Book of Ezekiel以西結書

General Information 一般信息

The Book of Ezekiel in the Old Testament of the Bible is one of the books of the Major Prophets.該以西結書在舊約聖經是一本書的主要先知。 Its name is drawn from Ezekiel, a priest - prophet who lived in Jerusalem and was one of the Jews deported by Nebuchadnezzar II to Babylon at the beginning of the 6th century BC.它的名字是取自厄澤克爾,一名神父-先知誰住在耶路撒冷,是一個猶太人驅逐到巴比倫尼布甲尼撒二世開始的時候,公元前6世紀。 The book is divided into three parts: (1) the threats against Judah and Jerusalem before the fall of Jerusalem (chaps. 1 - 24); the threats against foreign nations (chaps. 25 - 32); and (3) promises for the future restoration of Israel and the Temple (chaps. 33 - 48).這本書分為三部分: ( 1 )的威脅和耶路撒冷猶太垮台前耶路撒冷(第1 - 24 ) ;對外國的威脅,聯合國(第25 - 32 ) ;和( 3 )承諾的將來恢復以色列和寺(第33 - 48 ) 。

The Book of Ezekiel describes the prophet's many visions and symbolic actions with vivid literary imagery.該以西結書描述先知的許多看法和象徵性的行動,生動的文學形象。 The following well - known passages demonstrate the author's extraordinary imagination and gift for allegory: the vision of Yahweh's chariot (chap. 1); Ezekiel's symbolic acts of eating the scroll (2:1 - 3:15) and shaving his hair and beard (5:1 - 4); the sword of God's wrath (21); the allegory of the rusty pot (24:1 - 14); the lament over Egypt (31 - 32); and the vision of the dry bones (37:1 - 14).下列以及-已知段落表現出作者的非凡的想像力和禮物寓言:遠景耶和華的戰車(第一章) ;厄澤克爾的象徵行為吃滾動( 2:1 - 3:15 )和剃須他的頭髮和鬍鬚( 5:1 - 4 ) ;劍上帝的憤怒( 21 ) ;的寓言的生鏽的鍋( 24:1 - 14 ) ;的悲嘆埃及( 31 - 32 ) ;和遠見幹骨頭( 37 : 1 - 14 ) 。

Written during the Babylonian Captivity (586 - 38 BC), the book links preexilic Israel and the Judaism of the restoration.在巴比倫書面圈養( 586 - 38年) ,這本書的聯繫preexilic以色列和猶太教的恢復。 Ezekiel stressed the interior qualities of religion, as the earlier prophets had, but in the manner of later writers he looked to the Temple and to cultic observances.厄澤克爾強調內部素質的宗教,與先前發表的先知了,但在稍後的方式作家,他期待寺和邪教紀念活動。 He described life in exile and preached a message of hope, striving to sustain his fellow deportees in their faith and traditions.他說,流亡生活,並宣揚一個希望的信息,努力保持他的同胞驅逐在其信仰和傳統。 This message culminates in the final vision of the temple in the new Jerusalem and the restoration of Israel.此消息在決賽中達到最高潮設想,在新的廟宇耶路撒冷和以色列恢復。

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Bibliography 參考書目
W Eichrodt, Ezekiel: A Commentary (1970); P Fairbain, Ezekiel (1988); H Jacobson, The Exagogue of Ezekiel (1983); RW Klein, Ezekiel (1988). W Eichrodt ,厄澤克爾:評注( 1970年) ; P Fairbain ,以西結書( 1988年) ; H雅各布森,該Exagogue的厄澤克爾( 1983年) ; RW光碟克萊恩,厄澤克爾( 1988年) 。


Book of Ezekiel以西結書

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Denunciation of Judah and Israel (1-24)退出猶太和以色列( 1月24日)
  2. Oracles against foreign nations (25-32)甲骨文對外國國家( 25-32 )
  3. The future restoration of Israel (33-48)將來恢復以色列( 33-48段)


Eze'kiel

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Ezekiel, God will strengthen.以西結書,上帝會加強。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Eze'kiel書Eze'kiel

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Book of Ezewkiel consists mainly of three groups of prophecies.書Ezewkiel主要包括三組的預言。 After an account of his call to the prophetical office (1-3:21), Ezekiel (1) utters words of denunciation against the Jews (3:22-24), warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in opposition to the words of the false prophets (4:1-3).後到他的呼籲預言辦公室( 1-3:21 ) ,以西結書( 1 )行使的話退出對猶太人( 3:22-24 ) ,警告他們的某些破壞耶路撒冷,反對話假先知( 4:1-3 ) 。 The symbolical acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem would be reduced are described in ch.在象徵性的行為,其中四肢的耶路撒冷將減少說明在CH 。 4,5, show his intimate acquaintance with the Levitical legislation. 4,5 ,查看他的親密朋友的Levitical立法。 (See Ex. 22:30; Deut. 14:21; Lev. 5:2; 7:18,24; 17:15; 19:7; 22:8, etc.) (2.) Prophecies against various surrounding nations: against the Ammonites (Ezek. 25:1-7), the Moabites (8-11), the Edomites (12-14), the Philistines (15-17), Tyre and Sidon (26-28), and against Egypt (29-32). (3.) (見惠。 22:30 ; Deut 。 14時21分;列夫。五點02分; 7:18,24 ; 17:15 ; 19點07分, 22時08分,等等) ( 2 。 )預言打擊各種周邊國家:對菊石( Ezek. 25:1-7 )中,莫亞比特人( 8月11日) ,在Edomites ( 12月14日) ,是非利士人( 15-17 ) ,提爾和西頓( 26-28 ) ,以及對埃及( 29-32 ) 。 ( 3 。 )

Prophecies delivered after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar: the triumphs of Israel and of the kingdom of God on earth (Ezek. 33-39); Messianic times, and the establishment and prosperity of the kingdom of God (40;48).預言交付後銷毀耶路撒冷尼布甲尼撒:的勝利對以色列王國的上帝在地球上( Ezek. 33-39 ) ;彌賽亞次,並建立和繁榮的神的國( 40 ; 48 ) 。 The closing visions of this book are referred to in the book of Revelation (Ezek. 38=Rev. 20:8; Ezek. 47:1-8=Rev. 22: 1,2).截止遠景這本書所提到的啟示錄( Ezek. 38 =牧師二十時08 ;結。 47:1-8 =牧師22 : 1,2 ) 。 Other references to this book are also found in the New Testament.其他提到這本書也發現在新約。 (Comp. Rom. 2:24 with Ezek. 36:2; Rom. 10:5, Gal. 3:12 with Ezek. 20:11; 2 Pet. 3:4 with Ezek. 12:22.) It may be noted that Daniel, fourteen years after his deportation from Jerusalem, is mentioned by Ezekiel (14:14) along with Noah and Job as distinguished for his righteousness, and some five years later he is spoken of as pre-eminent for his wisdom (28:3). ( Comp.光碟。 2時24分與結。 36:2 ;光盤。 10:5 ,半乳糖。 3點12分與結。 20點11 ; 2寵物。 3時04分與結。 12:22 。 )可以指出,丹尼爾,十四年後,他被驅逐來自耶路撒冷,是提到厄澤克爾( 14時14分)一起工作,挪亞和他的義尊敬,有些五年之後,他談到,作為傑出的智慧( 28 : 3 ) 。

Ezekiel's prophecies are characterized by symbolical and allegorical representations, "unfolding a rich series of majestic visions and of colossal symbols." There are a great many also of "symbolcal actions embodying vivid conceptions on the part of the prophet" (4:1-4; 5:1-4; 12:3-6; 24:3-5; 37:16, etc.) "The mode of representation, in which symbols and allegories occupy a prominent place, gives a dark, mysterious character to the prophecies of Ezekiel. They are obscure and enigmatical. A cloudy mystery overhangs them which it is almost impossible to penetrate. Jerome calls the book 'a labyrith of the mysteries of God.' It was because of this obscurity that the Jews forbade any one to read it till he had attained the age of thirty."以西結的預言的特點是象徵和寓言的陳述, “展現了豐富的一系列宏偉的遠景和巨大的象徵。 ”有許多還“ symbolcal行動體現了鮮明的概念是對先知” ( 4:1-4 ; 5:1-4 ; 12:3-6 ; 24:3-5 ; 37:16 ,等等) “模式的代表性,其中的符號和寓言中佔有突出的地位,使一個黑暗,神秘的性質預言厄澤克爾。它們是掩蓋和陰陽怪氣。多雲神秘懸他們這幾乎是不可能的滲透。傑爾姆呼籲書'一labyrith的奧秘上帝。 '這是因為這個默默無聞的猶太人禁止任何人以閱讀到他已年滿30 。 “ Ezekiel is singular in the frequency with which he refers to the Pentateuch (eg, Ezek. 27; 28:13; 31:8; 36:11, 34; 47:13, etc.).以西結書是唯一的頻率,他指的是摩西五(如結。 27 ; 28:13 ; 31:8 ; 36:11 , 34 ; 47:13 ,等等) 。 He shows also an acquaintance with the writings of Hosea (Ezek. 37:22), Isaiah (Ezek. 8:12; 29:6), and especially with those of Jeremiah, his older contemporary (Jer. 24:7, 9; 48:37).他還表明一個熟人的著作何西阿( Ezek. 37:22 ) ,以賽亞書( Ezek. 8點12 ; 29:6 ) ,特別是與那些耶利米,他的年齡較大的當代( Jer. 24:7 , 9 ; 48:37 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Ezekiel厄澤克爾

