of the confused organization of the books, the chronology of the two reformers and their work is uncertain.由於混淆組織書籍,年表兩個改革派和他們的工作是不確定的。

With some rearrangement of contents, the purposes of scribe Ezra's mission to Jerusalem from the Persian court in 458 BC may be seen to have been to introduce stricter observance of the Law and to dissolve marriages with foreigners; the purposes of Governor Nehemiah's two missions to Jerusalem in 445 BC and 432 BC may be seen to have been to fortify and resettle the city, reform temple organization, oppose mixed marriages, and secure loyalty to these reforms by a covenant.一些重排的內容,其宗旨文士以斯拉訪問耶路撒冷從波斯灣法院在公元前458可以看出已經採用嚴格遵守法律並解散與外國人結婚的目的,總督尼希米記的兩次訪問耶路撒冷在公元前445年和432可以看出已加固和重新安置的城市,改革寺組織,反對異族通婚,並確保這些改革的忠誠的盟約。 To many scholars, however, the accounts of the reforms seem intelligible only on the assumption that Nehemiah preceded Ezra, whose arrival they date 428 or 397 BC.許多學者,但是,帳目的改革似乎可理解唯一的假設是,尼希米記以斯拉之前,他們的到來之日起428或397年。 Some scholars believe Ezra and Nehemiah were prepared as a supplement to 1 and 2 Chronicles and written by the same hand.有學者認為以斯拉和尼希米記準備的一種補充, 1和歷代誌下和書面由同一手。 This view is challenged by others.這種觀點提出質疑等。

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Bibliography 參考書目
J Blenkensop, Ezra - Nehemia: A Commentary (1988); JM Myers, ed., The Anchor Bible: Ezra and Nehemiah (1965). J Blenkensop ,以斯拉- Nehemia :評注( 1988年) ; JM邁爾斯,教育署。 ,錨聖經:以斯拉和尼希米記( 1965年) 。


Books of Ezra and Nehemiah圖書以斯拉和尼希米記

Brief Outline簡要概述

Book of Ezra以斯拉記

  1. Narrative of the return of the Jews from Babylonia under Zerubbabel and the restoration of worship in the rebuilt temple (1-6)敘事歸還猶太人從東風下Zerubbabel和恢復重建中的宗教寺廟( 1-6 )
  2. Second group of exiles return with Ezra, and Ezra's religious reforms.第二組的流亡者返回以斯拉和以斯拉的宗教改革。 (7-10) ( 7月10日)

Book of Nehemiah尼希米記

  1. Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem (1-2)尼希米記返回耶路撒冷( 1-2 )
  2. Building despite opposition (3:1-7:4)建設儘管反對黨( 3:1-7:4 )
  3. Genealogy of the first returning exiles (7:5-73)家譜第一返回流亡者( 7:5-73 )
  4. Revival and Covenant sealing (8:1-10:39)復興和盟約密封( 8:1-10:39 )
  5. Dwellers at Jerusalem and genealogies (11:1-12:26)居民在耶路撒冷和族譜( 11:1-12:26 )
  6. Dedication of the walls (12:27-47)奉獻精神的牆壁( 12:27-47 )
  7. Final reforms (13:1-31)最後改革( 13:1-31 )


Ez'ra

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Ezra, help.以斯拉,幫助。 (1.) A priest among those that returned to Jerusalem under Zerubabel (Neh. 12:1). ( 1 。 )一名神父屬於那些返回耶路撒冷下Zerubabel ( Neh. 12時01分) 。 (2.) The "scribe" who led the second body of exiles that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem BC 459, and author of the book of Scripture which bears his name. ( 2 。 )的“抄”誰領導了第二次機構的流亡者返回巴比倫耶路撒冷從公元前459 ,和一書的作者聖經承擔他的名字。 He was the son, or perhaps grandson, of Seraiah (2 Kings 25:18-21), and a lineal descendant of Phinehas, the son of Aaron (Ezra 7:1-5).他的兒子,或者是孫子的Seraiah (列王紀下25:18-21 ) ,以及直系後裔Phinehas的兒子亞倫(以斯拉7:1-5 ) 。 All we know of his personal history is contained in the last four chapters of his book, and in Neh. 8 and 12:26.我們都知道他的個人歷史,載於過去四個章節的著作,並在Neh 。 8日和12點26分。 In the seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus (see DARIUS), he obtained leave to go up to Jerusalem and to take with him a company of Israelites (Ezra 8).在第七個年頭的統治阿爾塔克賽爾克斯Longimanus (見DARIUS ) ,他獲得休假去了耶路撒冷,並採取與他的公司的以色列人(以斯拉8 ) 。 Artaxerxes manifested great interest in Ezra's undertaking, granting him "all his request," and loading him with gifts for the house of God.阿爾塔克賽爾克斯表現了極大的興趣以斯拉的承諾,給予他“他的所有要求” ,並載入中他贈送給眾議院的上帝。 Ezra assembled the band of exiles, probably about 5,000 in all, who were prepared to go up with him to Jerusalem, on the banks of the Ahava, where they rested for three days, and were put into order for their march across the desert, which was completed in four months.以斯拉組裝樂隊的流亡者,大概5000人,誰願意跟他去了耶路撒冷,對銀行的阿哈瓦,他們在那裡休息了3天,並投入為了使他們在3月的沙漠,這是於四個月內完成。

His proceedings at Jerusalem on his arrival there are recorded in his book.他的程序,在他到達耶路撒冷有記錄在他的著作。 He was "a ready scribe in the law of Moses," who "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments."他是一個“準備抄寫在摩西律法, ”誰“編寫了他的心,尋求法律的上帝,並做到這一點,並教育在以色列的章程和判斷。 ” "He is," says Professor Binnie, "the first well-defined example of an order of men who have never since ceased in the church; men of sacred erudition, who devote their lives to the study of the Holy Scriptures, in order that they may be in a condition to interpret them for the instruction and edification of the church. It is significant that the earliest mention of the pulpit occurs in the history of Ezra's ministry (Neh. 8:4). “他是教授說, ”賓尼, “第一次明確的例子是為了誰的男子,因為從未停止在教堂;男子的神聖博學,誰獻身研究聖經,以便它們可能是在一個條件來解釋他們的指導和啟迪的教堂。值得注意的是,最早提到講壇發生歷史上的以斯拉部( Neh. 8時04分) 。

He was much more of a teacher than a priest.他更是一個教師不是牧師。 We learn from the account of his labours in the book of Nehemiah that he was careful to have the whole people instructed in the law of Moses; and there is no reason to reject the constant tradition of the Jews which connects his name with the collecting and editing of the Old Testament canon.我們從他的勞動的帳戶中尼希米記,他是認真的全體人民的指示摩西律法;和沒有理由拒絕常數傳統猶太人連接他的名字的收集和編輯舊約佳能。 The final completion of the canon may have been, and probably was, the work of a later generation; but Ezra seems to have put it much into the shape in which it is still found in the Hebrew Bible.最後完成的可能已被佳能,也許是工作以後的一代;但以斯拉似乎已經把它的形狀非常到它仍然是發現在希伯來文聖經。 When it is added that the complete organization of the synagogue dates from this period, it will be seen that the age was emphatically one of Biblical study" (The Psalms: their History, etc.). For about fourteen years, ie, till BC 445, we have no record of what went on in Jerusalem after Ezra had set in order the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the nation. In that year another distinguished personage, Nehemiah, appears on the scene.當它是說,完整的組織會堂追溯到這個時期,可以看到,年齡是重點之一聖經研究“ (該詩篇:他們的歷史,等等) 。大約14年,即到公元前445 ,我們也沒有什麼記錄了在耶路撒冷成立後以斯拉為了教會和民間事務的國家。在這一年的另一個傑出的人物,尼希米記,出現在現場。

After the ruined wall of the city had been built by Nehemiah, there was a great gathering of the people at Jerusalem preparatory to the dedication of the wall.後毀牆在城市建立了尼希米記,有一個偉大的聚會,籌備在耶路撒冷的人的獻身精神的隔離牆。 On the appointed day the whole population assembled, and the law was read aloud to them by Ezra and his assistants (Neh. 8:3).在指定的日期組裝全體人民,與法律是朗讀給他們以斯拉和他的助手( Neh. 8時03分) 。 The remarkable scene is described in detail. There was a great religious awakening.最顯著的場景中有詳細的說明。存在著很大的宗教覺醒。 For successive days they held solemn assemblies, confessing their sins and offering up solemn sacrifices.連續幾天,他們舉行了隆重的集會,承認他們的罪孽,並提供了莊嚴的犧牲。 They kept also the feast of Tabernacles with great solemnity and joyous enthusiasm, and then renewed their national covenant to be the Lord's.他們不停地還住棚節非常嚴肅和歡樂的熱情,然後重新本國盟約是上帝。 Abuses were rectified, and arrangements for the temple service completed, and now nothing remained but the dedication of the walls of the city (Neh. 12).的行為糾正,並安排寺服務完成,但現在仍然沒有任何的奉獻精神的牆上城市( Neh. 12 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


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Book of Ez'ra書Ez'ra

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This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the Babylonian exile.這本書是記錄發生的事件結束時,巴比倫流亡。 It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the Jews regarding them as one volume.這是一次包括在尼希米記,猶太人把它們作為一個卷。 The two are still distinguished in the Vulgate version as I.這兩個仍然尊敬的拉丁文聖經版本 and II. 和二。 Esdras. It consists of two principal divisions: (1.) The history of the first return of exiles, in the first year of Cyrus (BC 536), till the completion and dedication of the new temple, in the sixth year of Darius Hystapes (BC 515), ch. 埃斯德拉斯。它包括兩個主要部分: ( 1 。 )的歷史,第一次返回的流亡者,在頭一年的居魯士(公元前536 ) ,直到完成和奉獻精神的新廟,在第六個年頭的大流士Hystapes (公元前515 ) ,甲烷。 1-6. 1月6日。 From the close of the sixth to the opening of the seventh chapter there is a blank in the history of about sixty years.從密切第六開幕的第七屆章有一個空白的歷史中的大約60歲。 (2.) The history of the second return under Ezra, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and of the events that took place at Jerusalem after Ezra's arrival there (7-10). ( 2 。 )的歷史第二下返回以斯拉,在第七個年頭的阿爾塔克賽爾克斯Longimanus ,以及發生的事件後,在耶路撒冷以斯拉的到來有( 7月10日) 。 The book thus contains memorabilia connected with the Jews, from the decree of Cyrus (BC 536) to the reformation by Ezra (BC 456), extending over a period of about eighty years.這本書從而包含紀念品與猶太人,從法令居魯士(公元前536 ) ,以改革的以斯拉(公元前456 ) ,延伸,為期約八十年。 There is no quotation from this book in the New Testament, but there never has been any doubt about its being canonical.沒有引用這本書在新約,但從來沒有被任何疑問它是典型。 Ezra was probably the author of this book, at least of the greater part of it (comp. 7:27, 28; 8:1, etc.), as he was also of the Books of Chronicles, the close of which forms the opening passage of Ezra.以斯拉可能是這本書的作者,至少有更大的一部分( comp. 7點27分, 28 ; 8:1 ,等等) ,因為他還圖書的編年史,密切的構成開幕式通過以斯拉。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Nehemi'ah

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Nehemiah, comforted by Jehovah.尼希米記,安慰耶和華。 (1.) Ezra 2:2; Neh. ( 1 。 )以斯拉2點02分; Neh 。 7:7. 7時07分。 (2.) Neh. ( 2 。 ) Neh 。 3:16. 3:16 。 (3.) The son of Hachaliah (Neh. 1:1), and probably of the tribe of Judah. His family must have belonged to Jerusalem (Neh. 2:3). ( 3 。 )的兒子Hachaliah ( Neh. 1:1 ) ,並可能在部落的猶大。他的家人必須有屬於耶路撒冷( Neh. 2:3 ) 。 He was one of the "Jews of the dispersion," and in his youth was appointed to the important office of royal cup-bearer at the palace of Shushan.他是一個“猶太人的分散, ”在他的青年被任命為這一重要職務皇家杯旗手在王宮的蜀山。 The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, seems to have been on terms of friendly familiarity with his attendant.國王阿爾塔克賽爾克斯Longimanus ,似乎已經對條款的友好熟悉他的服務員。 Through his brother Hanani, and perhaps from other sources (Neh. 1:2; 2:3), he heard of the mournful and desolate condition of the Holy City, and was filled with sadness of heart.通過他的哥哥Hanani ,也許從其他來源( Neh. 1:2 ; 2:3 ) ,他聽到的悲哀和淒涼條件聖城,並充滿了悲傷的心。 For many days he fasted and mourned and prayed for the place of his fathers' sepulchres.許多天,他禁食和哀悼和祈禱的地方,他的父親sepulchres 。 At length the king observed his sadness of countenance and asked the reason of it.在長度國王看到他悲傷的面容,並要求它的原因。 Nehemiah explained it all to the king, and obtained his permission to go up to Jerusalem and there to act as tirshatha, or governor of Judea.尼希米記解釋這一切的國王,並獲得他的許可去了耶路撒冷和有作為tirshatha ,或總督朱迪亞。

He went up in the spring of BC 446 (eleven years after Ezra), with a strong escort supplied by the king, and with letters to all the pashas of the provinces through which he had to pass, as also to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, directing him to assist Nehemiah.他在春天公元前446 ( 11年之後以斯拉) ,擁有強大的護送國王提供的,並給所有的pashas省份通過他通過,因為還Asaph ,掌皇家森林,指導他協助尼希米記。 On his arrival he set himself to survey the city, and to form a plan for its restoration; a plan which he carried out with great skill and energy, so that the whole was completed in about six months.在他到達他本人調查的城市,並形成一個計劃,其恢復;一項計劃,他進行了非凡的才幹和精力,從而使整個約於六個月內完成。 He remained in Judea for thirteen years as governor, carrying out many reforms, notwithstanding much opposition that he encountered (Neh. 13:11).他仍然在朱迪亞的十三年總督,進行了許多改革,儘管很多人反對,他遇到( Neh. 13點11分) 。 He built up the state on the old lines, "supplementing and completing the work of Ezra," and making all arrangements for the safety and good government of the city.他建立了國家對老線“ ,補充和完善的工作以斯拉” ,並盡一切安排的安全和良好的政府城市。 At the close of this important period of his public life, he returned to Persia to the service of his royal master at Shushan or Ecbatana.在結束這個重要時期的公共生活,他回到波斯,來服務於他的王室大師蜀山或埃克巴塔那。

Very soon after this the old corrupt state of things returned, showing the worthlessness to a large extent of the professions that had been made at the feast of the dedication of the walls of the city (Neh. 12. See EZRA).之後不久這個舊腐敗國家的東西回來,顯示毫無價值很大程度上的職業上取得了節日的奉獻精神的牆壁市( Neh. 12 。見EZRA ) 。 Malachi now appeared among the people with words of stern reproof and solemn warning; and Nehemiah again returned from Persia (after an absence of some two years), and was grieved to see the widespread moral degeneracy that had taken place during his absence.瑪拉基現在似乎在人民群眾中的話嚴厲責備和嚴正警告;和尼希米記再次返回波斯(後缺乏大約兩年) ,並痛心地看到,普遍的道德簡已經發生在他離港期間。 He set himself with vigour to rectify the flagrant abuses that had sprung up, and restored the orderly administration of public worship and the outward observance of the law of Moses.他把自己的精力,糾正這種明目張膽的侵權行為,已如雨後春筍般冒出來,並恢復了有序的管理公共禮拜和外向遵守摩西律法。 Of his subsequent history we know nothing.他後來的歷史,我們什麼都不知道。 Probably he remained at his post as governor till his death (about BC 413) in a good old age.也許他仍然擔任總督直到他去世(約公元前413 )在一個良好的老年生活。

The place of his death and burial is, however, unknown.代替他的死亡和埋葬,但下落不明。 "He resembled Ezra in his fiery zeal, in his active spirit of enterprise, and in the piety of his life: but he was of a bluffer and a fiercer mood; he had less patience with transgressors; he was a man of action rather than a man of thought, and more inclined to use force than persuasion. His practical sagacity and high courage were very markedly shown in the arrangement with which he carried through the rebuilding of the wall and balked the cunning plans of the 'adversaries.' “他象以斯拉在他強烈的熱情,在他的積極進取精神,在虔誠的生命:但他是一個bluffer和激烈的情緒,他耐心地減少違法,他是一個男人的行動,而不是一個人的思想,更傾向於使用武力比說服。他的實際的遠見卓識和高度的勇氣是非常明顯的表現在安排與他進行通過重建和不願意在牆上的狡猾計劃'的對手。 The piety of his heart, his deeply religious spirit and constant sense of communion with and absolute dependence upon God, are strikingly exhibited, first in the long prayer recorded in ch. 1:5-11, and secondly and most remarkably in what have been called his 'interjectional prayers', those short but moving addresses to Almighty God which occur so frequently in his writings, the instinctive outpouring of a heart deeply moved, but ever resting itself upon God, and looking to God alone for aid in trouble, for the frustration of evil designs, and for final reward and acceptance" (Rawlinson).他的虔誠的心,他的精神和深刻的宗教意義上的不斷交流和絕對依賴上帝,是驚人的表現,首先是在祈禱的長期記錄,在CH 。 1:5-11 ,其次,最顯著的有哪些稱他的'感嘆詞祈禱' ,但這些短期移動地址萬能的上帝經常發生在他的著作,本能的流露心髒病深受感動,但以往任何時候都休息後,自己的上帝,只有上帝尋求援助的問題,為沮喪的罪惡陰謀,並最終回報和接受“ (羅林森) 。

Nehemiah was the last of the governors sent from the Persian court.尼希米記是最後的省長發出從波斯灣法院。 Judea after this was annexed to the satrapy of Coele-Syria, and was governed by the high priest under the jurisdiction of the governor of Syria, and the internal government of the country became more and more a hierarchy.這是朱迪亞後所附的satrapy的Coele ,敘利亞,是由大祭司管轄下的總督敘利亞,以及政府內部的國家變得越來越等級。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Nehemi'ah書Nehemi'ah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself.的作者,這本書毫無疑問尼希米記本人。 There are portions of the book written in the first person (ch. 1-7; 12:27-47, and 13).有部分著作中的第一人(章1-7 ; 12:27-47 ,和13 ) 。 But there are also portions of it in which Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person (ch. 8; 9; 10).但也有部分是在尼希米記講的第三人(章8 ; 9 ; 10 ) 。 It is supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of this, however, there is no distinct evidence.這是假定這些部分可能已被寫的以斯拉;這一點,但是,沒有明顯的證據。 These portions had their place assigned them in the book, there can be no doubt, by Nehemiah.這部分地分配了他們在這本書,毫無疑問,由尼希米記。 He was the responsible author of the whole book, with the exception of ch.他是負責任的作者,整本書,除了膽固醇。 12:11, 22, 23. 12點11 , 22 , 23 。 The date at which the book was written was probably about BC 431-430, when Nehemiah had returned the second time to Jerusalem after his visit to Persia.該日期寫這本書可能是大約公元前431-430 ,返回時尼希米記第二次到耶路撒冷後,他訪問波斯。

