Book of Esther以斯帖記

General Information 一般信息

Esther is a book in the Old Testament of the Bible.以斯帖是一本書,舊約聖經。 It recounts the deliverance of the Jews from persecution in the Persian Empire, a deliverance accomplished by the timely actions of two Jewish members of the foreign court: Queen Esther and her cousin and foster father, Mordecai. Popular tales from Persian times about a recalcitrant native queen, a Jewess who became queen of a foreign nation, and deadly rivalry among courtiers were worked into the account.它敘述了解救的猶太人迫害的波斯帝國,一個解脫完成的及時採取行動的兩個猶太人成員外國法院:王后以斯帖和她的表哥和養父,莫迪凱。通俗故事從波斯次約頑抗本地女王,一個Jewess誰成為女王的外國國家,和致命的競爭中朝臣們都工作到帳戶。 The book was intended to strengthen Jews under persecution during the Maccabean wars and, in particular, to authorize celebration in Palestine of the Feast of Purim, otherwise unknown in the Old Testament.這本書的目的是加強下迫害猶太人在Maccabean戰爭,特別是授權在巴勒斯坦慶祝的節日普珥節,否則未知舊約中。 Jews in the Diaspora may earlier have observed this festival of deliverance from foreign persecutors.猶太人在海外可能較早注意到這一節解救外國迫害。

The anti - Semitic temper, the murder of many Gentiles, and the apparently forced conversion of others described in the book indicate that it was written during the reign of John Hyrcanus, the Hasmonean Jewish king (c.135 - 105 BC; see Maccabees).反-猶太人的脾氣,謀殺了許多外邦人,並顯然強迫他人在書中描述表明,這是書面時期的約翰Hyrcanus ,猶太國王的Hasmonean ( c.135 - 105年;見馬加比) 。 The absence of the name of God, which led to religiously motivated additions of 107 verses to the Greek version of the book (forming a separate book in the Apocrypha), may be the result of wisdom influence or of a secularizing trend in the Hasmonean circles that introduced the Feast of Purim to Palestine.缺席的情況下以上帝之名,從而導致宗教動機增加107詩句希臘版的書(形成一個單獨的圖書在偽經) ,可能是由於智慧影響或世俗化的趨勢Hasmonean圈子這一節介紹普林巴勒斯坦。

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Book of Esther以斯帖記

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Esther becomes queen (1-2:17)以斯帖成為王后( 1-2:17 )
  2. Jewish danger (2:18-3:15)猶太危險( 2:18-3:15 )
  3. Jews saved (4-10)猶太人保存( 4月10日)

The Apocrypha includes several insertions into this Book.該偽經包括幾個插入到這本書。


Es'ther

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Esther was the queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name. She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2: 7).以斯帖是女王Ahasuerus ,和女主人公的書,承擔她的名字。她是一個Jewess命名Hadas'sah (在默特爾) ,但是當她走進皇家后宮,她收到了她的名字從此被稱為(以斯帖2 : 7 ) 。 It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star.這是一個Syro -阿拉伯修改波斯文字satarah ,這意味著恆星。 She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite.她的女兒Abihail ,一個Benjamite 。 Her family did not avail themselves of the permission granted by Cyrus to the exiles to return to Jerusalem; and she resided with her cousin Mordecai, who held some office in the household of the Persian king at "Shushan in the palace."她的家人沒有利用自己的權限授予賽勒斯的流亡者返回耶路撒冷,她與她的表哥居住莫迪凱,誰辦公室舉行一些在家庭中的波斯國王在“蜀山中的宮殿。 ” Ahasuerus having divorced Vashti, chose Esther to be his wife. Ahasuerus了離婚Vashti ,選擇以斯帖是他的妻子。 Soon after this he gave Haman the Agagite, his prime minister, power and authority to kill and extirpate all the Jews throughout the Persian empire.此後不久,他給哈曼的Agagite ,他的總理權力和權威,以殺死和消滅所有猶太人整個波斯帝國。

By the interposition of Esther this terrible catastrophe was averted.由干預以斯帖這可怕的災難得以避免。 Haman was hanged on the gallows he had intended for Mordecai (Esther 7); and the Jews established an annual feast, the feast of Purim (qv), in memory of their wonderful deliverance.咸安被絞死的絞刑架,他本來打算為莫迪凱(以斯帖7 ) ;和猶太人設立了一個年度的節日,節日的普珥節( qv ) ,以紀念他們美好的解脫。 This took place about fifty-two years after the Return, the year of the great battles of Plataea and Mycale (BC 479).這發生約五十二年返回後,這一年的重大戰役普拉提亞和Mycale (公元前479 ) 。 Esther appears in the Bible as a "woman of deep piety, faith, courage, patriotism, and caution, combined with resolution; a dutiful daughter to her adopted father, docile and obedient to his counsels, and anxious to share the king's favour with him for the good of the Jewish people. There must have been a singular grace and charm in her aspect and manners, since 'she obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her' (Esther 2:15). That she was raised up as an instrument in the hand of God to avert the destruction of the Jewish people, and to afford them protection and forward their wealth and peace in their captivity, is also manifest from the Scripture account."以斯帖出現在聖經的“女人深虔誠,信仰,勇氣,愛國主義,集體主義,和謹慎,加上第一個孝女,她通過父親,溫順和服從他的律師,並渴望分享國王的贊成與他良好的猶太人民。肯定還有一個獨特的風度和魅力,她的方面和方式,因為她得到贊成看到所有這些,看起來她' (以斯帖2:15 ) 。那她提出作為一種工具在上帝之手,以避免破壞猶太人民,並向他們提供保護和著他們的財富與和平在他們被關押,也體現了聖經的帳戶。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Book of Es'ther書Es'ther

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The authorship of this book is unknown.作者的這本書是未知的。 It must have been obviously written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which took place BC 465.它必須有明顯的書面去世後Ahasuerus (在薛西斯的希臘人) ,其中發生了公元前465 。 The minute and particular account also given of many historical details makes it probable that the writer was contemporary with Mordecai and Esther.分鐘和特別帳戶也給予了許多歷史的細節讓可能是當代作家與莫迪凱和Esther 。 Hence we may conclude that the book was written probably about BC 444-434, and that the author was one of the Jews of the dispersion.因此,我們可以得出這樣的結論:本書是寫大概公元前444-434 ,而且作者是一個猶太人的分散。 This book is more purely historical than any other book of Scripture; and it has this remarkable peculiarity that the name of God does not occur in it from first to last in any form.這本書是更純粹的歷史比任何其他書的經文,它有這樣顯著的特點是上帝的名字不會出現在它第一次將持續以任何形式。 It has, however, been well observed that "though the name of God be not in it, his finger is."然而,得到很好的指出, “雖然以上帝的名義是不是在這,他的手指。 ” The book wonderfully exhibits the providential government of God.這本書的天賜奇妙展品政府上帝。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Esther以斯帖

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 BC). (從希伯來語含義明星,幸福) ;女王波斯和妻子Assuerus ,誰是確定薛西斯(公元前485-465 ) 。 She was a Jewess of the tribe of Benjamin, daughter of Abihail, and bore before her accession to the throne the name of Edissa (Hádássah, myrtle).她是一個Jewess部落本傑明的女兒, Abihail ,並承擔在她面前加入王位的名稱Edissa (哈達薩,默特爾) 。 Her family had been deported from Jerusalem to Babylon in the time of Jechonias (599 BC).她的家人被驅逐從耶路撒冷巴比倫時代的Jechonias ( 599年) 。 On the death of her parents she was adopted by her father's brother, Mardochai, who then dwelt in Susan, the capital of Persia.對她的父母去世,她是通過她父親的兄弟, Mardochai ,誰住在蘇珊然後,首都波斯。 King Assuerus being angered at the refusal of his wife Vasthi to respond to his invitation to attend a banquet that he gave in the third year of his reign, divorced her and ordered the most attractive maidens of the kingdom brought before him that he might select her successor from among them. Among these was Esther, whose rare beauty captivated the king and moved him to place her on the throne.國王Assuerus被激怒在拒絕他的妻子Vasthi響應他的邀請出席了宴會,他在第三個年頭的他的統治,離婚,並命令她最有吸引力的宮女王國帶來了他面前,他可能選擇她從它們之間的繼承。其中包括以斯帖,其罕見的美景迷住了國王和感動他將她的王位。 Her uncle Mardochai remained constantly near the palace so that he might advise and counsel her.她的叔叔Mardochai仍然不斷宮附近,他可能提供諮詢意見和律師的她。 While at the gate of the palace he discovered a plot of two of the king's eunuchs to kill their royal master.而在宮門口發現了一個陰謀,他的兩個國王的宦官殺死其皇家主人。 This plot he revealed to Esther, who in turn informed the king.這一陰謀,他透露給以斯帖,誰反過來告訴國王。 The plotters were executed, and a record of the services of Mardochai was entered in the chronicles of the kingdom.策劃者被處決,並記錄服務的Mardochai輸入的納尼亞王國。 Not long thereafter, Aman, a royal favourite before whom the king had ordered all to bow, having frequently observed Mardochai at the gate of the palace and noticed that he refused to prostrate himself before him, cunningly obtained the king's consent for a general massacre in one day of all the Jews in the kingdom.不久,阿曼,皇室的人最喜歡的前國王已下令所有鞠躬後,經常觀察Mardochai在門口的宮殿,並注意到他拒絕俯臥自己在他面前,狡猾地獲得了國王的同意,一般的大屠殺一天所有的猶太人在英國。 Following a Persian custom, Aman determined by lot (pûr, pl. pûrîm), that the massacre should take place a twelvemonth hence.繼波斯灣習俗,阿曼由抽籤決定(普爾,特等。普珥節) ,即應採取的屠殺一個12個月因此。 A royal decree was thereupon sent throughout the Kingdom of Persia.敕令就此發出整個波斯王國。 Mardochai informed Esther of this and begged her to use her influence with the king and thus avert the threatening danger. Mardochai通知以斯帖這一點,並請她運用自己的影響力的國王,從而避免威脅的危險。 At first she feared to enter the presence of the king unsummoned, for to do so was a capital offence.起初,她擔心進入存在的國王unsummoned ,對於這樣做是死罪。 But, on the earnest entreaty of her uncle, she consented to approach after three days, which with her maids she would pass in fasting and prayer, and during which she requested her uncle to have all the Jews in the city fast and pray.但是,在認真懇求她的舅舅,她同意後三天的辦法,這與她的女僕,她會通過禁食和祈禱,並在這期間,她要求她的舅舅讓所有的猶太人在城市快速和祈禱。

On the third day Esther appeared before the king, who received her graciously and promised to grant her request whatever it might be.第三天以斯帖出庭國王,誰收到她的慷慨,並答應她的要求給予任何可能。 She then asked him and Aman to dine with her.然後,她問他和阿曼吃飯她。 At the banquet they accepted her invitation to dine with her again on the following day.在宴會上,他們接受她的邀請去吃飯她再次第二天。 Aman, carried away by the joy that this honour gave him, issued orders for the erection of a gallows on which he purposed to hang the hated Mardochai.阿曼,帶走的喜悅,這個榮譽給了他,發布命令,為樹立絞刑架上,他專用的痛恨掛Mardochai 。 But that night the king, being sleepless, ordered the chronicles of the nation to be read to him.但是那天晚上,國王,正在不眠之夜,下令納尼亞全國讀給他。 Learning that Mardochai had never been rewarded for his service in revealing the plot of the eunuchs, he asked Aman, the next day, to suggest a suitable reward for one "whom the king desired to honour".學習Mardochai從來沒有回報的服務在揭示了陰謀的太監,他問吉安曼,第二天,提出一個合適的報酬,一個“人國王希望榮幸。 ” Thinking it was himself that the king had in mind, Aman suggested the use of the king's apparel and insignia.這是自己的思考,國王銘記,阿曼建議使用國王的服裝和標誌。 These the king ordered to be bestowed on Mardochai.這些國王命令將賦予Mardochai 。 At the second banquet, when the king repeated to Esther his offer to grant her whatever she might ask, she informed him of the plot of Aman which involved the destruction of the whole Jewish people to which she belonged, and pleaded that they should be spared.在第二次宴會,當國王反复向他提供埃斯特給予她的一切,她可能會問,她告訴他的圖謀吉安曼涉及破壞整個猶太人民的屬於她,並請求他們應該不遺餘力。 The king ordered that Aman should be hanged on the gibbet prepared for Mardochai, and, confiscating his property, bestowed it upon the intended victim.國王下令吉安曼應該被處以絞刑的絞架準備Mardochai ,並沒收其財產,賦予它的打算受害者。 He charged Mardochai to address to all the governors of Persia letters authorizing the Jews to defend themselves and to kill all those who, by virtue of the previous decree, should attack them. During two days the Jews took a bloody revenge on their enemies in Susan and other cities.他被控Mardochai來解決所有的省長波斯字母授權猶太人為自己辯護,並要殺死所有這些誰,憑藉以往的法令,應該襲擊他們。為期兩天的猶太人採取了血腥的報復,他們的敵人在蘇珊和其他城市。 Mardochai then instituted the feast of Purim (lots) which he exhorted the Jews to celebrate in memory of the day which Aman had determined for their destruction, but which had been turned by Esther into a day of triumph. Mardochai然後提起的節日普珥節(地段) ,其中他告誡猶太人慶祝,以紀念這一天阿曼已經決定將其銷毀,但已關閉的埃絲特到勝利的一天。 The foregoing story of Esther is taken from the Book of Esther as found in the Vulgate.上述故事以斯帖是取自以斯帖記作為發現武加大。 Jewish traditions place the tomb of Esther at Hamadân (Ecbatana).猶太人傳統的地方在1830年以斯帖在哈馬丹(埃克巴塔那) 。 The Fathers of the Church considered Esther as a type of the Blessed Virgin Mary.對教會的教父們認為埃斯特作為一種聖母瑪利亞。 In her poets have found a favourite subject.在她的詩人已經找到了喜歡的話題。

BOOK OF ESTHER預定以斯帖

In the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint the Book of Esther bears only the word "Esther" as title.在希伯來文聖經和七十的以斯帖記一詞只熊“以斯帖”作為標題。 But the Jewish rabbis called it also the "volume of Esther", or simply "the volume" (megillah) to distinguish it from the other four volumes (megilloth), written on separate rolls, which were read in the synagogues on certain feast days.但是,猶太拉比呼籲它還在“量以斯帖” ,或簡單的“量” ( megillah )以區別於其他四個卷( megilloth ) ,寫在單獨的卷,這是閱讀中的猶太教堂在某些節日。