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God", or "whom God makes strong" (Ezek. i, 3; iii, 8), was the son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 BC, had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:12-16; cf. Ezekiel 33:21, 40:1).以西結書,他的名字, Yehézq'el標誌著“強是上帝” ,或“上帝讓誰強” ( Ezek.一, 3 ;三, 8 ) ,是布濟的兒子,是一名神職人員誰,在公元前598年,被驅逐與約阿希姆囚犯從耶路撒冷(列王紀下24:12-16 ;比照。厄澤克爾33:21 , 40:1 ) 。 With the other exiles he settled in Tell-Abib near the Chobar (Ezek. i,1; iii, 15) in Babylonia, and seems to have spent the rest of his life there.In the fifth year after the captivity of Joachim, and according to some, the thirtieth year of his life, Ezekiel received his call as a prophet (Ezek. i, 2, 4 etc) in the vision which he describes in the beginning of his prophecy (Ezek. i,4; iii, 15).與其他流亡者,他定居在告訴Abib附近的Chobar ( Ezek.一, 1 ;三, 15歲)的東風,並似乎已度過餘生there.In第五一年後,被關押的約阿希姆和據一些人來說, 30年的生命,厄澤克爾收到他的電話作為先知( Ezek.一,二,四等)的遠見,他描述了在開始他的預言( Ezek.一, 4 ;三, 15 ) 。 From Ezek.從結。 xxix, 17 it appears that he prophesied during at least twenty-two years. Ezekiel was called to foretell God's faithfulness in the midst of trials, as well as in the fulfilment of His promises.第29屆,第17 ,看來他預言在至少二十二年。厄澤克爾被稱為預言上帝的忠誠處於試驗,以及在履行其承諾。 During the first period of his career, he foretold the complete destruction of the kingdom of Juda, and the annihilation of the city and temple.在第一階段,他的職業生涯中,他預言的徹底破壞猶大王國,而毀滅的城市和寺廟。 After the fulfilment of these predictions, he was commanded to announce the future return from exile, the re-establishment of the people in their own country and, especially, the triumph of the Kingdom of the Messiah, the second David, so that the people would not abandon themselves to despair and perish as a nation, through contact with the Gentiles, whose gods had apparently triumphed over the God of Israel.在實現上述預測,他指揮宣布未來回報流放,重新建立人民在自己的國家,特別是勝利王國彌賽亞,第二大衛,讓人民群眾不會放棄自己的絕望和滅亡作為一個國家,通過與外邦人的神顯然戰勝了以色列的上帝。 This is the principal burden of Ezekiel's prophecy, which is divided into three parts.這是主要的負擔厄澤克爾的預言,這是分為三個部分。 After the introduction, the vision of the calling of the prophet (Ezek. i-iii, 21), the first part contains the prophecies against Juda before the fall of Jerusalem (Ezek. iii, 22-xxiv).推出後,遠見的要求先知( Ezek.一至三, 21歲) ,第一部分包含對猶大的預言垮台前耶路撒冷( Ezek. ㈢ , 22 XXIV )號決議。 In this part the prophet declares the hope of saving the city, the kingdom, and the temple to be vain, and announces the approaching judgment of God upon Juda.在這部分先知宣告希望拯救城市,英國和寺廟是徒勞的,並宣布接近上帝的判決後,猶大。 This part may be subdivided into five groups of prophecies.這部分還可以再分為五組的預言。

After a second revelation, in which God discloses to the prophet His course of action (iii, 22-27), the prophet foretells by symbolic acts (iv, v) and in words (vi-vii), the siege and capture of Jerusalem, and the banishment of Juda.經過第二啟示,在上帝的先知披露他的行動方針(三22-27 ) ,先知預言的象徵性的行為(四,五) ,並在口頭上(六至七) ,圍困和佔領耶路撒冷和流放的猶大。

In a prophetic vision, in the presence of the elders of Israel, God reveals to him the cause of these punishments.在先知的遠見,在在場的長老以色列,上帝向他揭示的原因這些懲罰。 In spirit he witnesses the idolatry practiced in and near the temple (viii); God commands that the guilty be punished and the faithful be spared (ix); God's majesty departs from the temple (x), and also, after the announcement of guilt and punishment, from the city.證人的精神,他的偶像,並實行觀音廟附近(八) ;上帝的命令,該犯被判處並忠實不能倖免(九) ;上帝陛下背離寺( 10 ) ,而且,公佈後認罪和處罰,從城市。 With this the judgment which the prophet communicates to the exiles ends (xi).這一判決是先知傳達給流亡結束(十一) 。

In the third group (xii-xix) many different prophecies are brought together, whose sole connection is the relation they bear to the guilt and punishment of Jerusalem and Juda.第三組( 12 - 19 )許多不同的預言正在匯集,其唯一的關係方面,他們承擔的罪責和懲罰耶路撒冷和猶大。 Ezekiel prophesies by symbolic actions the exile of the people, the flight of Sedecias, and the devastation of the land (xii, 1-20). Then follow Divine revelations regarding belief in false prophecies, and disbelief in the very presence of true prophecy.厄澤克爾prophesies的象徵性行動,流亡的人,飛行的Sedecias ,和破壞的土地(十二, 1月20日) 。然後,按照神的啟示就相信虛假的預言,並相信在非常真實的存在的預言。 This was one of the causes of the horrors (xiii, 21-xiv, 11), to be visited upon the remnant of the inhabitants of Jerusalem (xiv, 12-23).這是一個根源的恐怖( 13 , 21 - 14 , 11 ) ,要訪問的殘餘居民的耶路撒冷(十四, 12月23日) 。 The prophet likens Jerusalem to the dead wood of the vine, which is destined for the fire (xv); in an elaborate denunciation he represents Juda as a shameless harlot, who surpasses Samaria and Sodom in malice (xvi), and in a new simile, he condemns King Sedecias (xvii).先知把耶路撒冷的枯木的藤蔓,這是注定的火災( XV )號決議;在精心退出他所代表猶大作為一個無恥妓女,誰超過薩馬利亞和索多瑪的惡意( XVI )號,並在新的明喻他譴責國王Sedecias (十七) 。 After a discourse on the justice of God (xviii), there follows a further lamentation over the princes and the people of Juda (xix).經過討論司法上帝(十八) ,有如下進一步悲嘆的王子和人民的猶大(十九) 。

In the presence of the elders the prophet denounces the whole people of Israel for the abominations they practiced in Egypt, in the Wilderness, and in Canaan (xx).在場的長老先知譴責以色列全體人民的惡劣行為,他們實行的埃及,在曠野,在迦南(二十) 。 For these Juda shall be consumed by fire, and Jerusalem shall be exterminated by the sword (xxi).對於這些猶大須消費火,耶路撒冷應滅絕劍( XXI )號決議。 Abominable is the immorality of Jerusalem (xxii), but Juda is more guilty than Israel has ever been (xxiii).可惡的是不道德的耶路撒冷( 22 ) ,但更有罪猶大比以色列從未(二十三) 。

On the day on which the siege of Jerusalem began, the prophet represents, under the figure of the rusty pot, what was to befall the inhabitants of the city.在這一天的包圍耶路撒冷開始,先知代表,根據數字的生鏽的鍋,什麼是降臨居民的城市。 On the occasion of the death of his wife, God forbids him to mourn openly, in order to teach the exiles that they should be willing to lose that which is dearest to them without grieving over it (xxiv).為紀念他妻子去世,上帝禁止他悼念公開,以便教導流亡者,他們應該願意失去這是他們最親愛的巨大悲痛它沒有(二十四) 。

