Esdras埃斯德拉斯

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha 一本書,舊約偽經

General Information 一般信息

Esdras is the first two books of the Old Testament Apocrypha. Although the books are not included in the canon of the Bible, they are intimately connected with the Old Testament.埃斯德拉斯是第一個兩本書舊約偽經。雖然書籍不包括在佳能的聖經,他們是密切聯繫在一起的舊約。

Except for one section (1 Esdras 3:1-5:6), which is not found elsewhere in the Old Testament, 1 Esdras is a Greek paraphrase of a Hebrew text containing the canonical Book of Ezra, part of chapters 7 and 8 of the canonical Book of Nehemiah, and 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:21.除一節( 1埃斯德拉斯3:1-5:6 ) ,這是其他地方沒有發現舊約, 1埃斯德拉斯是希臘釋義的希伯來文載典型以斯拉記,部分章節第7和第8規範尼希米記,並歷代誌下35:1-36:21 。 Starting abruptly with an account of the Passover of the Judean king Josiah, 1 Esdras tells of the subsequent decline of Judah; of the Babylonian exile, or Babylonian Captivity, from the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC to the reconstruction in Palestine of a new Jewish state after 538 BC; and of events in Jerusalem during the immediate postexilic period.突然開始的帳戶逾越節的猶太國王喬賽亞, 1埃斯德拉斯告訴隨後下降猶太;的巴比倫流亡,或巴比倫圈養,從秋天公元前586耶路撒冷的重建巴勒斯坦的一個新的猶太人公元前538國後和在耶路撒冷的活動期間,立即postexilic時期。 It ends abruptly with a description of the Hebrew priest and reformer Ezra, reading "the book of the law" (1 Esdras 9:45).突然結束了說明希伯來語神父和改革者以斯拉,讀“這本書的法律” ( 1埃斯德拉斯9:45 ) 。 The section that is independent of other Old Testament sources (1 Esdras 3:1-5:6) describes a competition between three Jewish youths at the Persian court.本節是獨立於其他舊約全書來源( 1埃斯德拉斯3:1-5:6 )描述了一個競爭的三個猶太青年在波斯灣法院。 Each youth speaks in favor of what he believes to be the strongest thing.每個青年都在支持他認為是最強烈的事情。 The victor, who argues in favor of truth, gains the king's permission for the Jews to return to Jerusalem.勝利者,誰認為有利於真理,獲得國王的允許猶太人返回耶路撒冷。 First Esdras is thought by most scholars to be the work of a single, unknown translator who produced it sometime between 150 and 50BC.第一埃斯德拉斯是大多數人認為是學者的工作,一個單一的,未知的翻譯誰產生它的某個150至50BC 。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Second Esdras is an apocalypse.第二埃斯德拉斯是一個啟示。 The main part of the book (chapters 3-14) records Ezra's lamentations over the fall of Jerusalem and the visions that appear to him in seven dreams. These visions, interpreted by the archangel Uriel, reveal that the evil existing in this world despite God's omnipotence is to end with the coming of the Messiah, who will restore the just and destroy the ungodly.主要部分的書(章節3月14日)記錄以斯拉的悲嘆了秋天耶路撒冷和看法,似乎他在7個夢想。這些觀點,解釋天使烏利爾,表明邪惡現有在這個世界上,儘管上帝的無所不能是結束與未來的救世主,誰恢復的公正和破壞ungodly 。 The author of this main section is not known; nor is it known whether the original was written in Aramaic, Greek, or Hebrew.作者的這一主要部分是不知道,也不是知道原來寫在阿拉姆語,希臘語,或希伯來語。 It is thought by most scholars to have been composed toward the end of the 1st century AD.這是大多數人認為學者組成,對已結束的第一世紀。