As this one was read on the feast of Purim and consisted largely of epistles (cf. Esther 9:20, 29), it was called by the Jews of Alexandria the "Epistle of Purim".由於這是一個閱讀的節日普珥節,並主要是書信(參見以斯帖9:20 , 29 ) ,它是由亞歷山大的猶太人的“使徒的普珥節” 。 In the Hebrew canon the book was among the Hagiographa and placed after Ecclesiastes.在希伯來文的書是佳能的Hagiographa和放置後傳道書。 In the Latin Vulgate it has always been classed with Tobias and Judith, after which it is placed.在拉丁語武加大它一直歸與托比亞斯和朱迪,然後把它放在。 The Hebrew text that has come down to us varies considerably from those of the Septuagint and the Vulgate.希伯來文已下降到我們有很大的差別從那些譯本和武加大。 The Septuagint, besides showing many unimportant divergencies, contains several additions in the body of the book or at the end.在七十,除了顯示出許多重要的分歧,載有若干補充正文中的書籍或在年底。 The additions are the portion of the Vulgate text after ch.在增加的部分文字後,總武加大。 x, 3.十, 3 。 Although no trace of these fragments is found in the Hebrew Bible, they are most probably translations from an original Hebrew or Chaldaic text.雖然沒有追踪這些碎片被發現在希伯來文聖經,他們是最有可能從原先的翻譯或Chaldaic希伯來文。 Origen tells us that they existed in Theodotion's version, and that they were used by Josephus in his "Antiquities" (XVI). St.俄利根告訴我們,他們中存在的Theodotion的版本,而且他們所用的約瑟夫在他的“古物” (十六) 。街 Jerome, finding them in the Septuagint and the Old Latin version, placed them at the end of his almost literal translation of the existing Hebrew text, and indicated the place they occupied in the Septuagint.杰羅姆,發現它們在七十和拉丁美洲的舊版本,使他們在結束的時候,他幾乎直譯現有的希伯來文,並指出被佔領的地方,他們在七十。 The chapters being thus rearranged, the book may be divided into two parts: the first relating the events which preceded and led up to the decree authorizing the extermination of the Jews (i-iii, 15; xi, 2; xiii,7); the second showing how the Jews escaped from their enemies and avenged themselves (iv-v, 8; xiii-xv).該章從而重新安排,這本書可分為兩部分:第一有關的事件,並導致了之前的法令,授權滅絕猶太人(一至三, 15 ;第十一2 ;十三, 7 ) ;第二說明猶太人逃離他們的敵人和復仇自己(四,五,八;十三- XV )號決議。

The Book of Esther, thus taken in part from the Hebrew Canon and in part from the Septuagint, found a place in the Christian Canon of the Old Testament.該以斯帖記,從而採取的部分由希伯來佳能和部分從七十,發現了一個發生在基督教佳能舊約。 The chapters taken from the Septuagint were considered deuterocanonical, and, after St.章節從七十被視為deuterocanonical ,並在街 Jerome, were separated from the ten chapters taken from the Hebrew which were called protocanonical.杰羅姆,分別來自10個章節,從它被稱為希伯來protocanonical 。 A great many of the early Fathers clearly considered the entire work as inspired, although no one among them found it to his purpose to write a commentary on it.的許多早期教父顯然考慮了整個工作的啟發,雖然沒有人發現,它們之間的目的,他撰寫的評論它。 Its omission in some of the early catalogues of the Scriptures was accidental or unimportant.它省略了一些早期的聖經目錄被意外或不重要。 The first to reject the book was Luther, who declared that he so hated it that he wished that it did not exist (Table Talk, 59).首先拒絕該書的路德,誰宣布,他如此痛恨它,他想,它根本不存在(表對話, 59 ) 。 His first followers wished only to reject the deuterocanonical parts, whereupon these, as well as other deuterocanonical parts of the Scriptures, were declared by the Council of Trent (Sess. IV, de Can. Scripturæ) to be canonical and inspired.他的第一個追隨者只希望拒絕deuterocanonical部分,在這種情況下這些以及其他deuterocanonical部分的聖經,被宣布為理事會的遄達( Sess.四,日可以。 Scripturæ )要規範和啟發。 With the rise of rationalism the opinion of Luther found many supporters.隨著理性的意見,路德發現許多支持者。 When modern rationalists argue that the Book of Esther is irreligious in character, unlike the other books of the Old Testament, and therefore to be rejected, they have in mind only the first or protocanonical part, not the entire book, which is manifestly religious.當現代理性主義認為,以斯帖記的非宗教性質的,不同於其他書籍舊約,因此被拒絕後,他們想到的只有第一或protocanonical一部分,而不是整本書,這是明顯的宗教。 But, although the first part is not explicitly religious, it contains nothing unworthy of a place in the Sacred Scriptures.但是,儘管第一部分是沒有明確的宗教,它包含什麼不配在神聖的聖經。 And any way, as Driver points out (Introduc. to the Lit. of the Testament), there is no reason why every part of the Biblical record should show the "same degree of subordination of human interests to the spirit of God".和任何方式,因為驅動指出( Introduc.向里拉。的約) ,沒有任何理由的每一部分聖經記錄應當顯示“同等程度的從屬地位的人的利益的精神,上帝” 。

As to the authorship of the Book of Esther there is nothing but conjecture.至於作者的以斯帖記沒有什麼,但猜想。 The Talmud (Baba Bathra 15a) assigns it to the Great Synagogue; St. Clement of Alexandria ascribes it to Mardochai; St. Augustine suggests Esdras as the author.猶太法典(巴巴Bathra 15A條)賦予它大會堂;聖克萊門特亞歷山大賦予它Mardochai ;聖奧古斯丁表明埃斯德拉斯的作者。 Many, noting the writer's familiarity with Persian customs and institutions and with the character of Assuerus, hold that he was a contemporary of Mardochai, whose memoirs he used.許多人指出,作家的熟悉波斯語海關和機構性質的Assuerus ,認為他是當代的Mardochai ,他用他的回憶錄。 But such memoirs and other contemporary documents showing this familiar knowledge could have been used by a writer at a later period.但這樣的回憶錄和其他當代證件,以顯示這個熟悉的知識本來可以用一個作家在以後的時期。 And, although the absence in the text of allusion to Jerusalem seems to lead to the conclusion that the book was written and published in Persia at the end of the reign of Xerxes I (485-465 BC) or during the reign of his son Artaxerxes I (465-425 BC), the text seems to offer several facts which may be adduced with some show of reason in favour of a later date.而且,雖然沒有在文本中提及耶路撒冷似乎導致的結論是,該書的編寫和出版的波斯結束時的統治薛西一世( 485-465年)或時期的他的兒子阿爾塔克賽爾克斯一( 465-425年) ,案文似乎提供了一些事實可以舉出一些顯示的原因贊成稍後的日期。 They are:它們是:

an implied statement that Susan had ceased to be the capital of Persia, and a vague description of the extent of the kingdom (i, 1);默示聲明蘇珊已不再是首都,波斯,和一個模糊的描述的程度王國(一, 1 ) ;

an explanation of Persian usages that implies unfamiliarity with them on the part of the readers (i, 13, 19; iv, 11; viii, 8);解釋波斯慣例,這意味著他們不熟悉的部分讀者(一, 13日, 19日;四, 11 ;八, 8 ) ;

the revengeful attitude of the Jews towards the Gentiles, by whom they felt they had been wronged, and with whom they wished to have little to do (iii, 8 sqq.);態度的報復猶太人對外邦人中,他們認為他們是被冤枉的,並與他們希望不大(三, 8 sqq 。 ) ;

a diction showing many late words and a deterioration in syntax;一晚詞顯示許多單詞和語法的惡化;

references to "the Macedonians" and to the plot of Aman as an attempt to transfer "the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians" (xvi, 10, 14).提及“馬其頓”和阿曼的陰謀,企圖轉移“王國波斯人的馬其頓” ( 16 , 10 , 14 ) 。

On the strength of these passages various modern critics have assigned late dates for the authorship of the book, as, 135 BC, 167 BC, 238 BC, the beginning of the third century BC, or the early years of the Greek period which began 332 BC The majority accept the last opinion.論實力,這些通道各種現代批評人士後期指定日期,著作權的書籍,因為, 135公元前167年, 238年,開始公元前三世紀,或早年希臘時期開始332公元前大多數接受最後的意見。

Some of the modern critics who have fixed upon late dates for the composition of the book deny that it has any historical value whatever, and declare it to be a work of the imagination, written for the purpose of popularizing the feast of Purim.一些現代批評誰都有固定的日期後,已故組成的圖書否認有任何歷史價值不管,並宣布這是一個工作的想像力,寫的目的是普及的節日普珥節。 In support of their contention they point out in the text what appear to be historical improbabilities, and attempt to show that the narrative has all the characteristics of a romance, the various incidents being artfully arranged so as to form a series of contrasts and to develop into a climax.以支持他們的論點,他們指出,在文字似乎是歷史improbabilities ,並試圖表明,說明了所有的特點,浪漫,各種事件的巧妙安排,形成了一系列的對比和發展到了高潮。 But what seem to be historical improbabilities are in many cases trivial.但是,似乎是歷史improbabilities在許多情況下小事。 Even advanced critics do not agree as to those which seem quite serious.即使是先進的批評不同意以這些似乎相當嚴重。 While some, for instance, consider it wholly improbable that Assuerus and Aman should have been ignorant of the nationality of Esther, who was in frequent communication with Mardochai, a well-known Jew, others maintain that it was quite possible and probable that a young woman, known to be a Jewess, should be taken into the harem of a Persian king, and that with the assistance of a relative she should avert the ruin of her people, which a high official had endeavoured to effect. The seeming improbability of other passages, if not entirely explained, can be sufficiently explained to destroy the conclusion, on this ground, that the book is not historical.雖然一些,例如,認為這完全不可能的Assuerus和阿曼應該已經知道的國籍以斯帖,誰是在頻繁的交流與Mardochai ,一個眾所周知的猶太人,別人認為很可能和可能是一個年輕的女人,是一個已知Jewess ,應考慮到后宮的波斯國王,並與援助的一個相對的她應該避免破壞她的人,其中高級官員一直努力的效果。表面不大可能其他通道,如果不能完全解釋,可以充分的解釋,銷毀的結論,這一理由,這本書不是歷史。 As to artful contrasts and climax to which appeal is made as evidences that the book is the work of a mere romancer, it may be said with Driver (op. cit.) that fact is stranger than fiction, and that a conclusion based upon such appearances is precarious.至於憸對比和高潮而提出上訴的依據這本書的工作,僅僅romancer ,可以說與驅動器(同前) 。這一事實是陌生人比小說,而且根據這樣的結論外表是岌岌可危。 There is undoubtedly an exercise of art in the composition of the work, but no more than any historian may use in accumulating and arranging the incidents of his history.毫無疑問,行使藝術組成的工作,但不超過任何歷史學家可以使用積累和安排他的歷史事件。 A more generally accepted opinion among contemporary critics is that the work is substantially historical.一個更普遍接受輿論的批評之一是,當代的工作是大量的歷史。 Recognizing the author's close acquaintance with Persian customs and institutions, they hold that the main elements of the work were supplied to him by tradition, but that, to satisfy his taste for dramatic effect, he introduced details which were not strictly historical.認識到作者的熟人與波斯海關和機構,他們認為主要內容的工作是提供給他的傳統,但是,為了滿足他的口味的巨大影響,他介紹的細節沒有嚴格的歷史。 But the opinion held by most Catholics and by some Protestants is, that the work is historical in substance and in detail.但認為,絕大多數的一些天主教徒和新教徒是,這項工作是歷史的實質內容和細節。 They base their conclusions especially on the following:這些基地的結論特別是在以下方面:

the vivacity and simplicity of the narrative;的活力和簡潔的敘述;

the precise and circumstantial details, as, particularly, the naming of unimportant personages, the noting of dates and events;準確和詳盡的細節,因為,特別是命名的重要人士,該注意到的日期和事件;

the references to the annals of the Persians;提及的史冊波斯人;

the absence of anachronisms;沒有過時;

the agreement of proper names with the time in which the story is placed;該協議的專有名詞與時間的故事放在;

the confirmation of details by history and arheology;確認詳細的歷史和arheology ;

the celebration of the feast of Purim in commemoration of the deliverance of the Jews by Esther and Mardochai at the time of the Machabees (2 Maccabees 15:37), at the time of Josephus (Antiq of the Jews, XI, vi, 13), and since.慶祝的節日普珥節的紀念解救猶太人的以斯帖和Mardochai的時候, Machabees ( 2馬加比15:37 )時,約瑟夫( Antiq猶太人,十一,六, 13 ) ,自。

The explanation of some that the story of Esther was engrafted on a Jewish feast already existing and probably connected with a Persian festival, is only a surmise.所說明的某些的故事以斯帖是嫁接的一個猶太節日已經存在和可能與波斯節日,只是一個猜測。 Nor has any one else succeeded better in offering an explanation of the feast than that it had its origin as stated in the Book of Esther. (See also HERODOTUS, History, VII, 8, 24, 35, 37-39; IX, 108)也沒有任何人成功地提供了一個更好的解釋的節日,它比其原產地如以斯帖記。 (另見HERODOTUS ,歷史,七,八, 24 , 35 , 37-39 ;九, 108 )

Publication information Written by AL McMahon.出版信息書面由Al麥克馬洪。 For Esther Woodall The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.為以斯帖伍德爾天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Apocryphal Book of Esther未經以斯帖記

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Editions and Critical Helps. Editions與批判幫助。

The Dream of Mordecai.夢的莫迪凱。

The Destruction of the Jews Decreed.破壞猶太人頒布。

Mordecai's Prayer.莫迪凱的祈禱。

The Prayer of Esther.以斯帖的禱告。

Esther Before the King.以斯帖前國王。

The New Edict.新法令。

Interpretation of Mordecai's Dream.解讀莫迪凱的夢想。

The canonical Book of Esther undoubtedly presents the oldest extant form of the Esther story.規範以斯帖記無疑提出了最古老的現存形式以斯帖的故事。 In times of oppression the Jews found comfort in this narrative, for it presented an example of sudden divine salvation in the days of distress (Esth. ix. 22, 28), and it strengthened their hope of being liberated from their desperate condition, especially in the days of the Maccabees.在時代的壓迫猶太人找到安慰,這說明,因為它提出了一個例子,在突然神救贖的日子窘迫( Esth.九。第22 ,第28 ) ,並加強他們的希望被解放出來的絕望的狀況,尤其是在以後的日子裡的馬加比。 Naturally, the Jews' well-known skill in transforming and enriching traditional narratives was applied especially to those incidents which were touched but lightly in the Biblical Book of Esther.當然,猶太人的眾所周知的技巧和豐富傳統的轉化說明是特別適用於這些事件而感動,但輕率的聖經以斯帖記。 Such variations and additions have been preserved in Greek, but the assumption that they were based on a Hebrew original has been proved erroneous (comp. Scholz, "Kommentar über das Buch Esther mit Seinen Zusätzen," 1892, pp. 21 et seq.), the difficulty of translating many of these additions into Hebrew being especially significant (Fritzsche, "Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen des Alten Testaments," 1851, p. 71; Wace, "The Apocrypha," in "The Speaker's Commentary," i. 361-365).這些變動和補充已保存在希臘,但前提是他們所依據的是希伯來文原已被證明錯誤( comp.肖爾茨“ Kommentar黚er之書以斯帖麻省理工Seinen Zusätzen , ” 1892年,頁。 21起。 ) ,翻譯的困難,其中許多被添加到希伯來語特別重要(弗里切, “手冊Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches祖旦Apokryphen萬老聖經” , 1851年,第71頁; Wace說: “偽經” ,在“講者的評論, ”我。 361-365 ) 。 The additions were probably made in the time of the Maccabees, when the people were hoping for another sudden liberation by divine intervention.該增加的可能在時間上的馬加比,當人希望再突然解放神的介入。 They aimed chiefly to supply the religious element signally lacking in the canonical book (comp. Reuss, "Geschichte der Heiligen Schriften des Alten Testaments," 2d ed., §§ 470 et seq.; Bleek-Wellhausen, "Einleitung in das Alte Testament," 5th ed., § 120; JS Bloch, "Hellenistische Bestandtheile im Bibl. Schriftum," 2d ed., p. 8; Ryssel, in Kautzsch, "Die Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," i. 197).他們主要瞄準供應宗教因素signally缺乏規範書( comp. Reuss , “史聖文集之老聖經”的2D版。 , § § 470起。 ; Bleek -豪森, “導論之老聖經中“第5版。 , § 120 ;爵士布洛赫, ” Hellenistische Bestandtheile即時通訊Bibl 。 Schriftum “的2D版。 ,第8頁; Ryssel ,在Kautzsch , ”模具Apocryphen與Pseudepigraphen萬老聖經“一197 ) 。 Fritzsche (lcp 73) has pointed out linguistic similarities between the additions and the second Book of the Maccabees.弗里切(液晶73 )所指出的語言之間的相似性的增加和第二本書的馬加比。