In the second part (xxv-xxxii), are gathered together the prophecies concerning the Gentiles.在第二部分( 25 -三十二) ,都聚集在一起的預言關於外邦人。 He takes, first of all, the neighbouring peoples who had been exalted through the downfall of Juda, and who had humiliated Israel.他考慮,首先是鄰國人民崇高誰已通過倒台猶大,誰羞辱了以色列。 The fate of four of these, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Edomites, and the Philistines, is condensed in chapter xxv.命運的四個其中,菊石,是莫亞比特人的Edomites和非利士人,是凝聚章二十五。 He treats more at length of Tyre and its king (xxxvi-xxviii,19), after which he casts a glance at Sidon (xxviii, 20-26).他把更多的時間在輪胎和國王(三十六,二十八, 19 ) ,此後,他投下了一眼西頓(二十八, 20-26 ) 。 Six prophecies against Egypt follow, dating from different years (xxix-xxxii. The third part (xxxiii-xlviii), is occupied with the Divine utterances on the subject of Israel's restoration. As introduction, we have a dissertation from the prophet, in his capacity of authorized champion of the mercy and justice of God, after which he addresses himself to those remaining in Juda, and to the perverse exiles (xxxiii). The manner in which God will restore His people is only indicated in a general way. The Lord will cause the evil shepherds to perish; He will gather in, guide, and feed the sheep by means of the second David, the Messiah (xxxiv).六預言後續對埃及的歷史可以追溯到不同年份( xxix-xxxii.第三部分(三十三- XLVIII )號決議,是被佔領的神聖話語的主題以色列恢復。介紹,我們有一個論文從先知,在他的能力核定冠軍的憐憫和正義的上帝,他的地址後,自己留在猶大,和有害的流亡者(三十三) 。方式上帝將恢復他的人只是表示在一般如此。上帝會導致邪惡牧羊人以亡;他將聚集在好,引導好,飼料羊通過第二大衛,彌賽亞(三十四) 。

Though Mount Seir shall remain a waste, Israel shall return unto its own.雖然山Seir應保持一種浪費,以色列應歸還給自己的。 There God will purify His people, animate the nation with a new spirit, and re-establish it in its former splendour for the glory of His name (xxxv-xxxvii). Israel, though dead, shall rise again, and the dry bones shall be covered with flesh and endowed with life before the eyes of the prophet.有上帝會淨化他的人民,激勵民族精神以新的,並重新確立它在其前輝煌的榮耀,他的名字(三十五,三十七) 。以色列,雖然死了,應再次上升,並應幹骨包括與肉體和賦予生命面前先知。 Ephraim and Juda shall, under the second David, be united into one kingdom, and the Lord shall dwell in their midst (xxxvii).以法蓮和猶大應根據第二大衛,團結成一個王國,與上帝應住在他們中間( XXXVII )號決議。 The invincibleness and indestructibility of the restored kingdom are then symbolically presented in the war upon Gog, his inglorious defeat, and the annihilation of his armies (xxxviii-xxxix).該invincibleness和indestructibility英國的恢復,然後象徵性地提出了在戰爭後Gog ,他的不光彩的失敗,並消滅他的軍隊(三十八,三十九) 。 In the last prophetic vision, God shows the new temple (xl-xliii), the new worship (xliii-xlvi), the return to their own land, and the new division thereof among the twelve tribes (xlvii-xlviii), as a figure of His foundation of a kingdom where He shall dwell among His people, and where He shall be served in His tabernacle according to strict rules, by priests of His choice, and by the prince of the house of David.在過去的先知遠見,顯示了新的上帝廟(儀- XLIII )號,新的崇拜(四十三- XLVI )號,返回他們自己的土地上,新科中有十二個部族(四十七- XLVIII )號決議,作為一個數字是他的基金會在英國,他應住在他的人民,而他應在他的幕按照嚴格的規則,由神父自己選擇,和親王的房子大衛。

From this review of the contents of the prophecy, it is evident that the prophetic vision, the symbolic actions and examples, comprise a considerable portion of the book.這項審查的內容預言,顯而易見的是,預言設想,象徵性的行動和例子,包括相當一部分的書。 The completeness of the description of the vision, action and similes, is one of the many causes of the obscurity of the book of Ezekiel. It is often difficult to distinguish between what is essential to the matter represented, and what serves merely to make the image more vivid.完整的說明遠見,行動和線蟲,是香港其中一個原因默默無聞的書厄澤克爾。往往很難區分哪些是必不可少的問題代表,以及服務僅僅是為了使形象更生動。 On this account it happens that, in the circumstantial descriptions, words are used, the meaning of which, inasmuch as they occur in Ezekiel only, is not determined. Because of this obscurity, a number of copyist mistakes have crept into the text, and that at an early date, since the Septuagint has some of them in common with the earliest Hebrew text we have.此帳戶的發生,在偶然的描述,文字的使用,其中的含義,因為它們發生在厄澤克爾只,也無法確定。由於這種默默無聞,一些抄寫錯誤已經悄悄進入了文字,該早日,因為七十有一些人在與最早的希伯來文我們。 The Greek version, however, includes several readings which help to fix the meaning.希臘版本,然而,包括一些數據,以幫助修復的含義。 The genuineness of the book of Ezekiel is generally conceded.的真實性,這本書的厄澤克爾普遍承認。 Some few consider chapters xl-xlviii to be apocryphal, because the plan there described in the building of the temple was not followed, but they overlook the fact that Ezekiel here gives a symbolic representation of the temple, that was to find spiritual realization in God's new kingdom.一些很少考慮章節儀-四十八是未經證實的,因為計劃中描述的有建設,使該廟沒有得到遵循,但他們忽略了一個事實,即厄澤克爾這裡給出一個象徵性的代表性的寺院,這是尋找精神實現上帝的新的王國。 The Divine character of the prophecies was recognized as early as the time of Jesus the son of Sirach (Eccles. xlix, 10, 11).神的預言性質的認識,早在耶穌時的兒子Sirach ( Eccles. xlix , 10 , 11 ) 。 In the New Testament, there are no verbatim references, but allusions to the prophecy and figures taken from it are prominent.在新約,也沒有逐字引用,但暗示的預言和數字取自它是突出。 Compare St. John x etc. with Ezek.比較聖約翰x等與結。 xxxiv, 11 etc.; St. Matthew xxii, 32, with Ezek.三十四, 11等;聖馬太二十二, 32歲,與結。 xvii, 23.十七, 23 。 In particular St. John, in the Apocalypse, has often followed Ezekiel.特別是聖約翰的啟示,往往遵循厄澤克爾。 Compare Apoc.比較Apoc 。 xviii-xxi with Ezek. xxvii, xxxviii etc., xlvii etc.十八,二十一世紀的結。二十七,三十八等四十七等

Publication information Written by Jos. Schets.出版信息作者聖何塞Schets 。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.轉錄由Sean海侖。天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Book of Ezekiek書Ezekiek

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

"Dooms" of the Nations. “注定”的聯合國。

The Composition.組成。

Style.風格。

Ezekiel's book is one of the most original in the sacred literature of Israel.以西結書是一個最原始的神聖的文學以色列。 Its principal features are its systematic arrangement and homogeneity.其主要特點是它的制度安排和同質性。 The book falls into two principal parts, i.-xxiv.這本書分為兩個主要部分,一,二十四。 and xxv.-xlviii., corresponding to the two principal themes of Ezekiel's prophetic preaching-repentance and salvation, judgment and restoration.和xxv. -四十八。 ,對應的兩個主要專題厄澤克爾的先知講道,懺悔和救贖,判斷和恢復。 It is introduced by a vision, i.它是由一個遠景,一 1-iii. 1 ,三。 15. 15 。 At the River Chebar the glory of the Lord appears to Ezekiel on the chariot of the cherubim and consecrates him a prophet, sent to a "rebellious house" to preach only wailing, sighing, and misery.在河Chebar榮耀上帝似乎厄澤克爾的戰車上的革魯賓和尊崇他是先知,發送到“叛逆之家”鼓吹只有哭,嘆了一口氣,和痛苦。 Chaps.章。 iii. 16-xxiv.三。 16 - 24 。 27 show the prophet fulfilling this mission. 27顯示先知履行這一使命。 Here Ezekiel is merely a "reprover" (iii. 26); he confronts the people as if he were not one of them; he shows no emotion, not a suggestion of pity, throughout the delivery of his dreadful tidings.此基爾只是一個“ reprover ” ( iii. 26 ) ;他面對人民,猶如他是不是其中之一,他沒有顯示出感情,而不是建議,可惜,在整個運送他可怕的消息。 He symbolizes the siege and conquest of Jerusalem, the leading of the people into exile (iv.-v.); on all the hills of Israel idolatry is practised (vi.), and therefore "the end" will come (vii.).他象徵著圍困和征服耶路撒冷,領先的人流亡( iv.-v. ) ;對所有的山丘,以色列崇拜習俗( vi. ) ,因此, “結束”將( vii. ) 。 The Temple is defiled with abominations of every description; therefore the glory of the Lord departs from it and from the city, and dedicates them to flames (viii-xi.).寺廟玷污與惡劣的每描述;因此榮耀上帝背離,並從市,致力於他們火焰( viii-xi. ) 。 Ezekiel represents the final catastrophe symbolically; judgment will not tarry, but approaches to immediate fulfilment (xii.).以西結書的最後災難的象徵;判決不會耽擱,但辦法立即履行( xii. ) 。 No one will mount into the breach.沒有人將其掛載到違約。 On the contrary, prophets and prophetesses will lead the people completely astray (xiii.); even a true prophet could not avail now, as God will not be questioned by idolaters.相反,先知和prophetesses帶領人民完全誤入歧途( xiii. ) ;即使是真正的先知不能利用現在,上帝也不會受到質疑的拜偶像。