The book, which may historically be regarded as a continuation of the book of Ezra, consists of four parts.這本書,這可能在歷史上被看作是繼續書以斯拉,包括四個部分。 (1.) An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch. 1-7). ( 1 。 )取得的重建耶路撒冷隔離牆,並登記冊尼希米記發現了這些誰回來巴比倫(章1-7 ) 。 (2.) An account of the state of religion among the Jews during this time (8-10). ( 2 。 )敘述了國家的宗教之間的猶太人在此期間( 8月10日) 。 (3.) Increase of the inhabitants of Jerusalem; the census of the adult male population, and names of the chiefs, together with lists of priests and Levites (11-12:1-26). ( 3 。 )增加耶路撒冷居民;普查的成年男性人口和姓名酋長,連同名單祭司和利( 11-12:1-26 ) 。 (4.) Dedication of the wall of Jerusalem, the arrangement of the temple officers, and the reforms carried out by Nehemiah (12:27-ch. 13). ( 4 。 )獻身精神牆耶路撒冷,安排寺官員,以及進行的改革的尼希米記( 12:27路。 13 ) 。 This book closes the history of the Old Testament.這本書的歷史收盤舊約。 Malachi the prophet was contemporary with Nehemiah.瑪拉基先知是當代與尼希米記。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Ezra and His Reforms以斯拉和他的改革

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

Ezra Chapters 7-10以斯拉分會7月10日

The Commission and Its Execution委員會及其執行

cc.消委會。 7, 8 The first of these chapters tells who Ezra was (vv. 1-6), the date and object of his journey to Jerusalem (vv. 7-10), the nature and extent of his commission from the king (vv. 11-26), and his feelings in the premises (vv. 27, 28). The second, gives the number and genealogic record of the Jews who accompanied him (vv. 1-20), the spirit in which they entered upon the pilgrimage (vv. 21-23), the arrangements for guarding and delivering the treasurer in their keeping (vv. 24-30), their arrival and the fulfilment of their commission (vv. 31-36). 7日, 8日第一個章節講述以斯拉是誰( vv. 1-6 ) ,日期和對象,他前往耶路撒冷( vv. 7月10日)的性質和程度,他的委員會由國王( vv. 11月26日) ,和他的感情的處所( vv. 27日, 28日) 。第二,提供的數量和系譜記錄猶太人誰陪同他( vv. 1月20日)的精神,他們在進入時朝聖之旅( vv. 21日至23日) ,安排警衛和提供財務,對保持( vv. 24-30 ) ,他們的到來,並履行其委員會( vv. 31-36 ) 。

To consider chapter seven in detail, the Artaxerxes of verse one is considered as identical with the Ahasuerus of Esther's time, and Anstey regards him as identical also with the Darius Hystaspes named above.審議第7章的詳細阿爾塔克賽爾克斯之一的詩被認為是相同的Ahasuerus以斯帖的時間,和安斯蒂關於他也有相同的大流士斯伯上述。 Ezra was a priest as well as a scribe (vv. 1-5).以斯拉是一名牧師,以及抄寫( vv. 1-5 ) 。 The "Seraiah" whose son (great grandson perhaps) he was, was the high priest slain by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 25:18).該“ Seraiah ”的兒子(曾孫也許) ,他是被殺害的大祭司尼布甲尼撒(列王紀下25:18 ) 。 Jeshua, with whom we got acquainted in the last lesson, was also his grandson, but probably in another branch of the family. "Scribe" is the same as doctor, teacher, or rabbi, one learned in the law of Moses and Jewish traditions and customs (v. 10). Jeshua ,我們與他們相識,在過去的教訓,這也是他的孫子,但可能在另一處的家庭。 “雕”是一樣的醫生,教師,或拉比,一個教訓在摩西律法和猶太傳統和海關(五10 ) 。 How this Persian king came to be so interested is not known, unless, as some think, Esther had already become his queen, which would explain it.如何波斯國王來到如此感興趣的是不知道,除非是一些人認為,以斯帖已經成為他的皇后,這將解釋。 Others believe that after the death of the leaders of the earlier company, Zerubbabel and his associates, matters became so disordered in the province that leading Jews in Persia pleaded with the king to appoint this reform commission.還有人認為,死亡後的領導人早些時候公司, Zerubbabel和他的助手,問題變得如此無序省領導猶太人在波斯懇求國王任命這一改革委員會。

Observe the power granted Ezra to study conditions, as we now say (v. 14), to collect funds (vv. 15, 16), levy tribute (vv. 21, 22), appoint magistrates and judges (v. 25), and execute penalties (v. 26).遵守賦予的權力以斯拉研究條件,因為我們現在說(五14 ) ,募集資金( vv. 15日, 16日) ,徵收的敬意( vv. 21日, 22日) ,任命治安法官和法官(五25 ) ,和執行刑罰(五26 ) 。 As to chapter 8, the number of male adults accompanying Ezra was but 1,754, but there should be added women, children and servants, making perhaps three or four times that number. Attention is called to verses 21 and 23.至於第8章,人數男性成年人陪同以斯拉只是1754年,但應增加婦女,兒童和僕人,決策也許3 〜 4倍,這個數字。請注意詩句21日和23日。 The danger of such caravans from the marauding Arabs was so great as to make a military escort necessary.的危險,例如大蓬車從掠奪阿拉伯人是如此之大,使必要的軍事護送。 But Ezra's sensitive regard for God's honor before the heathen would not permit his asking for one.但是以斯拉敏感的方面看在上帝的榮譽面前的異教徒將不會允許他的要求之一。 It was a strong test of faith to which he and his companions were equal, and which God honored.這是一個強烈的信念,以測試他和他的同伴都是平等的,而且上帝榮幸。 May the principle of its lesson not to be lost upon the reader. 5月的原則,其教訓不丟失的讀者。

Internal Conditions and How They Were Changed內部條件,以及它們如何改變了

cc.消委會。 9, 10 This moral corruption (9:1, 2) is not inconceivable to those who know their own hearts and the nature of sin, but its effect on Ezra was what might have been expected under the circumstances (v. 3). 9日, 10日這道德敗壞( 9:1 , 2 )是不是不可想像的那些誰知道他們自己的心靈和罪惡的性質,但它的影響是什麼以斯拉可能被預期的情況下, (五3 ) 。 His outward signs of grief were oriental.他離港的跡象,悲痛的東方。 There is contagion in such grief which communicates itself to others animated by a like spirit (v. 4).有蔓延在這種悲痛的傳達到其他動畫片一樣的精神(五4 ) 。 It is thus a revival spreads.因此,恢復差。 One soul is awakened, and he awakens another.一個靈魂的覺醒,他醒來的。 And if he be a pastor or leader of the Lord's hosts, like Ezra, the people gather round him, and results follow (9:4; 10:1-44.)如果他是一個牧師或領導人的上帝東道主,如以斯拉,人們聚集在他周圍,和結果的後續( 9時04分; 10:1-44 。 )

Study the prayer carefully (vv. 5-15).祈禱仔細研究( vv. 5月15日) 。 The suppliant's attitude (v. 5), his sense of shame (v. 6), his unqualified confession (v. 7), his gratitude (vv. 8, 9), his deep conviction of sin (vv. 10-14), and his dependency only on divine mercy (v. 15).該suppliant的態度(五5 ) ,他的羞恥感(五6 ) ,他無條件地懺悔(五7 ) ,感謝( vv. 8日, 9日) ,他深信黃大仙( vv. 10月14日) ,他只依賴於神恩(五15 ) 。 Observe how God answered the prayer by graciously working on the people's hearts, the leaders first, and then the people generally.觀察回答祈禱上帝的仁慈地工作的人們的心靈,各國領導人第一次,然後是一般人。 Shecanaiah (10:2), was a brave man in the attitude he took, for while his name does not appear in the subsequent list of offenders, yet those of his near relatives do (v. 26). Shecanaiah ( 10時02 ) ,是一個勇敢的人,他的態度,因為雖然他的名字沒有出現在隨後的罪犯名單,但這些他近親屬做(五26 ) 。

Note the phrase (v. 2): "There is hope in Israel concerning this thing."注意短語(五2 ) : “有希望在以色列關於這件事。 ” Hope only, however, along the line of thorough repentance.只希望,然而,線沿線徹底悔改。 Here is a text and subject-matter for a revival sermon.以下是文字和主題事項重振講道。 Note the radical step taken by the leaders (v. 6-8), and its prompt result (v. 9). Also the judicious method of procedure as necessitated by the circumstances (vv. 10-17).請注意所採取激進的步驟領導人(五6-8 ) ,並迅速導致(五9 ) 。另外,明智的方法,程序,視情況( vv. 10月17日) 。 This justifies the belief that provision was made for the unlawful wives and children that were put away.這有理由相信,編列的非法妻子和孩子被拋棄。

Questions 1. 問題 1 。 Have you familiarized yourself with the Persian kings of this period?你了解自己的波斯國王的這段時間? 2. 2 。 Who was Ezra?誰是以斯拉? 3. What is a "scribe"? 3 。什麼是“抄” ? 4. 4 。 How many were in Ezra's company of returning exiles?多少人在以斯拉的公司返回的流亡者? 5. 5 。 How was their strong faith shown?如何表現出強烈的信心? 6. What illustration of the progress of a revival is found in this lesson? 6 。什麼說明的進展情況恢復中發現這一課? 7. 7 。 What feature of Ezra's prayer most impresses you?有什麼特點以斯拉的祈禱最深刻的印象嗎?


Esdras (Or EZRA.)埃斯德拉斯(或者EZRA 。 )

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. ESDRAS THE MAN一埃斯德拉斯的城域網

Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's restoration after the Exile.埃斯德拉斯是一個著名的牧師和文士與以色列恢復後流亡國外。 The chief sources of information touching his life are the canonical books of Esdras and Nehemias.首席信息來源觸摸他的生活是典型的書籍埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias 。 A group of apocryphal writings is also much concerned with him, but they can hardly be relied upon, as they relate rather the legendary tales of a later age. A組的未經證實的著作也非常關注他,但他們也難以依靠,因為它們涉及的傳奇故事,而以後的年齡。 Esdras was of priestly descent and belonged to the line of Sardoc (Ezra 7:1-5).埃斯德拉斯是神父出身和屬於線Sardoc (以斯拉7:1-5 ) 。 He styles himself "son of Saraias" (vii, 1), an expression which is by many understood in a broad sense, as purporting that Saraias, the chief priest, spoken of in 2 Kings 25:18-21, was one of Esdras's ancestors.他自稱“兒子Saraias ” (第七章, 1 ) ,表示這是許多人的理解是廣義上的,因為看來這Saraias ,政務司鐸,談到在列王紀下25:18-21 ,是一個埃斯德拉斯的祖先。 Nevertheless he is known rather as "the scribe" than as "priest": he was "a ready scribe [a scribe skilled] in the law of Moses", and therefore especially qualified for the task to which he was destined among his people. The chronological relation of Esdras's work with that of Nehemias is, among the questions connected with the history of the Jewish Restoration, one of the most mooted.然而眾所周知,而他的“刀” ,而不是“牧師” :他是一個“準備抄寫[ 1抄寫技能]在摩西律法” ,因此,特別是合格的任務,他是注定是他的人。時間順序關係埃斯德拉斯的工作與Nehemias是,在問題與歷史上的猶太人修復,其中最提出。 Many Biblical scholars still cling to the view suggested by the traditional order of the sacred text (due allowance being made for the break in the narrative -- Ezra 4:6-23), and place the mission of Esdras before that of Nehemias.許多聖經學者仍堅持認為所建議的傳統秩序的神聖文(由於津貼正在為打破在敘事-以斯拉4:6-23 ) ,和地點的使命埃斯德拉斯之前的Nehemias 。 Others, among whom we may mention Professor Van Hoonacker of Louvain, Dr.另一些人,其中教授,我們可能提到範Hoonacker魯汶,博士 TK Cheyne in England, and Professor CF Kent in America, to do away with the numberless difficulties arising from the interpretation of the main sources of this history, maintain that Nehemias's mission preceded that of Esdras.傳統知識進益在英格蘭,和教授參看肯特在美國,要取消了無數引起的困難解釋的主要來源這段歷史,保持Nehemias的任務之前的埃斯德拉斯。 The former view holds that Esdras came to Jerusalem about 458 BC, and Nehemias first in 444 and the second time about 430 BC; whereas, according to the opposite opinion, Esdras's mission might have taken place as late as 397 BC However this may be, since we are here only concerned with Esdras, we will limit ourselves to summarizing the principal features of his life and work, without regard to the problems involved, which it suffices to have mentioned.前者認為認為,來到耶路撒冷埃斯德拉斯約公元前458和Nehemias在444和第一次,第二次約430公元前;而根據相反意見,埃斯德拉斯的任務可能已經發生才397公元前然而這可能是,因為我們這裡只涉及埃斯德拉斯,我們將只限於總結的主要特點他的生活和工作,而不考慮所涉及的問題,它足以提到。

Many years had elapsed after permission had been given to the Jews to return to Palestine; amidst difficulties and obstacles the restored community had settled down again in their ancient home and built a new temple; but their condition, both from the political and the religious point of view, was most precarious: they chafed under the oppression of the Persian satraps and had grown indifferent and unobservant of the Law.許多年過去了許可後,提供了對猶太人返回巴勒斯坦;之中的困難和障礙的恢復社會安定下來再次在其古老的家園,並建立了一個新的廟宇,但他們的狀況,無論從政治和宗教觀點看來,是最不穩定的:他們惱火的壓迫下的波斯satraps和增長漠不關心,眛法。 From Babylon, where this state of affairs was well known, Esdras longed to go to Jerusalem and use his authority as a priest and interpreter of the Law to restore things to a better condition. He was in favour at the court of the Persian king; he not only obtained permission to visit Judea, but a royal edict clothing him with ample authority to carry out his purpose, and ample support from the royal treasury.從巴比倫,在這種狀況是眾所周知的,埃斯德拉斯渴望去耶路撒冷和使用他的權力作為一名神父和口譯的法律,恢復的東西更好地條件。他贊成在法院的波斯國王;他不僅獲准訪問朱迪亞,但皇家法令衣物他有充分的權力履行其目的,並充分支持皇家國庫。 The rescript, moreover, ordered the satraps "beyond the river" to assist Esdras liberally and enacted that all Jewish temple officials should be exempt from toll, tribute, or custom.該詔書,此外,下令satraps “超越河流” ,以協助埃斯德拉斯寬鬆和頒布,所有猶太聖殿的官員應當免除收費,敬意,或自定義。 "And thou, Esdras, appoint judges and magistrates, that they may judge all the people, that is beyond the river" (Ezra 7:25). Finally, the Law of God and the law of the king were alike to be enforced by severe penalties. “而你,埃斯德拉斯,任命法官和治安法官,法官說,他們可能所有的人,這是超越河” (以斯拉7:25 ) 。最後,上帝的律法和法律國王都將被強制執行嚴厲的懲罰。 The edict left all Jews who felt so inclined free to go back to their own country.該法令的所有猶太人離開誰覺得很傾向於自由地返回自己的國家。 Some 1800 men, including a certain number of priests, Levites, and Nathinites, started with Esdras from Babylon, and after five months the company safely reached Jerusalem.一些1800年的男子,其中包括一定數量的牧師,利,並Nathinites ,開始埃斯德拉斯從巴比倫,經過5個月該公司安全達成耶路撒冷。 Long-neglected abuses had taken root in the sacred city.長期被忽視的行為採取了根在神聖的城市。 These Esdras set himself vigorously to correct, after the silver and gold he had carried from Babylon were brought into the Temple and sacrifices offered.這些埃斯德拉斯把自己積極正確的,在金,銀,他從巴比倫進行帶進寺廟和犧牲提供。 The first task which confronted him was that of dealing with mixed marriages.其中的第一項任務是,面對他的處理異族通婚。 Regardless of the Law of Moses, many, even the leading Jews and priests, had intermarried with the idolatrous inhabitants of the country. Horror-stricken by the discovery of this abuse -- the extent of which was very likely unknown heretofore to Esdras -- he gave utterance to his feelings in a prayer which made such an impression upon the people that Sechenias, in their names, proposed that the Israelites should put away their foreign wives and the children born of them.無論摩西律法,許多人,甚至導致猶太人和牧師,有通婚的盲目崇拜與該國居民。恐怖襲擊的發現這種濫用-的程度,這是很可能在此之前,以埃斯德拉斯未知-他話語中對自己的感情祈禱使這種印象的人, Sechenias ,在他們的名字,建議,以色列人應該放棄他們的外籍妻子和他們所生的子女。 Esdras seized his opportunity, and exacted from the congregation an oath that they would comply with this proposition.埃斯德拉斯抓住他的機會,並造成從眾宣誓,他們將遵守這一命題。 A general assembly of the people was called by the princes and the ancients; but the business could not be transacted easily at such a meeting and a special commission, with Esdras at its head, was appointed to take the matter in hand. For three full months this commission held its sessions; at the end of that time the "strange wives" were dismissed.大會的人是所謂的王子和古人;但企業不能交易很容易在這樣的會議和一個特別委員會,以埃斯德拉斯在其頭部,被任命為這一問題在手。三年全個月,委員會舉行了會議;結束時,當時的“奇怪的妻子”被駁回。