Editions and Critical Helps. Editions與批判幫助。

The latest date that can be given to the additions is the year 30 BC, when the Ptolemaic rule came to an end (comp. B. Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 1890, p. 290).最新的日期,可以考慮增加是今年公元前30年,在托勒密統治宣告結束( comp.灣雅各布在體育場的“雜誌” , 1890年,第290頁) 。 These additions are contained in the uncial manuscript of the Codex Sinaiticus (Sin.), Codex Vaticanus (B), and Codex Alexandrinus (A).這些增加中載有uncial手稿法典西奈抄本( Sin. ) ,食品法典Vaticanus ( b )和食品法典頸( A )類。 Among the printed editions may be mentioned those of R. Holmes and J. Parsons, Oxford, 1798-1827; E. Nestle, "Vet. Test. Græce Juxta LXX. Interpretum," Leipsic, 1850; HB, Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek," 2d ed., Cambridge, 1895-99; OF Fritzsche, "Libr. Apoc. VT Græce," 1871.在印刷版可能會提及這些河霍姆斯和J.帕森斯,牛津, 1798年至1827年;體育雀巢“ ,獸醫。試驗。 Græce旁LXX 。 Interpretum , ” Leipsic , 1850年;血紅蛋白, Swete , “老全書在希臘, “二維版。 ,劍橋, 1895年至1899年;的弗里切, ” Libr 。 Apoc 。佛蒙特州Græce , “ 1871年。 The text of the additions has been preserved in two forms, namely, that of the Septuagint, and that revised by Lucian, the martyr of Antioch (comp. B. Jacob, lc pp. 258-262).案文的補充一直保存在兩種形式,即在七十,並修訂了盧西安,烈士的安提阿( comp.灣雅各布術頁。 258-262 ) 。 Lagarde has published both texts with complete critical annotations in his "Librorum Veteris Testamenti Canonicorum," 1883, i.拉加德發表了兩種文本完全關鍵說明在他的“ Librorum Veteris Testamenti Canonicorum , ” 1883年,島 504-541; and later on A. Scholz ("Kommentar über das Buch Esther," pp. 2-99, Würzburg and Vienna, 1892) published a small edition in four parallel columns, showing side by side the Hebrew text of the canonical book, the two Greek texts, and Josephus' text (comp. Ryssel in Kautzsch, lc pp. 198, 199). 504-541 ;以及後來答:肖爾茨( “ Kommentar黚er之書以斯帖, ”頁。 2-99 ,維爾茨堡和維也納, 1892年)出版了一本小版在四個平行欄,顯示並排希伯來文規範本書,這兩個希臘文本,並約瑟夫'文( comp. Ryssel在Kautzsch術頁。 198 , 199 ) 。

For textual criticism there are, also, the two Latin translations; not so much the Vulgate-in which Jerome translated very freely, and in part arbitrarily-as the Old Latin, which, in spite of its arbitrariness and incompleteness, and its additions, probably made in part by Christians, has preserved a few good readings of the Codex Vaticanus (comp. Fritzsche, lc pp. 74 et seq.; Ryssel, in Kautzsch, lcp 199; B. Jacob, lc pp. 249-258).對於考證有,此外,兩個拉美翻譯;沒有這麼多的武加大,在這種傑爾姆翻譯非常自由,並在部分任意作為老拉丁美洲,其中,儘管它的任意性和不完備,其補充,可能在部分基督教徒,保留了一些很好的讀數法典Vaticanus ( comp.弗里切術頁。 74起。 ; Ryssel ,在Kautzsch ,液晶199 ;灣雅各布術頁。 249-258 ) 。 On the forthcoming new edition of pre-Jerome texts of Esther, comp.關於即將舉行的新版本前傑爾姆文本以斯帖,壓縮機。 Ph. Thielmann, "Bericht über das Gesammelte Handschriftliche Material zu einer Kritischen Ausgabe der Lateinischen Uebersetzung Biblischer Bücher des AT" Munich, 1900; "Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Bayerischen Academie der Wissenschaften," ii.電話Thielmann , “ Bericht黚er Gesammelte Handschriftliche材料之祖領袖Kritischen版之Lateinischen Uebersetzung Biblischer Bücher萬在”慕尼黑, 1900年; “ Sitzungsberichte德國巴伐利亞科學院Königlichen之學問, ”二。 205-247. 205-247 。 For an explanation of the Greek additions to the Book of Esther see Fritzsche, lc (the older interpreters, p. 76; the later, pp. 69-108); FO Bissel, "The Apocrypha of Old Testament," New York, 1880; Fuller-Wace, lci 361-402; O. Zöckler, "Die Apocryphen des Alten Testaments," Munich, 1891; Ball, "The Ecclesiastical, or Deuterocanonical, Books of the Old Testament," London, 1892; V. Ryssel, in Kautzsch, lci 193-212.解釋希臘增加了以斯帖記見弗里切術(老口譯,第76頁;後來,頁。 69-108 ) ,而Bissel說: “偽經的舊約全書” ,紐約, 1880年;富勒- Wace ,次年361-402 ;我國Zöckler , “模具Apocryphen萬老聖經” ,慕尼黑, 1891年;球, “教會,或Deuterocanonical ,圖書舊約” ,倫敦, 1892年;五Ryssel ,在Kautzsch ,國際獅子193-212 。

The Dream of Mordecai.夢的莫迪凱。

The dream of Mordecai precedes in the Septuagint, as i.莫迪凱的夢想之前在七十,作為一 11-17, the canonical story of Esther, and corresponds in the Vulgate to xi. 2-12 and xii. 11月17日,典型故事以斯帖,和對應的武加大至十一。 2月12日和第十二。 (Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek," ii. 755 et seq.). ( Swete , “舊約中希臘, ”二。 755起。 ) 。 This version contradicts the account in the canonical book, for, according to the apocryphal version (i. 2), Mordecai is already in the service of King Artaxerxes, and has this dream inthe second year of that king's reign, whereas in the canonical version (ii. 16) Esther was not taken into the royal house until the seventh year of his reign, and Mordecai did not sit "in the king's gate"-that is, enter the king's service-until after that event (ii. 19-20).此版本相矛盾的帳戶中的典型書,因為,根據未經證實的版本(一, 2 ) ,莫迪凱已經在服務的國王阿爾塔克賽爾克斯,以及這個夢想inthe第二年,國王的統治地位,而在典型的版本(白介素16 )以斯帖是沒有考慮到王室,直到第七個年頭的他的統治,並沒有坐在莫迪凱“在國王的門” ,即進入國王的服務之前,這一事件(白介素19 - 20 ) 。 The author of the apocryphal Esther speaks of two conspiracies against Artaxerxes, and says that Mordecai preceded Esther in coming to court.的作者未經以斯帖談到對阿爾塔克賽爾克斯兩個陰謀,並說,之前以斯帖莫迪凱在未來法庭。 His account is as follows: Mordecai as a servant in the palace sleeps with the courtiers Gabatha and Tharra (Esth. ii. 21, "Bigthan" and "Teresh"; Vulg. "Bagatha" [whence "Gabatha"] and "Thara"), and overhears their plot against the king.他的帳戶如下:莫迪凱作為僕人睡在故宮與朝臣Gabatha和Tharra ( Esth.二。 21日, “ Bigthan ”和“ Teresh ” ; Vulg 。 “ Bagatha ” [何處“ Gabatha ” ]和“海濱” ) ,並偷聽他們的陰謀反對國王。 He denounces the conspirators, who are arrested and confess.他譴責陰謀,誰被逮捕和招供。 The king and Mordecai write down the occurrence, and Mordecai is rewarded.國王和莫德寫下的發生,並莫迪凱是獎賞。 As the conspirators are condemned to death (according to B. Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," x. 298, the words of Codex B, διότι ἀνέρήθησαν, are to be added here; comp. Jerome: "qui fuerant interfecti"), Haman, who evidently was in league with them, plans to take vengeance on Mordecai (Apocr. Esth. ii. 12-17).作為陰謀是注定要死亡(據灣雅各布在體育場的“雜誌, ”十, 298中,法典乙, διότι ἀνέρήθησαν ,要補充的;補償。杰羅姆: “歸仁fuerant interfecti ” ) ,咸安,誰顯然是與他們在聯賽,計劃採取報復莫迪凱( Apocr. Esth 。二。 12月17日) 。

There is a second conspiracy after Esther has been made queen, in the seventh year of the king's reign (Esth. ii. 21 et seq.). Mordecai in his dream (Apocr. Esth. i. 4-11) sees two dragons coming to fight each other (representing Mordecai and Haman, ib. vi. 4); the nations make ready to destroy the "people of the righteous," but the tears of the righteous well up in a little spring that grows into a mighty stream (comp. Ezek. xlvii. 3-12; according to Apocr. Esth. vi. 3, the spring symbolizes Esther, who rose from a poor Jewess to be a Persian queen).還有第二個陰謀後,已取得了以斯帖王后,在第七個年頭國王在位( Esth.二。 21起。 ) 。莫迪凱在他的夢想( Apocr. Esth 。島4月11日)預計未來兩龍打擊對方(代表莫迪凱和咸安,國際文憑。六。 4 ) ;國家作出準備摧毀“人民的正義” ,但眼淚的正義以及在一個小春天,轉化成一種強大的流(壓縮機。結。四十七。 3月12日,根據Apocr 。 Esth 。六。 3 ,春天象徵著愛,誰從一個貧窮的Jewess是波斯女王) 。 The sun now rises, and those who had hitherto been suppressed "devoured those who till then had been honored" (comp. Esth. ix. 1-17).現在太陽上升,誰迄今遭到鎮壓“誰吃掉那些直到後來被評為” ( comp. Esth 。九。 1月17日) 。

The Destruction of the Jews Decreed.破壞猶太人頒布。

The second addition contains an edict of Artaxerxes for the destruction of all the Jews, to be carried out by Haman (Apocr. Esth. ii. 1-7; it follows Esth. iii. 13; comp. Swete, lc pp. 762 et seq.).第二除了包含一個法令阿爾塔克賽爾克斯銷毀所有的猶太人,將要進行的哈曼( Apocr. Esth 。二。 1月7日;它如下Esth 。三。 13 ;補償。 Swete術頁。 762等以下。 ) 。 The mere mention of the fact that an edict for the destruction of the Jews had gone forth, was a temptation to enlarge upon it.僅僅提到一個事實,即一項法令,摧毀猶太人已經提出,是一種誘惑放大它。 The "great king" (verse 1), as in Esth. “偉大的國王” (詩1 ) ,如在Esth 。 i.字母i. 1, sends a letter to the governors of the one hundred and twenty-seven provinces of his kingdom-that extends from India even unto Ethiopia-saying that although personally he is inclined toward clemency, he is bound to look to the security of his kingdom. In a conference on the matter, he said, Haman, the councilor ranking next to him in the kingdom, had pointed out that there was one evilly disposed class of people in his realm, which, by its laws, placed itself in opposition to all the other classes, persisted in disregarding the royal ordinances, and made a unified government impossible. 1 ,發出了一封信給省長的127省份的英國,這是由印度甚至給埃塞俄比亞說,雖然他本人是傾向於從寬處理,他一定期待著他的安全王國。在一個發布會上的問題,他說,咸安,該委員的排名在他旁邊的王國,指出有一個evilly處置類的人在他的王國,並在其法律,使自己在反對所有其他階級,堅持無視敕令,並提出了統一的政府是不可能的。 Under these circumstances, he said, nothing remained but to adopt the suggestion of Haman, who, having been placed in charge of the affairs of the state, could in a sense be called the second father of the king; this suggestion was to destroy by the sword of the other nations, on the fourteenth day of Adar (thirteenth of Adar in Esth. iii. 13, viii. 12, ix, 1), all those designated as Jews, together with their wives and children.在這種情況下,他說,但仍然沒有通過的建議,咸安,誰後,被安置在負責該事務的國家,可以在一定意義上被稱為第二個父親國王;這項建議是摧毀了劍的其他國家,在第14天的阿達爾(第十三的阿達爾在Esth 。三。 13八。 12 ,九, 1 ) ,所有這些被指定為猶太人,以及他們的妻子和子女。 After these disturbers of the peace had been put out of the way, the king believed the business of the realm could again be conducted in peace.經過這些disturbers和平已被撲滅的方式,認為國王的業務領域內可能再次進行和平。