Chapters 1-2, written in Greek, were added soon after, either by an unknown Greek or by an unknown Jewish Christian. 1-2章,寫的希臘,後不久,又增加了,無論是由一種未知的希臘或未知的猶太基督徒。 The apocalyptic passages of these chapters show a Christian bias (particularly 2 Esdras 1:24-40).一角的通道這些章節顯示基督教偏見(特別是2埃斯德拉斯1:24-40 ) 。 Chapters 15-16, also written in Greek, were appended, perhaps as late as 270, by another unknown Christian. 15-16章,也寫在希臘,附在,也許才270 ,另一未知基督教。 They are considerably less important than the earlier portion, valued for its similarity in parts to certain possibly contemporaneous books of the New Testament, such as Revelation. Second Esdras became particularly popular with the Christian church, as evidenced by the many versions in which it was rendered (Latin, Syriac, and Coptic); by its frequent quotation by the Fathers of the Church; and by the fact that several phrases - including lux perpetua (Latin, "perpetual light") - were drawn from its text into the Christian liturgy.他們大大低於早先的重要部分,其價值為相似的某些部分可能是當時的書籍的新約全書,如啟示。第二埃斯德拉斯變得特別流行的基督教堂,就證明了這許多版本,其中使(拉丁文,敘利亞和埃及) ;其經常引用的對教會的教父們,並通過幾個詞組-包括勒克斯阿(拉丁語, “永久輕” ) -來自其文字基督教禮儀。


Books of Esdras圖書埃斯德拉斯

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

I Esdras:餘埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名稱和版本。

Contents.目錄。

Purpose and Origin.目的和來源。

Date and Value.日期和價值。

II Esdras:二埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名稱和版本。

Contents.目錄。

Purpose and Origin.目的和來源。

Date and Value.日期和價值。

Apocryphal writings ascribed to Ezra.未經著作為其以斯拉。

I Esdras:餘埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名稱和版本。

The apocryphal Book of Ezra, or, better, the "Greek Ezra" (Esdræ Græcus), is called Εσδρας in the Greek Bible, where it precedes the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah, counted there as one book, Εσδρας β'.對未經以斯拉記,或者更好的“希臘以斯拉” ( Esdræ Græcus ) ,被稱為Εσδρας在希臘聖經,它之前的典型的書籍以斯拉和尼希米記,計有一本書, Εσδρας β ' 。 In the old Latin Bible it was I Esdras; but after Jerome, with his strong preference for the books preserved in Hebrew, had rejected it from the canon, it was usually counted as III Esdras: then either Ezra was I Esdras, and Nehemiah was II Esdras; or Ezra-Nehemiah was I Esdras, and ch.在舊的拉丁聖經是我埃斯德拉斯;但傑爾姆,他強烈地傾向於書籍保存在希伯萊語,拒絕了從佳能,它通常是算作三埃斯德拉斯:然後以斯拉是我埃斯德拉斯,和尼希米記為二埃斯德拉斯;或以斯拉,尼希米記是我埃斯德拉斯,和CH 。 1, 2 of the Apocalypse of Esdras was II Esdras. 1 , 2的啟示埃斯德拉斯是二埃斯德拉斯。 Sometimes, however, the Greek Ezra is called II Esdras: then Ezra-Nehemiah is I Esdras, and the Apocalypse is III Esdras; or, as in the Ethiopic Bible, the latter is I Esdras, and Ezra-Nehemiah follows as III Esdras or as III and IVEsdras.但是,有時候,希臘以斯拉被稱為二埃斯德拉斯:然後以斯拉,尼希米記是我埃斯德拉斯和啟示是三埃斯德拉斯;或者,在衣索比亞聖經,後者是我埃斯德拉斯和以斯拉,尼希米記如下作為第三埃斯德拉斯或作為三和IVEsdras 。 In the English Bible it is again entitled I Esdras; here the canonical book retained the Hebrew form of its name, that is, "Ezra," whereas the two apocryphal books, ascribed to the same author, received the title in its Græco-Latin form-"Esdras."在英文聖經它再次題為我埃斯德拉斯;這裡的規範書的希伯來文的形式保留其名稱,即“以斯拉” ,而這兩個未經證實的書籍,歸因於同一作者,獲得冠軍的希臘拉丁形式“埃斯德拉斯。 ” In the ancient Latin version I Esdras has the subscription "De Templi Restitutione."在古拉丁文版I埃斯德拉斯已訂購“者Templi Restitutione 。 ” Two Latin translations were made: the "Vetus Latina" (Itala) and the "Vulgate."兩個拉美翻譯發了言:在“ Vetus拉丁” (伊泰萊)和“武加大。 ” In Syriac the book is found only in the Syro-Hexaplar of Paul, Bishop of Tella (616-617), not in the older Peshiṭta.在這本書是敘利亞文發現,只有在Syro - Hexaplar保羅主教迪特利亞( 616-617 ) ,而不是在舊Peshiṭta 。 There are also an Ethiopic and an Armenian version.還有一個埃塞俄比亞和亞美尼亞的版本。