What was the outcome of this drastic measure we are not told; Esdras's memoirs are interrupted here.是什麼的結果,激烈的措施,我們不說;埃斯德拉斯的回憶錄是在這裡中斷。 Nor do we know whether, his task accomplished, he returned to Babylon or remained in Jerusalem.我們也不知道,他的任務完成了,他回到巴比倫或留在耶路撒冷。 At any rate we find him again in the latter city at the reading of the Law which took place after the rebuilding of the walls.無論如何,我們找到他再次在後者市在讀的法律之後發生的重建牆壁。 No doubt this event had rekindled the enthusiasm of the people; and to comply with the popular demand, Esdras brought the Book of the Law.毫無疑問,這一事件重新燃起了熱情的人;和符合大眾需求,埃斯德拉斯使圖書法律。 On the first day of the seventh month (Tishri), a great meeting was held "in the street that was before the watergate", for the purpose of reading the Law.在第一天的第7個月(提市黎月) ,一個偉大舉行了一次會議“在大街上,提供給了水”的目的而言,讀法。 Standing on a platform, Esdras read the book aloud "from the morning until midday".站在平台上,埃斯德拉斯閱讀這本書朗讀“從早上到中午。 ” At hearing the words of the Law, which they had so much transgressed, the congregation broke forth into lamentations unsuited to the holiness of the day; Nehemias therefore adjourned the assembly.在聽證會上所說的話法,因為他們有如此多的transgressed ,該會打破提出到悲嘆不適應神聖的一天; Nehemias因此押後大會。 The reading was resumed on the next day by Esdras, and they found in the Law the directions concerning the feast of the Tabernacles.閱讀是恢復第二天埃斯德拉斯,他們發現在該法的方向有關的住棚節。 Thereupon steps were at once taken for the due celebration of this feast, which was to last seven days, from the fifteenth to the twenty-second day of Tishri.於是步驟一次採取適當慶祝這一節日,這是過去7天內,從第十五的第二十二天的提市黎月。 Esdras continued the public reading of the Law every day of the feast; and two days after its close a strict fast was held, and "they stood, and confessed their sins, and the iniquities of their fathers" (Nehemiah 9:2).埃斯德拉斯繼續公眾讀法每天的盛宴;兩天後,迅速關閉了嚴格舉行,和“原樣,並供認他們的罪孽,和其父親的罪孽” (尼希米記9點02分) 。 There was a good opportunity to renew solemnly the covenant between the people and God.有一個很好的機會,再次莊嚴地人民之間的盟約和上帝。 This covenant pledged the community to the observance of the Law, the abstention from intermarriage with heathens, the careful keeping of the Sabbath and of the feasts, and to various regulations agreed to for the care of the Temple, its services, and the payment of the tithes.這一公約的社會承諾遵守法律,棄權與異教徒通婚,認真保存安息日和節日,以及各項規章制度同意照顧寺廟,它的服務,並支付在什一稅。 It was formally recited by the princes, the Levites, and the priests, and signed by Nehemias and chosen representatives of the priests, the Levites, and the people (strange as it may appear, Esdras's name is not to be found in the list of the subscribers -- Nehemiah 10:1-27).這是正式背誦的王子,在利和神職人員,並簽署Nehemias和選出的代表的神職人員,在利,人民(奇怪,因為它有可能會出現,埃斯德拉斯的名字是無法找到的清單中用戶-尼希米記10:1-27 ) 。 Henceforth no mention whatever is made of Esdras in the canonical literature.從今以後沒有提到什麼是由埃斯德拉斯文學中的典型。 He is not spoken of in connection with the second mission of Nehemias to Jerusalem, and this has led many to suppose that he was dead at the time.他不是談到與第二團Nehemias到耶路撒冷,這導致許多人以為他已經死了的時候。 In fact both the time and place of his death are unknown, although there is on the banks of the Tigris, near the place where this river joins the Euphrates, a monument purporting to be Esdras's tomb, and which, for centuries, has been a place of pilgrimage for the Jews.事實上雙方的時間和地點他的死亡是未知的,雖然也有對銀行的底格里斯河,近的地方加入這條河裡的幼發拉底河,紀念碑看來是埃斯德拉斯的陵墓,它與數百年來,一直是朝聖地的猶太人。

Esdras's role in the restoration of the Jews after the exile left a lasting impression upon the minds of the people.埃斯德拉斯的作用,恢復猶太人流亡後留下了深刻的印象時頭腦的人。 This is due mostly to the fact that henceforth Jewish life was shaped on the lines laid down by him, and in a way from which, in the main, it never departed.這主要是由於這樣一個事實,即猶太人的生活從此形成的線所規定的他,在某種程度上這些,主要是它從未離開。 There is probably a great deal of truth in the tradition which attributes to him the organization of the synagogues and the determination of the books hallowed as canonical among the Jews.有可能是大量的事實中的傳統屬性,他的組織的猶太教堂和決心神聖的書籍作為典型的猶太人。 Esdras's activity seems to have extended still further.埃斯德拉斯的活動似乎仍在進一步擴大。 He is credited by the Talmud with having compiled "his own book" (that is to say Esd.-Nehem.), "and the genealogies of the book of Chronicles as far as himself" (Treat. "Baba bathra", 15a).他記的塔爾穆德與彙編了“自己的書” (即Esd. - Nehem 。 ) “和族譜的書納尼亞至於自己” ( Treat. “巴巴bathra ” , 15A條) 。 Modern scholars, however, differ widely as to the extent of his literary work: some regard him as the last editor of the Hexateuch, whereas, on the other hand, his part in the composition of Esdras-Nehemias and Paralipomenon is doubted.現代學者,但是,差別很大的程度,以他的文學作品:一些關於他的最後的編輯Hexateuch ,而另一方面,他的部分組成的埃斯德拉斯- Nehemias和Paralipomenon是毋庸置疑的。 At any rate, it is certain that he had nothing to do with the composition of the so-called Third and Fourth books of Esdras.無論如何,可以肯定的是,他沒有什麼關係的組成所謂的第三次和第四次圖書的埃斯德拉斯。 As is the case with many men who played an important part at momentous epochs in history, in the course of time Esdras's personality and activity assumed, in the minds of the people, gigantic proportions; legend blended with history and supplied the scantiness of information concerning his life; he was looked upon as a second Moses to whom were attributed all institutions which could not possibly be ascribed to the former.如同許多男人誰發揮了重要作用在重大的歷史時期,隨著時間的推移埃斯德拉斯的個性和行為假設,於人之思想中的人,巨大的比例;傳奇相結合的歷史和提供的有關資料寡他的生命,他被看成第二個摩西的人是由於所有機構不可能歸因於前者。 According to Jewish traditions, he restored from memory -- an achievement little short of miraculous -- all the books of the Old Testament, which were believed to have perished during the Exile; he likewise replaced, in the copying of Holy Writ, the old Phoenician writing by the alphabet still in use.根據猶太傳統,他恢復的記憶-一個成就近乎奇蹟般的-所有書籍舊約,這被認為已經死亡的流亡期間,他同樣取代,在複製的聖經,老腓尼基字母書面仍在使用。 Until the Middle Ages, and even the Renaissance, the crop of legendary achievements attributed to him grew up; it was then that Esdras was hailed as the organizer of the famous Great Synagogue -- the very existence of which seems to be a myth -- and the inventor of the Hebrew vocal signs.直到中世紀,文藝復興,甚至,作物的傳奇成就歸功於他長大,就在那時,埃斯德拉斯是被譽為主辦的著名的猶太教堂-的存在似乎是一個神話-和發明者希伯來語聲帶的跡象。

II.二。 THE BOOKS OF ESDRAS帳簿埃斯德拉斯

Not a little confusion arises from the titles of these books.不小的混亂而產生的標題,這些書籍。 Esdras A of the Septuagint is III Esdras of St. Jerome, whereas the Greek Esdras B corresponds to I and II Esdras of the Vulgate, which were originally united into one book. Protestant writers, after the Geneva Bible, call I and II Esdras of the Vulgate respectively Ezra and Nehemiah, and III and IV Esdras of the Vulgate respectively I and II Esdras.埃斯德拉斯A的七十是三埃斯德拉斯聖杰羅姆,而希臘埃斯德拉斯乙相當於第一和第二的武加大埃斯德拉斯,原來美國成一本書。新教作家,在日內瓦聖經,請第一和第二埃斯德拉斯的分別的拉丁文聖經以斯拉和尼希米記,和第三和第四埃斯德拉斯的拉丁文聖經分別第一和第二埃斯德拉斯。 It would be desirable to have uniformity of titles.最好能有統一的名稱。 We shall follow here the terminology of St. Jerome.我們應遵循的術語在這裡的聖杰羅姆。

I Esdras餘埃斯德拉斯

(Gr. Esdras B, first part; AV Ezra). ( Gr.埃斯德拉斯乙,第一部分;影音以斯拉) 。 As remarked above, this book formed in the Jewish canon, together with II Esdras, a single volume.正如以上所說,這本書形成的猶太佳能,連同二埃斯德拉斯單量。 But Christian writers of the fourth century adopted the custom -- the origin of which is not easy to assign -- of considering them as two distinct works.但基督教作家四世紀通過自定義-的起源,這是很不容易的轉讓-考慮它們作為兩個不同的作品。 This custom prevailed to such an extent that it found its way even into the Hebrew Bible, where it has remained in use.這種風俗盛行到如此程度,它找到了自己的甚至到希伯來聖經它一直在使用。 On the other hand, the many and close resemblances undeniably existing between Esd.-Neh.另一方面,許多相似之處不可否認和密切之間存在Esd. - Neh 。 and Par., and usually accounted for by unity of authorship, have suggested that possibly all these books formed, in the beginning, one single volume, for which the title of "Ecclesiastical Chronicle of Jerusalem" has been proposed as fairly expressing its contents.和標準桿。 ,通常佔了統一的作者,有建議,所有這些書籍可能形成,在開始時,一個單一的量,而“稱號的耶路撒冷教會紀事”已經提出了相當表達的內容。 Should these books be regarded as independent, or as parts of a larger work?如果這些書籍被視為獨立的,或作為部分較大的工作? There is little discussion as to the union of I and II Esdras, which may well be considered as a single book.很少有討論了聯盟的第一和第二埃斯德拉斯,這很可能會被視為一個單一的圖書。 As to the opinion holding Esd.-Neh.至於輿論舉行Esd. - Neh 。 and Par.和標準桿。 to be only one work, although it seems gaining ground among Biblical students, yet it is still strongly opposed by many who deem its arguments unable to outweigh the evidence in the opposite direction.將只有一個工作,但它似乎越來越聖經中的學生,但它仍然是強烈反對,許多誰認為其論據不能超過證據相反的方向。 We should not expect to find in I Esdras, any more than in II Esdras, a complete account of the events connected with the Restoration, even a complete record of the lives of Esdras and Nehemias.我們不應該期望找到在我埃斯德拉斯,任何超過二埃斯德拉斯,一個完整的各項活動與恢復,甚至一個完整的記錄埃斯德拉斯的生命和Nehemias 。 The reason for this lies in the author's purpose of simply narrating the principal steps taken in the re-establishment of the theocracy in Jerusalem.這樣做的原因在於作者的目的只是敘述主要採取的步驟重新建立神在耶路撒冷。 Thus, in two parallel parts, our book deals因此,在兩個平行的部分,我們的書

with the return of the Jews under the leadership of Zorobabel;返回的猶太人的領導下, Zorobabel ;

with the return of another band commanded by Esdras.返回另一樂隊指揮的埃斯德拉斯。

In the former, with the decree of Cyrus (i, 1-4) and the enumeration of the most prominent members of the caravan (ii), we read a detailed account of the rebuilding of the Temple and its successful completion, in spite of bitter opposition (iii-iv).在前者,該法令居魯士(一, 1月4日)和所列舉的最突出的成員大篷車(二) ,我們宣讀了一份詳細的重建廟宇及其成功地完成,儘管痛苦的反對黨(三至四) 。 The events therein contained cover twenty-one years (536-515).事件所載覆蓋二十一年( 536-515 ) 。 The latter part deals with facts belonging to a much later date (458 or 397).後者部分涉及事實屬於一個更晚的日期( 458或397 ) 。 Opening with the decree of Artaxerxes (vii) and the census of the members of the party, it briefly relates the journey across the desert (viii), and gives all the facts connected with the enforcement of the law concerning marriages with foreign women (ix-x).開放的法令阿爾塔克賽爾克斯( VII )和普查的成員黨,它簡要地涉及整個旅程沙漠(八) ,並給出了所有的事實與法律的執行關於婚姻與外國婦女(九- X )來完成。

I Esd.餘可持續發展教育。 is a compilation the various parts of which differ in nature, in origin, and even in language.彙編的各個部分的不同性質,在原產地,甚至在語言。 At least three of the parts may be recognized:至少有三個部分加以確認:

the personal memoirs of Esdras (vii, 27-ix, 15);個人回憶錄埃斯德拉斯(第七章, 27九, 15 ) ;

lists very likely taken from public documents (ii, 1-70; vii, 1-5);名單很可能從公開文件(二1-70 ;七, 1月5日) ;

Aramaic writings (iv, 7-vi, 18; vii, 12-26), supposed with some probability to be a portion of "a more comprehensive history of the restored community" (Stade).阿拉姆著作(四, 7六, 18 ;七, 12月26日) ,假定一些概率是部分“更全面的歷史,恢復社會” (體育場) 。

These the compiler put together into the present shape, adding, of course, now and then some remarks of his own, or some facts borrowed from sources otherwise unknown to us.這些編譯整理到本形狀,增加,當然,現在一些看法,然後他自己的,或一些事實借用其他來源不明給我們。 This compilatory character does not, as some might believe, lessen in any way the high historical value of the work.這compilatory性質不象有些會認為,以任何方式減輕高歷史價值的工作。 True, the compiler was very likely not endowed with a keen sense of criticism, and he has indiscriminatingly transcribed side by side all his sources "as if all were alike trustworthy" (LW Batten); but we should not forget that he has preserved for us pages of the highest value; even those that might be deemed of inferior trustworthiness are the only documents available with which to reconstruct the history of those times; and the compiler, even from the standpoint of modern scientific research, could hardly do anything more praiseworthy than place within our reach, as he did, the sources of information at his disposal.誠然,編譯器很可能不具備的敏銳的批評,他indiscriminatingly並肩轉錄所有他的消息來源“ ,彷彿一切都值得信賴的人” (長波貝敦) ;但是,我們不應忘記,他已保留我們網頁上的最高值;即使是那些可能被視為劣等可信賴的唯一文件可用來重建的歷史,這些次;和編譯器,即使從現代科學的角度研究,幾乎無法做任何事情更值得稱道多發生在我們力所能及的,像他那樣,信息來源的他掌握的。 The composition of the work has long been attributed without discussion to Esdras himself.組成的工作一直沒有原因的討論,以埃斯德拉斯自己。 This view, taught by the Talmud, and still admitted by scholars of good standing, is, however, abandoned by several modern Biblical students, who, although their opinions are widely at variance on the question of the date, fairly agree, nevertheless, that the book is later than 330 BC這一觀點,所教的塔木德,仍然承認學者良好聲譽,然而,被遺棄的若干現代聖經的學生,誰,但他們的意見廣為差額問題上的日期,相當同意,然而,這這本書是不遲於公元前330

II Esdras二埃斯德拉斯

See the Book of Nehemiah.見尼希米記。

III Esdras三埃斯德拉斯

(Gr. Esdras A; Protestant writers, I Esdras) Although not belonging to the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures, this book is usually found, ne prorsus intereat, in an appendix to the editions of the Vulgate. ( Gr.埃斯德拉斯甲;新教作家,我埃斯德拉斯)雖然不屬於佳能的聖經教導,這本書通常是發現,去甲腎上腺素prorsus intereat ,附錄中的版本的武加大。 It is made up almost entirely from materials existing in canonical books.這是幾乎完全從材料中存在的典型的書籍。 The following scheme will show sufficiently the contents and point out the canonical parallels:下面的方案將顯示足夠的內容,並指出了規範的相似之處:

III Esdras, i and II Par., xxxv, xxxvi -- History of the Kingdom of Juda from the great Passover of Josias to the Captivity.三埃斯德拉斯,第一和第二桿。 ,三十五,三十六-史猶大王國的偉大逾越節的Josias的獲釋。

III Esdras, ii, 1-15 (Greek text, 14) and I Esdras, i -- Cyrus's decree. Return of Sassabasar.三埃斯德拉斯,二, 1月15日(希臘文, 14歲)和我埃斯德拉斯,我-賽勒斯的法令。送回Sassabasar 。

III Esdras, ii, 16 (Gr. 15)-31 (Gr. 25) and I Esdras, iv, 6-24 -- Opposition to the rebuilding of the Temple.三埃斯德拉斯,二, 16 ( Gr. 15 ) -31 ( Gr. 25 ) ,我埃斯德拉斯,四, 6月24日-反對重建聖殿。

III Esdras, iii, 1-v, 6 -- Original portion.三埃斯德拉斯,三, 1伏, 6 -原件的一部分。 Story of the three pages.故事三頁。 Return of Zorobabel.返回Zorobabel 。

III Esdras, v, 7-46 (Gr. 45) and I Esdras, ii -- List of those returning with Zorobabel.三埃斯德拉斯,五, 7-46 ( Gr. 45 ) ,我埃斯德拉斯,二-返回列表與Zorobabel 。

III Esdras, v, 47 (Gr. 46)-73 (Gr. 70) and I Esdras, iii, 1-iv, 5 -- Altar of holocausts.三埃斯德拉斯,五, 47 ( Gr. 46 ) -73 ( Gr. 70 ) ,我埃斯德拉斯,三,一至四, 5 -祭壇大屠殺。 Foundation of the Temple laid.基金會寺奠定了基礎。 Opposition.反對派。

III Esdras, vi, vii and I Esdras, v, vi -- Completion of the Temple.三埃斯德拉斯,六,七,我埃斯德拉斯,五,六-完成寺。

III Esdras, viii, 1-ix, 36 and I Esdras, vii-x -- Return of Esdras.三埃斯德拉斯,八, 1至第九, 36和我埃斯德拉斯,第七至第十-送回埃斯德拉斯。

III Esdras, ix, 37-56 (Gr. 55) and II Esdras, vii, 73-viii, 12 -- Reading of the Law by Esdras.三埃斯德拉斯,九, 37-56 ( Gr. 55 )和第二埃斯德拉斯,七, 73八, 12 -讀法律的埃斯德拉斯。

The book is incomplete, and breaks off in the middle of a sentence.這本書是不完整的,而且打破了在中東的一個句子。 True, the Latin version completes the broken phrase of the Greek; but the book in its entirety probably contained also the narrative of the feast of Tabernacles (Nehemiah 8).誠然,拉丁美洲版本完成了斷語,希臘,但是這本書的全部內容也可能說明的住棚節(尼希米記8 ) 。 A very strange feature in the work is its absolute disregard of chronological order; the history, indeed, runs directly backwards, mentioning first Artaxerxes (ii, 16-31), then Darius (iii-v, 6), finally Cyrus (v, 7-73). All this makes it difficult to detect the real object of the book and the purpose of the compiler.一種非常奇怪的特點是它的工作完全無視的順序;的歷史,事實上,直接違背倒退,提第一阿爾塔克賽爾克斯(二16-31 ) ,然後大流士( III - V族, 6人) ,最後賽勒斯(五, 7-73 ) 。所有這一切都使人們難以發現真正的對象,這本書的目的,編譯器。 It has been suggested that we possess here a history of the Temple from the time of Josias down to Nehemias, and this view is well supported by the subscription of the old Latin version.有人認為,我們擁有的歷史,這裡的廟之時起的Josias下降到Nehemias ,和這種觀點是支持的認購舊拉丁美洲版本。 Others suppose that, in the main, the book is rather an early translation of the chronicler's work, made at a time when Par., Esdras, and Neh.其他假設,主要是這本書的翻譯,而早期的記錄者的工作,取得了在這個時候標準桿。 ,埃斯德拉斯,並Neh 。 still formed one continuous volume.仍然形成一個連續的量。 Be this as it may, there seems to have been, up to St. Jerome, some hesitation with regard to the reception of the book into the Canon; it was freely quoted by the early Fathers, and included in Origen's "Hexapla".是這樣,因為它可能會,但似乎已經上升到聖杰羅姆,有些猶豫就接收到的圖書佳能,這是自由引用的早期教父,並包括在俄利根的“ Hexapla ” 。 This might be accounted for by the fact that III Esd.這可能是佔了一個事實,即三可持續發展教育。 may be considered as another recension of canonical Scriptures.可被視為另一個recension典型聖經。 Unquestionably our book cannot claim to be Esdras's work.毫無疑問,我們的圖書不能自稱是埃斯德拉斯的工作。 From certain particulars, such as the close resemblance of the Greek with that of the translation of Daniel, some details of vocabulary,etc., scholars are led to believe that III Esd.從某些細節,如緊密的相似性,希臘與翻譯丹尼爾,一些細節的詞彙等,學者們認為,導致三可持續發展教育。 was compiled, probably in Lower Egypt, during the second century BC Of the author nothing can be said except, perhaps, that the above-noted resemblance of style to Dan.彙編,很可能在下埃及,在公元前二世紀的作者可以說沒有任何例外,或許,上述提到的相似的風格,以丹。 might incline one to conclude that both works are possibly from the same hand.可能傾斜一結束,這兩個工程是有可能來自同一手。