That the judgment is fully merited will be demonstrated by the godliness of the few who survive the catastrophe (xiv.).該判決是完全值得將所表現出的為數不多的敬虔誰生存災難( xiv. ) 。 Jerusalem is a useless vine, good only to be burned (xv.).耶路撒冷是一個無用的藤蔓,善只被燒毀( xv. ) 。 And thus it has ever been: Jerusalem has ever requited the mercies and benefits of the Lord with blackest ingratitude and shameless infidelity (xvi.). The ruling king, Zedekiah, particularly, has incurred the judgment through his perjury (xvii.).因此曾經:曾經requited耶路撒冷的憐憫和福利勳爵與黑暗忘恩負義和無恥的不忠( xvi. ) 。執政的國王, Zedekiah ,特別是已發生的判斷,通過他的偽證罪( xvii. ) 。 God rewards each one according to his deeds, and He will visit upon the heads of the present generation, not the sins of the fathers, but their own sins (xviii.).上帝獎勵每個人根據他的事蹟,他將訪問各國元首的一代,而不是罪過的父親,但他們自己的罪過( xviii. ) 。 Therefore the prophet is to sound a dirge over the downfall of royalty and the people (xix.).因此,先知是健全的輓歌的倒台版稅和人民( xix. ) 。 In an oration he once more brings before the people all the sins committed by them from the Exodus to the present time (xx.).他在演講之前,再次使所有的人民所犯下的罪孽他們逃亡到現在( xx. ) 。 Nebuchadnezzar approaches to execute the divine judgment (xxi.).尼布甲尼撒辦法執行神聖的判決( xxi. ) 。 Jerusalem is a city full of blood-guiltiness and impurity, all classes being equally debased (xxii.), and far lower than Samaria's (xxiii.).耶路撒冷是一座充滿了血液guiltiness和雜質,各階層具有同等庸俗( xxii. ) ,並遠遠低於撒馬利亞的( xxiii. ) 。 The city is a rusty kettle the impurities of which can be removed only by fire.城市是一個生鏽的水壺的雜質,可拆除,燒毀。 The exiles, who still boast of the sanctity and inviolability of Jerusalem, will be amazed by the news of its fall (xxiv.).流亡者,誰仍然誇耀的神聖和不可侵犯的耶路撒冷,將驚訝的消息秋季( xxiv. ) 。

"Dooms" of the Nations. “注定”的聯合國。

Then follows (xxv.-xxxii.) a group of threatening prophecies against seven foreign nations: the Ammonites (xxv. 1-7), Moabites (xxv. 8-11), Edomites (xxv. 12-14), Philistines (xxv. 15-17), Tyrenes (xxvi.-xxviii. 19), Zidonians (xxviii. 20-23), andEgyptians (xxix.-xxxii.).然後如下( xxv. -三十二。 )一組威脅的預言對7名外籍聯合國:在菊石( xxv. 1-7 ) ,莫亞比特人( xxv. 8月11日) , Edomites ( xxv. 12月14日) ,非利士人( 25 。 15-17 ) , Tyrenes ( xxvi. -二十八。 19 ) , Zidonians ( xxviii. 20日至23日) , andEgyptians ( xxix. -三十二。 ) 。 This division belongs to the promise of salvation as detailed in xxviii.該司所屬的承諾救贖詳見二十八。 24-26; for it refers to the punishment visited on the neighboring nations because of their aggressions against Judah. 24-26 ;因為它指的是懲罰訪問的周邊國家,因為它們侵略猶太。 It also indicates that Israel may yet be restored to fulfil its sacred mission, a mission which can be accomplished only when the nation lives in security.報告還指出,以色列還可能恢復履行其神聖的使命,任務是可以完成的國家只有當生命安全。 Ch.總。 xxxiii.三十三。 announces the downfall of Jerusalem, and the prophet now freely speaks words of consolation and promise to the people.宣布倒台耶路撒冷,先知現在講的話的自由安慰並承諾於人民。 The shepherds hitherto placed over Israel have thriven, but have neglected their flock, which God will now take under His protection, appointing a new David as a shepherd over it (xxxiv.).牧羊人迄今放在以色列thriven ,但忽視了他們的羊群,上帝現在就在他的保護,任命一位新的大衛作為一個牧羊人權( xxxiv. ) 。 The Edomites, who have seized certain portions of the Holy Land, will be annihilated (xxxv.); Israel will be restored (xxxvi.); that is, Judah and Joseph will be merged into one (xxxvii.).該Edomites ,誰搶占某些部分聖地,將全軍覆沒( xxxv. ) ;以色列將恢復( xxxvi. ) ;也就是說,猶太和約瑟夫將合併成一個( xxxvii. ) 。 The last on-slaught of the pagan world against the newly established kingdom of God will be victoriously repelled by the Almighty Himself, who will manifest His sanctity among the nations (xxxviii.-xxxix.).在過去的slaught的異教世界對新成立的神的國將勝利擊退萬能自己,誰將戒律表示他的神聖的國家之一( xxxviii. -三十九。 ) 。 The final division, xl.-xlviii., embodying the celebrated vision of the new Temple and the new Jerusalem, contains a description of the future era of salvation with its ordinances and conditions, which are epitomized in the final sentence: "And the name of the city from that day shall be, The Lord is there" (xlviii. 35).最後司xl. -四十八。 ,體現慶祝活動的設想,新寺和新的耶路撒冷,其中說明了未來時代的救贖其條例和條件,這是體現在最後一句: “和名稱這個城市從那天起,應當是有主“ ( xlviii. 35 ) 。

The Composition.組成。

The evident unity of the whole work leaves only one question open in regard to its authorship: Did Ezekiel, as some maintain, write the whole book at one time, or is it a homogeneous compilation of separate parts written at different times?顯然團結全體工作只有一個問題公開關於其作者:發布厄澤克爾,一些維護,寫整本書在同一時間,或者是一個單獨的均勻彙編書面部分在不同的時間? A number of pieces were dated by the prophet himself, in accordance with the number of years after the abduction of Jehoiachin: i.一些作品的日期是由先知本人,根據數年後,綁架Jehoiachin :一 1, in the fifth; viii. 1 ,在第五;八。 1, in the sixth; xx. 1 ,在第六;二十。 1, in the seventh; xxiv. 1 ,在第七;二十四。 1, in the ninth; xxix. 1 ,在第九屆,第29屆。 1, in the tenth; xxvi. 1 ,在第十屆;二十六。 1, xxx. 1 ,三十。 20, xxxi. 20日,三十一。 1, xxxiii. 1 ,三十三。 21 (LXX.), in the eleventh; xxxii. 21 ( LXX. ) ,在第十一屆;三十二。 1, 19 and xxxiii. 1 ,第19條和三十三。 21 (Hebr.), in the twelfth; xl. 1, in the twenty-fifth; and xxix. 21 ( Hebr. ) ,在第十二屆;儀。 1 ,在第二十五;和二十九。 17, in the twenty-seventh year. The last-mentioned passage (xxix. 17-21) is evidently an appendix to the already completed book; and the twenty-fifth year (572), the date of the important division xl.-xlviii., is probably the date when the work was completed. 17 ,在第二十七一年。最後提到的通道( xxix. 17-21 )顯然是一個附錄中已完成的圖書;和第二十五一年( 572 ) ,日期的重要司儀.-四十八。 ,可能是何時完成的工作。 If it were true, however, that the whole book was written at that time all previous dates would be merely literary embellishments, and this view is difficult because of the importance of the dating in several instances where the prophet claims to transcend ordinary human knowledge.如果這是真的,但是,整本書是寫在那個時候以前所有的日期將只是文學修飾,這種看法是困難的,因為的重要性,約會在一些情況下,先知索賠超越普通的人類知識。 Examples of such instances are: xi.這種情況的例子是:十一。 13, where Ezekiel at the Chebar is cognizant of the death of Pelatiah, the idolater, in Jerusalem; xxiv. 13日,在厄澤克爾在Chebar認識到死亡的Pelatiah的偶像崇拜者,在耶路撒冷;二十四。 2, where he knows the exact day on which the siege of Jerusalem will begin; and xxxiii. 2 ,在那裡他的確切知道這一天的包圍耶路撒冷將開始;和三十三。 21, where he predicts to a day the arrival of the messenger bearing tidings of the capture of Jerusalem. 21 ,在那裡他預測一天的到來信使消息的同時捕獲耶路撒冷。