I Esdras may be divided into ten sections, eight of which are only excerpts from certain parts of II Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah:餘埃斯德拉斯可分為10個區段,其中八只摘錄某些部分歷代,以斯拉和尼希米記:

Contents.目錄。

Ch.總。 i.字母i. = II Chronicles xxxv. =歷代三十五。 1-xxxvi. 1 - 36 。 21: Josiah's Passover; his death; the history of Judah until the destruction of Jerusalem. Verses 21-22, however, are not found elsewhere, and are probably an addition of the compiler. Ch. 21 :喬賽亞的逾越節;他的死亡;歷史的猶太直至摧毀耶路撒冷。詩篇21日至22日,但是,沒有發現其他地方,並可能增加的編譯器。總。 ii.二。 1-14 = Ezra i. 1月14日=以斯拉島 1-11: The edict of Cyrus. Ch. 1月11日:該法令居魯士。總。 ii.二。 15-26 = Ezra iv. 15-26 =以斯拉四。 7-24: First attempt to rebuild the Temple; intervention of the Samaritans. Ch. 7月24日:第一次嘗試重建聖殿;干預撒瑪利亞。總。 iii.三。 1-v. 1 ,五。 3 =-: Dispute of the three courtiers of Darius; the victory of the Jewish youth; decree of Darius that the Jews might return and that the Temple and the cult be restored. Ch. 3 =- :爭議的三個朝臣的大流士;勝利的猶太青年;法令大流士猶太人可能返回該廟和邪教得到恢復。總。 v. 4-6 =-: Beginning of a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabel. Ch.五, 4月6日=- :開始流亡者名單誰一起返回Zerubbabel 。總。 v. 7-73 = Ezra ii: 1-iv.五7-73 =以斯拉二: 1 ,四。 5: List of exiles who returned with Zerubbabel; work on the Temple; its interruption until the time of Darius. Ch. 5 :誰列表流亡一起返回Zerubbabel ;工作寺;中斷時為止大流士。總。 vi.-vii. vi.第七。 9 = Ezra v. 1-vi. 9 =以斯拉訴1 -六。 18: Correspondence between Sisinnes and Darius concerning the building of the Temple; completion of the Temple. Ch. 18 :通訊之間Sisinnes和大流士關於建設寺;完成寺。總。 vii.七。 10-15 = Ezra vi. 10月15日=以斯拉六。 19-22: Celebration of the Passover by the Jews "of the Captivity" and those who had stayed in the land. Ch. 19-22日:慶祝逾越節是猶太人“的圈養”和誰留在土地上。總。 viii.八。 1-ix. 1至第九。 36 = Ezra vii. 36 =以斯拉七。 1-x. 1 - X低。 44: Return of exiles under Ezra; abolishment of mixed marriages. Ch. 44 :返回的流亡者根據以斯拉;廢除異族通婚。總。 ix.九。 37-55 = Nehemiah vii. 37-55 =尼希米記七。 73-viii. 73八。 12: The reading of the Law. 12 :讀法。