IV Esdras四埃斯德拉斯

Such is the title of the book in most Latin manuscripts; the (Protestant) English apocrypha, however, give it as II Esdras, from the opening words: "The second book of the prophet Esdras".這是圖書的書名在大多數拉丁美洲手稿;的(新教)英語偽經,然而,它作為第二埃斯德拉斯,從開幕式的話: “第二卷先知埃斯德拉斯” 。 Modern authors often call it the Apocalypse of Esdras.現代作家往往把它叫做啟示埃斯德拉斯。 This remarkable work has not been preserved in the original Greek text; but we possess translations of it in Latin, Syriac, Arabic (two independent versions), Ethiopian, and Armenian.這一出色的工作還沒有被保存在原來的希臘文字,但我們擁有的翻譯它在拉丁美洲,敘利亞語,阿拉伯語(兩個獨立的版本) ,埃塞俄比亞和亞美尼亞。 The Latin text is usually printed in the appendix to the editions of the Vulgate; but these editions miss seventy verses between vii, 35, and vii, 36.拉丁文字通常是印在附錄中的拉丁文聖經版本,但這些版本之間的詩句小姐70七, 35歲,和第七章, 36 。 The missing fragment, which was read in the other versions, was discovered in a Latin manuscript by RL Bensly, in 1874, and has been since repeatedly printed.遺失的片段,這是閱讀中的其他版本,發現了一個拉丁手稿由北京Bensly ,於1874年,並一直以來多次印刷。 In the Latin the book is divided into sixteen chapters.在拉丁美洲該書分為16章。 The two opening (i, ii) and the two concluding (xv, xvi) chapters, however, which are not to be found in the Eastern translations, are unhesitatingly regarded by all as later additions, foreign to the primitive work.這兩個開幕式(一,二)和兩個結論(十五,十六)的章節,然而,這是不被發現在東部的翻譯,都是毫不猶豫地認為所有這些都是後來增加,外國的原始的工作。

The body of the Fourth Book, the unity of which appears to be unquestionable, is made up of seven visions which Esdras is supposed to have seen at Babylon, the thirtieth year after the destruction of Jerusalem (the date given is wrong by about a century).該機構的第四次圖書,團結看來是不容置疑的,是由這7個願景埃斯德拉斯應該看到在巴比倫, 30年後銷毀耶路撒冷(給出的日期是錯誤的了約一個世紀) 。

In the first vision (iii, 1-v, 20), Esdras is lamenting over the affliction of his people.第一視覺(三, 1伏, 20歲) ,埃斯德拉斯的感嘆的痛苦他的人民。 Why does not God fulfil his promises?上帝為什麼不履行自己的諾言? Is not Israel the elect nation, and better, despite her "evil heart", than her heathen neighbours?不是以色列的選舉的國家,和更好的,儘管她的“邪惡的心” ,比她異教徒鄰國? The angel Uriel chides Esdras for inquiring into things beyond his understanding; the "prophet" is told that the time that is past exceeds the time to come, and the signs of the end are given him.天使烏利爾chides埃斯德拉斯為探究事情超出他的理解;的“先知”是說,時間已經過去超過了今後一個時期,以及結束的跡象,是給了他。

In another vision (v, 21-vi, 34), he learns, with new signs of the end, why God "doeth not all at once".在另一遠景(五, 21六, 34歲) ,他知道,新的跡象,最後,為什麼上帝“ doeth不是一次” 。

Then follows (vi, 35-ix, 25) a glowing picture of the Messianic age.然後如下(六, 35九, 25歲)一個發光圖片的彌賽亞時代。 "My son" shall come in his glory, attended by those who did not taste death, Moses, Henoch, Elias, and Esdras himself; they shall reign 400 years, then "my son" and all the living shall die; after seven days of "the old silence", the Resurrection and the Judgment. “我的兒子”應是在他的榮耀,參加的人誰沒有味道死亡,摩西,過敏,埃利亞斯,並埃斯德拉斯自己;他們應統治400年,然後進入“我的兒子”和所有的生活應模具;後七天的“老沉默” ,復活和判決。

Next (ix, 26-x, 60) Esdras beholds, in the appearance of a woman mourning for her son who died on his wedding day, an apocalyptic description of the past and future of Jerusalem.下一步(九, 26十, 60 )埃斯德拉斯beholds ,在出現一個女人哀悼誰對她的兒子死在他的結婚的日子,一個世界末日說明過去和未來的耶路撒冷。

This vision is followed by another (xi, 1-xii, 39) representing the Roman Empire, under the figure of an eagle, and by a third (xiii) describing the rise of the Messianic kingdom.這一構想之後是另一個(十一, 1 - 12 , 39 ) ,代表了羅馬帝國,在這個數字的一個老鷹球,並通過第三方(十三)描述的崛起彌賽亞王國。

The last chapter (xiv) narrates how Esdras restored the twenty-four books of the Old Testament that were lost, and wrote seventy books of mysteries for the wise among the people.最後一章(十四)敘述如何埃斯德拉斯恢復了2004年圖書舊約是丟失了,寫的70本書的明智之謎的人。

The Fourth Book of Esdras is reckoned among the most beautiful productions of Jewish literature.第四書埃斯德拉斯被認為是最美麗的猶太文學作品。 Widely known in the early Christian ages and frequently quoted by the Fathers (especially St. Ambrose), it may be said to have framed the popular belief of the Middle Ages concerning the last things.眾所周知在早期基督教年齡和經常引用的父親(尤其是聖安布羅斯) ,可以說已經制定的民間信仰的中古關於過去的事情。 The liturgical use shows its popularity.使用的禮儀表明其受歡迎程度。 The second chapter has furnished the verse Requiem æternam to the Office of the Dead (24-25), the response Lux perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis of the Office of the Martyrs during Easter time (35), the introit Accipite jucunditatem for Whit-Tuesday (36-37), the words Modo coronantur of the Office of the Apostles (45); in like manner the verse Crastine die for Christmas eve, is borrowed from xvi, 53.第二章提供了詩魂æternam辦公室死亡( 24-25 ) ,反應盧克斯阿lucebit sanctis tuis辦公室的烈士復活節時間( 35歲)的introit Accipite jucunditatem的白衣,星期二( 36-37 ) ,字Modo coronantur辦公室的使徒( 45 ) ;在詩一樣的方式Crastine模聖誕節前夕,是借自十六, 53 。 However beautiful and popular the book, its origin is shrouded in mystery.然而美麗和流行的圖書,其來源是神秘起來了。 The introductory and concluding chapters, containing evident traces of Christianity, are assigned to the third century (about AD 201-268).在介紹性發言和結論的章節,其中載有明顯痕跡的基督教,被分配到三世紀(約公元201-268 ) 。 The main portion (iii-xiv) is undoubtedly the work of a Jew -- whether Roman, or Alexandrian, or Palestinian, no one can tell; as to its date, authors are mostly widely at variance, and all dates have been suggested, from 30 BC to AD 218; scholars, however, seem to rally more and more around the year AD 97.的主要部分(三至十四)無疑是工作的一個猶太人-無論是羅馬,或亞歷山大,還是巴勒斯坦人,沒有人可以告訴;作為其日期,作者大多是廣泛的差異,所有的日期已經提出,從公元前30年至公元218 ;學者,但是,似乎越來越多的反彈約公元97年。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息作者查爾斯L Souvay 。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.轉錄由Sean海侖。天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 09年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Book of Nehemiah尼希米記

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early Christian Church, at least until the time of Origen, as forming one single book with Esdras, and St. Jerome in his preface (ad Dominionem et Rogatianum), following the example of the Jews, still continues to treat it as making one with the Book of Esdras.也被稱為第二本書的埃斯德拉斯(以斯拉) ,估計在塔爾穆德和早期基督教會,至少在時間的奧利,作為一個單一的形成與埃斯德拉斯本書,和聖杰羅姆在其前言(廣告Dominionem Rogatianum等) ,以下的例子,猶太人,仍繼續將其作為一個決策的書埃斯德拉斯。 The union of the two in a single book doubtless has its origin in the fact that the documents of which the Books of Esdras and Nehemiah are composed, underwent compilation and redaction together at the hands probably, as most critics think, of the author of Paralipomenon about BC 300.聯盟的兩個在一個單一的圖書,無疑起源於這樣一個事實,即該文件的埃斯德拉斯圖書和尼希米記組成,經歷了彙編和編輯的手中一起可能的,因為大多數評論家認為,作者的Paralipomenon約公元前300 。 The separation of the Book of Nehemiah from that of Esdras, preserved in our editions, may in its turn be justified by the consideration that the former relates in a distinct manner the work accomplished by Nehemiah, and is made up, at least in the great part, from the authentic memoirs of the principal figure.分離的尼希米記,與埃斯德拉斯,保存在我們的版本,可能反過來是有道理的審議,前者涉及一個獨特的方式在所完成的工作尼希米記,並提出了,至少在很大的一部分,從真實的回憶錄中的主要數字。 The book comprises three sections:這本書包括三部分:

Section I (Chapters 1-6);第一部分(第一章1-6 ) ;

Section II (Chapters 7-13:3);第二部分(第一章7-13:3 ) ;

Section III (Chapter 13:4 - Chapter 31).第三節(第13點04 -第31章) 。

Sections I and III will be treated first, and section II, which raises special literary problems, will be discussed at the end.第一節和第三節將被視為第一和第二節,這就產生了特殊的文學問題,將討論結束。

SECTION I: CHAPTERS 1-6第一節:章節1-6

(1) comprises the account, written by Nehemiah himself, of the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem. (一)包括帳戶,尼希米記自己寫的,恢復的牆壁耶路撒冷。 Already in the reign of Xerxes (BC 485-65), and especially during the first half of the reign of Artaxerxes I (BC 465-24), the Jews had attempted, but with only partial success, to rebuild the walls of their capital, a work, up to then, never sanctioned by the Persian kings (see Ezra 4:6-23).已經在位薛西斯(公元前485-65 ) ,尤其是在上半年的統治阿爾塔克賽爾克斯口(公元前465-24 ) ,猶太人企圖,但只有部分成功,以重建其資本牆壁,一個工作,到那時,從來沒有認可的波斯國王(參見以斯拉4:6-23 ) 。 In consequence of the edict of Artaxerxes, given in I Esd., iv, 18-22, the enemies of the Jews at Jerusalem forcibly stopped the work (ibid., 23) and pulled down a part of what had already been accomplished.在後果法令阿爾塔克賽爾克斯,因為在我可持續發展教育。 ,四, 18日至22日,敵人的猶太人在耶路撒冷強行停止了工作(同上, 23 )和推倒的一部分什麼已經完成。

(2) With these events the beginning of the Book of Nehemiah is connected. Nehemiah, the son of Helchias, relates how, at the court of Artaxerxes at Susa where he fulfilled the office of the king's cup-bearer, he received the news of this calamity in the twentieth year of the king (Nehemiah 1), and how, thanks to his prudence, he succeeded in getting himself sent on a first mission to Jerusalem with full powers to rebuild the walls of the Jewish capital (Nehemiah 2:1-8). ( 2 )隨著這些事件的開始尼希米記連接。尼希米記的兒子Helchias ,涉及如何,法院阿爾塔克賽爾克斯在蘇薩在那裡完成了辦公室的國王杯比賽的旗手,他收到的消息,這場災難在20年的國王(尼希米記1次) ,以及如何,由於他的謹慎,他成功地發出自己的第一次訪問耶路撒冷全權重建牆壁猶太資本( 2:1尼希米記-8 ) 。 This first mission lasted twelve years (v, 14; xiii, 6); he had the title of Perah (v, 14; xii, 26) or Athersatha (viii, 9; x,1).這第一次任務持續了十二年(五, 14 ;十三, 6 ) ;他的標題,牙北拉(五, 14 ;十二, 26歲)或Athersatha (八,九;十, 1 ) 。 It had long been the opinion of most historians of Israel that the Artaxerxes of Nehemiah was certainly the first of that name, and that consequently the first mission of Nehemiah fell in the year BC 445.長期以來一直認為,以色列的大多數歷史學家認為,阿爾塔克賽爾克斯記當然是第一的名稱,因此第一次訪問記下跌在公元前445年。 The Aramaic papyri of Elephantine, recently published by Sachau, put this date beyond the shadow of a doubt.紙莎草紙的阿拉姆的大象,最近公佈的Sachau ,把這個日期以後毫無疑問。 For in the letter which they wrote to Bahohim, Governor of Judea, in the seventeenth year of Darius II ( BC 408), the Jewish priests of Elephantine say that they have also made an application to the sons of Sanaballat at Samaria.信中,他們寫信給Bahohim ,總督朱迪亞,在17年大流士二世(公元前408 ) ,猶太祭司的大象說,他們也提出了申請,兒子在撒馬利亞Sanaballat 。 Now Sanaballat was a contemporary of Nehemiah, and the Artaxerxes of Nehemiah, therefore, was the predecessor, and not the successor, of Darius II.現在Sanaballat是一種當代的尼希米記,和阿爾塔克賽爾克斯的尼希米記,因此,是前任,而不是繼承的大流士二。

(3) On his arrival at Jerusalem, Nehemiah lost no time; he inspected the state of the walls, and then took measures and gave orders for taking the work in hand (ii, 9-18). ( 3 )他在抵達耶路撒冷,尼希米記不失時機,他視察了國家的牆壁,然後採取措施,並吩咐把工作在手(二, 9月18日) 。 Chapter iii, a document of the highest importance for determining the area of Jerusalem in the middle of the fifth century BC, contains a description of the work, carried out at all points at once under the direction of the zealous Jewish governor.第三章,一份文件是最重要的,以確定該地區的耶路撒冷在中東的公元前五世紀,包含一個描述的工作,進行了一次所有點的指導下,在熱心的猶太總督。 The high priest Eliasib is named first among the fellow workers of Nehemiah (iii, 1).大祭司Eliasib命名中第一個工友記(三, 1 ) 。 To bring the undertaking to a successful termination the latter had to fight against all sorts of difficulties.把事業成功終止後者打擊各種困難。

(4) First of all, the foreign element had great influence in Judea. ( 4 )首先,外國的因素有很大的影響力在朱迪亞。 The Jews who had returned from captivity almost a century before, had found the country partly occupied by people belonging to the neighbouring races, and being unable to organize themselves politically, had seen themselves reduced, little by little, to a humiliating position in their own land.誰的猶太人返回從囚禁近一個世紀前,發現了部分被佔領的國家的人屬於鄰國比賽,無法組織起來,在政治上,看到自己的降低,一點點,一個侮辱性的位置在自己的陸地。 And so, at the time of Nehemiah, we see certain foreigners taking an exceedingly arrogant attitude towards the Jewish governor and his work.因此,在尼希米記,我們看到某些外國人以極其傲慢的態度猶太總督和他的工作。 Sanaballat the Horonite, chief of the Samaritans (iv, 1, 2), Tobias the Ammonite, Gossem the Arabian, claim to exercise constant control over Jewish affairs, and try by all means in their power, by calumny (ii, 19), scoffs (iv, 1 ff), threats of violence (iv, 7 ff), and craft (vi, 1 ff), to hinder Nehemiah' work or ruin him. Sanaballat的Horonite長撒瑪利亞(四, 1 , 2 ) ,托拜厄斯的菊石, Gossem阿拉伯,要求行使控制權不斷猶太人事務,並試圖利用一切手段在其權力範圍,由誹謗(二19 ) ,嘲諷(四, 1頁) ,以暴力相威脅(四,第7頁) ,和工藝品(六,第1頁) ,阻礙尼希米記'工作或毀掉他。 The reason of this was that the raising up again of the walls of Jerusalem was destined to bring about the overthrow of the moral domination, which for many years circumstances had secured for those foreigners.原因是,這再次提高的牆壁耶路撒冷是注定要實現推翻道德統治,多年來已擔保的情況下,這些外國人。

(5) The cause of the foreigners was upheld by a party of Jews, traitors to their own nation. ( 5 )的原因是外國人所堅持黨的猶太人,賣國賊自己的國家。 The prophet Noadias and other false prophets sought to terrify Nehemiah (vi, 14); there were some who, like Samaia, allowed themselves to be hired by Tobias and Sanaballat to set snares for him (vi, 10-14).先知Noadias和其他假先知試圖恐嚇尼希米記(六, 14 ) ;有一些誰,就像Samaia ,允許自己被僱用的托拜厄斯和Sanaballat設置圈套,他(六, 10月14日) 。 Many Jews sided with Tobias on account of the matrimonial alliances existing between his family and certain Jewish families.許多猶太人站在托比亞斯考慮到婚姻聯盟之間存在著他的家人和某些猶太家庭。 Nehemiah, however, does not speak of the mixed marriages as if they had been actually forbidden.尼希米記,但是,也不會講的異族通婚,好像他們實際上已被禁止的。 The father-in-law of Tobias' son, Mosollam, the son of Barachias, on the contrary, was a fellow worker of Nehemiah (vi, 18; iii, 4).在岳父的托拜厄斯的兒子, Mosollam的兒子Barachias ,相反,是一個同事的尼希米記(六, 18歲;三,四) 。 The law of Deuteronomy only forbade marriages between Jews and Chanaanites (Deut. vii, 1, 3).申命記的法律之間的婚姻只禁止猶太人和Chanaanites ( Deut.七, 1 , 3 ) 。

(6) Difficulties of a social nature, the result of the selfish treatment of the poor by the rich, who misused the common distress for their own ends, likewise called for the energetic intervention of Nehemiah (v). ( 6 )的困難,社會的性質,造成的自私治療窮人富人,誰濫用共同危難為自己的目的,同樣要求的大力干預,尼希米記(五) 。 On this occasion Nehemiah recalls the fact that previous governors had practised extortion, while he was the first to show himself disinterested in the discharge of his duties (v, 15 ff).在此之際尼希米記回顧一個事實,即前省長已經實行敲詐,雖然他是第一個表明自己無私地履行其職責(五,第15頁) 。