Mordecai's Prayer.莫迪凱的祈禱。

The remaining additions are closely connected with this affair.其餘的增加有著密切的聯繫與這件事。 The next in order is Mordecai's prayer for help (Apocr. Esth. iii. 1-11; Vulg. xiii. 8-18); in the Septuagint it is added to iv.在未來的秩序是莫迪凱的祈禱幫助( Apocr. Esth 。三。 1月11日; Vulg 。十三。 8月18日) ;在七十它添加到四。 17 (Swete, lc pp. 765 et seq.). 17 ( Swete術頁。 765起。 ) 。 It follows the story of Esth.它如下的故事Esth 。 iv.四。 1-16, according to which Esther commanded Mordecai to assemble all the Jews for a three-days' fast before she herself interceded for them before the king. 1月16日,根據該命令莫迪凱埃斯特組裝所有猶太人進行為期3天的快速前她之前制止他們的國王。 The prayer begins with the usual praise of divine omnipotence.禱告開始通常讚美神無所不能。 Heaven and earth are a paraphrase for the idea τὸ πᾶν(verse 2; comp. Gen. i. 1;Isa. xlv. 18).天地是意譯的想法τὸ πᾶν (詩2 ;補償。將軍島1 ;赫伊薩。第四十五。 18 ) 。 The plight of the Jews was occasioned by the refusal to kiss Haman's feet (comp. Esth. iii. 2-5), a refusal caused not by pride, but because honor as high as that which such an act implied belongs to God alone (comp. the refusal of the προσκύνησις of the Greek ambassadors to Darius). "This scrupulousness is characteristic of post-exilic Judaism; in ancient Israel the honor was unhesitatingly accorded to every nobleman (I Sam. xxv. 23 et seq.; II Sam. xviii. 21, 28): even Judith (x. 23 [21]) honored Holofernes in this way in order to allay his suspicions.的困境所引起的猶太人被拒絕親吻咸安的腳( comp. Esth 。三。 2月5日) ,造成無法拒絕的驕傲,但由於榮譽一樣高這種行為屬於默示只有上帝(壓縮機。拒絕的προσκύνησις希臘大使大流士) 。 “這是特有的認真態度後放逐猶太教;在古代以色列的榮譽是毫不猶豫地給予每一個貴族(一山姆。二十五。 23起。 ;二三。十八。 21日, 28日) :即使朱迪(十23 [ 21 ] )榮幸何以這種方式,以減輕他的疑惑。

But, Mordecai continues, this refusal was merely a pretext to destroy God's chosen people (κληρονομία, verse 8; comp. Apocr. Esth. iv. 20; vii. 9 = Hebr. ; Ps. xxviii. 9, xciv. 5, etc.; μερίς, verse 9; comp. LXX. on Deut. xxxii. 9; κλῆρος, verse 10 = , Deut. iv. 20), and he implores God to protect them now as He had their fathers in Egypt (comp. in Deut. ix. 26).但是,莫迪凱繼續,這僅僅是拒絕的藉口摧毀上帝的選民( κληρονομία ,詩8 ;補償。 Apocr 。 Esth 。四。 20 ;七。 9 = Hebr 。 ;聚苯乙烯。二十八。 9 ,第九十四。 5等。 ; μερίς ,詩句9 ;補償。 LXX 。對Deut 。三十二。 9 ; κλῆρος ,詩10 = , Deut 。四。 20 ) ,他懇請上帝保護他們現在因為他的父親在埃及( comp.在Deut 。九。 26 ) 。 The prayer closes with the supplication to save His people and turn their mourning into gladness (really "feasting"; comp. vi. 22 et seq.; see also Esth. ix. 17-19, where the prayer also ends in feasting and in the sending of gifts of food to one another).祈禱結束的祈求,以挽救他的人,把他們的哀悼變成歡樂(真的“盛宴” ;補償。六。 22起。又見Esth 。九。 17-19 ,在祈禱,也終結了盛宴,並在發送禮品食品彼此) 。 Here, as in Ps.在這裡,因為在PS 。 vi.六。 6 (AV 5), xxx. 6 (視頻5 ) ,三十。 10 [9], cxv. 10 [ 9 ] , cxv 。 17; and Ecclus. 17 ;和Ecclus 。 (Sirach) xvii. ( Sirach )十七。 25, the reason for harkening to the prayer is the desire ascribed to Yhwh of hearing songs of praise and thanks, which only the living can offer (verse 10, where the reading στόμα is preferable to αιμα; Swete, lcp 765). 25日,原因harkening的祈禱是希望為其Yhwh聆訊讚歌和感謝,這不僅可以提供生活(詩10 ,在閱讀στόμα最好αιμα ; Swete ,液晶765 ) 。 Finally, emphasis is laid on the people's loud calling and crying to God (ἐξ ἰσχύος αὐτῶν . . . ἐκήκραξεν; comp. Dan. iii. 4, ; Isa. lviii. 1, ) when they stood face to face with death (ἐν ὀφϑαλμοῖς αὐτῶν).最後,重點在於對人民群眾的大聲呼叫和哭泣上帝( ἐξ ἰσχύος αὐτῶν 。 。 。 ἐκήκραξεν ;補償。丹。三。 4 ;赫伊薩。 lviii 。 1 )當他們站在面對死亡( ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτῶν ) 。

The Prayer of Esther.以斯帖的禱告。

Closely connected with this is the prayer of Esther (Apocr. Esth. iii. 12-30; Septuagint, xiii. 8-18, xiv. 1-19; Swete, lc pp. 766 et seq.; Vulg. xiv. 1-19): she takes off her royal garments (τὰ ἱμάτια τῆς δόξης αὐτῆς [in Esth. i. 11, ii. 17 only the royal crown is mentioned]), and, putting on mourning-robes (, Judges viii. 5 [6]; Neh. ix. 1), strews ashes on her head (comp. Isa. iii. 24; Mal. ii. 3; II Sam. xiii. 19, commonly ; Job ii. 9).緊密聯繫在一起,這是祈禱以斯帖( Apocr. Esth 。三。 12月30號;七十,十三。 8月18日,十四。 1月19日; Swete術頁。 766起。 ; Vulg 。十四。 1 - 19 ) :她起飛公主服裝( τὰ ἱμάτια τῆς δόξης αὐτῆς [在Esth 。一11二。 17只皇冠提到] ) ,並把莫寧-長袍(法官八。 5 [ 6 ] ; Neh 。九。 1 ) , strews骨灰頭部( comp.赫伊薩。三。 24條。二。 3 ;二山姆。十三。 19 ,通常;就業二。 9 ) 。 She winds her hair about her (verse 13) and takes off all adornments (ἐ;ταπείνωσεν comp. , Lev. xvi. 29, 31; Isa. lviii. 3).她風她的頭髮對她(詩13 ) ,並關閉所有飾物( ε ; ταπείνωσεν補償。 ,列夫。十六。 29 , 31 ;赫伊薩。 lviii 。 3 ) 。 In this way the pity of God would be aroused and His anger allayed (I Kings xxi. 21-29). The prayer refers to the threatening danger (comp. iii. 11): as God once released Israel's ancestors from the Egyptian yoke (verse 16), so Esther beseeches him now to save the Jews from their impending fate, though they deserve it for having participated in Persian idolatry (verses 17, 18 refer to this, and not to the preexilic idolatry; comp. II Kings xvii. 29-33, 41).這樣,上帝的憐憫將激起他的憤怒和憂慮(王二十一。 21-29 ) 。祈禱指威脅的危險( comp.三。 11 ) :作為上帝再次釋放以色列的祖先來自埃及枷鎖(詩16 ) ,所以他現在beseeches以斯帖拯救猶太人從他們即將到來的命運,儘管他們理應得到參加了波斯偶像(詩句17日, 18日提到這一點,而不是preexilic偶像崇拜;補償。二世國王十七。 29-33 , 41 ) 。 Following Lagarde and Ryssel, the reading in verse 19 is ἔθηκαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν επῖ τὰς χεῖρας τῶν εὶδώλων ("they put their hands in the hands of the idols"; on , to confirm an agreement by clasping of hands, see Ezra x. 19).以下拉加德和Ryssel ,讀的詩19 ἔθηκαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν επῖ τὰς χεῖρας τῶν εὶδώλων ( “他們把他們的手手中的偶像” ;上,確認一項協議,緊握的雙手,見以斯拉十19 ) 。 This means: "The Persian oppressors have vowed to their gods [verse 19] to make vain the divine promise, to destroy Israel [ie, the divine heritage], to close the mouths of those that praise God, and to extinguish the glory of the house and the altar of God [verse 20]. Furthermore, they swear that the mouth of the heathen will be opened in praise of their impotent [gods], and their mortal king [the Persian] will be for ever admired" (verse 21).這意味著: “波斯壓迫者誓言要他們的神[詩19 ] ,使徒勞的神聖承諾,摧毀以色列[即神聖遺產] ,收口中那些讚美上帝,並熄滅的榮耀眾議院和上帝的祭壇[詩20 ] 。此外,他們發誓口的異教徒將開放以表揚他們無能為力[神] ,其致命的國王[波斯]將永遠敬佩“ (詩21 ) 。 Hence God is besought not to give His scepter into the hands of the "non-existing" (τοῖς μὴ οὖσιν; comp. I Cor. viii. 4), and not to make the Jews a laughing-stock to the heathen, but to let the plans of the latter turn against themselves.因此,上帝是央求不給他的心理,把手中的“不存在” ( τοῖς μὴ οὖσιν ;補償。我心病。八。 4 ) ,而不是讓猶太人一大笑股票的異教徒,但我們的計劃,後者反過來又對自己不利。 "Mark him [παρλδιγμάτισον; comp. Heb. vi. 6] who began [to act] against us." “馬克他[ παρλδιγμάτισον ;補償。希伯來。六。 6 ]誰開始[行動]反對我們。 ”

In verse 24 Esther adds a prayer for the success of the petition which, according to Esth.詩24以斯帖增加了祈禱成功的請願書,根據Esth 。 iv.四。 16, she intends to make to the king. "Put orderly speech into my mouth in face of the lion" (the Persian king is thus called also in the Aramaic version of Mordecai's dream; see Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," p. 164, 3; comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] xxv. 16, 19). 16日,她打算向國王。 “把我的講話有序口在面對獅子” (波斯國王也因此所謂的阿拉姆語版本的莫迪凱的夢想;見Merx , “ Chrestomathia Targumica ” ,第164頁, 3 ;補償。 Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ]二十五。 16日, 19日) 。 The object of her petition-to turn the anger of the king against Israel's persecutors-anticipates the events of Esth.她的目的,請願書,把憤怒的國王對以色列的迫害,預計這一事件Esth 。 vii.七。 9. 9 。 She prays God to help her, the desolate one (τῇ μόνῃ; corresponding to in Ps. xxv. 17 [AV 16], where it occurs next to , "lonely and deserted," differing from verse 14, σὺ εἶ μόνος, referring to the singleness of Yhwh), who has no one else to turn to (verse 25).她祈求上帝幫助她,在荒涼的一個( τῇ μόνῃ ;相當於在PS 。二十五。 17 [影音16 ] ,在那裡發生的旁邊, “孤獨和荒涼, ”不同的詩句14 σὺ εἶ μόνος提到單一Yhwh ) ,誰也沒有其他人談談(詩25 ) 。 She refers to the fact that Yhwh knows the splendor of her royal position did not tempt her to yield to the king (in Esth. ii. 7-20 this is not mentioned), but that she submitted to the force of circumstances (verse 25).她提到一個事實,即Yhwh知道她的輝煌皇家立場沒有引誘她屈服於國王(在Esth 。二。 7月20日,這是沒有提及) ,但她提交給該部隊的情況下(詩25 ) 。 She continues by affirming that she hates the glitter of the lawless ones (δόξαν ἀνόμων the ἀνόμων here are the heathen; their δόξα is their power), and abhors the bed of the uncircumcised (verse 26).她繼續申明,她討厭閃耀的無法無天的( δόξαν ἀνόμων的ἀνόμων以下是異教徒,他們δόξα是他們的權力)和憎惡的床上割包皮(詩26 ) 。 Yhwh, she says, knows her distress in being forced to be the king's wife.耶和華,她說,知道她的窘迫而被迫成為國王的妻子。 She abhors the symbol of pride on her head (ie, the royal crown she wears in public); she abhors it like a filthy rag (ὡς ῥάκος κλταμηνίων= ; Isa. lxiv. 5 [AV 6]), and does not wear it when sitting quietly at home (verse 17). Finally, she has not sat at table in Haman's house, nor graced by her presence the banquet of the king (according to the canonical version [ii. 18], Esther kept her own feast); nor did she drink any of the sacrificial wine of the heathen gods (οῦνον σπονδῶν; comp. LXX. Deut. xxxii. 38; Fuller, in Wace, lcp 390, verse 28).她痛恨的象徵,她的頭自豪(即皇冠她戴在公共) ;她痛恨它像一個骯髒的破布( ὡς ῥάκος κλταμηνίων = ;赫伊薩。 lxiv 。 5 [影音6 ] ) ,和不戴它當靜坐在家裡(詩17 ) 。最後,她沒有坐在桌子在咸安的房子,也沒有榮幸地出席了宴會國王(根據典型版本[二。 18 ] ,以斯帖保持自己的節日)也沒有任何她喝葡萄酒的祭祀神的異教徒( οῦνον σπονδῶν ;補償。 LXX 。 Deut 。三十二。 38 ;富勒,在Wace ,液晶390 ,詩28 ) 。 Since her arrival there, God, she says, has been her sole joy.自從她到達那裡,上帝,她說,她唯一已喜悅。 The phrase ἀφ' ἡμήρας μεταβολῆς refers to the change in her dwellingplace (comp. Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," p. 163, 11 [Ryssel]), not to the day of her reception into the royal palace (Esth. ii. 16), as Zöckler and Fuller (in Wace, lcp 390) have it.這句話ἀφ ' ἡμήρας μεταβολῆς指的是改變她dwellingplace ( comp. Merx , “ Chrestomathia Targumica ” ,第163頁, 11 [ Ryssel ] ) ,而不是有一天她接待到皇宮( Esth.二。 16 ) ,作為Zöckler和富勒(在Wace ,液晶390 )獲得通過。 The prayer closes with a petition for a confirmation of faith and a release from all fear (comp. Judith ix. 11).祈禱結束了一份請願書進行確認的信念和釋放所有恐懼( comp.朱迪九。 11 ) 。