Purpose and Origin.目的和來源。

It is evident that the compiler of I Esdras chose as a center the tale, commonly called the "Dispute of the Courtiers," of the contest among the three pages in waiting, and that he grouped around this tale several extracts from other writings with the intention of giving it its historical environment.顯而易見的是,編譯器的I埃斯德拉斯選擇為中心的故事,通常稱為“爭端的朝臣, ”競賽活動的三個網頁的等待,他的故事圍繞這幾個摘錄的其他著作打算放棄它的歷史環境。 The results of the contest were the restoration of the Temple and of the Jewish cult and community; and this is, indeed, the leading thought of the entire work.結果競賽恢復寺和猶太邪教和社區;這的確是領導思想的全部工作。 The events that led to the destruction of the Temple are therefore given as an introduction, and after the restoration the doings of Ezra, of vital importance in the development of Judaism, are related.該事件導致的破壞,因此給予寺的介紹後,恢復的以斯拉的做法,極為重要的發展,猶太教,是有關係的。 There are several discrepancies to be noted in the different parts of the book, first of all in the central episode. The story is that three pages of King Darius each agree to write "one thing that shall be strongest," and to let King Darius bestow great honor on him whose answer is the wisest.有一些差異應當指出在不同地區的圖書,首先在中央插曲。這個故事的是,三頁,每一個國王大流士同意寫“一件事應最強” ,並讓國王大流士賦予巨大的榮譽對他的答案是最明智的。 The first writes "Wine"; the second, "The king"; the third, "Women, but above all things truth."第一次寫入“葡萄酒” ;第二, “國王” ;第三, “婦女,但最重要的事情真相。 ” Then they explain their answers.然後他們解釋他們的答案。 The third, the victor, asks as reward the return of the Jews.第三,勝利者,要求作為獎勵返回的猶太人。 His name is given as "Zerubbabel" in iv.他的名字作為“ Zerubbabel ”在四。 13 and as "Joakim the son of Zerubbabel" in v. 5. 13和“ Joakim的兒子Zerubbabel ”在五, 5 。 The latter seems to be the original; at the same time the second part of his answer, "truth," seems to be an addition to the original story.後者似乎是原始的,在同一時間的第二部分,他的回答, “真理” ,似乎是除了原有的故事。 Other discrepancies are found in the style of the different pieces and in their relative value for the textual criticism of the originals.其他的差異存在於不同風格的作品,並在其相對價值的考據學的原件。 These facts indicate that several individuals must have worked over the book before it received its final shape.這些事實表明,必須有幾個人工作,這本書之前,對收到的最後形成。

Date and Value.日期和價值。

Since Josephus (c. 100 CE) made use of I Esdras, and since it is very likely that I Esdras iii.自從約瑟夫(角100 CE認證)利用我埃斯德拉斯,因為這是很可能,我埃斯德拉斯三。 1-2 was influenced by Esth. 1月2日是影響Esth 。 i.字母i. 1-4, the book was probably compiled in the last century before, or the first century of, the common era. 1月4日,這本書可能是彙編在上個世紀之前,或一世紀的,共同的時代。 It has no historical value, because it bears every mark of a true midrash, in which the facts are warped to suit the purpose of the writer.它沒有歷史價值,因為它承擔一切標誌著一個真正的米德拉士,其中的事實是扭曲的,以適應目的作家。 The extracts from other Old Testament writings, however, are valuable as witnesses of an old Greek translation of the Hebrew text, made probably before the Septuagint (see Guthe in Kautzsch, "Die Apokryphen," i. 1 et seq., and P. Volz in Cheyne and Black, "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 1488-94).提取其他舊約著作,但是,都是寶貴的作為證人的古希臘翻譯希伯來文,提出可能前七十(見Guthe在Kautzsch , “模具Apokryphen , ”一, 1起。 ,和P. Volz在陳和黑色, “ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ”二。 1488年至1494年) 。

II Esdras:二埃斯德拉斯:

Name and Versions.名稱和版本。

One of the most interesting and the profoundest of all Jewish and Christian apocalypses is known in the Latin Bible as "Esdræ Quartus."其中最有趣,最深刻的所有猶太教和基督教啟示是在拉丁美洲聖經為“ Esdræ的Quartus 。 ” The number, which usually is a part of the name, depends upon the method of counting the canonical Ezra-Nehemiah and the Greek Ezra: the book is called "I Esdras" in the Ethiopic, "II Esdras" in late Latin manuscripts and in the English Bible, "III Esdras" in other Latin manuscripts.的數目,這通常是一個部分的名稱,取決於方法計算典型以斯拉,尼希米記和希臘以斯拉:這本書是所謂的“我埃斯德拉斯”在埃塞俄比亞, “二埃斯德拉斯”手稿於拉丁美洲和英文聖經“三埃斯德拉斯”在其他拉丁美洲手稿。 There is another division in Latin Bibles, separating II Esdras into three parts, each with a separate number, of which the main part is "Esdræ Quartus."還有一個在拉丁美洲司聖經,分離二埃斯德拉斯分為三部分,每一個單獨的號碼,其中的主要部分是“ Esdræ的Quartus 。 ” Greek Fathers quote it as Ἔσδρας Προφήτης or Αποκάλυψις Ἔαδρα.希臘教父報價為Ἔσδρας Προφήτης或Αποκάλυψις Ἔαδρα 。 The most common modern name is "IV Esdras."最常見的現代的名字是“四埃斯德拉斯。 ” Only ch.只有總。 iii.-xiv., the original apocalypse, will be discussed here. iii. - 14 。 ,原來的啟示,將在這裡討論。 The original was written in Hebrew, and then translated into Greek, as has been proved by Wellhausen, Charles, and finally by Gunkel; but neither the Hebrew nor the Greek text is extant.原來是希伯來文寫的,然後翻譯成希臘文,作為證明了豪森,查爾斯,並最終由貢克爾;但無論是希伯來文,希臘文,也不是現存。