Moreover, it can be shown from the contradictions which the various divisions of the Book of Ezekiel contain that they were written at different periods.此外,它可以顯示從矛盾的各個部門的以西結書載,他們寫在不同時期。 This is particularly true of the Messianic prophecy, which, although kept somewhat in the background in Ezekiel, is nevertheless directly expressed in xvii.尤其是這樣的彌賽亞的預言,雖然保持一定的背景厄澤克爾,仍然是直接體現在十七。 22-24, xxi. 22-24 , 21 。 32, xxxiv. 32 ,三十四。 23-24, xxxvii. 23-24 ,三十七。 22-24, and xxv. 22日至24日,和二十五。 14 (where Edom is referred to: "And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel"). 14 (其中以東被稱為: “和我會躺在我的報復時以東的手我國人民以色列” ) 。 In xl.-xlviii.-that grand panorama of the future-this feature has entirely disappeared.在xl. - xlviii. ,大全景說,未來的這一功能已完全消失。 There is still some reference to a prince, but his sole function is to defray from the people's taxes the expenses of worship; there is no longer room for a Messianic king.仍然有一定的參考,以王子,但他的唯一作用是,以支付從人民群眾的稅收開支的崇拜;不再有餘地救世主國王。 Nevertheless, Ezekiel permitted the earlier passages to remain.然而,厄澤克爾允許先前通道保持。 Even more significant is xxix.更重要的是第29屆。 17-21, which can be understood only as an appendix to the already complete book. 17日至21日,這是可以理解的只是作為一個附錄已經完成預訂。 In xxvi.-xxviii.在xxvi. -二十八。 Ezekiel had positively prophesied the capture and destruction of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, but after thirteen years of fruitless labor the latter had to raise the siege and to arrange terms of peace with the city.厄澤克爾預言了積極的捕捉和摧毀輪胎的尼布甲尼撒,但經過十三年的徒勞後者提高圍困和安排的和平與城市。 Thereupon, in the above-mentioned passage, Ezekiel promises Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar as an indemnity. Here, then, is an oracle the non-fulfilment, of which the prophet himself is destined to see.於是,在上述通道,厄澤克爾承諾埃及尼布甲尼撒作為補償。在這裡,然後,是Oracle公司的不履行,其中先知本人注定要見。 Yet he does not venture to change or to expunge it.然而,他並不風險改變或刪除它。 Incidentally it may be stated that the transmission of oracles of which the prophets themselves were doomed to see the non-fulfilment is the strongest proof that they regarded these as messages for which they were not personally responsible, and which, consequently, they did not venture to change; they regarded them as God's word, the responsibility for the non-fulfilment of which rested with God, not with themselves.順便可以說傳播神諭的先知自己是注定要見不履行是最強的證明,他們認為這些是信息,他們沒有親自負責,並且,因此,他們沒有風險改變;他們認為他們是上帝的話,責任不履行其中在於上帝,而不是自己。 In view of these facts it must be assumed that although Ezekiel completed his book in 572, he availed himself of earlier writings, which he allowed to remain practically unchanged.鑑於這些事實必須假定,雖然厄澤克爾完成他的著作中的572 ,他利用自己以前的著作,他獲准留幾乎不變。

Style.風格。

Not only is the whole artistically arranged, but the separate parts are also distinguished by careful finish.不僅是藝術的整體安排,但單獨的部分,以示區別,也認真完成。 The well-defined and deliberate separation of prose and poetry is particularly conspicuous.在明確界定和蓄意分離散文和詩歌是特別突出。 The poetic passages are strictly rhythmical in form, while the didactic parts are written in pure, elegant prose.詩意嚴格節奏通道的形式,而教學的部分寫的是純粹的,優雅的散文。 The author prefers parables, and his use of them is always lucid.作者喜歡比喻,他利用這些始終是明晰的。 In xx. 49 he even makes his audience say: "Doth he not speak parables?" Very striking are the numerous symbolical actions by which the prophet illustrates his discourse.在二十。 49他甚至讓他的聽眾說: “ Doth他不會講寓言? ”非常突出的是採取行動的許多象徵其中先知表明他的話語。 Nine unique examples may be distinguished; indeed at the very beginning of his prophetic activity there are not fewer than four by which he describes the siege, capture, and destruction of Jerusalem and the banishment of the people (iv. and v.). 9個獨特的例子可以區分,實際上一開始時他的預言活動有不少於4名,其中他介紹了包圍,捕獲,摧毀耶路撒冷和流放的人( iv.和五) 。 The two in xii.這兩個在十二。 and the two in xxiv.和兩個在二十四。 refer to the same subject, while that in xxxvii.指的是同一主題,而在三十七。 refers to the future redemption.指的是未來的贖回。 Here, also, there is no question of mere literary embellishment, for Ezekiel undoubtedly actually performed the symbolic actions; indeed, he was the first to introduce symbolism into Hebrew literature, and therefore has been called the "father of apocalypse."在這裡,此外,也沒有問題,僅僅是文學點綴,無疑為厄澤克爾實際完成的象徵性的行動,實際上,他是第一個引入到希伯萊文學的象徵,因此被稱為“父親的啟示。 ” The picture of the chariot ("merkabah") in i., and the concluding division of xl.-xlviii., are full of deep symbolism; and, according to the Rabbis, neither should be read by any one younger than thirty.的圖片戰車( “ merkabah ” )在一,和結論司xl. -四十八。 ,充滿了深刻的象徵意義,以及根據拉比,既不應改為任何一個年齡小於30 。 The celebrated vision of Gog, the Prince of Rosh Meshech (AV "the chief princeof Meshech") and Tubal (xxxviii. and xxxix.), is also symbolical.著名遠景Gog ,王子羅斯艾Meshech (視聽“行政princeof Meshech ” )和輸卵管( xxxviii.和三十九。 ) ,也象徵。 The Book of Ezekiel shows throughout the touch of the scholar.該以西結書表明整個觸摸的學者。

The Talmud (Ḥag. 13a) relates that in consequence of the contradictions to the Torah contained in xl.-xlviii.猶太法典( Ḥag. 13A條)涉及的後果,在矛盾的律法載於xl. -四十八。 Ezekiel's book would have remained unknown had not Hananiah b.以西結書將一直下落不明沒有Hananiah灣 Hezekiah come to expound it. Hezekiah來闡述它。 Nevertheless it has never been appreciated as it deserves; and it is probably due to this fact that the text of the work has been transmitted in a particularly poor and neglected form. The Septuagint, however, affords an opportunity to correct many of the errors in the Hebrew text.儘管如此,它比以往任何時候都值得讚賞,因為它,它可能是由於這一事實的案文的工作已轉交了特別是貧窮和被忽視的形式。的譯本,但是,提供了一個機會,以糾正許多錯誤希伯來文。

The statement of Josephus ("Ant." x. 5, § 1) that Ezekiel wrote two books is entirely enigmatical.聲明約瑟夫( “螞蟻” 。十, 5條第1款)的厄澤克爾寫了兩本書是完全陰陽怪氣。 The doubt cast upon the authenticity of the book by Zunz, Seinecke, and Vernes has rightly never been taken seriously; but the authorship of several parts, such as iii. 16b-21, x.的疑問時投下的真實性,本書由Zunz , Seinecke ,並Vernes正確從來沒有認真考慮,但作者的一些地區,如三。 16B款- 21 ,十 8-17, xxiv. 8月17日,二十四。 22-23, and xxvii. 22日至23日,和二十七。 9b-25a, has, with more or less justification, sometimes been questioned.第9b - 25A條,已或多或少的理由,有時受到質疑。 That the book consists of two divergent versions compiled by an editor, a hypothesis recently advanced by Kraetzschmar, has yet to be demonstrated.這本書由兩個不同的版本由一名編輯,假設最近先進的Kraetzschmar ,還有待證明。