Esther Before the King.以斯帖前國王。

Esther's reception by the king (iv. 1-15; Swete, lc pp. 767 et seq.) follows in the Septuagint immediately upon the prayer (xv. 4-19; Vulg. xv. 1-19).以斯帖的酒會由國王( iv. 1月15日; Swete術頁。 767起。 )如下中譯本後立即祈禱( xv. 4月19日; Vulg 。十五。 1月19日) 。 Here the events told in Esth.這裡說的事件在Esth 。 v. 1, 2 are amplified.五, 1 , 2的擴增。 In xv.在十五。 1 (Septuagint) the "third day" corresponds to Esth. 1 (譯本) “第三日”相當於Esth 。 v. 1.五, 1 。 According to Septuagint v. 1 she took off the garments she had worn at divine service; in the apocryphal version (iii. 13) she had put them on.據七十訴1她脫下她的衣服穿在神聖的服務;在未經版本( iii. 13 ) ,她將它們放在。 Divine service consistedin fasting, according to Esth.神聖服務consistedin空腹,根據Esth 。 iv.四。 16; in praying, according to Apocryphal Esther iii. 16日,在祈禱,根據未經證實埃絲特三。 12. In iv. 12 。在四。 1 (Apocr. Esth.) she puts on her royal apparel, to which the crown probably belongs, according to ii. 1 ( Apocr. Esth 。 )她把她的皇家服飾,其中可能屬於官方,根據二。 17. 17 。 After a supplication to God, she appears (iv. 1) accompanied by two handmaidens (ἅβραι= "favorite slaves"; comp. Judith viii. 33); according to Esth.經過祈求上帝,她似乎( iv. 1 )伴隨著兩個handmaidens ( ἅβραι = “最喜愛的奴隸” ;補償。朱迪八。 33 ) ;根據Esth 。 ii.二。 9, she had seven handmaids. 9 ,她7 handmaids 。 In Apocryphal Esther iv.在未經以斯帖四。 2 it is said she was escorted to the king by two maidens, "and upon the one she leaned, as carrying herself daintily" (verse 3: ῶς τρυφευομήνη); "and the other followed, bearing up her train." 2這是說,她在陪同下到國王的兩個姑娘, “和她的一個身子,作為履行自己daintily ” (詩3 : ῶς τρυφευομήνη ) ; “和其他其次,同時她的火車。 ” In the canonical Book of Esther no mention is made of this escort.在典型以斯帖記沒有提到這個護送。

iv.四。 (Apocr. Esth.) describes the impression her beauty produced: she was ruddy through the perfection of her beauty, and her countenance was cheerful and love-kindling; but her heart was heavy with fear of the danger of appearing uncalled before the king (comp. Esth. iv. 11). ( Apocr. Esth 。 )描述了她的美貌產生印象:她是紅潤通過完善她的美貌,她的面容是快樂和愛情點燃;但她的心是沉重的恐懼的危險,出現不必要的前國王(壓縮機。 Esth 。四。 11 ) 。 Having passed through all the doors, she stood before the king, who sat upon his throne clothed in the robes of majesty (see Fuller in Wace, lc; compare the representation of the king on his throne in the picture of Persepolis according to Rawlinson).經歷了所有的門,她站在國王面前,誰坐在他的王位的長袍衣服的國王陛下(見富勒在Wace ,立法會;比較代表國王對他的王位的圖片波塞波里斯根據羅林森) 。 Verse 7: Then, lifting up his countenance (that shone with majesty), he looked very fiercely upon her; and the queen fell down, and was pale, and fainted; after she had regained consciousness she bowed herself upon the head of the maid that went before her.詩歌7 :然後,抬起的面容(即照與陛下) ,他顯得很激烈,她和皇后下降,而且臉色蒼白,暈倒後,她甦醒後,她鞠了一躬自己負責的女僕在她面前說了。 Verse 8: Then God changed the spirit of the king into mildness.詩8 :然後,上帝的精神,改變國王到溫和。 In concern he leaped from his throne, and took her in his arms till she recovered her composure, comforting her with loving words.在關注他躍升至王位,並把她在他的懷裡,她恢復到她的鎮定,安慰她的愛好的話。 In Verse 9 he asks: "Esther, what is the matter? I am thy brother," thereby placing her on the same level with him.詩9他問: “以斯帖,怎麼回事?我是你的兄弟” ,從而使她在同一水平上了他。 In verses 10 et seq.在詩句10起。 he assures her that the death penalty is meant to apply only to the unauthorized entrance of the king's subjects (comp. Esth. iv. 11), and that it does not apply to her: "Thou shalt not die. . . ."他向她說,死刑的目的是只適用於未經授權的入口國王的科目( comp. Esth 。四。 11 ) ,而且它並不適用於她說: “你應該不會死。 。 。 。 ” Touching her neck with his golden scepter, he embraced her, and said, "Speak unto me."在談到她的脖子與他的黃金珽,他擁抱她,說: “給我說話。 ” Then said she unto him, "I saw thee, my lord, as an angel of God [comp. Ezek. viii. 2], and my heart was troubled for fear of thy majesty."然後說,她告訴他, “我看到你,我的上帝,因為上帝的天使[壓縮機。結。八。 2 ] ,和我的心感到不安害怕你陛下。 ” And as she was speaking, she fell down for faintness.和她講,她的微弱下降。 Verse 16: Then the king was troubled, and all his servants comforted her.詩16 :然後,國王感到不安,和他的所有人員安慰她。

The New Edict.新法令。

The king now issues an edict canceling the former edict, and decreeing protection to the Jews (Apocr. Esth. v. 1-24; Vulg. xvi. 1-24; Septuagint addition to viii. 12; comp. Swete, lc pp. 773-775, the amplification of the edict mentioned in Esth. viii. 13).國王現在的問題一項法令,取消前的法令,並頒布保護猶太人( Apocr. Esth 。五, 1月24日; Vulg 。十六。 1月24日;七十除了八。 12 ;補償。 Swete術頁。 773-775 ,擴增的法令中提到的Esth 。八。 13 ) 。 The first edict against the Jews is revoked; its instigator, Haman, is accused of conspiracy against the king; and every aid is ordered to be given to the Jews.第一個法令對猶太人被撤銷;其教唆,咸安,被指控陰謀反對國王;和援助都被命令向猶太人。 Verses 2-4: "Many, the more often they are honored with the great bounty of their gracious princes, the more proud they are waxen, and endeavor to hurt not our subjects only, but, not being able to bear abundance, do take in hand to practise also against those that do them good, and take not only thankfulness away from among men, but also, lifted up with the glorious words of lewd persons that were never good, they think to escape the justice of God, that seeth all things, and hateth evil." Verses 5-6: "Oftentimes, also, fair speech of those that are put in trust to manage their friends' affairs [comp. Jacob in Stade, lcx 283, note 2] hath caused many that are in authority to be partakers of innocent blood, and hath enwrapped them in remediless calamities [comp. I Sam. xxv. 26; II Sam. xvi. 4], beguiling with the falsehood and deceit of their lewd disposition the innocency and goodness of princes."詩篇2-4 : “許多人來說,他們更經常感到很榮幸的偉大懸賞的盛情王子,更感到自豪,他們是蠟,努力傷害不是我們的唯一主體,但不能承擔豐富,不考慮在手練習還對那些好的,並採取不僅感謝遠離男性,而且,取消了具有光榮的下流話的人是從來沒有好,他們認為以逃避正義的上帝,這seeth所有的事情, hateth邪惡。 “詩篇5月6日: ”通常,此外,公平的講話是那些建立信任來管理他們的朋友的事務[壓縮機。雅各布在體育場,迴旋支283 ,注2 ]上帝造成了許多的在權威的partakers的無辜的鮮血,和上帝enwrapped他們不治災害[壓縮機。我薩姆。二十五。 26 ;二薩姆。十六。 4 ] ,欺騙性的謊言和欺騙的猥褻處置的innocency和善良的王子。 “ Verse 7: "Now ye may see this, as we have declared, not so much by ancient histories, as by observing what hath wickedly been done of late through the pestilent behavior of them that are unworthily placed in authority."詩歌7 : “現在你們可以看到這一點,因為我們已經宣布,沒有這麼多古老的歷史,作為觀察什麼上帝壞透做晚通過pestilent行為,他們是unworthily放在權威。 ” Verses 8-9: "We must take care for the time to come that our kingdom may be quiet and peaceable for all men, by changing our purposes and always judging things that are evident with more equal proceeding."詩篇8-9 : “我們必須照顧的時間裡,我們的英國可能是安靜,平和的所有男人,通過改變我們的宗旨和始終判斷是顯而易見的事情,更平等的程序。 ” Verses 10-14: The king had accorded this gentle treatment to Haman, but had been bitterly deceived by him, and was therefore compelled to revoke his former edict.詩篇10月14日:國王給予這種溫柔治療咸安,但已嚴重欺騙他,並因此被迫撤銷其前法令。 (According to Dan. vi. 9, 13 this was inadmissible, but Fuller, lc pp. 397 et seq., cites a number of cases in which it was done. Verse 10 is about Haman, called in i. 17 "the Agagite," here "the Macedonian"; in verse 14 he is accused of having betrayed the Persian empire to the Macedonians.) "For Aman, a Macedonian, the son of Amadatha, being indeed a stranger to the Persian blood [comp. Vulg. "et animo et gente Macedo"], and far distant from our goodness, and a stranger received of us, had so far obtained the favor that we show toward every nation that he was called our 'father,' and was continually honored of all men, as the next person unto the king. He had also been bowed down to [comp. Esth. iii. 2-6]. But he, not bearing his great dignity, went about to deprive us of our kingdom and life; having, by manifold and cunning deceits, sought of us the destruction, as well of Mordecai, who saved our life, and continually procured our good, as of blameless Esther, partaker of our kingdom with the whole nation. For by these means he thought, finding us destitute of friends, to have translated the kingdom of the Persians to the Macedonians." (據丹。六。 9日, 13日,這是不可接受的,但富勒術頁。 397起。 ,並列舉數個案件中,這是許多工作要做。新詩10是咸安,要求在一17 “的Agagite “這裡”馬其頓“的詩句,他是14日被指控犯有背叛了波斯帝國的馬其頓人。 ) ” ,作吉安曼,馬其頓的兒子Amadatha ,確實是一個陌生人正在向波斯灣血液[壓縮機。 Vulg 。 “等animo等gente馬塞” ] ,並從我們遙遠的善良,並收到一個陌生人,我們迄今獲得的青睞,我們表現出對每一個國家,他被稱為我們的父親,並不斷榮幸所有男人,作為下一個人給國王。他還鞠了一躬,以[壓縮機。 Esth 。三。 2-6 ] 。但他沒有考慮他的偉大人格尊嚴,他要剝奪我們的英國和生活;有通過多方面的,狡猾的deceits ,我們尋求的破壞,以及對莫迪凱,誰救了我們的生活,並不斷購買我們的好,因為對無辜以斯帖,關係者的英國與整個國家。如需通過這些手段,他認為,找到我們一貧如洗的朋友,有翻譯王國波斯人的馬其頓。 “ According to these verses Haman was guilty of a threefold sin, since he tried to wrest from the king wife, kingdom, and life.根據這些詩句咸安是犯了三倍罪,因為他試圖奪取國王的妻子,英國和生活。

v. 15-16, 18-19: "But we find that the Jews, whom this wicked wretch hath delivered to utter destruction, are no evil-doers, but live by most just laws; and that they are children of the Most High and Most Mighty God, who hath ordered the kingdom both unto us and to our progenitors in the most excellent manner. Therefore, ye shall do well not to put in execution the letters sent unto you by Aman, the son of Amadatha; for he that was the worker of these things is hanged [ήσταυρωσθσι = "impaled"] at the gates of Susa with all his family [according to Esth. vii. 10, viii. 7, Haman alone was hanged; according to Esth. ix. 10, the Jews killed his ten sons; in Dan. vi. 25 the wives and children were thrown into the lions' den], God, who ruleth all things, speedily rendering vengeance to him according to deserts. Therefore he shall publish the copy of this letter in all places [ἐκτιθήναι; Stade, lcx 282, a phrase used in the promulgation of royal commands], that the Jews may live after their own laws" (comp. Ezra vii. 25 et seq.; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 3, xvi. 6, § 2).五, 15日至16日, 18日至19日: “但我們發現,猶太人,其中這個邪惡壞蛋上帝交付給徹底的破壞,沒有邪惡的事,但生活的最公正的法律,他們是兒童最高級和大多數偉大的上帝,誰下令英國上帝都告訴我們和我們的祖先在最出色的方式。因此,葉應做好不落實執行的信你們的吉安曼的兒子Amadatha ;他說,是工人的這些東西是絞刑[ ήσταυρωσθσι = “ impaled ” ]在蓋茨的蘇薩與所有他的家人[根據Esth 。七。 10八。 7日,咸安僅被絞死;根據Esth 。九。 10 ,猶太人殺死了他的10個兒子,在丹。六。 25的妻子和孩子被扔進獅子'旦] ,上帝,誰ruleth所有的東西,迅速渲染報復他根據沙漠。因此,他應發表的副本信在所有地方[ ἐκτιθήναι ;體育場,迴旋支282 ,一個短語用於皇家頒布命令] ,猶太人生活在自己的法律“ ( comp.以斯拉七。 25起。 ;約瑟夫, ”螞蟻“ 。十二。 3 ,第3條,十六。 6 , § 2 ) 。

v. 20-24: "Ye shall aid them, that even the same day, being the l3th day of the 12th month Adar, they may be avenged on them who in the time of their affliction shall set upon them [comp. Esth. ix. 1; but see above Apocr. Esth. ii. 6, where the 14th day is fixed upon; according to Esth. iii. 13, Haman had appointed the thirteenth day for exterminating the Jews]. For Almighty hath turned to joy unto them the day wherein the chosen people should have perished. Ye shall therefore, among your solemn feasts, keep it an high day with all feasting [following Grotius, Fritzsche, and Ryssel κλήρων (sc. ὴμιν) is to be added after; according to this the Persian king instituted the Jewish Feast of Purim, as a day to be celebrated also by the Persians], that both now and hereafter there may be safety to us [the reading here should be ὑμιν instead of ἡμιν] and the well-affected Persians, and that it may be, to those which do conspire against us, a memorial of destruction. Therefore every city and country whatsoever which shall not do according to these things, shall be destroyed without mercy with fire and sword, and shall be made not only impassable for men, but also most hateful for wild beasts and fowls forever."五, 20日至24日: “葉應幫助他們,即使在同一天,即l3th日的12個月阿達爾,他們可能會報復他們誰在規定的時間內他們的痛苦後,他們應確定[壓縮機。 Esth 。九。 1 ;但在上面看到Apocr 。 Esth 。二。 6 ,在14天的固定後,根據Esth 。三。 13日,咸安已經任命了13天的滅絕猶太人] 。對於全能上帝變成歡樂你們他們一天,其中應該有選擇的人死去。曄,因此應您莊嚴的節日之一,保持了高天與所有盛宴[以下格羅提斯,弗里切,和Ryssel κλήρων ( sc. ὴμιν )是後增加;根據這是波斯國王提起猶太人的普林節,作為慶祝一天也由波斯人] ,即無論是現在和今後可能有安全性,我們[閱讀這裡應該ὑμιν不是ἡμιν ]和良好的影響波斯人,這可能是,那些做陰謀反對我們,一個紀念碑的破壞。因此,每一個城市和國家都不得做根據這些東西,應予以銷毀毫不憐憫與火劍,並應不僅不通的男人,但也最可恨的野生動物和家禽永遠。 “