(7) In spite of all these difficulties the rebuilding of the wall made rapid progress. ( 7 )儘管有這些困難,重建牆方面取得迅速進展。 We learn from vii, 15 that the work was completely finished within fifty-one days.我們從七, 15日,這項工作是完全內完成五一天。 Josephus (Ant., V, 7, 8) says that it lasted two years and four months, but his testimony, often far from reliable, presents no plausible reason for setting aside the text.約瑟夫( Ant. ,五,七,八)說,持續了2年零4個月,但他的證詞,經常遠離可靠,沒有任何可信的理由,撇開文字。 The relatively short duration of the work is explained, when we consider that Nehemiah had only to repair the damage wrought after the prohibition of Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:23), and finish off the construction, which might at that moment have been already far advanced [see above (1)].期較短的工作是解釋說,當我們考慮到,尼希米記只有修復後造成的損害的阿爾塔克賽爾克斯禁止(以斯拉4點23 ) ,並完成了建設,這可能會在那一刻已經遠遠先進[見上文( 1 ) ] 。

SECTION III: CHAPTER 13:4 TO CHAPTER 31)第三部分:第31章13時04分)

After the expiration of his first mission, Nehemiah had returned to Susa in the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes (BC 433; 13:6).期滿後的首次訪問,尼希米記已返回蘇薩在第三十二阿爾塔克賽爾克斯年(公元前433 ; 13點06分) 。 Some time after, he was charged with a fresh mission to Judea, and it is with his doings during this second mission that xiii, 4-31 is concerned.一段時間後,他被指控犯有新的任務朱迪亞,它是與他的所作所為在這第二個任務,十三, 4月31日表示關注。 The account at the beginning seems mutilated.帳戶開始似乎肢解。 Nehemiah relates how, at the time of his second arrival at Jerusalem, he began by putting an end to the abuses which Tobias, the Ammonite, supported by the high priest Eliasib, was practising in the temple in the matter of the depository for the sacred offerings (xiii, 4-9).尼希米記涉及如何時,他的第二次抵達耶路撒冷,他首先制止侵權行為托比亞斯的菊石的支持下,大祭司Eliasib ,是執業廟宇在這個問題上的保存的神聖產品(十三, 4月9日) 。 He severely blames the violation of the right of the Levites in the distribution of the tithes, and takes measures to prevent its occurrence in future (xiii, 10-14); he insists on the Sabbath being strictly respected even by the foreign merchants (xiii, 15-22).他嚴厲指責侵犯的權利,利分配中的什一稅,並採取措施防止其發生在未來的(十三, 10月14日) ;他堅持在安息日正在嚴格遵守甚至外國商人(十三, 15-22 ) 。 Finally he dealt severely with the Jews who were guilty of marriages with strange wives, and banished a grandson of Eliasib who had married a daughter of Sanaballat (xiii, 23-28).最後,他處理嚴重的猶太人誰有罪的婚姻與奇怪的妻子,和放逐的孫子Eliasib誰結婚的女兒Sanaballat (十三, 23-28 ) 。 To this son-in-law of Sanaballat is generally attributed the inauguration of the worship in the temple of Garizim. It is plain that Nehemiah' attitude during his second mission with regard to mixed marriages differs greatly from his attitude at the beginning of his first stay in Jerusalem [see section I, (5)].這個女婿的Sanaballat普遍認為就職禮拜寺Garizim 。它清楚地表明尼希米記'的態度在他第二次察訪關於異族通婚大不相同他的態度在開始他的第一次留在耶路撒冷[見第一節, ( 5 ) ] 。

SECTION II: CHAPTERS 7 TO 13:3第二節:各章7至13點03

(1) contains accounts or documents relating to the work of politico-social and religious organization effected by Nehemiah, after the walls were finished. (一)載有帳目或文件的工作有關的政治,社會和宗教組織的影響尼希米記,在牆壁上完成。 Here we no longer have Nehemiah speaking in the first person, except in vii, 1-5, and in the account of the dedication of the walls (xii, 31, 37, 39).在這裡,我們不再有尼希米記發言中的第一人,但在七, 1月5日,並在該帳戶的奉獻精神的牆壁(十二, 31 , 37 , 39 ) 。 He relates how, after having rebuilt the walls, he had to proceed to erect houses, and take measures for bringing into the town a population more in proportion to its importance as the capital (vii, 1-5; cf. Ecclus., xlix, 15).他涉及如何,重建後的牆壁,他已經著手建造房屋,並採取措施使進入城鎮的人口比例更重要的資本(第七章, 1月5日;比照。 Ecclus 。 , xlix , 15 ) 。

(2) He gives (vii, 5 ff.) the list of the families who had returned from captivity with Zorobabel. ( 2 )他給(七, 5頁。 )名單的家庭誰回來了圈養與Zorobabel 。 This list is in I Esd., ii.這份名單是在I可持續發展教育。 ,二。 It is remarkable that in the Book of Nehemiah, following on the list we find reproduced (vii, 70 ff.) with variants, the remark of I Esd., ii, 68-70 about the gifts given towards the work of the temple by Zorobabel's companions, and the settlement of these latter in the country; and again that Neh., viii, 1 resumes the narrative in the very words of I Esd., iii.值得注意的是,在尼希米記,下面的名單上,我們找到轉載(第七章, 70頁。 )的變種,我的話的可持續發展教育。 ,二,68 - 70的禮物方面的工作寺Zorobabel的同伴,以及解決這些後者在該國,並再次表明Neh 。 ,八, 1恢復敘事非常話我可持續發展教育。 ,三。 This dependence is probably due to the redactor, who in this place gave a new form to the notes supplied him by the Jewish governor's memoirs which also explains the latter's being spoken of in the third person, Neh., viii, 9.這種依賴性可能是由於redactor ,誰在這個地方提供了新的形式提供的說明他的猶太總督的回憶錄這也說明了後者正在談到的第三人, Neh 。 ,八,九。

(3) There is a description of a great gathering held in the seventh month under the direction of Nehemiah (viii, 9-12) at which Esdras reads the Law (viii, 13). They then kept the Feast of Tabernacles (viii, 13-18). ( 3 )有一個描述一個偉大聚會舉行的第7個月的指導下尼希米記(八, 9月12日)在埃斯德拉斯讀取法(第八章, 13條) 。然後,他們保持住棚節(八, 13-18 ) 。 When this feast is over, the people gather together again on the twenty-fourth day of the seventh month (ix, 1 ff.) to praise God, confess their sins, and to bind themselves by a written covenant faithfully to observe their obligations.當這個節日已經過去,人們聚集在一起再次第二十四天的第7個月(九, 1頁。 )讚美上帝,承認他們的罪孽,並結合自己的一份書面盟約忠實地遵守自己的義務。 Chapter X after giving the list of the subscribers to the covenant, sets forth the obligations, which the people bind themselves to fulfil; in particular the prohibition of mixed marriages (verse 30); the keeping of the Sabbath, especially in their treatment of foreign merchants (verse 31), the yearly tribute of a third part of a sicle for the Temple (verse 32), and other measures to ensure the regular celebration of sacrifices (verses 33-34), the offering of the firstfruits and of the first born (verses 35-37), and the payment and the distribution of the tithes (verses 35-39).第十章後的名單的用戶盟約規定的義務,這是人約束自己履行;特別是禁止異族通婚(詩30 ) ;保持安息日,特別是在其對待外國商家(詩31 ) ,每年的敬意第三部分sicle的寺(詩32 ) ,和其他措施,以確保經常慶祝犧牲(詩句33-34 ) ,提供的firstfruits和第一出生(詩句35-37 ) ,以及支付和分配的什一稅(詩句35-39 ) 。 After chapter x it is advisable to read xii, 43-xiii, 1-3; the appointment of a commission for the administration of things brought to the Temple, and the expulsion of foreigners from among the community.第十章後,最好是改為第十二43 - 13 , 1月3日;任命的管理委員會的東西帶到寺,和驅逐外國人的來自社會。 Chapter xi, 1, 2, recalls the measures taken to people Jerusalem; verses 3-36 give the census of Jerusalem and of other towns as Nehemiah' measures left it.第十一章, 1 , 2 ,回顧所採取的措施,以人民耶路撒冷;詩句3-36給予普查耶路撒冷和其他城鎮尼希米記'措施離開。 In chapter xii, 27-43, we have the account of the solemn dedication of the walls of Jerusalem; Esdras the scribe is mentioned as being at the head of a group of singers (verse 35).第十二章, 27-43 ,我們的帳戶的莊嚴奉獻的牆壁耶路撒冷;埃斯德拉斯提到的編劇是在頭部的一組歌手(詩35 ) 。 The list in xii, 1-26, has no connexion whatever with the events of this epoch.第十二的名單中, 1月26日,沒有任何連接的這一劃時代事件。

(4) The proceedings set forth in viii-x are closely connected with the other parts of the history of Nehemiah. ( 4 )訴訟中所列第八至第十有密切關係的其他部分的歷史,尼希米記。 The obligations imposed by the covenant, described in x, have to do with just the very matters with which Nehemiah concerned himself most during his second stay (see above, section III).規定的義務的盟約,描述在X ,都與公正的事項與尼希米記最關心自己留在他的第二個(見上文第三節) 。 The regulation concerning the providing of the wood for the altar (x, 34) is recalled by Nehemiah in xiii, 31, and the very words used in x, 39 (end of verse), we find again in xiii, 11.該條例關於提供木材的祭壇(十, 34 )回顧了尼希米記在十三, 31歲的和非常用字的X , 39 (結束詩句) ,我們發現又在第十三11 。 The covenant entered into by the people during Nehemiah' first mission was broken in his absence.該公約生效的人民在尼希米記的第一任務是打破在他缺席。 At the time of his second mission he put down the abuses with severity.在他第二次訪問,他放下手中的嚴重侵犯。 For instance, the attitude he takes towards mixed marriages is quite different from his attitude at the beginning of his first stay [see above section I (5); section III].舉例來說,他的態度對異族通婚是完全不同的態度在開始他的第一次逗留[見上文第一節( 5 ) ;第三節] 。 This change is explained precisely by the absolute prohibition pronounced against these marriages in the assembly described in ix-x.這種變化是解釋恰恰是由絕對禁止對這些婚姻宣告在大會中所描述九- X低。 The view has been put forward that viii-x gives an account of events belonging to the period of the organization of worship under Zorobabel, the names of Nehemiah (viii, 9; x, 1) and Esdras (viii, 1 ff.) having been added later.認為已提出,第八至第十敘述事件屬於期間組織下Zorobabel崇拜的名字尼希米記(八,九;十, 1 )和埃斯德拉斯(八, 1頁。 )有後來增加了。 But there was certainly sufficient reason for the reorganization of worship in the time of Nehemiah (cf. the Book of Malachi and Nehemiah 13).但肯定是充分的理由的重組禮拜的時間尼希米記(參看瑪拉基書和尼希米記13 ) 。 Others on the contrary would regard Neh., viii-x, as the sequel to the narrative of I Esdras, ix-x, and they likewise hold that Nehemiah' name has been interpolated in Neh., viii, 9, and x, 1.其他與此相反的方面Neh 。 ,第八至第十,作為續集的說明我埃斯德拉斯,九至十,他們同樣認為,尼希米記的名字已經被插在Neh 。 ,八,九,與X , 1 。 This theory is equally untenable.這一理論同樣是站不住腳的。 It is true that in the Third Book of Esdras (the Greek I Esdras) the narrative of Neh., viii, is reproduced immediately after that of Esdras, ix-x; but the author of the Third Book of Esdras was led to do this by the fact that Neh., viii, presents his hero as reader of the Law.的確,在第三本書的埃斯德拉斯(希我埃斯德拉斯)的說明Neh 。 ,八,轉載後,立即對埃斯德拉斯,第九至第十,但作者的第三本書的埃斯德拉斯領導這樣做這一事實Neh 。 ,八,提出了他的英雄為讀者法律。 He has moreover preserved (III Ezra 9:50) the information of Neh., viii, 9, about the intervention of the Athersatha (Nehemiah), Esdras' superior, which clearly proves that this account does not refer to the epoch when Esdras had returned to Jerusalem entrusted by the king with full powers for the administration of the Jewish community.此外,他保存(三埃茲拉9時50分)的資料Neh 。 ,八,九,關於干預的Athersatha (尼希米記) ,埃斯德拉斯'優越,這清楚地證明,此帳戶沒有提及的時代已經當埃斯德拉斯返回耶路撒冷國王委託全權管理的猶太社區。 See, moreover, the following paragraph.見,此外,以下段落。

(5) according to our view the return of Esdras with his emigrants and the reform effected by him (Ezra 7-10) ought, chronologically, to be placed after the history of Nehemiah, and the Artaxerxes, in the seventh year of whose reign Esdras returned to Jerusalem, is Artaxerxes II (BC 405-358). ( 5 )根據我們的看法返回埃斯德拉斯他的移民和改革由他(埃茲拉7月10日)應,按時間順序,放置在歷史上記,和阿爾塔克賽爾克斯,在7年的統治埃斯德拉斯返回耶路撒冷,是阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二世(公元前405-358 ) 。 As a matter of fact, Esdras finds the wall of Jerusalem rebuilt (Ezra 9:9), Jerusalem well populated (x, 1 ff.), the Temple treasure under proper management (viii, 29 ff.), Jonathan, son of Eliasib, high priest (10:6; cf. Nehemiah 12:23, Hebrew text), and the unlawfulness of mixed marriages recognized by every one (ix, 1 ff.).事實上,埃斯德拉斯發現牆上的耶路撒冷重建(埃茲拉9點09分) ,耶路撒冷以及人口(十, 1頁。 ) ,下寺寶物妥善管理(八, 29頁。 ) ,喬納森的兒子Eliasib ,大祭司( 10時06分;比照。尼希米記12時23分,希伯來文) ,以及非法的異族通婚所承認的每一個(九, 1頁。 ) 。 The radical reform, which Esdras introduced in this matter without being troubled by foreigners who still held the upper hand at the time of Nehemiah' first coming, definitively put an end to the abuse in question which had proved rebellious to all preventive measures (x).激進的改革,這埃斯德拉斯介紹了在這個問題所困擾,而外國人誰仍佔上風的時候,尼希米記第一未來,明確制止濫用的問題,已被證明叛逆所有的預防措施(十) 。 The politics and social situation described in the first six chapters of Nehemiah [see above, section I (4), (5), (6)], the religious situation to which the proceedings of the gathering in Neh., x, bear witness [see above, section II (3)], do not admit of being explained as immediately following after the mission of Esdras, who particularly, in virtue of the king's edict, disposed of very valuable resources for the celebration of worship (Ezra 7-8:25 ff.).政治和社會局勢中所描述的前6章尼希米記[見上文第一節( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , ( 6 ) ] ,宗教情況的訴訟程序,聚集在Neh 。 ,第十,見證[見上文,第二節( 3 ) ] ,不承認被解釋為緊接的使命後埃斯德拉斯,誰特別是在憑藉國王的法令,處置的非常寶貴的資源,以慶祝崇拜(埃茲拉7 - 8時25分以後。 ) 。 Esdras is again entirely unnoticed in Neh., i-vi, and in the list of the subscribers to the covenant (x,1 ff.).埃斯德拉斯再次完全被忽視的Neh 。 ,第一至第六,並在列表中的用戶盟約(十, 1頁。 ) 。 He is mentioned in Neh., viii, 1 ff., and in xii, 35, as fulfilling subordinate functions.他所提到的Neh 。 ,八, 1頁。 ,並在十二, 35歲,作為履行職能的下屬。

Considering the singular number of the verbs in Neh., viii, 9, 10, it is probable that in the former of these two verses "Esdras and the Levites" being named as part of the subject of the phrase is due to a later hand.考慮到單數的動詞Neh 。 ,八,九,十,很可能在這兩個前的詩句“埃斯德拉斯和利”被命名為主題的一部分,這一詞語是由於後來的手。 At the epoch of Nehemiah, therefore, Esdras was at the beginning of his career, and must have gone a little later to Babylonia, whence he returned at the head of a band of emigrants n the seventh year of Artexerxes II (BC 398).在時代的尼希米記,因此,埃斯德拉斯是在開始他的職業生涯,而且必須已經有點遲至東風,何處回來領導一群移民ñ的第七年Artexerxes二世(公元前398 ) 。

(6) Many critics have maintained that in Neh., viii, we have the history of the first promulgation of the "Priestly Code" by Esdras, but the narrative in question does not authorize such an interpretation. ( 6 ) ,許多批評者認為,在Neh 。 ,第八,我們歷史上的第一次頒布了“祭司典”的埃斯德拉斯,但說明問題並未授權這樣的解釋。 Esdras was probably still a very young man at this time, and all he does is to read the Law before the assembled people.埃斯德拉斯很可能仍然是一個非常年輕男子在這個時候,所有他是讀法律的人面前的組裝。 It is quite true that in I Esd., vii, there is made mention in the royal edict of the Law of his God which Esdras has in mind (verse 14), but besides the fact that we hold the events related in I Esd., vii, to be posterior to Neh., viii [see above (5)], these words must not be understood literally of a new document of which Esdras was the bearer.的確,在本人可持續發展教育。 ,七,有提到的皇家法令規定了上帝埃斯德拉斯已到(詩14 ) ,但除了一個事實,即我們認為,有關的活動在我可持續發展教育。 ,七,將後向Neh 。 ,八[見上文( 5 ) ] ,這些話不應該被理解字面的一個新的文件,其中埃斯德拉斯是無記名。 In the same terms mention is made of the wisdom of his God which Esdras has in mind (verse 25), and in this same passage it is supposed that Esdras' compatriots already know the Law of their God.在相同的條件提到了他的智慧上帝埃斯德拉斯已到(詩25 ) ,並在這同時通過它假定埃斯德拉斯'同胞已經知道法他們的神。

Publication information Written by A. Van Hoonacker.出版信息書面由A.凡Hoonacker 。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.轉錄由Sean海侖。天主教百科全書,卷十,發布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Book of Ezra以斯拉記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Synopsis of Contents.概要的內容。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Varying Character of Composition.不同性質的成分。

Alleged Fabrications.據稱捏造。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The contents of the book are as follows:在這本書的內容如下:

Synopsis of Contents.概要的內容。

Ch.總。 i.: Cyrus, inspired by Jehovah, permits the Israelites to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, and returns to them the golden vessels which had been carried off by Nebuchadnezzar. Ch.一:居魯士,靈感來自耶和華,允許以色列人重建聖殿的耶路撒冷,並返回他們的黃金的船隻進行了關閉尼布甲尼撒。總。 ii.: The number of the captives that returned from Babylon to Palestine with Zerubbabel is stated as 42,360, besides 7,337 men servants and women servants and 200 singing men and women. Ch.二。數:人質返回從巴比倫到巴勒斯坦Zerubbabel為42360指出,除了公務員和7337名公務員和200名婦女唱著男人和女人。總。 iii.: Jeshua ben Jozadak and Zerubbabel build the altar, and celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles.三。 : Jeshua本Jozadak和Zerubbabel建造的祭壇,並慶祝住棚節。 In the second year the foundations of the Temple are laid, and the dedication takes place with great rejoicing.在第二年的基礎寺規定,以及發生的奉獻精神非常欣喜。