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Heinrich Cornill埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾海因里希Cornill

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

H. Ewald, Die Propheten des Alten Bundes, 1841; F.閣下埃瓦爾德,模具Propheten萬老的Bundes , 1841年;樓 Hitzig, Der Prophet Ezechiel, 1847; SD Luzzatto, Perush 'al Yirmeyah we-Yehezeḳel, 1876; R.希齊格報先知Ezechiel , 1847 ;的SD Luzzatto , Perush '基地Yirmeyah我們, Yehezeḳel , 1876年;河 Smend, Der Prophet Ezechiel, 1880; Cornill, Das Buch des Propheten Ezechiel, 1886; DH Müller, Ezechielstudien, 1895; AB Davidson, The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, Cambridge, 1896; A. Smend報先知Ezechiel , 1880年; Cornill ,達斯圖書公司Propheten Ezechiel , 1886年;鮬穆勒, Ezechielstudien , 1895年;公司戴維森,這本書的先知以西結書,劍橋, 1896年;答: Bertholet, Das Buch Hezekiel, 1897; CH Toy, The Book of Ezekiel in Hebrew, 1899; idem, The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, new Eng. Bertholet ,達斯圖書Hezekiel , 1897年;甲烷玩具,以西結書在希伯來文, 1899年;同上,這本書的先知以西結書,新的工程。 transl.譯。 with notes, 1899; R.與債券, 1899年;河 Kraetzschmar, Das Buch Ezechiel, 1900.EGHKHC Kraetzschmar ,達斯圖書Ezechiel , 1900.EGHKHC


Ezekiel厄澤克爾

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

His Influence.他的影響力。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The Prophet's Spiritual Mission.先知的精神使命。

His Individualistic Tendency.他的個性化趨勢。

His Description of God's Throne.他描述上帝的王座。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The Dead Revived by Ezekiel.死者復甦厄澤克爾。

The Book of Ezekiel.該以西結書。

His Influence.他的影響力。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Concerning the life of Ezekiel there are but a few scattered references contained in the book bearing his name.關於生活,但厄澤克爾有零散所載的參考資料書同時他的名字。 He was the son of Buzi, a priest of Jerusalem (Ezek. i. 3), and consequently a member of the Zadok family, As such he was among the aristocracy whom Nebuchadnezzar (597 BC), after the first capture of Jerusalem, carried off to be exiles in Babylonia (II Kings xxiv. 14).他的兒子布濟,一名神父的耶路撒冷( Ezek.一3 ) ,因此一個成員扎多克家族,因此他是貴族人尼布甲尼撒( 597年)之後,第一次捕捉的耶路撒冷,進行關閉將流亡在東風(二國王24 。 14 ) 。 Ezekiel therefore reckons the years from the abduction of Jehoiachin (Ezek. i. 2, xxxiii. 21, xl. 1).厄澤克爾因此認為這些年來從綁架Jehoiachin ( Ezek.一,二,三十三。 21日,儀。 1 ) 。 He lived among a colony of fellow sufferers in or near Tel-abib on the River Chebar (not the River Chaboras), which probably formed an arm of the extensive Babylonian network of canals (iii. 15).他生活中的一個殖民地研究員患者或其附近電話abib河Chebar (而不是河Chaboras ) ,這可能形成了一個部門的廣泛巴比倫網絡運河( iii. 15 ) 。 Ezekiel was married (xxiv. 16-18), and lived in his own house (iii. 24, viii. 1).厄澤克爾結婚( xxiv. 16日至18日) ,和住在自己的房子( iii. 24八。 1 ) 。 On the fifth day of the fourth month in the fifth year of his exile (Tammuz, 592 BC), he beheld on the banks of the Chebar the glory of the Lord, who consecrated him as His prophet (i. 1-iii. 13).第五天的第4個月的第五個年頭,他的流放(塔姆茲, 592年) ,他看到對銀行的Chebar的榮耀上帝,誰尊崇他為他的先知(一1至三。 13 ) 。 The latest date in his book is the first day of the first month in the twenty-seventh year of his exile (Nisan, 570); consequently, his prophecies extended over twenty-twoyears.最新的日期是在他的著作的第一天,第一個月在第二十七年他流亡(尼散月, 570 ) ;因此,他的預言延長了二十二年。 The elders of the exiles repeatedly visited him to obtain a divine oracle (viii., xiv., xx.).長老的流亡者屢次參拜他獲得神聖甲骨文( viii. ,十四。 ,二十。 ) 。 He exerted no permanent influence upon his contemporaries, however, whom he repeatedly calls the "rebellious house" (ii. 5, 6, 8; iii. 9, 26, 27; and elsewhere), complaining that although they flock in great numbers to hear him they regard his discourse as a sort of esthetic amusement, and fail to act in accordance with his words (xxxiii. 30-33).他沒有常任理事國施加影響他的同時代人,但是,他一再呼籲的“叛逆之家” (白介素5 , 6 , 8 ;三。 9 , 26 , 27 ;和其他地方) ,抱怨說,儘管他們的羊群到大量聽到他這些方面,他的話語作為一種審美娛樂,並沒有按照他的話( xxxiii. 30-33 ) 。 If the enigmatical date, "the thirtieth year" (i. 1), be understood to apply to the age of the prophet-and this view still has the appearance of probability-Ezekiel must have been born exactly at the time of the reform in the ritual introduced by Josiah.如果陰陽怪氣到目前為止, “ 30年” (一1 ) ,應理解為適用於年齡的先知和這種觀點仍然出現概率厄澤克爾必須是出生的時間正好在改革中儀式介紹了喬賽亞。 Concerning his death nothing is known.關於他的死亡沒有人知道。

Ezekiel occupies a distinct and unique position among the Hebrew Prophets.厄澤克爾佔有獨特地位的希伯來先知。 He stands midway between two epochs, drawing his conclusions from the one and pointing out the path toward the other. Through the destruction of the city and the Temple, the downfall of the state, and the banishment of the people the natural development of Israel was forcibly interrupted.他站在中間,兩個時代,利用他的結論之一,並指出了通向其他。通過銷毀城市和寺廟,垮台的國家,和流放的人的自然發展,以色列被迫中斷。 Prior to these events Israel was a united and homogeneous nation.這些事件之前,以色列是一個統一的和同質的國家。 True, it was characterized by a spirit totally unlike that of any other people; and the consciousness of this difference had ever been present in the best and noblest spirits of Israel.的確,它的特點是精神完全不同於任何其他人;和意識的這種差異過目前的最佳和最崇高的精神以色列。 The demands of state and people, however, had to be fulfilled, and to this end the monarchical principle was established.的要求,國家和人民,但是,必須履行,為此,君主的原則設立。 There is undoubtedly an element of truth in the opinion that the human monarchy was antagonistic to the dominion of God, and that the political life of Israel would tend to estrange the nation from its eternal spiritual mission.毫無疑問,一個內容真理認為,人類君主制對立的是上帝的統治,而且政治生活的以色列可能會疏遠其民族永恆的精神使命。 The prophecy of the pre-exilic period was compelled to take these factors into account, and ever addressed itself either to the people as a nation or to its leaders-king, princes, priests-and sometimes to a distinguished individual, such as Shebna, the minister of the royal house mentioned in Isa xxii.預言前放逐期間被迫考慮到這些因素,和以往任何時候都可以給自己的人民作為一個國家或其領導人,國王,王子,神父,有時一個傑出的個人,如Shebna ,部長王室中提到的赫伊薩二十二。 15-25; so that the opinion arose that the Prophets themselves were merely a sort of statesmen. 15-25 ;使輿論出現的先知本身只是一種政治家。