Contents.目錄。

From the Greek were made the following versions: (1) Latin, which is the basis of the English version; (2) Syriac; (3) Ethiopic; (4) and (5) two independent Arabic versions; (6) Georgian.從希臘作了以下版本: ( 1 )拉丁美洲,這是根據英文版本; ( 2 )敘利亞文; ( 3 )衣索比亞; ( 4 )和( 5 )兩個獨立的阿拉伯文版; ( 6 )格魯吉亞。 The Armenian version differs from the others; whether it was made from the Syriac or from a separate Greek version has not yet been decided.亞美尼亞版本不同於他人;無論是從敘利亞或從一個單獨的希臘版本目前尚未決定。 The book consists of seven sections, called "visions" since Volkmar (1863): 1-3 treat chiefly of religious problems; 4-6 consist mainly of eschatological visions; 7 tells of Ezra's literary activity and death.這本書共分七節,所謂的“遠見” ,因為Volkmar ( 1863 ) : 1-3治療主要的宗教問題; 4月6日主要包括末世願景; 7講述了以斯拉的文學活動和死亡。

First Vision (iii.-v. 19): "In the thirtieth year of the ruin of the city, I, Salathiel (the same is Esdras), was in Babylon, and lay troubled upon my bed."第一視覺( iii.-v. 19 ) : “在30年之廢墟的城市,我Salathiel (同是埃斯德拉斯) ,是在巴比倫,並陷入困境後,我躺在床上。 ” Esdras asks God how the misery of Israel can be in keeping with divine justice.埃斯德拉斯問上帝如何的苦難以色列可以在符合神聖的正義。 The answer is given by Uriel: God's ways are unsearchable and the human mind can not grasp them; everything will be clear after the end of this world, which will soon come to pass.答案是由烏利爾:上帝的方式是unsearchable和人的思想不能把握;一切都將明確結束後,這個世界上,這將很快通過。 Then follows a description of the signs of the end.接著介紹了結束的跡象。

Second Vision (v. 20-vi. 34): Why is Israel delivered up to the heathen?第二視覺(五20六。 34 ) :為什麼以色列交付的異教徒? The answer is similar to that of the first vision: Man can not solve the problem; the end is near.答案是類似第一願景:人解決不了問題;已接近結束。 Its signs are again revealed.其標誌是再次暴露。

Third Vision (vi. 35-ix. 25): Why does Israel not yet possess the world?第三個願景( vi. 35九。 25 ) :為什麼以色列尚未擁有世界? Answer: The present state is a necessary transition to the future.答:目前的狀況是一個必要的過渡到未來。 Then follows a detailed description of the fate of the wicked and the righteous: few will be saved; Esdras intercedes for the sinners, but he is told that nobody will escape his destiny.接著詳細說明了這些人的下落邪惡與正義:幾年將被保存;埃斯德拉斯干預的罪人,但他說,沒有人會逃脫自己的命運。

Fourth Vision (ix. 26-x. 59): Vision of a woman mourning for her only son.第四視覺( ix. 26 - X低。 59 ) :視覺的一個女人悼念她唯一的兒子。 Esdras pictures to her the desolation of Zion.Suddenly instead of the woman appears a "builded city."埃斯德拉斯的照片給她的蒼涼的Zion.Suddenly不是女人出現了“ builded的城市。 ” Uriel explains that the woman represents Zion.烏利爾解釋說,這名婦女代表錫安。

Fifth Vision (xi., xii.): Vision of an eagle which has three heads, twelve wings, and eight smaller wings "over against them," and which is rebuked by a lion and then burned.第五視覺( xi. ,十二。 ) :視覺的一個老鷹球有三個頭, 12聯隊, 8個規模較小的翅膀“的行為, ”並指責這是由一個獅子,然後燒毀。 The eagle is the fourth kingdom seen by Daniel; the lion is the Messiah.鷹是第四英國看到丹尼爾;獅子是彌賽亞。