Ch.總。 iv.: The adversaries of the Jews, especially the Samaritans, make efforts to hinder the Jews from building the Temple.四。 :的敵人猶太人,尤其是撒瑪利亞,作出努力,阻止猶太人建設聖殿。 A letter is written by the Samaritans to Artaxerxes to procure a prohibition of the construction of the Temple, and the work is interrupted till the second year of Darius.字母是書面的,以阿爾塔克賽爾克斯撒瑪利亞採購禁止建造神廟,工作中斷,直到第二年的大流士。

Ch.總。 v.: Through the exhortations of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, Zerubbabel and Jeshua ben Jozadak recommence the building of the Temple.五:通過規勸先知哈和撒迦利亞, Zerubbabel和Jeshua本Jozadak重新建設的廟。 Tatnai, the governor "on this side the river," sends to the king a report of their action. Tatnai ,總督“在此方面的河” ,發送給國王的報告他們的行動。

Ch.總。 vi.: Darius finds the decree of Cyrus in the archives of Achmetha (Hamadan), and directs Tatnai not to disturb the Jews in their work.六。 :達賴認定的法令賽勒斯的檔案中Achmetha (哈馬丹) ,並指示Tatnai不要打擾猶太人在其工作中。 He also exempts them from tribute, and supplies everything necessary for the offerings.他還免除了他們的敬意,和用品,一切必要的服務。 The Temple is finished in the month of Adar, in the sixth year of Darius, and is dedicated with great solemnity.寺廟完成了一個月的阿達爾,在第六個年頭的大流士,並致力於以極大的莊嚴。

Ch.總。 vii.: Artaxerxes gives Ezra a commission to bring with him to Jerusalem all the captives that remain in Babylon. Ch.七。 :阿爾塔克賽爾克斯使以斯拉一個委員會,以使他對耶路撒冷的所有俘虜留在巴比倫。總。 viii.: Contains a list of the heads of families who returned with Ezra to Palestine.八。 :載列的戶主以斯拉誰一起返回巴勒斯坦。 Ezra institutes a fast while on his way to Jerusalem.以斯拉機構快速而前往耶路撒冷。

Ch.總。 ix.: The princes of Israel inform Ezra that many have not repudiated their foreign wives.九。 :以色列的王子通知以斯拉,許多沒有否定他們的外籍妻子。

Ch.總。 x.: Those who have taken strange wives are compelled to send them away and to bring each a sin offering.JM Sel.十:誰採取這些奇怪的妻子不得不把他們離開,並把每一種罪過offering.JM服務器。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The canonical Book of Ezra commences where the Chronicles leave off, and indeed with slight variation repeats the last two verses of II Chron.規範以斯拉記開始在納尼亞離開了,而且確實略有變化重複過去兩年詩句二專欄。 What follows consists of three portions: (1) an account of the return of the exiles, and a brief survey of the fortunes of the Jewish community down to the reign of Xerxes; (2) ch.下面包括三個部分: ( 1 )到返回的流亡者,並簡要調查的命運的猶太社區,以統治薛西斯; ( 2 )總。 iv.四。 7-vi. 7六。 22, extracts from a collection of historical documents in Aramaic, illustrating the fortunes of the community in the reigns of Artaxerxes I. and Darius, with a short appendix in Hebrew; (3) ch. vii. 22 ,摘錄收集歷史文獻中阿拉姆,說明了財富的社會中的統治阿爾塔克賽爾克斯一和大流士,以短期附錄希伯來語; ( 3 )總。七。 to end, a record of the enterprise of the author of the book, including a copy of the decree granted to him by Artaxerxes II., with an account of the author's work at Jerusalem. The first section includes a document also transcribed in Neh.到年底,記錄企業的本書的作者,其中包括一份法令授予他的阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二。 ,並考慮到作者的工作,在耶路撒冷。第一部分包括一個文件還轉錄在Neh 。 vii. 6-73a, called by Nehemiah a genealogical table of the first return.七。 6 - 73A條,所謂的尼希米記1家譜表第一回報。

A third copy is to be found in the apocryphal I Esdras.第三副本可在未經本人埃斯德拉斯。

Varying Character of Composition.不同性質的成分。

The documents embodied in the second section are described as "written in Aramaic and 'targumed' in Nehemiah Aramaic" (iv. 7). Since a work can not be translated into the same language as that in which it is composed, the expression "targumed" must mean "described," a sense which corresponds closely to the sense of the Arabic word "tarjamah," which, used of a tradition, signifies the heading in which its contents are described.該文件中所體現的第二部分被稱為“寫的阿拉姆語和' targumed '在尼希米記阿拉姆” ( iv. 7 ) 。由於工作不能被翻譯成相同的語言,在它的組成,表達“ targumed “必須是指”形容, “從某種意義上相當於密切合作,意義上的阿拉伯語單詞” tarjamah “的,使用的傳統,意味著在該標題的內容說明。 This phrase, then, implies that the contents of this section were transcribed from a collection of documents and accompanied with a commentary, probably made for the benefit of the Eastern community.這句話,那麼,意味著,本節內容的轉錄從收集的文件和附有評注,可能取得的利益,東歐社會。 In these extracts there is evidently a chronological transposition; for the correspondence with Artaxerxes I. (ch. iv.) is placed before the correspondence with Darius (ch. v., vi.), who is certainly Darius I. This may be due to momentary confusion on the author's part between Darius I. and Darius II.; but it is surprising, since in iv.在這些提取物有明顯的時間順序換位;的信函阿爾塔克賽爾克斯一(章四。 )是擺在通信與大流士(章五,六。 ) ,誰肯定是大流士一,這可能是由於對一時混淆了作者的部分之間的大流士一和大流士二。 ;但令人感到驚訝的是,因為在四。 5-7 he shows himself well acquainted with the order of the Persian kings. Thus the period covered by the commentary on the documents in ch. 5月7日,他表明自己熟悉的順序波斯國王。因此,所涵蓋的期間評注的文件,在CH 。 v. and vi.五和六。 is earlier than that covered by the documents in ch.早於所涉及的文件,在CH 。 iv.四。

Alleged Fabrications.據稱捏造。

The authenticity of the documents is a matter on which there is difference of opinion, the most recent critics (E. Meyer excepted) being disposed to regard all of them as forgeries, whereas before the time of Graetz they were generally thought to be genuine.證件的真偽是在這個問題上有意見分歧,最近的批評(如羅邁耶除外)被棄置到所有這些方面作為偽造的,而之前的時間Graetz ,他們一般都認為是真實的。 The custom in use among ancient historians of illustrating their histories by speeches and letters of their own composition makes the treatment of such questions exceedingly difficult.自定義在使用中的說明古代歷史學家其歷史的講話和字母組成的使自己的待遇等問題極其困難。 The edict of Cyrus, said to have been found at Achmetha (vi. 3-5), is the boldest of these fabrications, if they be such; but the mention of that ancient capital implies some very remarkable knowledge on the part of the author here excerpted.該法令的賽勒斯表示,已發現Achmetha ( vi. 3月5日) ,是最大膽的這些謊言,如果是這樣,但提到這古都意味著一些非常了不起的知識的一部分,作者這裡摘錄。 Some other reasons for believing these documents genuine are alleged by Herzfeld ("Geschichte des Volkes Israel," i. 125).其他一些理由相信這些文件的真正的被指控的赫茨菲爾德( “史Volkes以色列, ”一125 ) 。 The character of the Aramaic in which they are couched agrees fairly well, both in vocabulary and in grammar, with that of early inscriptions and papyri; and there would be nothing surprising in successive compilers having assimilated the language somewhat to the dialect with which they were most familiar.性質的阿拉姆在他們同意措辭相當不錯,無論是在詞彙和語法,與早期銘文和紙莎草紙;並會有什麼令人驚訝的連續編譯了一定的語言同化的方言與他們最熟悉的。 It is also possible that these Aramaic texts are translations of documents in Old Persian, and were accommodated to the taste of those whom they were intended to reach.也可能是這些阿拉姆文本翻譯的文件,舊波斯,和被收容的味道的人,他們的目的是要達到。

The third part of the book appears to be a personal memoir; and the decree there given (vii. 11-26), coming from an Artaxerxes whom the author distinguishes by spelling from Artaxerxes I., can not be regarded as spurious without seriously shaking the writer's credit. The narrative which he proceeds to give of his journey, however, contains little which might have been invented for the purpose of edification, though it might be open to any one to regard viii.第三部分的圖書似乎是一個個人回憶錄;和法令有鑑於( vii. 11月26日) ,來自一個阿爾塔克賽爾克斯其中作者區分的拼寫由阿爾塔克賽爾克斯一,不能被視為虛假嚴重動搖作家的信貸。敘述他的收益,使他的旅程,然而,很少有可能已經發明的目的是啟發,雖然它可能會開放給任何人以方面八。 22 as written by one who had Neh. 22作為一個誰寫的了Neh 。 ii.二。 7 before him. 7在他面前。 The narrative of Ezra's doings at Jerusalem is also not marked by exaggeration.說明以斯拉的所作所為在耶路撒冷也沒有明顯的誇張。 Ch. ix.總。九。 records a lengthy prayer offered by him on receipt of the intelligence of the mixed marriages, and ch.記錄了長時間的祈禱提供了他收到的情報的異族通婚,和CH 。 x. the measures taken by him to separate the erring couples, with a list of the persons affected.所採取的措施,他夫婦分開犯錯誤,並列出了受影響的人。 The objection urged by some critics that so severe a measure would not have been obeyed, seems insufficient to justify the condemnation of this part of the narrative as unhistorical; since the author may well have supposed it would be more effective than it turned out to be.在反對敦促一些批評家說,如此嚴重的措施就不會服從了,似乎不足以證明譴責這一部分的敘述作為unhistorical ;因為作者很可能會得到更有效的比原來是。 Nor indeed does the recurrence to the subject in Neh.也確實不復發的主題在Neh 。 x. 31 and xiii. 31日和十三。 23 render it improbable that severe measures were taken years before in the same direction. 23使其不大可能,嚴重的採取了措施,年前在同一方向。

Supposing the king to have been Artaxerxes II., Ezra's arrival in Palestine may be considered to have taken place in 397 BC From the mention in Neh.假如國王已阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二。 ,以斯拉抵達巴勒斯坦可能被認為發生了從公元前397中提到Neh 。 xiii.十三。 13 of Zadok as scribe, whereas in Neh. 13扎多克作為編劇,而在Neh 。 viii.八。 9 Ezra has that title, it is perhaps to be inferred that Ezra predeceased Nehemiah: in that case his death probably occurred between 370 and 360 BC 9以斯拉了這一稱號,它也許是推斷,以斯拉先尼希米記:在這種情況下,他的死亡可能發生在公元前370和360

The question of the historical character of the Book of Ezra is concerned chiefly with the last section; since in the first two sections the scribe is not speaking as an eye-witness, whereas in the third there is either an authentic narration or a fiction.這個問題的歷史特徵以斯拉記主要關注的最後一節,因為在頭兩節的編劇是不是說作為見證人,而在第三個有可能是真實的或虛構的敘事。 The latter view is taken by CC Torrey in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1896, Supplement.後一種觀點是採取消委會托利在體育場的“雜誌” , 1896年,補編。

Joseph Jacobs, M. Seligsohn, Morris Jastrow Jr., David Samuel Margoliouth約瑟夫雅各布斯先生Seligsohn ,莫里斯賈斯特羅小大衛塞繆爾Margoliouth

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Ezra, in the introductions to the Old Testament of Driver, Cornill, Kuenen, König, Wellhausen-Bleek, Ryle, Wildeboer, Baudissin; the commentaries of Bertheau-yssel, Oettli, Ryle; Sayce, Introduction to Ezra and Nehemiah; Kosters, Het Herstel van Israel, 1894; (also German translation, Die Wiederherstellung Israels in der Persischen Periode, 1895); Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judenthums, Halle, 1896; Van Hoonacker, Nouvelles Etudes sur la Restauration Juive, 1896; Etude Chronoloyique des Livres d'Esdras et Néhémie, Paris, 1868; Sigmund Jampel, Die Wiederherstellung Israel's unter den Achäemeniden, in Monatsschrift, xlvi.以斯拉,在介紹舊約驅動, Cornill , Kuenen ,柯尼格,豪森- Bleek ,賴爾, Wildeboer , Baudissin ;評注的Bertheau - yssel ,歐特列,賴爾; Sayce ,介紹以斯拉和尼希米記;科斯特斯報Herstel麵包車以色列, 1894年; (也德語翻譯,模具Wiederherstellung以色列中的Persischen Periode , 1895年) ;羅邁耶,模具Entstehung萬Judenthums ,哈雷, 1896年;範Hoonacker ,新練習曲河畔香格里拉恢復Juive , 1896年;練習Chronoloyique萬書局d '埃斯德拉斯等Néhémie ,巴黎, 1868年;西格蒙德Jampel ,模具Wiederherstellung以色列的下登Achäemeniden ,在月刊,四十六。 (1902).J. ( 1902 ) 。學者 Jr. DSM小手冊


Ezra the Scribe以斯拉的雕

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

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Returns to Jerusalem.返回耶路撒冷。

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A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest (: Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The name, probably an abbreviation of "Azaryahu" (God helps), appears in Greek (LXX., Apocrypha, Josephus) and in Latin (Vulgate) as "Esdras."子孫Seraiah的大祭司( Neh.八。 13 ;以斯拉七。 1起。 ;二世國王二十五。 18-21日) ;的成員祭司秩序,因此也稱為以斯拉牧師( :以斯拉七。 11 ;十, 10日, 16日) 。這個名字,可能是一個縮寫的“ Azaryahu ” (上帝幫助) ,出現在希臘( LXX. ,偽經,約瑟夫)和拉丁美洲(拉丁文聖經)作為“埃斯德拉斯。 ” Though Ezra was one of the most important personages of his day, and of far-reaching influence upon the development of Judaism, his biography has to be reconstructed from scanty material, furnished in part by fragments from his own memoirs (see Ezra, Book of).雖然以斯拉是一個最重要的人物,他的一天,具有深遠影響的發展,猶太教,他的傳記已重建從微薄的材料,家具的部分碎片從他自己的回憶錄(見以斯拉,書) 。 The first definite mention of him is in connection with a royal firman granting him permission to lead a band of exiles back to Jerusalem (Ezra vii. 12-26).第一次明確提到他是在與皇家菲爾曼給予准許他帶領一群流亡回到耶路撒冷(以斯拉七。 12月26日) 。 This edict was issued in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes, corresponding to 458 BC There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of the document as incorporated in Aramaic in the Book of Ezra, though Jewish coloring may be admitted. The arguments advanced for the opposite view (Cornill, "Einleitung in das Alte Testament," p. 264; Driver, "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament," 10th ed., p. 550) at their utmost reflect on the verbal, not the virtual, accuracy of the decree.這一法令頒布後的第七年國王阿爾塔克賽爾克斯,相當於458年沒有任何理由懷疑真實性的文件,作為納入阿拉姆在以斯拉記,儘管猶太著色可接納。論點的對面查看( Cornill , “導論之老聖經中, ”第264頁;驅動器“ ,介紹文學舊約” ,第10版。 ,第550 )在其最大努力反映在口頭上,而不是虛擬的,準確性該法令。 Nor is there any ground for holding that the king in question was any other than Artaxerxes Longimanus.也沒有任何理由認為國王的問題是,任何其他比阿爾塔克賽爾克斯Longimanus 。 A. van Hoonacker's contention ("Néhémie et Esdras," etc., Paris, 1890) that Ezra came to Jerusalem in the seventh year of Artaxerxes II.答:凡Hoonacker的論點( “ Néhémie等埃斯德拉斯”等,巴黎, 1890年)的以斯拉來到耶路撒冷後的第七年阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二。 (397 BC; comp. Winckler, "Altorientalische Forschungen," ii. 2; Cheyne, in "Biblical World," Oct., 1899), is untenable (see Guthe, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," p. 252; Piepenbring, "Histoire du Peuple d'Israel," p. 537; Kuenen, "Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Bibl. Wissenschaft," ed. Budde, pp. 239 et seq.). (公元前397 ;補償。 Winckler , “古代Forschungen , ”二。 2 ;潮,在“聖經的世界” , 10月, 1899年) ,是站不住腳的(見Guthe “ Gesch 。沙漠Volkes以色列, ”頁252 ; Piepenbring , “歷史報德以色列, ”頁537 ; Kuenen , “ Gesammelte Abhandlungen楚Bibl 。科學”版。布德,頁。 239起。 ) 。

Returns to Jerusalem.返回耶路撒冷。

Though received with greater favor, the assumption of Kosters (in "Het Herstel van Israel," German ed. by Basedow, pp. 103 et seq.) that Ezra arrived in Jerusalem only during the second visit of Nehemiah (433 BC), can not be maintained (see Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," 1896, pp. 60, 89, 199 et seq.; Wellhausen, "Die Rückkehr der Juden," pp. 3 et seq.).雖然收到更大的青睞,擔任科斯特斯(在“黑Herstel麵包車以色列, ”德國版。由巴澤,頁。 103起。 )表示,以斯拉抵達耶路撒冷,只有在第二次訪問記( 433年) ,可以不能維持(見埃德。羅邁耶, “模具Entstehung萬Judenthums , ” 1896年,頁。 60 , 89 , 199起。 ;豪森, “模具Rückkehr德國猶太人, ”頁。 3起。 ) 。 Probably the reputation he enjoyed for learning (hence "the ready scribe": Ezra vii. 6) stood him in good stead with the king, who in the firman appears to have conferred upon him extensive authority to carry his intention into effect.可能享有的聲譽,他的學習(因此“準備抄寫” :以斯拉七。 6 )為有利於他的國王,誰在菲爾曼似乎賦予廣泛的權力,履行他打算生效。 To the number of about 1, 500, mostly from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (Ezra viii. 1-14), not counting the women and children, the companions of Ezra assembled at the river flowing toward Ahava.的數量約1 , 500 ,其中大部分來自各部落的猶太和本傑明(以斯拉八。 1月14日) ,不包括婦女和兒童,他們的同伴的以斯拉聚集在河流流動的阿哈瓦。 But no Levite being among them, Ezra induced 38 Levites and 220 Nethinim to join his expedition.但是,沒有被列其中,以斯拉誘導38利和220 Nethinim加入他的遠征。 After observing a day of public fasting and prayer, on the twelfth day of the first month (Nisan = April), without military escort but with due precaution for the safeguarding of the rich gifts and treasures in their keeping, they set out on their journey, and arrived without mishap at Jerusalem in the fifth month (Ab = August).經過一天的觀察公眾禁食和祈禱,在12日的第一個月(尼桑= 4月) ,沒有軍隊護送,但適當的預防措施為保護豐富的禮物和寶藏在其保管,他們將在他們的旅程,並於無事故在耶路撒冷在第5個月(抗體= 8月) 。