The Prophet's Spiritual Mission.先知的精神使命。

With the Exile, monarchy and state were annihilated, and a political and national life was no longer possible.與流亡,君主和國家的消滅,以及政治和國家生活中已不再可能。 In the absence of a worldly foundation it became necessary to build upon a spiritual one.由於沒有一個世俗的基礎,有必要借鑒的精神之一。 This mission Ezekiel performed by observing the signs of the time and by deducing his doctrines from them.這一任務所完成的觀測厄澤克爾的跡象的時候和他理論推導他們。 In conformity with the two parts of his book his personality and his preaching are alike twofold.符合兩個部分他的書他的個性和他的說教都是一樣的兩個方面。 The events of the past must be explained.過去的事件必須加以解釋。 If God has permitted His city and His Temple to be destroyed and His people to be led into exile, He has thereby betrayed no sign of impotency or weakness.如果上帝允許他的城市和他的廟被摧毀和他的人民被領導流亡,他已經從而背叛沒有跡象陽痿或弱點。 He Himself has done it, and was compelled to do it, because of the sins of the people of Israel, who misunderstood His nature and His will.他自己做了,並被迫這樣做,因為該罪的以色列人民,誰誤解了他的本性和意志。 Nevertheless, there is no reason to despair; for God does not desire the death of the sinner, but his reformation.然而,我們沒有理由絕望,因為上帝不希望死亡的罪人,但他的改革。 The Lord will remain the God of Israel, and Israel will remain His people.上帝將仍然是上帝對以色列和以色列將繼續他的人民。 As soon as Israel recognizes the sovereignty of the Lord and acts accordingly, He will restore the people, in order that they may fulfil their eternal mission and that He may truly dwell in the midst of them.只要以色列承認的主權和行為勳爵因此,他將恢復人民,使他們可在履行其永恆的使命,而且他可能真正住在他們中間。 This, however, can not be accomplished until every individual reforms and makes the will of the Lord his law.但是,這不能到每一個人,並提出改革的意願,他的主法。

His Individualistic Tendency.他的個性化趨勢。

Herein lies that peculiar individualistic tendency of Ezekiel which distinguishes him from all his predecessors.這就是這獨特的個人主義傾向厄澤克爾不同,他的所有前任。 He conceives it as his prophetic mission to strive to reach his brethren and compatriots individually, to follow them, and to win them back to God; and he considers himself personally responsible for every individual soul. Those redeemed were to form the congregation of the new Temple, and to exemplify by their lives the truth of the word that Israel was destined to become a "kingdom of priests" (Ex. xix. 6).他設想,他的預言它的使命,努力達到他的兄弟和同胞單獨跟隨他們,贏得他們回神,他認為自己親自負責每一個人的靈魂。那些被贖回,形成新的聚集寺,並體現了他們的生活的真理一詞,以色列是注定要成為一個“王國神父” (例如: 19 。 6 ) 。 Law and worship-these are the two focal points of Ezekiel's hope for the future.法律和宗教,這是兩個聯絡點厄澤克爾的對未來的希望。 The people become a congregation; the nation, a religious fraternity.人民成為眾的國家,一個宗教博愛。 Political aims and tasks no longer exist; and monarchy and state have become absorbed in the pure dominion of God.政治目標和任務,不再存在;和君主立憲制和國家已成為吸收純自治領上帝。 Thus Ezekiel has stamped upon post-exilic Judaism its peculiar character; and herein lies his unique religio-historical importance. Another feature of Ezekiel's personality is the pathological.因此厄澤克爾時已加蓋後放逐猶太教其獨特的性質;和這就是他獨特的宗教,歷史的重要性。另一個特點厄澤克爾的個性是病理。 With no other prophet are vision and ecstasy so prominent; and he repeatedly refers to symptoms of severe maladies, such as paralysis of the limbs and of the tongue (iii. 25 et seq.), from which infirmities he is relieved only upon the announcement of the downfall of Jerusalem (xxiv. 27, xxxiii. 22).沒有其他先知遠見和搖頭丸是如此突出,他一再提到的症狀嚴重的疾病,如癱瘓的肢體和舌( iii. 25起。 ) ,從其中的毛病,他唯一感到寬慰的消息的垮台耶路撒冷( xxiv. 27三十三。 22 ) 。 These statements are to be taken not figuratively, but literally; for God had here purposely ordained that a man subject to physical infirmities should become the pliant instrument of His will.EGHKHC His Description of God's Throne.這些聲明將採取不比喻,但實際上,上帝在這裡故意祝一名男子受身體虛弱應該成為順從的工具,他will.EGHKHC他描述上帝的王座。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Ezekiel, like Jeremiah, is said to have been a descendant of Joshua by his marriage with the proselyte Rahab (Meg. 14b; Sifre, Num. 78). Some even say that he was the son of Jeremiah, who was also called "Buzi" because he was despised-"buz"-by the Jews (Targ. Yer., quoted by Ḳimḥi on Ezek. i. 3).以西結書,如耶利米,據說是光的後裔,他的婚姻與proselyte拉哈伯( Meg.第14B ; Sifre ,序號。 78 ) 。有些人甚至說,他的兒子耶利米,誰也叫“布濟“因為他是鄙視, ” buz “的猶太人( Targ.層。引述Ḳimḥi的結。島3 ) 。 He was already active as a prophet while in Palestine, and he retained this gift when he was exiled with Jehoiachin and the nobles of the country to Babylon (Josephus, "Ant." x. 6, § 3: "while he was still a boy"; comp. Rashi on Sanh. 92b, above).他已積極為先知而在巴勒斯坦,他保留這份禮物時,他被流放與Jehoiachin和貴族的國家巴比倫(約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。十, 6 ,第3條: “雖然他仍然是一個男孩“ ;補償。 Rashi的Sanh 。 92b段) 。 Had he not begun his career as a prophet in the Holy Land, the spirit of prophecy would not have come upon him in a foreign land (Mek., Bo, i. ; Targ. Ezek. i. 3; comp. M. Ḳ. 25a). Therefore the prophet's first prophecy does not form the initial chapter in the Book of Ezekiel, but the second: according to some, it is the third (Mek., Shirah, 7).如果他沒有開始自己的職業生涯作為一個先知聖地,精神的預言不會降臨他在外國的土地( Mek. ,柏島; Targ 。結。島3 ;補償。先生Ḳ 。 25A條) 。因此,先知的第一預言並不構成最初的篇章以西結書,但第二:據一些,這是第三次( Mek. , Shirah , 7 ) 。 Although in the beginning of the book he very clearly describes the throne of God, this is not due to the fact that he had seen more than Isaiah, but because the latter was more accustomed to such visions; for the relation of the two prophets is that of a courtier to a peasant, the latter of whom would always describe a royal court more floridly than the former, to whom such thingswould be familiar (Ḥag. 13b).雖然在這本書開始,他非常清楚地描述了上帝的寶座,這是不是因為這樣一個事實,即他所看到以賽亞以上,但由於後者更習慣於這樣的看法;的關係是兩個先知是一個朝臣的一個農民,後者的人將永遠描述宮廷更多floridly比前,他們很熟悉這種thingswould ( Ḥag. 13B條) 。 Ezekiel, like all the other prophets, has beheld only a blurred reflection of the divine majesty, just as a poor mirror reflects objects only imperfectly (Lev. R. i. 14, toward the end).以西結書,像所有其他先知,已經看見只有模糊反映了神聖的國王陛下,就像一個貧窮的鏡子反映物體只有不完善( Lev.河島14年底) 。 God allowed Ezekiel to behold the throne in order to demonstrate to him that Israel had no reason to be proud of the Temple; for God, who is praised day and night by the hosts of the angels, does not need human offerings and worship (Lev. R. ii. 8; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. vi.).上帝允許厄澤克爾的外表王位,以表明對他說,以色列沒有理由感到自豪的聖殿;為上帝,誰是稱讚白天和黑夜的東道主之一的天使,並不需要人類的產品和宗教(列夫。河二。 8 ;塔納島登貝埃利亞胡河六。 ) 。

Three occurrences in the course of Ezekiel's prophetic activity deserve especial mention.三個事件過程中,以西結的預言活動值得特別一提。 It was he whom the three pious men, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, asked for advice as to whether they should resist Nebuchadnezzar's command and choose death by fire rather than worship his idol.這是他虔誠的人的三個男人, Hananiah , Mishael ,並Azariah ,要求提供諮詢意見,他們是否應該抵制尼布甲尼撒的命令,並選擇死亡的火災,而不是他的偶像崇拜。 At first God revealed to the prophet that they could not hope for a miraculous rescue; whereupon the prophet was greatly grieved, since these three men constituted, the remnant of Judah.起初,上帝的先知發現,他們不能希望有一個奇蹟般的救援;於是先知十分痛心,因為這三名男子組成,剩餘的猶太。 But after they had left the house of the prophet, fully determined to sacrifice their lives to God, Ezekiel received this revelation: "Thou dost believe indeed that I will abandon them. That shall not happen; but do thou let them carry out their intention according to their pious dictates, and tell them nothing" (Cant. R. vii. 8; comp. Azariah in Rabbinical Literature).但在他們離開眾議院先知,充分決心犧牲自己的生命交給上帝,厄澤克爾收到此啟示: “你多斯特認為確實,我將放棄他們。不應發生的;但你讓他們履行其意圖根據他們的虔誠的決定,並告訴他們什麼“ ( Cant.河七。 8 ;補償。 Azariah的猶太教文學) 。