Interpretation of Mordecai's Dream.解讀莫迪凱的夢想。

In the Septuagint the interpretation of Mordecai's dream is separated from the dream itself, which forms the beginning of the additions, and constitutes the end of the whole apocryphon (vi. 1-10), with verse 11 as subscription (Swete, lc pp. 779 et seq.). In the Vulgate the passage stands at the end of the canonical Book of Ezra (x. 4-11), preceding all other apocryphal additions as well as the dream itself, which here occupies xi.在七十解釋莫迪凱的夢想是分開的夢想本身,形式開始增加,並構成年底整個apocryphon ( vi. 1月10日) ,與詩句11訂閱( Swete術頁。 779條及以下各條) 。 。在武加大通過站結束時的典型以斯拉記(十, 4月11日) ,前面的所有其他未經增加以及自己的夢想,而在這裡佔地十一。 2-11. 2月11日。 Neither dream nor interpretation is found in Josephus.無論是夢想,也沒有解釋是在約瑟夫。 The expression "God hath done these things" (comp. Matt. xxi. 42) refers to the whole story of the Book of Esther.對“上帝做這些事情” ( comp.馬特。二十一。 42 )指的是整個故事的以斯帖記。 Verse 2 refers to the dream told in the beginning of the book, which has been fulfilled in every respect.新詩2指的是夢想的開始說,在這本書,已完成在各個方面。 "The little fountain that became a river" (vi. 3) signifies the elevation of Esther (see i. 9), who became a stream when the king married her and made her queen. “小噴泉,成為一條河” ( vi. 3 )標誌著海拔以斯帖(見一, 9 ) ,誰成為流當國王和她結婚,並作了皇后。 The light and the sun (see i. 10) signify the salvation and joy that Esther brought to the Jews (comp. Esth. viii. 16).鑑於太陽(見一10 )意味著救贖和喜悅以斯帖提請猶太人( comp. Esth 。八。 16 ) 。 The two dragons are Mordecai and Haman.兩龍是莫迪凱和咸安。 The nations that assembled to destroy the name of the Jews (see i. 6) are theheathen (comp. Esth. iii. 6-8).組裝的國家銷毀的名稱猶太人(見一, 6 ) theheathen ( comp. Esth 。三。 6-8 ) 。 "And my nation is this Israel, which cried to God and were saved" (vi. 6; comp. iii. 11). “我的國家是以色列,這哭上帝,並保存” ( vi. 6 ;補償。三。 11 ) 。 "Therefore hath he made two lots, one for the people of God, and another for all the Gentiles" (vi. 7; comp. Esth. iii. 7). “因此,上帝他兩次手,一個是人民的上帝,和另一對所有外邦人” ( vi. 7 ;補償。 Esth 。三。 7 ) 。 "And the two lots were drawn [ἦλϑον; lit. "they came, sprang out at the right time"]: one for his people [Fritzsche and Ryssel add τῷ λαῶ αὐτοῦ], the other for all the other peoples." “這兩個進行抽籤[ ἦλθον ;點燃。 ”他們來了,跳了在合適的時間“ ] :一個為他的人民[弗里切和Ryssel購買τῷ λαῶ αὐτοῦ ] ,其他的所有其他國家的人民。 ” "So God remembered his people and justified [decided in its favor; compare Deut. xxv. 1; I Kings viii. 32; Ecclus. (Sirach) xiii. 22; Vulg. freely rendered, "misertus est"; compare old Latin "salvavit"] his inheritance" (vi.9). “所以上帝記住他的人並說明理由[決定在其主張;比較Deut 。二十五。 1 ;王八。 32 ; Ecclus 。 ( Sirach )十三。 22 ; Vulg 。免費提供, ” misertus預測“ ;比較舊拉丁美洲” salvavit “ ]他的繼承權” ( vi.9 ) 。 "Therefore those days shall be unto them in the month of Adar, the fourteenth and fifteenth day of the same month, with an assembly, and joy, and with gladness before God, according to the generations forever among his people" (vi. 10; comp. Esth. ix. 18, 21). “因此,那些日子裡,應給他們一個月的阿達爾,第十四屆和第十五天的同一個月,同一個大會和喜悅,並與歡樂上帝面前,根據他的幾代人之間永遠” ( vi. 10 ;補償。 Esth 。九。 18日, 21日) 。 In II Macc.在二Macc 。 xv.十五。 36 the fourteenth day is called ἥ Μαρδοχαικὴ ἡμέρα. The subscription, verse 11 (in Swete, ii. 780, inserted in the German Bible between Esther's reception by the king and Ahasuerus' second edict), refers to the whole Book of Esther together with the apocryphal additions, as does also the expression τὴυ προκειμέυηυ ἐπιστολὴυ τῶυ φρουραί (Swete), meaning "the above letter on Purim" (compare Esth. ix. 20, 29). 36第14天被稱為ἥ Μαρδοχαικὴ ἡμέρα 。認購,詩11 (在Swete ,二。 780 ,插入德國聖經以斯帖之間的酒會由國王和Ahasuerus第二法令) ,是指整個以斯帖記連同對未經增加一樣,也表達τὴυ προκειμέυηυ ἐπιστολὴυ τῶυ φρουραί ( Swete ) ,意思是“就上述信函普林” (比較Esth 。九。 20 , 29 ) 。

This letter was taken to Egypt by Dositheus-who called himself a priest and Levite (?)-and his son Ptolemy, who maintained that it was the original (Apocr. Esther).這封信被送到埃及的Dositheus ,誰稱自己是牧師和利未人( ? ) ,和他的兒子托勒密,誰堅持說,它是原來的( Apocr.以斯帖) 。 Lysimachus, Ptolemy's son, an inhabitant of Jerusalem, translated the letter in the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra (according to some in 455; see Fritzsche, lc pp. 72 et seq.).呂西馬古,托勒密的兒子,耶路撒冷的居民,翻譯的文字在第四年統治托勒密與克莉奧佩特拉(據一些在455 ;見弗里切術頁。 72起。 ) 。 Four Ptolemies had wives by the name of Cleopatra (Epiphanes, Philometor, Physkon, and Soter).四托勒密了妻子的名字叫克婁巴特拉(伊皮法尼斯, Philometor , Physkon ,並索特) 。 Soter II.索特二。 lived about that time; but all these notices are untrustworthy; compare, on the date of the letter, Jacob in Stade's "Zeitschrift," x.生活在約時間,但所有這些告示是不可信的;比較,日期的信中,雅各布在體育場的“雜誌, ”十 274-290, especially p. 274-290 ,特別是第 279.EGHCS

Emil G. Hirsch, Carl Siegfried埃米爾赫斯基灣,卡爾齊格弗里德

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


Esther以斯帖

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Haman and Mordecai.咸安和莫迪凱。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The Rabbinic Account.的拉比帳戶。

Mordecai and Esther.莫迪凱和Esther 。

Esther Before Ahasuerus.以斯帖在Ahasuerus 。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

Improbabilities of the Story. Improbabilities的故事。

Probable Date.大概日期。

Name of the chief character in the Book of Esther, derived, according to some authorities, from the Persian "stara" (star); but regarded by others as a modification of "Ishtar," the name of the Babylonian goddess (see below).名稱行政性質的以斯帖記所得,根據一些主管部門,從波斯灣“舊” (明星) ,但被其他人修改“伊什塔爾”的名稱巴比倫女神(見下文) 。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The story of Esther, as given in the book bearing her name, is as follows: The King of Persia, Ahasuerus, had deposed his queen Vashti because she refused, during a festival, toshow at his command her charms before the assembled princes of the realm (i. 10).以斯帖的故事,因為這本書給出了軸承她的名字,如下:國王波斯, Ahasuerus ,廢黜他的王后,因為她拒絕Vashti ,節日期間,在他的指揮toshow她面前的魅力王子的組裝境界(一10 ) 。 Many beautiful maidens were then brought before the king in order that he might choose a successor to the unruly Vashti.許多美麗的姑娘,然後提交給國王,以便他可以選擇的繼任者的不守規矩Vashti 。 He selected Esther as by far the most comely.他選定的埃絲特作為迄今最漂亮的。 The heroine is represented as an orphan daughter of the tribe of Benjamin, who had spent her life among the Jewish exiles in Persia (ii. 5), where she lived under the protection of her cousin Mordecai.女主人公是派一個孤兒女兒部落本傑明,誰花了她的生命之間的猶太人流亡者在波斯(白介素5 ) ,她在那裡住的保護下,她的表哥莫迪凱。 The grand vizier, Haman the Agagite, commanded Mordecai to do obeisance to him.大總督,咸安的Agagite指揮莫迪凱做朝拜他。 Upon Mordecai's refusal to prostrate himself, Haman informed the king that the Jews were a useless and turbulent people and inclined to disloyalty, and he promised to pay 10,000 silver talents into the royal treasury for the permission to pillage and exterminate this alien race.經莫迪凱拒絕俯臥自己,咸安告訴國王說,猶太人是一個無用的和動盪的人,傾向於不忠,他答應支付10000銀色人才庫的皇家權限掠奪和消滅這個外星種族。 The king then issued a proclamation ordering the confiscation of Jewish property and a general extermination of all the Jews within the empire.賈南德拉國王隨後發表了一項公告,宣布訂購沒收猶太人的財產,一般消滅所有猶太人的帝國。 Haman set by lot the day for this outrage (iii. 6), but Mordecai persuaded Esther to undertake the deliverance of her compatriots.咸安通過抽籤確定的日子這一暴行( iii. 6 ) ,但莫迪凱說服以斯帖進行解救她的同胞。

Haman and Mordecai.咸安和莫迪凱。

After a three days' fast observed by the entire Jewish community, the queen, at great personal risk, decided to go before the king and beg him to rescind his decree (iv. 16).經過三天的快速觀察整個猶太社區,女王,冒著極大的個人危險,決定去之前,國王和乞求他取消他的法令( iv. 16 ) 。 Ahasuerus, delighted with her appearance, held out to her his scepter in token of clemency, and promised to dine with her in her own apartments on two successive nights (v. 2-8). Ahasuerus ,高興,她的外貌,她舉行了他的心理,在象徵性的寬大處理,並答應與她吃飯,她自己的公寓連續兩次夜(五2-8 ) 。 On the night before the second banquet, when Esther intended to make her petition, the king, being sleepless, commanded that the national records be read to, him.關於前一天晚上,第二次宴會,當以斯帖旨在使她的請願書,國王,正在不眠之夜,指揮的全國紀錄被理解為,他。 The part which was read touched upon the valuable services of Mordecai (vi. 1 et seq.), who some time before had discovered and revealed to the queen a plot against the king's life devised by two of the chamberlains (ii. 23).的部分內容涉及的是寶貴的服務莫迪凱( vi. 1起。 ) ,誰一段時間才能發現,並透露給英國女王的陰謀反對國王的生活設計的兩個侍從(白介素23 ) 。 For this, by some unexplained oversight, Mordecai had received no reward.為此,一些原因不明的監督,莫迪凱還沒有收到任何報酬。 In the meantime the queen had invited the grand vizier to the banquet.與此同時,英國女王已邀請大總督的宴會。 When Haman, who was much pleased at the unusual honor shown him by the queen, appeared before the king to ask permission to execute Mordecai at once, Ahasuerus asked him, "What shall be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"當咸安,誰是更高興的是,不同尋常的榮譽表明他的皇后,出現在國王,要求允許執行莫迪凱一次, Ahasuerus問他, “應做什麼的人誰國王delighteth兌現? ” Haman, thinking that the allusion was to himself, suggested a magnificent pageant, at which one of the great nobles should serve as attendant (vi. 9).咸安,以為是針對自己,提出了宏偉的選美,在一個偉大的貴族應充當服務員( vi. 9 ) 。 The king immediately adopted the suggestion, and ordered Haman to act as chief follower in a procession in honor of Mordecai (vi. 10).國王立即通過了建議,並下令咸安作為首席追隨者在遊行紀念莫迪凱( vi. 10 ) 。

The next day at the banquet, when Esther preferred her request, both the king and the grand vizier learned for the first time that the queen was a Jewess.第二天,在宴會上,當以斯帖傾向於她的請求,國王和大總督教訓首次女王是一個Jewess 。 Ahasuerus granted her petition at once and ordered that Haman be hanged on the gibbet which the latter had prepared for his adversary Mordecai (vii.). Ahasuerus給予她的請願書,並下令立即被絞死的咸安的絞架後者編寫了他的對手莫迪凱( vii. ) 。 Mordecai was then made grand vizier, and through his and Esther's intervention another edict was issued granting to the Jews the power to pillage and to slay their enemies.莫迪凱於是大總督,並通過他和Esther的干預另一法令頒布給予猶太人的權力,掠奪和殺死他們的敵人。

Before the day set for the slaughter arrived a great number of persons, in order to avoid the impending disaster, became Jewish proselytes, and a great terror of the Jews spread all over Persia (viii. 17).前一天定為屠宰抵達了大量的人,為了避免即將發生的災難,成為猶太proselytes ,偉大的恐怖猶太人遍及波斯( viii. 17 ) 。

The Jews, assisted by the royal officers, who feared the king, were eminently successful in slaying their enemies (ix. 11), but refused to avail themselves of their right to plunder (ix. 16).猶太人的協助下,英國皇家軍官,誰擔心國王,是非常成功地殺害他們的敵人( ix. 11 ) ,但他拒絕利用自己的權利掠奪( ix. 16 ) 。 The queen, not content with a single day's slaughter, then requested the king to grant to her people a second day of vengeance, and begged that the bodies of Haman's ten sons, who had been slain in the fray, be hanged on the gibbet (ix. 13).英國女王,而不是內容單一一天的屠宰,然後請國王授予她的人連續第二個交易日的報復,並請求該機構的咸安的10個兒子,誰是被害的競爭,被處以絞刑的絞架(九。 13 ) 。 Esther and Mordecai, acting with "all authority" (ix. 29), then founded the yearly feast of Purim, held on the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar as a joyous commemoration of the deliverance of their race.EGHJDP以斯帖和莫迪凱,代理的“一切權力” ( ix. 29 ) ,然後成立了節日普珥節每年舉行的第十四屆和第十五的阿達爾作為喜慶紀念解脫他們的race.EGHJDP

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The story of Esther-typical in many regards of the perennial fate of the Jews, and recalled even more vividly by their daily experience than by the annual reading of theMegillah at Purim-invited, both by the brevity of some parts of the narrative and by the associations of its events with the bitter lot of Israel, amplifications readily supplied by popular fancy and the artificial interpretation of Biblical verse.以斯帖的故事,典型的在許多方面的長期命運的猶太人,並回顧了更加生動的日常經驗,而不是每年讀theMegillah在普珥節的邀請,既簡潔的某些部分的說明和該協會的活動,痛苦的許多以色列,擴增隨時提供流行花式和人工判讀的聖經詩句。 The additions to Esther in the (Greek) Apocrypha have their counterparts in the post-Biblical literature of the Jews, and while it is certain that the old assumption of a Hebrew original for the additions in the Greek Book of Esther is not tenable (see Kautzsch, "Die Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," i. 194), it is not clear that the later Jewish amplifications are adaptations of Greek originals.該補充以斯帖在(希臘)偽經已同行後聖經文學的猶太人,而可以肯定的是,舊的假設希伯來原來的補充,在希臘以斯帖記是站不住腳的(見Kautzsch , “模具Apocryphen與Pseudepigraphen萬老聖經”一194 ) ,目前尚不清楚後來猶太人擴增是改編希臘正本。

The following post-Biblical writings have to be considered:以下後聖經的著作,必須考慮:

(1) The first Targum. ( 1 )第一根。 The Antwerp and Paris polyglots give a different and longer text than the London.安特衛普和巴黎polyglots給予不同的和長期的文字比倫敦。 The best edition is by De Lagarde (reprinted from the first Venice Bible) in "Hagiographa Chaldaice," Leipsic, 1873.最好的版本是由者拉嘉德(轉載自第一屆威尼斯聖經)在“ Hagiographa Chaldaice , ” Leipsic , 1873年。 The date of the first Targum is about 700 (see S. Posner, "Das Targum Rishon," Breslau, 1896).日期的第一根約700 (見S.波斯納, “達斯根裡, ”布雷斯勞, 1896年) 。

(2) Targum Sheni (the second; date about 800), containing material not germane to the Esther story. ( 2 )根社(第二;迄今約800人) ,材料沒有密切關係的以斯帖的故事。 This may be characterized as a genuine and exuberant midrash.這可能會被定性為一個真正的和旺盛米德拉士。 Edited by De Lagarde (in "Hagiographa Chaldaice," Berlin, 1873) and by P. Cassel ("Aus Literatur und Geschichte," Berlin and Leipsic, 1885, and "Das Buch Esther," Berlin, 1891, Ger. transl.).編輯者拉嘉德(在“ Hagiographa Chaldaice , ”柏林, 1873年)和由P.卡塞爾( “澳大利亞文學與歷史, ”柏林和Leipsic , 1885年,和“愛之書” ,柏林, 1891年,德國。譯。 ) 。

(3) Babylonian Talmud, Meg. ( 3 )巴比倫塔木德,梅格。 10b-14a. 10B條- 14A條。

(4) Pirḳe R. El. ( 4 ) Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。 49a, 50 (8th cent.). 49A條, 50 (第8次左右。 ) 。

(5) Yosippon (beginning of 10th cent.; see Zunz, "GV" pp. 264 et seq.). ( 5 ) Yosippon (年初十左右。 ;見Zunz , “顆粒”頁。 264起。 ) 。

(6) Midr. ( 6 ) Midr 。 R. to Esther (probably 11th cent.).河至以斯帖(大概11左右。 ) 。

(7) Midr. ( 7 ) Midr 。 Leḳaḥ Ṭob (Buber, "Sifre di-Agadta," Wilna, 1880). Leḳaḥ Ṭob (布伯, “ Sifre滌Agadta ” Wilna , 1880年) 。

(8) Midr. ( 8 ) Midr 。 Abba Gorion (Buber, lc; Jellinek, "BH" i. 1-18).阿巴埃Gorion (布伯,立法會;耶林涅克, “波黑”一, 1月18日) 。

(9) Midr. ( 9 ) Midr 。 Teh.那個。 to Ps.到PS 。 xxii.二十二。

(10) Midr. ( 10 ) Midr 。 Megillat Esther (ed. by Horwitz in his "Sammlung Kleiner Midrashim," Berlin, 1881). Megillat埃絲特(編的霍維茨在他的“美術館克萊納米大示, ”柏林, 1881年) 。

(11) Ḥelma de Mordekai (Aramaic: Jellinek, "BH" v. 1-8; De Lagarde, lc pp. 362-365; Ad. Merx, "Chrestomathia Targumica," 1888, pp. 154 et seq.). ( 11 ) Ḥelma日Mordekai (阿拉姆語:耶利內克, “波黑”五1-8 ;者拉嘉德術頁。 362-365 ;廣告。 Merx , “ Chrestomathia Targumica , ” 1888年,頁。 154起。 ) 。

(12) Yalḳ. ( 12 ) Yalḳ 。 Shim'oni to Esther. Shim'oni至以斯帖。

The Rabbinic Account.的拉比帳戶。

With the omission of what more properly belongs under Ahasuerus, Haman, and Mordecai, the following is briefly the story of Esther's life as elaborated by these various midrashim: A foundling or an orphan, her father dying before her birth, her mother at her birth, Esther was reared in the house of Mordecai, her cousin, to whom, according to some accounts, she was even married (the word , Esth. ii. 7, being equal to = "house," which is frequently used for "wife" in rabbinic literature).與遺漏什麼更合適屬於下Ahasuerus ,咸安,和莫迪凱,以下是簡短的故事,以斯帖的生活的詳細規定,這些不同的米大示:一個棄兒或孤兒,她的父親臨終前她出生,她的母親在她出生,以斯帖被飼養在眾議院的莫迪凱,她的表弟,他們根據一些帳戶,她甚至結婚(這個詞, Esth 。二。 7 ,等於= “房子” ,這是經常使用的“妻子“在猶太文獻) 。 Her original name was "Hadassah" (myrtle), that of "Esther" being given her by the star-worshipers, as reflecting her sweet character and the comeliness of her person. When the edict of the king was promulgated, and his eunuchs scoured the country in search of a new wife for the monarch, Esther, acting on her own judgment or upon the order of Mordecai, hid herself so as not to be seen of men, and remained in seclusion for four years, until even God's voice urged her to repair to the king's palace, where her absence had been noticed.她原來的名字是“沙龍” (紫薇) ,即“以斯帖”正在考慮她的明星禮拜,反映她的性格和甜美的合宜她的人。當國王法令的頒布,他的宦官搜羅該國在尋求新的妻子的君主,以斯帖,代理對自己的判斷,或根據該命令的莫迪凱,隱瞞自己,以便不被視為男子,仍留在隔離了四年,直到甚至上帝的聲音敦促她修復國王的宮殿,她沒有被發現。 Her appearance among the candidates for the queen's vacant place causes a commotion, all feeling that with her charms none can compete; her rivals even make haste to adorn her.她的外表的候選人中的皇后空缺的地方引起騷動,所有的感覺是,她的魅力,絕沒有人能競爭;她的對手甚至趕快來裝飾自己。 She spurns the usual resources for enhancing her beauty, so that the keeper of the harem becomes alarmed lest he be accused of neglect.她spurns通常的資源,加強她的美貌,使掌后宮成為震驚,以免他被指責忽視。 He therefore showers attentions upon her, and places at her disposal riches never given to others.因此,他陣雨關注她,並把她處置財富從來沒有放棄給他人。 But she will not be tempted to use the king's goods, nor will she eat of the king's food, being a faithful Jewess; together with her maids (seven, according to the number of the week-days and of the planets) she continues her modest mode of living.但是,她不會受到誘惑而使用國王的貨物,也將她的國王吃的食物,是一個忠實Jewess ;連同她的女傭( 7 ,根據一些一周天的行星) ,她繼續她的溫和的方式生活。 When her turn comes to be ushered into the royal presence, Median and Persian women flank her on both sides, but her beauty is such that the decision in her favor is at once assured.當輪到她被領進皇家存在,中位數和波斯婦女側翼雙方她,但她的美貌是如此,這一決定在她的主張是一次保證。 The king has been in the habit of comparing the charms of the applicants with a picture of Vashti suspended over his couch, and up to the time when Esther approaches him none has eclipsed the beauty of his beheaded spouse.國王一直比較習慣的魅力的申請人的照片Vashti暫停了他的沙發,以及時為止埃絲特辦法都沒有超過他的美麗他斬首配偶。 But at the sight of Esther he at once removes the picture.但在看到他一次以斯帖刪除圖片。 Esther, true to Mordecai's injunction, conceals her birth from her royal consort.以斯帖,忠於莫迪凱的禁令,隱瞞從她出生皇家勾勾搭搭。 Mordecai was prompted to give her this command by the desire not to win favors as Esther's cousin.莫迪凱是提示給她這個命令的願望不能贏得有利的以斯帖的堂兄。 The king, of course, is very desirous of learning all about her antecedents, but Esther, after vouchsafing him the information that she, too, is of princely blood, turns the conversation, by a few happy counter-questions regarding Vashti, in a way to leave the king's curiosity unsatisfied.國王,當然是非常渴望學習她的前身所有,但埃斯特後, vouchsafing他的資料,她也是王侯血,原來的談話,由少數幾個高興反Vashti問題,在一個方式離開國王的好奇心不滿意。

Mordecai and Esther.莫迪凱和Esther 。

Still Ahasuerus will not be baffled.仍然Ahasuerus不會感到困惑。 Consulting Mordecai, he endeavors to arouse Esther's jealousy-thinking that this will loosen her tongue-by again gathering maidens in his courtyard, as though he is ready to mete out to her the fate of her unfortunate predecessor. But even under this provocation Esther preserves her silence. Mordecai's daily visits to the courtyard are for the purpose of ascertaining whether Esther has remained true to the precepts of her religion.諮詢莫德,他竭力喚起以斯帖的嫉妒,思想放鬆,這將她的舌頭,再次收集少女在他的庭院,彷彿他願意為了給予她的命運,她不幸的前任。但是,即使根據本挑釁埃絲特保存她沉默。莫迪凱的每日訪問庭院的目的是確定是否以斯帖仍然忠實於她的宗教戒律。 She had not eaten forbidden food, preferring a diet of vegetables, and had otherwise scrupulously observed the Law.她沒有禁止吃的食物,更喜歡蔬菜的飲食,並嚴格遵守,否則法。 When the crisis came Mordecai-who had, by his refusal to bow to Haman or, rather, to the image of an idol ostentatiously displayed on his breast (Pirḳe R. El. lxix.), brought calamity upon the Jews-appeared in his mourning garments, and Esther, frightened, gave birth to a still-born child.當危機來莫迪凱是誰了,他拒絕屈從於咸安,或者相反,以形象的偶像誇耀顯示在他的胸膛( Pirḳe河薩爾瓦多。 lxix 。 ) ,禍國殃民的猶太人,在他看來悼念服裝,和Esther ,嚇壞了,為他生下一個仍然出生的孩子。 To avoid gossip she sent Hatach instead of going herself to ascertain the cause of the trouble.為了避免閒話,她發出Hatach ,而不是自己,以確定導致故障。 This Hatach was afterward met by Haman and slain.這是事後Hatach滿足咸安和殺害。 Still Mordecai had been able to tell Hatach his dream, that Esther would be the little rill of water separating the two fighting monsters, and that the rill would grow to be a large stream flooding the earth-a dream he had often related to her in her youth.仍然莫迪凱已經能夠告訴Hatach他的夢想,這以斯帖將小溝的水分開的兩個戰鬥的怪物,而且溝將發展成為一個大型河流洪水地球的夢想,他經常與她的她的青年。

Esther Before Ahasuerus.以斯帖在Ahasuerus 。

Mordecai called upon her to pray for her people and then intercede with the king.莫迪凱呼籲她祈禱,她說情的人,然後與國王。 Though Pesaḥ was near, and the provision of Megillat Ta'anit forbidding fasting during this time could not be observed without disregarding Mordecai's plea, she overcame her cousin's scruples by a very apt counter-question, and at her request all the Jews "that had on that day already partaken of food" observed a rigid fast, in spite of (Esth. iv. 17) the feast-day (Pesaḥ), while Mordecai prayed and summoned the children and obliged even them to abstain from food, so that they cried out with loud voices.雖然Pesaḥ附近,並提供Megillat空腹Ta'anit禁止在此期間不能無視莫迪凱觀察的請求,她克服了她表弟的顧忌了非常恰當的反問題,並在她的要求所有的猶太人“了在這一天已經partaken食品“觀察剛性快速,儘管( Esth.四。 17 )節日天( Pesaḥ ) ,而祈禱,並傳喚莫迪凱的兒童和他們甚至不得不投棄權票,從食品,使他們哭了響亮的聲音。 Esther in the meantime put aside her jewels and rich dresses, loosenedher hair, fasted, and prayed that she might be successful in her dangerous errand.以斯帖同時放下她的珠寶和豐富的服裝, loosenedher頭髮,禁食,禱告,她可能是成功的,她危險差事。 On the third day, with serene mien she passed on to the inner court, arraying herself (or arrayed by the "Holy Ghost," Esth. Rabbah) in her best, and taking her two maids, upon one of whom, according to court etiquette, she leaned, while the other carried her train.第三天,她與寧靜的風采傳遞到內院,排列本人(或陣列的“聖靈” , Esth 。安曼)在她的最好的,並考慮她的兩個女傭後,其中一人,根據法院禮儀,她身子,而她的其他列車進行。 As soon as she came abreast with the idols (perhaps an anti-Christian insinuation) the "Holy Ghost" departed from her, so that she exclaimed, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"當她來到與時俱進的偶像(也許反基督教含沙射影)的“聖靈”離開她,使她叫道, “哎呀,我的上帝,你為什麼你拋棄我? ” (Ps. xxii. 1); thereupon, repenting having called the enemy "dog," she now named him "lion," and was accompanied by three angels to the king. ( Ps.二十二。 1 ) ;於是,所謂的懺悔了敵人“狗” ,她現在給他取名“獅子” ,並伴隨著三個天使國王。 Ahasuerus attempted to ignore her, and turned his face away, but an angel forced him to look at her. Ahasuerus試圖忽視她,把他的臉了,但天使強迫他望著她。 She, however, fainted at the sight of his flushed face and burning eyes, and leaned her head on her handmaid, expecting to hear her doom pronounced; but God increased her beauty to such an extent that Ahasuerus could not resist.她,然而,暈倒在看到他的臉和燃燒通紅的眼睛,和她的頭靠在她的侍女,希望聽到她的末日宣判;但上帝增加她的美麗,以至於Ahasuerus無法抗拒。 An angel lengthened the scepter so that Esther might touch it: she invited the king to her banquet.一個天使延長珽,使埃絲特可能觸摸它:她請國王她宴會。 Why Haman was invited the Rabbis explain in various ways.為什麼咸安的拉比被邀請以各種方式解釋。 She desired to make the king jealous by playing the lover to Haman, which she did at the feast, planning to have him killed even though she should share his fate.她期望,使國王嫉妒發揮情人到咸安,她沒有在節日,策劃暗殺他,即使她應該分享他的命運。 At the supreme moment, when she denounced Haman, it was an angel that threw Haman on the couch, though he intended to kneel before the queen; so that the king, suspecting an attempt upon the virtue and life of his queen, forthwith ordered him to be hanged.在最高法院的時刻,當她譴責咸安,這是一個天使的投擲咸安在沙發上,但他打算跪在英國女王;使國王,懷疑企圖的美德和生活的他皇后,立即命令他絞刑。

To the Rabbis Esther is one of the four most beautiful women ever created.向拉比以斯帖是四個有史以來最美麗的婦女創造。 She remained eternally young; when she married Ahasuerus she was at least forty years of age, or even, according to some, eighty years (她仍然永遠年輕,當她嫁給Ahasuerus她至少四十年的年齡,甚至,根據一些,八十年( = 5, = 5 , = 60, = 60 , = 4, = 4 , = 5 = 74 years; hence her name "Hadassah"). = 5 = 74歲,因此她的名字“沙龍” ) 。 She is also counted among the prophetesses of Israel.她還指望在prophetesses以色列。

Critical View:批評的看法:

As to the historical value of the foregoing data, opinions differ. Comparatively few modern scholars of note consider the narrative of Esther to rest on an historical foundation.至於歷史價值的上述數據,見仁見智。相對較少現代學者的注意考慮的說明以斯帖休息的歷史基礎。 The most important names among the more recent defenders of the historicity of the book are perhaps Hävernick, Keil, Oppert, and Orelli.最重要的名字在最近的維護者的歷史性的書籍,也許是Hävernick , Keil公司, Oppert ,並Orelli 。 The vast majority of modern expositors have reached the conclusionthat the book is a piece of pure fiction, although some writers qualify their criticism by an attempt to treat it as a historical romance.絕大多數的現代expositors已達到conclusionthat這本書是一部純粹的小說,但也有一些作家有資格批評他們,企圖把它作為一個歷史傳奇。 The following are the chief arguments showing the impossibility of the story of Esther:以下是顯示的主要論點是不可能的愛的故事:

Improbabilities of the Story. Improbabilities的故事。

1. It is now generally recognized that the Ahasuerus (), mentioned in Esther, in Ezra iv. 1 。現在人們普遍認識到, Ahasuerus ( )中提到的以斯帖,在以斯拉四。 6, and in Dan. 6 ,並在丹。 ix.九。 1, is identical with the Persian king known as Xerxes (Ξέρζης, "Khshayarha"), who reigned from 485 to 464 BC; but it is impossible to find any historical parallel for a Jewish consort to this king. 1 ,相同的波斯國王薛西斯稱為( Ξέρζης , “ Khshayarha ” ) ,誰統治從公元前485到464 ,但是這是不可能找到任何歷史平行的一個猶太配偶這一國王。 Some critics formerly identified Esther with Amastris (Ionic, "Amestris"), who is mentioned by Herodotus (viii. 114, ix. 110; compare Ctesias, 20) as the queen of Xerxes at the time when Esther, according to Esth.一些批評與以前確定的埃絲特Amastris (離子, “ Amestris ” ) ,誰是提到希羅多德( viii. 114 ,九。 110 ;比較Ctesias , 20 )作為英國女王的薛西斯時以斯帖,根據Esth 。 ii. 6, became the wife of Ahasuerus.二。 6 ,成為妻子Ahasuerus 。 Amastris, however, was the daughter of a Persian general and, therefore, not a Jewess. Amastris然而,女兒的波斯一般,因此,不是一個Jewess 。 Furthermore, the facts of Amastris' reign do not agree with the Biblical story of Esther.此外,事實Amastris '在位不同意聖經故事以斯帖。 Besides all this, it is impossible to connect the two names etymologically.除了這一切,這是不可能來連接這兩個名字etymologically 。 M'Clymont (Hastings, "Dict. Bible," i. 772) thinks it possible that Esther and Vashti may have been merely the chief favorites of the harem, and are consequently not mentioned in parallel historical accounts. M'Clymont (黑斯廷斯, “快譯通。聖經”一772 )認為這可能是以斯帖和Vashti可能已不僅僅是行政最愛的后宮,並因此沒有提到平行歷史帳戶。

It is very doubtful whether the haughty Persian aristocracy, always highly influential with the monarch, would have tolerated the choice of a Jewish queen and a Jewish prime minister (Mordecai), to the exclusion of their own class-not to speak of the improbability of the prime ministry of Haman the Agagite, who preceded Mordecai. "Agagite" can only be interpreted here as synonymous with "Amalekite" (compare "Agag," king of the Amalekites, the foe of Saul, I Sam. xv. 8, 20, 32; Num. xxiv. 7; see Agag).這是非常值得懷疑波斯貴族的高傲,始終高度影響力的君主,會容忍選擇一個猶太王后和一個猶太總理(莫迪凱) ,而排除了自己的階級,而不是談論不大可能總理的咸安的Agagite ,誰之前莫迪凱。 “ Agagite ”只能解釋為在這裡的同義詞“ Amalekite ” (比較“ Agag , ”國王的亞瑪力人,在敵人的掃羅,我薩姆。十五。 8 , 20 , 32 ;序號。二十四。 7 ;見Agag ) 。 Oppert's attempt to connect the term "Agagite" with "Agaz," a Median tribe mentioned by Sargon, can not be taken seriously. Oppert的嘗試連接“一詞Agagite ”與“ Agaz , ”中位數部落提到薩爾貢,不可當真。 The term, as applied to Haman, is a gross anachronism; and the author of Esther no doubt used it intentionally as a fitting name for an enemy of Israel.這一術語,適用於咸安,是嚴重落後於時代;和作者以斯帖毫無疑問用它有意作為一個合適的名稱,以色列的敵人。 In the Greek version of Esther, Haman is called a Macedonian.在希臘版本以斯帖,咸安稱為馬其頓。

2. Perhaps the most striking point against the historical value of the Book of Esther is the remarkable decree permitting the Jews to massacre their enemies and fellow subjects during a period of two days. 2 。也許最突出的一點對歷史價值的以斯帖記是顯著的法令,允許猶太人大屠殺他們的敵人和研究員科目在為期兩天。 If such an extraordinary event had actually taken place, should not some confirmation of the Biblical account have been found in other records?如果這樣一個尋常的事件實際上已經發生,不應一些確認聖經帳戶已發現的其他記錄? Again, could the king have withstood the attitude of the native nobles, who would hardly have looked upon such an occurrence without offering armed resistance to their feeble and capricious sovereign?再次,可以頂住國王的態度,本土貴族,誰也不會希望發生這種事情後,沒有提供他們的武裝抵抗無力和變化無常的主權? A similar objection may be made against the probability of the first edict permitting Haman the Amalekite to massacre all the Jews.以同樣的理由,可對概率第一法令允許咸安的Amalekite屠殺所有猶太人。 Would there not be some confirmation of it in parallel records?還會有一些不確認它平行記錄? This whole section bears the stamp of free invention.這整段承擔郵票自由發明。

3. Extraordinary also is the statement that Esther did not reveal her Jewish origin when she was chosen queen (ii. 10), although it was known that she came from the house of Mordecai, who was a professing Jew (iii. 4), and that she maintained a constant communication with him from the harem (iv. 4-17). 3 。特別也是聲明以斯帖沒有透露她的猶太血統,她被選為皇后(白介素10 ) ,但據了解,她來自眾議院莫迪凱,誰是信奉猶太人( iii. 4 ) ,和她保持經常溝通,他從后宮( iv. 4月17日) 。

4. Hardly less striking is the description of the Jews by Haman as being "dispersed among the people in all provinces of thy kingdom" and as disobedient "to the king's laws" (iii. 8). 4 。引人注目的是,幾乎不到的描述猶太人的咸安為“在人民群眾中分散在各個省份的你的王國”和不聽話“國王的法律” ( iii. 8 ) 。 This certainly applies more to the Greek than to the Persian period, in which the Diaspora had not yet begun and during which there is no record of rebellious tendencies on the part of the Jews against the royal authority.這當然更適用於希臘比波斯時期,其中散居尚未開始,並在這期間沒有任何記錄叛逆傾向的部分猶太人對皇家權威。

5. Finally, in this connection, the author's knowledge of Persian customs is not in keeping with contemporary records. 5 。最後,在這方面,作者的知識波斯海關不符合當代的記錄。 The chief conflicting points are as follows:首席衝突點如下:

(a) Mordecai was permitted free access to his cousin in the harem, a state of affairs wholly at variance with Oriental usage, both ancient and modern. (一)莫迪凱被允許自由進入他的表姐在后宮,一個國家的事務完全不符合東方的使用,無論古代和現代。

(b) The queen could not send a message to her own husband (!). ( b )在皇后不能將消息發送給自己的丈夫( ! ) 。

(c) The division of the empire into 127 provinces contrasts strangely with the twenty historical Persian satrapies. ( c )該司的帝國到127省份對比奇怪的歷史與21世紀波斯總督管轄。

(d) The fact that Haman tolerated for a long time Mordecai's refusal to do obeisance is hardly in accordance with the customs of the East. Any native venturing to stand in the presence of a Turkish grand vizier would certainly be severely dealt with without delay. ( d )在事實咸安容忍了很長一段時間莫迪凱拒絕做頓首很難按照海關的東方。任何本地冒險站在在場的土耳其大獎賽總督肯定會嚴肅處理,不要拖延。

(e) This very refusal of Mordecai to prostrate himself belongs rather to the Greek than to the earlier Oriental period, when such an act would have involved no personal degradation (compare Gen. xxiii. 7, xxxiii. 3; Herodotus, vii. 136). ( e )這一非常拒絕莫迪凱以俯臥屬於自己,而希臘,而不是先前的東方時期,這種行為本來不涉及個人退化(比較將軍二十三。 7 ,三十三。 3 ;希羅多德,七。 136 ) 。

(f) Most of the proper names in Esther which are given as Persian appear to be rather of Semitic than of Iranian origin, in spite of Oppert's attempt to explain many of them from the Persian (compare, however, Scheftelowitz, "Arisches im Alten Testament," 1901, i.). ( F )的最適當的名字埃絲特其中給出了波斯似乎相當的猶太人比原籍伊朗,儘管Oppert試圖解釋,其中不少來自波斯(比較,但是, Scheftelowitz , “老Arisches即時通訊全書“ , 1901年,一) 。

Probable Date.大概日期。

In view of all the evidence the authority of the Book of Esther as a historical record must be definitely rejected.鑑於所有證據的權力以斯帖記作為歷史記錄必須絕對拒絕。 Its position in the canon among the Hagiographa or "Ketubim" is the only thing which has induced Orthodox scholars to defend its historical character at all. Even the Jews of the first and second centuries of the common era questioned its right to be included among the canonical books of the Bible (compare Meg. 7a).其在佳能的Hagiographa或“ Ketubim ”是唯一具有誘導東正教學者捍衛其歷史特徵的。即使是猶太人的第一和第二個世紀的共同時代質疑其權利被列入典型的書籍,聖經(比較梅格。 7A條) 。 The author makes no mention whatever of God, to whom, in all the other books of the Old Testament, the deliverance of Israel is ascribed.作者沒有提到任何的上帝,人,在所有其他書籍舊約,該解脫歸咎於以色列。 The only allusion in Esther to religion is the mention of fasting (iv. 16, ix. 31).唯一的典故在以斯帖宗教是提到空腹( iv. 16九。 31 ) 。 All this agrees with the theory of a late origin for the book, as it is known, for example, from Ecclesiastes, that the religious spirit had degenerated even in Judea in the Greek period, to which Esther, like Daniel, in all probability belongs.所有這一切都同意理論晚原產地書,因為它是已知的,例如,從傳道書,該宗教精神已墮落,即使在朱迪亞,在希臘期間,該以斯帖,如丹尼爾,在所有的概率屬於。

Esther could hardly have been written by a contemporary of the Persian empire, because (1) of the exaggerated way in which not only the splendor of the court, but all the events described, are treated (compare the twelve months spent by the maidens in adorning themselves for the king; the feasts of 187 days, etc., all of which point rather to the past than to a contemporary state of affairs); (2) the uncomplimentary details given about a great Persian king, who is mentioned by name, would not have appeared during his dynasty.以斯帖很難寫的一種當代的波斯帝國,因為( 1 )誇張的方式,不僅是法院的輝煌,但所有描述的事件,是治療(比較的12個月內所花的姑娘在裝飾自己的國王;的節日187天,等等,所有這些點,而過去,而不是當代國家的事務) ; ( 2 ) uncomplimentary細節一個偉大的波斯國王,誰提到的名字,就不會出現在他的王朝。

It is difficult to go so far as Grätz, who assignsEsther to an adherent of the Maccabean party in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. The vast difference in religious and moral tone between Esther and Daniel-the latter a true product of Antiochus' reign-seems to make such a theory impossible.很難竟然格拉茨,誰assignsEsther的粘附的Maccabean黨統治安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯。迥然不同,在宗教和道德基調和丹尼爾之間以斯帖,後者一個真正的產品安提阿哥'統治,似乎作出這樣的理論是不可能的。 Nor is the view of Jensen, followed by Nöldeke, more convincing to the unprejudiced mind.也不是詹森的觀點,其次是Nöldeke ,更有說服力的偏見銘記。 He endeavors to prove that the origin of the whole story lies in a Babylonian-Elamitic myth.他竭力證明,原產地的整個故事是在巴比倫, Elamitic神話。 He identifies Esther with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar (Aphrodite); Mordecai with Marduk, the tutelary deity of Babylon; and Haman with Hamman or Humman, the chief god of the Elamites, in whose capital, Susa, the scene is laid; while Vashti is also supposed to be an Elamite deity.他指出以斯帖的巴比倫女神伊什塔爾(阿芙羅狄蒂) ;莫迪凱與馬爾杜克的監護神巴比倫;和咸安與哈曼或Humman ,首席神Elamites ,在其首都蘇薩,現場為下崗;而Vashti是還應該是一個埃蘭文神。 Jensen considers that the Feast of Purim, which is the climax of the book, may have been adapted from a similar Babylonian festival by the Jews, who Hebraized the original Babylonian legend regarding the origin of the ceremonies.詹森認為,普林節,這是高潮,這本書,可能已做過調整,由一個類似的巴比倫藝術節的猶太人,誰Hebraized原來巴比倫傳說關於原產地的儀式。 The great objection to such a theory is that no Babylonian festival corresponding with the full moon of the twelfth month is known.偉大的反對這樣的理論是,沒有相應的巴比倫藝術節與滿月的第十二個是眾所周知的。

The object of Esther is undoubtedly to give an explanation of and to exalt the Feast of Purim, of whose real origin little or nothing is known.以斯帖的對象無疑是作出解釋和發揚普林節,其真正的起源知之甚少或一無所知是眾所周知的。 See Megillah; Purim.見Megillah ;普林。

Emil G. Hirsch, John Dyneley Prince, Solomon Schechter埃米爾赫斯基灣,約翰Dyneley王子,索羅門謝克特

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the OT pp.驅動程序,介紹文學加時賽頁。 449 et seq.; Cheyne, Esther, in Encyc. 449起。 ;進益,以斯帖,在Encyc 。 Brit.英。 1878; Founders of Old Testament Criticism, pp. 1878年,創始人舊約批評,頁。 359 et seq.; Kuenen, Onderzoek, iii. 359起。 ; Kuenen , Onderzoek ,三。 551 et seq.; Lagarde, Purim, in Abhandlungen, der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Göttingen, 1887; Wildeboer, Esther, in Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; Toy, Esther as a Babylonian Goddess, in New World, vi. 551起。 ;拉嘉德,普珥節,在Abhandlungen ,德國Königlichen德國格廷根祖之學問,哥廷根, 1887年; Wildeboer ,以斯帖,在Nowack的Handkommentar zum老全書;玩具,以斯帖作為巴比倫女神,在新的世界,六。 130-145; Nöldeke, Esther, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc. 130-145 ; Nöldeke ,以斯帖,在陳和黑色, Encyc 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 ii.二。 1400-1407; M'Clymont, in Hastings, Dict. 1400年至1407年; M'Clymont ,在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bible, pp.聖經頁。 772-776; Frazer, Golden Bough, 2d ed., iii. 772-776 ;弗雷澤,金枝,二維版。 ,三。 153, 157, 158.EGHJDP 153 , 157 , 158.EGHJDP


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