Soon after his arrival Ezra was compelled to take strenuous measures against marriage with non-Hebrew women (which had become common even among men of high standing), and he insisted in a very dramatic manner upon the dismissal of such wives (Ezra ix. and x.); but it was only after the arrival of Nehemiah (444 BC; comp. Neh. viii. 1 et seq.) that he published the "book of the law of Moses" which he had brought with him from Babylon, and made the colony solemnly recognize it as the basis of their religious and civil code.他到達後不久,以斯拉被迫採取艱苦的措施,打擊婚姻與非希伯來婦女(這已經成為共同的甚至是男性的崇高地位) ,以及他堅持在一個非常戲劇性的方式解僱等妻子(以斯拉九。與十) ;但只是到達後尼希米記( 444公元前;補償。 Neh 。八。 1起。 )說,他出版了“書摩西律法” ,他還帶來了他從巴比倫,和使殖民地莊嚴承認它是根據他們的宗教和民間代碼。 Ezra is further mentioned as the leader or one of the two choirs singing hymns of thanksgiving at the dedication of the wall (Neh. xii. 36 et seq.), but this note is suspected of being a gloss of questionable historical value.以斯拉是進一步提到的領導或兩個合唱團唱聖歌的感恩奉獻的牆( Neh.十二。 36起。 ) ,但本說明懷疑是有問題的光澤歷史價值。 EGH歐洲加沙醫院

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Ezra marks the springtime in the national history of Judaism.以斯拉標誌著春天在國家歷史上的猶太教。 "The flowers appear on the earth" (Cant. ii. 12) refers to Ezra and Nehemiah (Midr. Cant. ad loc.). “花朵出現在地球” ( Cant.二。 12 )是指以斯拉和尼希米記( Midr.插件。廣告同上。 ) 。 Ezra was worthy of being the vehicle of the Law, had it not been already given through Moses (Sanh.21b). It was forgotten, but Ezra restored it (Suk. 20a).以斯拉是值得車輛的法律,如果沒有已給予通過摩西( Sanh.21b ) 。這是被遺忘,但以斯拉恢復它( Suk. 20A條) 。 But for its sins, Israel in the time of Ezra would have witnessed miracles as in the time of Joshua (Ber. 4a).但對於其罪孽,以色列在規定的時間內的以斯拉將目睹奇蹟在時間約書亞( Ber. 4A )條。 Ezra was the disciple of Baruch ben Neriah (Cant. R.); his studies prevented him from joining the first party returning to Jerusalem in the reign of Cyrus, the study of the Law being of greater importance than the reconstruction of the Temple. According to another opinion, Ezra remained behind so as not to compete, even involuntarily, with Jeshua ben Jozadak for the office of chief priest.以斯拉是弟子巴魯克本Neriah ( Cant.河) ;他的研究使他無法參加的第一個政黨,返回耶路撒冷的統治居魯士,研究法的更重要比重建聖殿。根據另一種意見認為,以斯拉留下,以便不競爭,甚至不由自主地,與Jeshua本Jozadak辦公室的首席神父。 Ezra reestablished the text of the Pentateuch, introducing therein the Assyrian or square characters, apparently as a polemical measure against the Samaritans (Sanh. 21b).以斯拉重建的案文摩西五,介紹其中的亞述人或平方米字符,顯然是爭論的措施,撒瑪利亞( Sanh.第二十一期乙) 。 He showed his doubts concerning the correctness of some words of the text by placing points over them.他表明他的懷疑是正確的一些字的文字放置點他們。 Should Elijah, said he, approve the text, the points will be disregarded; should he disapprove, the doubtful words will be removed from the text (Ab. RN xxxiv.).應以利亞,他說,批准的案文,積分將被忽視;如果他拒絕,在懷疑的話將會從文( Ab.考試三十四。 ) 。 Ezra wrote the Book of Chronicles and the book bearing his name (BB 16a). He is regarded and quoted as the type of person most competent and learned in the Law (Ber. R. xxxvi.).以斯拉寫這本書的編年史和圖書同時他的名字( BB心跳16A條) 。他被認為和引用的類型的人最有能力和經驗教訓的法律( Ber.河三十六。 ) 。 The Rabbis associate his name with several important institutions.的拉比準他的名字與一些重要機構。 It was he who ordained that three men should read ten verses from the Torah on the second and fifth days of the week and during the afternoon ("Minḥah") service on Sabbath (B. Ḳ. 82a); that the "curses" in Leviticus should be read before Shabu'ot, and those in Deuteronomy before Rosh ha-Shanah (Meg. 31b; see Bloch, "Die Institutionen des Judenthums," i. 1, pp. 112 et seq., Vienna, 1879).這是誰,他說,三名男子祝應改為10詩句從律法的第二和第五星期,並在下午( “ Minḥah ” )服務的安息日(灣K表。 82A條) ;說, “詛咒”在利未記之前應閱讀Shabu'ot ,和那些在申命記面前羅斯艾河Shanah ( Meg. 31b ;見布洛赫, “模具Institutionen萬Judenthums , ”一, 1 ,頁。 112起。 ,維也納, 1879年) 。 He ordained also that courts be in session on Mondays and Thursdays; that garments be washed on these days; that garlic be eaten on the eve of Sabbath; that the wife should rise early and bake bread in the morning; that women should wear a girdle (BK 82a; Yer. Meg. iv. 75a); that women should bathe (B. Ḳ. 82a); that pedlers be permitted to visit cities where merchants were established (B. Ḳ. 82a; see Bloch, lcp 127); that under certain contingencies men should take a ritual bath; that the reading at the conclusion of the benedictions should be "min ha-'olam we-'ad ha'olam" (from eternity to eternity: against the Sadducees; see Bloch, lcp 137).他還祝聖,法院將在會議在星期一和星期四,這成衣水洗就這些天;認為吃大蒜的前夕安息日; ,妻子應早起和烤麵包在早上; ,婦女應該穿帶(銀行82A條;層。梅格。四。 75A條) ;婦女應洗澡(灣K表。 82A條) ;這pedlers允許訪問城市的商家建立了(灣K表。 82A條;見布洛赫,液晶127 ) ;在某些緊急情況男子應採取一種儀式浴;該讀的結論, benedictions應該是“民夏'olam我們, 'ad ha'olam ” (從永恆到永恆:對撒都該人;見布洛赫,液晶137 ) 。 His name is also associated with the work of the Great Synagogue (Meg.17b).他的名字也與工作的大會堂( Meg.17b ) 。 He is said to have pronounced the Divine Name (Yhwh) according to its proper sounds (Yoma 69b), and the beginnings of the Jewish calendar are traced back to him (Beẓah 6a; Rashi, ad loc.).據說,他是有明顯的神聖名稱( Yhwh )根據適當的聲音(山脈69b ) ,並開始在猶太歷是追溯到他( Beẓah 6A條; Rashi ,廣告同上。 ) 。

According to tradition, Ezra died at the age of 120 in Babylonia. Benjamin of Tudela was shown his grave on the Shaṭṭ al-'Arab, near the point where the Tigris flows into the Euphrates ("Itinerary," i. 73).按照傳統,以斯拉享年120歲的東風。本傑明的杜德拉結果表明他的墳墓上的Shatt al - 'Arab ,近地點底格里斯河流入幼發拉底河( “行程, ”一73 ) 。 According to another legend, he was at the time of his death in Babylon, as a courtier in the retinue of Artaxerxes (see Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la Bible," ii. 1931).另據傳說,他是在他去世時在巴比倫,作為朝臣在隨從的阿爾塔克賽爾克斯(見Vigouroux , “詞典德拉薩聖經”二。 1931年) 。 Josephus, however, relates that Ezra died at Jerusalem, where he was buried ("Ant." xi. 5, § 5).約瑟夫,但涉及的以斯拉死在耶路撒冷,在那裡他被安葬( “螞蟻。 ”十一。 5 ,第5條) 。 In the seliḥah for the 10th of Ṭebet the date of Ezra's death is given as the 9th of Ṭebet (see Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 580).ECEGHI Br.在seliḥah為10 Ṭebet日期以斯拉的死亡是由於9日Ṭebet (見Shulḥan ' Aruk , Oraḥ Ḥayyim , 580 ) 。 ECEGHI一二。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

The historical character of the Biblical data regarding Ezra the Scribe (after Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," p. 321) is generally conceded.歷史性質聖經數據以斯拉的雕(後埃德。羅邁耶, “模具Entstehung萬Judenthums ” ,第321頁)是普遍承認。 But the zeal of Ezra to carry out his theory that Israel should be a holy seed (), and therefore of absolutely pure Hebrew stock, was not altogether effective; that his views met with opposition is indicated in the books of Ruth and Jonah.但是,熱情以斯拉進行他的理論說,以色列應該是一個神聖的種子( ) ,因此,絕對純粹的希伯來股票,是不是完全有效的; ,他會見了反對派的意見中所表明的是書籍的露絲和喬納。 The "book of the law" which he proclaimed at the public assembly (Neh. viii.-x.) is substantially identified with the Priestly Code (P), which, though containing older priestly ordinances ("torot"), came to be recognized as the constitutional law of the congregation (Judaism) only after Ezra's time and largely through his and Nehemiah's influence and authority.該“法書” ,他宣布在公眾集會( Neh. viii.-x. )實質上確定的祭司碼(規劃) ,雖然含有老年祭司條例( “ torot ” ) ,後來被公認的憲制性法律的教會(猶太教)以斯拉之後才的時間,主要是通過他和尼希米記的影響力和權威性。 EGH歐洲加沙醫院

Emil G. Hirsch, Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.埃米爾赫斯基灣,執行委員會的編委會。 Isaac Broydé艾薩克Broydé

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


Book of Nehemiah尼希米記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Documents Inserted.文件插入。

Solemn League and Covenant.莊嚴的聯賽和盟約。

Registers.登記冊。

A work ascribed to Nehemiah, but bearing in some canons the title Esdras II.一項工作歸因於尼希米記,但要在一些大砲的標題埃斯德拉斯二。 or Esdras III., having been attributed to Ezra on the ground that Nehemiah's self-assertion deserved some punishment (Sanh. 93b), or because, having ordinarily been written on the same scroll with the Book of Ezra, it came to be regarded as an appendix to it.或埃斯德拉斯三。 ,被歸因於以斯拉,理由是尼希米記的自我主張值得一些處罰( Sanh. 93b ) ,或者是因為,在通常被寫在同一滾動與以斯拉記,它應被視為它的附錄。 The book consists ostensibly (i. 1) of the memoirs of Nehemiah, compiled, or at any rate completed, toward the close of his life, since he alludes to a second visit to Jerusalem "at the end of days" (xiii. 6, AV margin), which must mean a long time after the first.這本書由表面(一1 )的回憶錄中記,彙編,或在任何速度完成,對他的生命結束,因為他提到第二次訪問耶路撒冷“結束時的天” ( xiii. 6影音保證金) ,其中必須意味著很長一段時間後,第一次。 In xiii.在十三。 28 he speaks of a grandson (comp. xii. 10, 11) of the high priest Eliashib as being of mature years; whence it appears that the latest event mentioned in the book, the high-priesthood of Jaddua, contemporary of Alexander the Great (xii. 11, 22), may have fallen within Nehemiah's time. 28日,他講的孫子( comp.十二。 10日, 11日)的大祭司Eliashib作為成熟年;何處看來,最新的事件中提到的這本書,高鐸的Jaddua ,當代的亞歷山大大帝( xii. 11 , 22 ) ,可能範圍內,尼希米記的時間。 The redaction of his memoirs occurred probably later than 360 BC, but how much later can not easily be determined.編輯出版的回憶錄可能發生不遲於360年,但有多少以後不能輕易確定。 The first person is employed in ch.的第一人受僱在CH 。 i.-vii.一至七。 5, xii. 5 ,十二。 31-42, xiii. 31-42 ,十三。 6 et seq. 6起。 Sometimes, however, Nehemiah prefers to speak in the name of the community (ii. 19, iii. 33-38, x.), and in some places he himself is spoken of in the third person, either with the title "tirshatha" (viii. 9, x. 2) or "peḥah" (xii. 26, claimed by him in v. 14; AV "governor"), or without title (xii. 47).但是,有時候,尼希米記喜歡發言的社區的名稱(白介素19 ,三。 33-38 ,十) ,並且在一些地方,他自己講的第三人,無論是與標題“ tirshatha ” ( viii. 9十2 )或“ peḥah ” ( xii. 26日宣稱,他在五14 ;影音“總督” ) ,或無標題( xii. 47 ) 。 The style of these last passages implies somewhat that Nehemiah is not the writer, especially that of the third and fourth: "in the days of Nehemiah the governor, and of Ezra"; "in the days of Zerubbabel, and in the days of Nehemiah."風格的最後通道意味著有些是尼希米記不是作家,尤其是第三次和第四次: “在未來的日子記總督和以斯拉” , “在天Zerubbabel ,並在以後的日子裡記。 “ The portions of the book in which the first person is used are marked by repeated prayers for recognition of the author's services, and imprecations on his enemies (iii. 36, 67; v. 19; vi. 13; xiii. 14, 22, 29, 31), which may be taken as characteristic of an individual's style; and indeed the identity of the traits of character which are manifested by the writer of the opening and closing chapters can not escape notice.的部分,這本書,其中的第一人是用來標記一再祈禱承認作者的服務,以及對他的敵人imprecations ( iii. 36 , 67 ;五19 ;六。 13 ;十三。 14 , 22 , 29日, 31日) ,這可能被視為特點個人的風格;和事實上的身份,性格特徵是表現在作家的開幕式和閉幕式的章節無法逃避通知。 Moreover, the author's enemies, Sanballat and Tobiah, figure in both parts.此外,作者的敵人, Sanballat和Tobiah ,數字在這兩個部分。

Documents Inserted.文件插入。

The unity of the book is marred by the insertion of a variety of documents, chiefly lists of names.團結,這本書是受到插入各種不同的文件,主要的名單。 These are the following:這些如下:

(1) Ch. ( 1 )總。 iii.三。 1-32, a list of persons who helped to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. 1-32 ,人員的名單中誰幫助重建耶路撒冷的牆上。 This document agrees with ch.該文件同意總。 xii.十二。 in exhibiting remarkable acquaintance with the topography of Jerusalem; and it also gives some curious details about the persons who took part in the work, some of whose names figure in other contexts.參展顯著結識的地形耶路撒冷;同時也給出了一些奇怪的細節的人誰參加了工作,其中一些人物的名字在其他場合。 It is, however, observable that Eliashib is said to have been high priest at the time of Nehemiah's first visit; and the same is suggested by xiii.然而,看得見的Eliashib據說是大祭司的時候,尼希米記的第一次訪問;和同是建議十三。 7, whereas in Ezra x. 7 ,而在以斯拉十 6 it is suggested that Eliashib's grandson (Neh. xii. 11, 12) was in office thirteen years before Nehemiah came. 6 ,建議Eliashib的孫子( Neh.十二。 11日, 12日)是在辦公室十三年前尼希米記來了。 If the list of high priests in ch.如果清單高神父在CH 。 xii.十二。 be correct, it is clear that Eliashib could not have been in office in Nehemiah's time; and this fact discredits the historical character of the document, at any rate to a certain extent; for the possibility of Nehemiah, at a great distance from the scene of the events, having mistaken some of the details, can not be quite excluded.是正確的,很顯然, Eliashib無法在尼希米記在辦公室的時間;和敗壞這一事實的歷史性質的文件,在任何率在一定程度上;的可能性尼希米記,在一個很長的距離從現場發生的事件,有錯誤的一些細節,不能完全排除在外。 The account of the building given in this chapter represents it as more elaborate and national than would be imagined from iii.帳戶的建設給予本章代表它作為更詳細和國家比想像從三。 33-38. 33-38 。

(2) Ch. ( 2 )總。 vii.七。 6-73, a list of the exiles who returned with Zerubbabel. This is a document which Nehemiah says he discovered (vii. 5); and it is embodied in the narrative of Ezra also (Ezra ii.). 6-73的名單,流亡誰一起返回Zerubbabel 。這是一個文件,尼希米記說,他發現( vii. 5 ) ;這是體現在說明以斯拉也(以斯拉二。 ) 。 The difference between the copies is such as can be attributed to the not overstrict ideas of accuracy current in antiquity.之間的差額份,如可以歸因於沒有overstrict思想的準確性目前在古代。 Some difficulty is occasioned by the fact that the narrative which deals with the days of Zerubbabel is continued without break into ascene which ostensibly took place in Nehemiah's own time; in other words, though the document is introduced as extraneous, it is not clear at what point it ends.一些困難所引起的這一事實,說明其中涉及的日子裡繼續Zerubbabel是沒有打入ascene表面發生在尼希米記自己的時間,換句話說,雖然該文件是作為外來的,目前尚不清楚在什麼點結束。 Indeed, the purpose for which Nehemiah says he gathered the people, namely, to discover their genealogies (vii. 5), does not appear to have been realized, but instead the reader is taken into a scene at which the Law is publicly read by Ezra.事實上,目的尼希米記說,他收集到的人,即發現自己的族譜( vii. 5 ) ,似乎並沒有得到實現,而是讀者是考慮到在一個場景的法律是公開閱讀以斯拉。 Here again resort may be had to the hypothesis of carelessness on the author's part, or to that of compilation by an unscientific collector.在這裡再次訴諸可能不得不小心的假設上的作者的一部分,或該彙編的不科學收藏家。

(3) If the Septuagint be believed, ch. ( 3 )如七十相信,甲烷。 ix.九。 contains a discourse delivered by Ezra.載有話語交付以斯拉。

Solemn League and Covenant.莊嚴的聯賽和盟約。

(4) Ch. ( 4 )總。 x., containing a solemn league and covenant, bearing eighty-four signatures of persons who undertook to observe the Law of Moses and discharge certain duties.十,其中包含了一個莊嚴的聯賽和盟約,同時84人誰簽字承諾遵守摩西律法和履行某些義務。 The number of signatories is evidently a multiple of the sacred numbers 7 and 12, and the list is headed by Nehemiah himself.簽署國的數目,顯然是一個多神聖號碼7和12 ,和清單是由尼希米記本人。 Of the signatories some are persons about whom something definite is learnt in either Ezra or Nehemiah (eg, Sherebiah, Ezra viii. 18; Hanan, Neh. xiii. 13; Kelita, Ezra x. 23), but those called "the heads of the people" appear all to be families, their names occurring to a great extent in the same order as that in which they occur in the list of ch.簽署有的人誰學到的東西一定是在任何以斯拉或尼希米記(例如, Sherebiah ,以斯拉八。 18 ;韓南, Neh 。十三。 13 ; Kelita ,以斯拉十23 ) ,但這些所謂的“元首人民“似乎所有的家庭,他們的名字出現在很大的程度上在同一命令,在他們出現在清單中的甲烷。 vii.七。 This mixture of family names with names of individuals excites suspicion; but the unhistorical character of this document, if proved, would greatly mar the credit of the whole book.這種混合的姓氏與名字個人興奮懷疑;但unhistorical本文件的性質,如果證實,將大大三月信貸的整本書。 The framing of such a document at a time of religious revival and excitement has no a priori improbability.制定這樣一個文件的時候,宗教復興和興奮沒有先驗不大可能。