The Dead Revived by Ezekiel.死者復甦厄澤克爾。

Ezekiel's greatest miracle consisted in his resuscitation of the dead, which is recounted in Ezek.厄澤克爾最大的奇蹟,包括在其復甦的死亡,這是回憶的結。 xxxvii.三十七。 There are different traditions as to the fate of these men, both before and after their resurrection, and as to the time at which it happened.有不同的傳統的命運,這些人之前和之後,他們的復活,並以之時發生的。 Some say that they were godless people, who in their lifetime had denied the resurrection, and committed other sins; others think they were those Ephraimites who tried to escape from Egypt before Moses and perished in the attempt (comp. Ephraim in Rabbinical Literature).有人說,他們godless人民,誰在其一生中都否認復活,並承諾其他罪;別人認為他們是那些Ephraimites誰試圖逃跑之前,從埃及的摩西和死去的企圖( comp.埃弗拉伊姆在猶太教文學) 。 There are still others who maintain that after Nebuchadnezzar had carried the beautiful youths of Judah to Babylon, he had them executed and their bodies mutilated, because their beauty had entranced the Babylonian women, and that it was these youths whom Ezekiel called back to life.還有其他人誰維護,經過尼布甲尼撒進行美麗的青年猶太巴比倫,他處決他們,他們的屍體肢解,因為它們的美麗已進巴比倫婦女,這是這些年輕人其中厄澤克爾呼籲恢復生機。 The miracle was performed on the same day on which the three men were cast into the fiery furnace; namely, on the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement (Cant. R. vii. 9).演出的奇蹟是在同一天對其中3人被拋入火爐;即在安息日和贖罪日( Cant.河七。 9 ) 。 Nebuchadnezzar, who had made a drinking-cup from the skull of a murdered Jew, was greatly astonished when, at the moment that the three men were cast into the furnace, the bodies of the dead boys moved, and, striking him in the face, cried out: "The companion of these three men revives the dead!"尼布甲尼撒,誰作出了飲水杯從頭骨被殺害的猶太人,感到十分驚訝的時候,目前,該三名男子拋入火爐,該機構將男孩的死亡,並突出了他的臉,大叫: “的同伴,這三個男子再度死! ” (see a Karaite distortion of this episode in Judah Hadasi's "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 45b, at foot; 134a, end of the section). (看到Karaite歪曲這一事件在猶太Hadasi的“ Eshkol河Kofer ” , 45b ,在足; 134 ,結束一節) 。 When the boys awakened from death, they rose up and joined in a song of praise to God for the miracle vouchsafed to them; later, they went to Palestine, where they married and reared children.當男孩驚醒死亡,他們站起來,並加入了一首讚美上帝的奇蹟vouchsafed的人;後來,他們去了巴勒斯坦,在那裡結婚和養育孩子。 As early as the second century, however, some authorities declared this resurrection of the dead was a prophetic vision: an opinion regarded by Maimonides ("Moreh Nebukim," ii. 46; Arabic text, 98a) and his followers as the only rational explanation of the Biblical passage (comp. Abravanel's commentary on the passage).早在二世紀,但是,有些當局宣布此,死人復活是一個先知的遠見:一個輿論認為邁蒙尼德( “雷赫Nebukim , ”二。 46 ;阿拉伯文字,第98A )和他的追隨者的唯一合理的解釋通過對聖經( comp.阿布拉瓦內爾的評注的通道) 。 An account of the varying from these stories of the Talmud (Sanh. 92b), found in Pirḳe R.一個帳戶的不同從這些故事的塔木德( Sanh. 92b ) ,發現在Pirḳe河 El.薩爾瓦多。 xxxiii., runs as follows: "When the three men had been rescued by God from the fiery furnace, Nebuchadnezzar, turning to the other Jews who had obeyed his commands and worshiped the idol, said: 'You knew that you had a helping and saving God, yet you deserted Him in order to worship an idol that is nothing. This shows that, just as you destroyed your own country through your evil deeds, you now attempt to destroy my country'; and at his command they were all killed, to the number of 600,000."三十三。 ,運行情況如下: “當三名男子已被救起,上帝從火爐,尼布甲尼撒,談到了其他猶太人誰服從他的命令和崇拜的偶像,說: '你知道你的幫助和節能上帝,你拋棄了他,以崇拜的偶像是什麼。這表明,正如你摧毀你自己的國家通過你的惡行,你現在企圖破壞我國' ;並在他的指揮下他們都被殺向一些600000 。 “ Twenty years later God took the prophet to the place where the dead boys were buried, and asked him whether he believed that He could awaken them. 20年後神了先知的地方,死者男孩被埋葬,並問他認為,他可以喚醒他們。 Instead of answering with a decisive "Yes," the prophet replied evasively, and as a punishment he was doomed to die "on foreign soil."而不是一個決定性的回答: “是的, ”先知回答閃爍其辭,並作為一種懲罰,他是注定要死亡“在外國的土地上。 ” Again, when God asked him to prophesy the awakening of these dead, he replied: "Will my prophecy be able to awaken them and those dead ones also which have been torn and devoured by wild beasts?"再次,當上帝問他預言的覺醒這些死了,他回答說: “我的預言能喚醒他們,這些死亡的也已被蹂躪和野獸吃掉了? ” His doubts were unfounded, for the earth shook and brought the scattered bones together; a heavenly voice revived them; four winds flew to the four corners of the heavens, opened the treasure-house of the souls, and brought each soul to its body.他的懷疑是毫無根據的,因為地球的震撼,使分散的骨頭在一起;天堂恢復他們的聲音;四風飛往四個角天,打開了寶庫的心靈,使每一個靈魂的身體。 One only among all the thousands remained dead, and he, as it was revealed to the prophet, had been a usurer, who by his actions had shown himself unworthy of resurrection.只要在所有的數千仍然死了,他,因為這是顯示的先知,是一個高利貸者,誰是他的行動表明自己不配復活。 The resurrected ones at first wept because they thought that they would now have no part in the final resurrection, but God said to Ezekiel: "Go and tell them that I will awakenthem at the time of the resurrection and will lead them with the rest of Israel to Palestine" (comp. Tanna debe Eliyahu R. v.).的復活的一哭,因為他們認為他們現在已經沒有參加最後的復活,但是上帝說厄澤克爾: “去告訴他們,我將awakenthem時的復活,並會導致他們與其他以色列向巴勒斯坦“ ( comp.塔納島登貝埃利亞胡河五) 。

The Book of Ezekiel.該以西結書。

Among the doctrines that Ezekiel set down in his book, the Rabbis noted the following as especially important: He taught "the soul that sinneth, it [alone] shall die" (Ezek. xviii. 4), although Moses had said (Ex. xxxiv. 7) that God would visit "the iniquity of the fathers upon the children."在理論厄澤克爾的規定,在他的著作,指出了拉比以下為特別重要的:他教“的靈魂是sinneth ,它[單獨]死” ( Ezek.十八。 4 ) ,但摩西曾表示(例如:三十四。 7 ) ,上帝將訪問“的不公正的父親的孩子。 ” Another important teaching of Ezekiel is his warning not to lay hands on the property of one's neighbor, which he considers the greatest sin among the twenty-four that he enumerates (Ezek. xxii. 2 et seq.), and therefore repeats (Eccl. R. i. 13) at the end of his index of sins (Ezek. xxii. 12).另一個重要的教學厄澤克爾是他的警告不在於手中的財產,一個人的鄰居,他認為,這是最大的罪過是2004年,他列舉( Ezek.二十二。 2起。 ) ,因此,重複( Eccl.河島13 )在結束其指數的罪孽( Ezek.二十二。 12 ) 。 In ritual questions the Book of Ezekiel contains much that contradicts the teachings of the Pentateuch, and therefore it narrowly escaped being declared as "apocryphal" by the scholars shortly before the destruction of the Temple (Shab. 13b; Men. 45a).在儀式問題的以西結書包含許多矛盾的教誨五經,因此僥倖逃過被宣布為“未經證實”的學者前不久破壞寺( Shab. 13B條;男子。 45A條) 。 No one was allowed to read and explain publicly the first chapter of the book (Ḥag. ii. 1; ib. Gem. 13a), because it dealt with the secrets of God's throne (comp. Ma'aseh Merkabah).SSLG沒有人可以閱讀並公開解釋第一章的書( Ḥag.二。 1 ;國際文憑。寶石。 13A條) ,因為它涉及的秘密神的寶座( comp. Ma'aseh Merkabah ) 。 SSLG

Emil G. Hirsch, Karl Heinrich Cornill, Solomon Schechter, Louis Ginzberg埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾海因里希Cornill ,索羅門謝克特,路易金茲伯格

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


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