Registers.登記冊。

(5) Ch. ( 5 )總。 xi.十一。 contains a list of persons who drew lots to reside at Jerusalem, with notices of the assignment of offices and of the residences of officials.包含人員的名單中誰抽籤居住在耶路撒冷,並通知轉讓的辦公室和住宅的官員。 This document agrees very closely in places with one embodied in I Chron.該文件同意非常密切的地方,一個體現在我專欄。 ix.; indeed, both would appear to be adaptations of a register originally found in a "book of the kings of Israel and Judah" (ib. verse 1).九。實際上,這兩個似乎是適應的登記冊中發現原先的“書國王以色列和猶太” ( ib.詩1 ) 。 It might seem as if the use of the word "king's" in Neh.也許好像一詞的使用“國王”在Neh 。 xi.十一。 23, 24, having been taken over from the older document, had given rise to the charge of which Nehemiah complains in vi. 23日, 24日,已採取了從舊的文件,引起了收費的尼希米記抱怨在六。 6, where his enemies accuse him of making himself king; and indeed the arbitrary character of some of his measures (xiii. 25) would in part justify such a charge. 6 ,在那裡他的敵人指責他使自己國王;和事實上的任意性質的他的一些措施( xiii. 25日)將部分證明這樣一個收費。 If one may judge by the analogy of Mohammedan states, there would be nothing unusual in a provincial governor taking that title.如果其中一個可能法官比喻伊斯蘭教國家,將會有什麼不同尋常的省長採取這一頭銜。 The purpose of the register must have been seriously misunderstood by either Nehemiah or the Chronicler; but it may be inferred with certainty, from the occurrence of the same document in such different forms in the two books, that the compiler of Nehemiah is not identical with the Chronicler.登記冊的目的必須是嚴重誤解或者尼希米記或記錄者,但它可以推斷肯定,從發生在同一文件等不同形式的兩本書,即編譯記不相同的記錄者。

(6) Ch. ( 6 )總。 xii.十二。 1-26 gives a list of priests and Levites who returned with Zerubbabel, carried down, very imperfectly, to Nehemiah's time, or perhaps later. 1月26日提供的清單祭司和利誰一起返回Zerubbabel ,進行了非常完美,以尼希米記的時間,或者更高版本。 The "book of the chronicles" (verse 23) is cited for parts of it; but this document covers some of the same ground as the last, and it might seem as if both were rough drafts, never finally worked up.在“書的編年史” (詩23 )是引用的部分,但這一文件涉及一些相同的地面上,它看起來好像都是粗糙的草稿,從來沒有最後出來。 It is of course open to the critic to regard the whole work as compiled by Nehemiah, who, where his memory or knowledge failed him, may have inserted these documents, or have ordered his secretaries to insert accounts of scenes.當然,開放的評論家把整個工作由尼希米記,誰,在他的記憶或知識的失敗,他可能已經插入這些文件,或已命令他的秘書插入帳戶的場面。 Indeed, the expression "and in all this" (xiii. 6), which reintroduces the personal narrative, implies that the author had before him some matter which he had not himself described.事實上,表達“ ,在所有這一切” ( xiii. 6 ) ,其中reintroduces的個人敘事,意味著作者收到了他一些問題,他沒有自己描述。

It is more usual to suppose that Nehemiah's memoirs were utilized by another writer, who did not take the trouble to alter the first person where it occurred; such a supposition involves no impossibility, provided the compiler be not identified with the compiler of Ezra or the compiler of the Chronicles; for the utilization by these authors of documents also incorporated in Nehemiah involves improbabilities calculated to outweigh any arguments that can be urged on the other side.這是比較普通的假定尼希米記的回憶錄利用另一作家,誰沒有改變的麻煩的第一人而發生;這種假設是沒有不可能的,提供了編譯器不能識別的編譯器或以斯拉編譯器的編年史;利用這些作者的文件也納入尼希米記涉及improbabilities計算超過任何參數,可以要求另一方。 Ben Sira (Sirach [Ecclus.] xlix. 13), in describing Nehemiah's work, evidently refers to the account found in Neh.本特希拉( Sirach [ Ecclus 。 ] xlix 。 13 ) ,在描述尼希米記的工作,顯然是指帳戶中發現Neh 。 i.-vii.一至七。 1; from the short space that he devotes to each hero no inference can be drawn with regard to the existence of the whole work in his time. 1 ,從短期的空間,他致力於每個英雄沒有推理可以得出方面存在的整個工作的時間。 The fact of its being contained in his canon would, however, make it probable that it existed in its present form as early as 300 BC, a date separated by some decades only from the last mentioned in the book, and by less than a century from Nehemiah's first visit to Jerusalem. From the Second Book of Maccabees it is learned that various legends were current about Nehemiah when it was written, to which the Biblical book contains no allusion.事實上,它是在他的佳能然而,使它有可能存在的,它目前的形式,早在公元前300年,一個日期相隔只有幾十年的最後提到的這本書,並通過不到一個世紀從尼希米記的第一次訪問耶路撒冷。從第二卷馬加比據了解,目前的各種傳說有大約尼希米記時,書面的,而聖經的書沒有提及。 Possibly those writers who reduce the credible element to the smallest amount do not sufficiently take into account the rapidity with which events succeed one another, the fragmentary character of modern knowledge of postexilic Israel, and the general complication of political phenomena.誰可能是作家減少可信因素最小的一筆不充分考慮到該事件迅速成功的另一個特點是零零碎碎的現代知識的postexilic以色列,和一般並發症的政治現象。

Emil G. Hirsch, David Samuel Margoliouth埃米爾赫斯基灣,大衛塞繆爾Margoliouth

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Epochs are marked in the study of the book by the treatise of Hoonacker, Zorobabel et le Second Temple, Paris, 1892; and that of Kosters, Het Herstel van Israel, 1894.時代標記研究中的這本書的論文的Hoonacker , Zorobabel等樂第二聖殿,巴黎, 1892年;和科斯特斯報Herstel麵包車以色列, 1894年。 Skepticism is carried to its furthest by CC Torrey, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1896, 2d Supplement.懷疑是其最遠消委會多,在球場的雜誌, 1896年,二維補編。 Comp.壓縮機。 also Hoonacker, Nouvelles Etudes sur la Restauration Juive, Paris, 1896.還Hoonacker ,新練習曲河畔香格里拉恢復Juive ,巴黎, 1896年。 Of importance also are E. Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judenthums, 1896, and J. Geissler, Die Literarischen Beziehungen der Esramemoiren, Chemnitz, 1899, in which the literature is best collected.EGHDSM也有重要的體育羅邁耶,模具Entstehung萬Judenthums , 1896年,和J.蓋斯勒,模具Literarischen Beziehungen之Esramemoiren ,開姆尼茨, 1899年,在該文獻是最好collected.EGHDSM


Nehemiah尼希米記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Rebuilds the Walls of Jerusalem.重建的牆耶路撒冷。

His Reforms.他的改革。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Son of Hachaliah; rebuilder of the walls of Jerusalem.兒子Hachaliah ; rebuilder的牆壁耶路撒冷。 The sole source of information about Nehemiah is the canonical book that bears his name, parts of which, at any rate, furnished Ben Sira with the matter for the short notice which he gives of Nehemiah.唯一的信息來源是典型尼希米記書,他的名字命名,其中部分,無論如何,提供本特希拉此事的很短時間內,他賦予記。 He was cupbearer to Artaxerxes (identified by De Saulcy with Artaxerxes II., whose reign began 404 BC).他cupbearer至阿爾塔克賽爾克斯(所確定者Saulcy與阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二。 ,其在位開始404年) 。 Owing to a painful report that had reached him of the condition of the Jews in Palestine, he, perhaps with the countenance of the queen-mother or queen, obtained permission to visit Jerusalem, and to rebuild the walls, for which purpose he was furnished with firmans and a supply of timber. Incidentally it is mentioned that he had the title "peḥah" or "tirshatha," equivalent to "viceroy," for twelve successive years (384-372), and apparently again at a later period.由於痛苦的報告說,已經達到他的狀況在巴勒斯坦的猶太人,他或許與面容的女王母親或皇后,獲准訪問耶路撒冷,並重建的牆壁,為此他被家具與firmans和供應木材。順便提到,他的標題是“ peḥah ”或“ tirshatha , ”等同於“總督” ,先後為12年( 384-372 ) ,顯然又在後期。

Rebuilds the Walls of Jerusalem.重建的牆耶路撒冷。

The rebuilding of the walls (a task which had before Nehemiah's time been repeatedly attempted) was commenced by him with caution, and excited enmity and even armed intervention, which latter, however, Nehemiah showed himself able to resist.重建牆壁(這項工作收到了尼希米記的時間被一再試圖)已開始了他謹慎,興奮,甚至敵意的武裝干預,這後者,然而,尼希米記表明自己能夠抵抗。 The account of the details of the building is not, apparently, from Nehemiah's hand, and would seem to represent the work as more of a national enterprise than would be inferred from Nehemiah's own statements.該帳戶的詳情建設顯然沒有從尼希米記的手,似乎代表了更多的工作作為一個國家的企業相比,作為推斷尼希米記自己的發言。 The account of the inaugural ceremony after completion comes rather late in the book, and was probably written some years after the event.帳戶的就職儀式完成後,來的時間較晚的書,可能是寫了一些年後的活動。 Nehemiah's opponents appear to have been wealthy landowners, not themselves Israelites, but allied with leading families within the city.尼希米記的對手似乎已富有的地主,而不是自己的猶太人,但與主要盟國的家庭內的城市。 After the completion of the walls Nehemiah had to occupy himself with political reforms also, of which one was the restoration to their original owners of lands taken for debt by the wealthier members of the community-a scheme not unlike the "novæ tabulæ" of the classical republics, and regarded by the owners as an ultra-revolutionary measure; for it meant the abandonment without consideration of much property lawfully acquired.完成後的牆壁尼希米記佔據了自己的政治改革也,其中一個是恢復其原來的土地所有者的債務所採取的較富裕的社區成員,計劃沒有什麼不同的“新星油松”的古典共和國,並認為由業主作為一個超革命性措施來抓;因為這意味著放棄,沒有考慮很多合法取得的財產。 According to Nehemiah's account, it was effected with a minimum of friction, owing to his own disinterestedness in relinquishing his claim to the governor's allowances; and it took the form of a cheerful sacrifice on the part of the moneyed class.據尼希米記的說法,這是影響最小的摩擦,由於自己的無私的放棄他聲稱總督的津貼;和它的形式是愉快犧牲部分有錢階層。 He tells, however, almost immediately afterward, of attempts on his own life, which he dexterously escaped, and of endeavors to represent his restoration of the walls as the prelude to a declaration of independence.他說,然而,幾乎立即後,企圖在自己的生活,而他巧逃脫,並竭力代表他恢復牆的前奏宣布獨立。 In these attempts residents of Jerusalem took part, either having conspired with or being in the pay of external enemies.在這些企圖耶路撒冷居民參加,或者有串謀或正在付出的外部敵人。 Among these instruments were a false prophet and a false prophetess, whom Nehemiah was able to unmask.在這些文書是假先知和假預言家,其中尼希米記得以揭露。

Nehemiah's next measure would appear to have been as aristocratic in tendency as the last was democratic.尼希米記下次措施似乎已成為貴族的傾向作為最後是民主的。 He instituted an inquiry into the pedigrees of the residents of Jerusalem with the view of degrading aliens, and for this purpose obtained a copy of the roll of the families that returned with Zerubbabel.他設立了調查,家系的耶路撒冷居民的意見,有辱人格的外國人,並為此獲得了一份卷的家庭返回Zerubbabel 。 His narrative, however, breaks off without describing the nature of the measure which he adopted or the smoothness with which it worked.他的敘述,但是,沒有休息,從描述的性質的措施,或通過他的光滑與它的工作。 It appears from other parts of the book that priestly families were connected by marriage with the aliens, and, though Nehemiah resumed his inquisition on his second visit to Jerusalem, it required the arbitrary exercise of power to carry it through.從其他地區的書,牧師家庭連接,與外國人結婚,並恢復了他雖然尼希米記探討他的第二次訪問耶路撒冷,它需要任意行使權力,履行通過。 It is possible that the danger of offending the humbler classes, whom he had won over by his "novæ tabulæ," prevented him from inquiring too strictly into this matter on his first visit.這是可能的危險得罪humbler課,他已經贏得了他的“新星油松, ”阻止他詢問過嚴格考慮這件事,他是首次訪問。

His Reforms.他的改革。

The rest of his reforms appear to have been of a religious nature, although, the chapters in which they are recorded being by other hands, there is a want of clearness in the details.其餘的他的改革似乎一直是宗教性質的,雖然各章中,他們記錄被其他手中,有一種想要的清晰細節。 He appears with the aid of Ezra to have enforced or reenforced the Mosaic law, especially the provision relating to the sanctity of the Sabbath, which on his second visit he had again to emphasize.他似乎借助以斯拉有強迫或reenforced的鑲嵌法,特別是有關的規定的神聖的安息日,這對他的第二次訪問,他再次強調。 He also provided by a regular system of forced contributions for the maintenance of the Temple services and of the various castes who took part in performing them.他還提供了經常性的系統的強迫捐款用於維持寺服務和各種種姓誰參加了表演他們。 He writes with unusual naïveté and the accuracy of his personal narrative has rarely been questioned.他寫道天真和具有不同尋常的準確性,他的個人說明很少受到質疑。 It seems, however, surprising that the accredited representative of the sovereign court should, in carrying out his commission, have met with fierce opposition, leading to the imminent risk of skirmishesand battles; but the classical historians give no high idea of the administrative capacity of Artaxerxes II.但是,令人吃驚的是,派駐代表的主權法院應在履行其委員會,取得了強烈反對,導致即將風險skirmishesand戰鬥;但古典史學的想法並不高的行政能力阿爾塔克賽爾克斯二。 Further, there appears to be some contradiction between the statements that he went to Jerusalem on a visit for a strictly limited time (ii. 6), and that he went to Judea as "peḥah" and held office for twelve years (v. 14 and xiii. 6); but this may also be due to the fragmentary nature of his memoirs.此外,似乎有一些矛盾的聲明,他前往耶路撒冷訪問的時間有嚴格限制(白介素6 ) ,並發現,他到朱迪亞為“ peḥah ” ,並舉行了辦事處十二年(五14和第十三。 6 ) ;但是這也可能是由於零碎性質,他的回憶錄。

From Nehemiah's own account of his conduct it may be gathered that he was an adroit politician, a wary leader and soldier, and a skilful organizer, though not free from pedantry and fanaticism; and it is probable that Ben Sira, in naming him after Zerubbabel as one of those to whom the Jews owed their restoration and reconstitution as a nation, only does him justice.從尼希米記自己到他的行為可能是收集,他是一個熟練的政治家,一個謹慎的領導人和士兵,以及嫻熟的組織者,雖然沒有擺脫學究氣和狂熱;並很可能本特希拉,他在命名後Zerubbabel作為其中的一個猶太人的人欠他們的恢復和重建作為一個國家,不僅他繩之以法。 For without walls Jerusalem could not, according to ancient ideas, have ranked as a place of importance, and the measure, of which there is an obscure mention (xi. 1), of obtaining a resident population fitted for its size, by drawing lots, would also do much toward restoring its former grandeur.對於無牆耶路撒冷不能根據古代的思想,已被列為一個地方的重要性,並採取措施,其中有一個不起眼的提( xi. 1 ) ,獲得居民適合其規模,以抽籤的方式,也將做對恢復其前莊嚴肅穆。 His name was, however, not popular with the tradition which has come down in the Talmuds; but in that which is preserved in the Second Book of Maccabees many services are attributed to him of which the Bible knows nothing.他的名字,但是,不喜歡的傳統已經落魄Talmuds ;但在這是保存在第二卷馬加比許多服務是由於他的聖經一無所知。 Among these are the miraculous production of fire, celebrated by a feast called "Naphthar" (II Macc. i. 36); the compilation of a sacred library (ib. ii. 13); and even the building of the Temple and the altar (ib. verse 18).其中有奇蹟般的生產消防,慶祝一個節日叫做“ Naphthar ” (二Macc 。一36 ) ;彙編的一項神聖的圖書館( ib.二。 13 ) ;甚至建設的廟和祭壇( ib.詩18 ) 。 These statements are not worthy of credit; and it is evident that Nehemiah's personality was overshadowed by that of Ezra, whose services, though less brilliant, were more lasting.EGHDSM這些陳述是不值得的信貸;和顯而易見的是,尼希米記的個性被掩蓋了的以斯拉,他們的服務,儘管不那麼輝煌,更lasting.EGHDSM

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Nehemiah is identified in one haggadah with Zerubbabel, the latter name being considered an epithet of Nehemiah and as indicating that he was born at Babylon ("Zera'+ Babel"; Sanh. 38a).尼希米記中指明的一個哈加達與Zerubbabel ,後者的名字正在考慮一個修飾語記和作為,表明他出生在巴比倫( “ Zera ' +通天塔” ; Sanh 。 38A條) 。 With Ezra, he marks the spring-time in the national history of Judaism (Cant. R. ii. 12).與以斯拉,他標誌著春天在國家歷史上的猶太教( Cant.河二。 12 ) 。 A certain mishnah is declared by the Rabbis to have originated in the school of Nehemiah (Shab. 123b).某米示拿是宣布拉比有來自學校的尼希米記( Shab. 123b ) 。 Still, Nehemiah is blamed by the Rabbis for his seemingly boastful expression, "Think upon me, my God, for good" (Neh. v. 19, xiii. 31), and for his disparagement of his predecessors (ib. v. 15), among whom was Daniel.儘管如此,尼希米記是由拉比說,他似乎嘐言論, “想想我,我的上帝,為好” ( Neh.五, 19日,十三。 31 ) ,和他的蔑視他的前任( ib.訴15 ) ,其中是丹尼爾。 The Rabbis think that these two faults were the reason that this book is not mentioned under its own name, but forms part of the Book of Ezra (Sanh. 93b).的拉比認為,這兩個斷層的原因,這本書沒有提到在自己的名字,但組成部分以斯拉記( Sanh. 93b ) 。 According to BB 15a Nehemiah completed the Book of Chronicles, which was written by Ezra.WBM Sel.據至BB 15A條尼希米記完成了預訂的編年史,它的作者是Ezra.WBM服務器。

Emil G. Hirsch, David Samuel Margoliouth, Wilhelm Bacher, M. Seligsohn埃米爾赫斯基灣,大衛塞繆爾Margoliouth ,威廉巴切爾先生Seligsohn

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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