Sixth Vision (xiii.): Vision of a man who burns the multitude assaulting him, and then calls to himself another but peaceable multitude.第六視覺( xiii. ) :視覺的一名男子誰燒傷的眾多攻擊他,然後又對自己要求,但和平多種。 The man is the Messiah; the first multitude are the sinners; the second are the Lost Tribes of Israel.該名男子是彌賽亞;第一眾多的罪人;第二是以色列失落的部落。

Seventh Vision (xiv.): The restoration of the Scripture.第七視覺( xiv. ) :恢復聖經。 Esdras, sitting under an oak, is addressed by God from a bush and told that he will soon be translated; he asks for the restoration of the Law; God commands him to procure many tablets and five scribes and to tell the people to stay away for forty days.埃斯德拉斯,坐在橡樹下,是上帝給了布什,並告訴他將很快轉化;他要求恢復法律;上帝命令他購買許多片和5個文士,並告訴人們要遠離為四十天。 Esdras does so, and, after having received a wondrous drink, begins to dictate.埃斯德拉斯這樣做,和之後,收到了神奇的飲料,開始發號施令。 Within forty days are written ninety-four books, of which twenty-four, that is, the Hebrew canon, are to be published and seventy to be kept secret.在四十天寫94本書,其中2004年,也就是希伯來佳能,要予以公佈,並70到保密。 Esdras' translation is found only in the Oriental versions; in the Latin it has been omitted, because ch.埃斯德拉斯'翻譯是僅見於東方版本;在拉丁美洲它省略了,因為總。 xv.十五。 and xvi.和十六。 were added.增加了。

Purpose and Origin.目的和來源。

The author wishes to console himself and his people in a time of great distress.作者希望控制台本人和他的人民在經歷了巨大的痛苦。 He struggles with the deepest religious problems: What is the origin of suffering and evil in the world?他鬥爭的最深切的宗教問題:什麼是原產地的苦難和罪惡的世界? Why does the All-Righteous create men, who He knows will suffer, or will do wrong and therefore perish?為什麼全正義創造的男子,誰知道他會受苦,或將錯誤的,因此滅亡? Why does man possess the mind or reason which makes him conscious of these things?為什麼人擁有或理由銘記這使他意識到這些東西? Throughout these struggles the writer strives for assurance of salvation.在這些鬥爭的作家求保證的救恩。 Since this is reserved for some future era, he lays much stress on eschatology.由於這是留給將來某個時期,他是很強調末世論。 Confidence in God's justice underlies all his thoughts.信任上帝的正義強調他的所有想法。

It has been questioned whether this apocalypse was written by one author.它一直懷疑這是否啟示錄寫的是一個作者。 Kalisch ("Das 4te Buch Esra," Göttingen, 1889) tried to prove that it had five different sources; his views were largely adopted by De Faye and by Charles. Kalisch ( “達斯4te圖書Esra , ”哥廷根, 1889年)試圖證明它有5個不同的來源,他的意見大多通過者王菲和查爾斯。 But Gunkel rightly calls attention to the fact that the uniform character of the book forbids its reduction to several independent documents, and that its repetitions and slight discrepancies are a peculiarity of the author in dealing with his complicated problems.但貢克爾正確地呼籲注意這一事實,即統一性質的圖書禁止其減少到幾個獨立的文件,它的重複和略有差異是一個獨特的作家,他在處理複雜的問題。 Closely akin to this book is the Apocalypse of Baruch; it has therefore been suggested that both might have been written by the same author.相近的這本書的啟示巴魯克;因此,有人建議,都可能被寫的作者。 Although this can not be proved, it is at least certain that both books were composed at about the same time, and that one of them was the prototype of the other.雖然這不能證明,這是肯定,至少有兩本書組成,大約在同一時間,而且其中一人的原型,其他。

Date and Value.日期和價值。

Since the eagle in the fifth vision undoubtedly represents the Roman empire, most critics agreeing that the three heads are Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, and since the destruction of Jerusalem so often referred to must be that by Titus in 70 CE, the book must date from the last quarter of the first century-probably between 90 and 96.由於老鷹在第五遠見無疑是羅馬帝國,大多數評論家一致認為,三國元首的維斯帕先,提圖斯,和多米提安,自摧毀耶路撒冷所以通常被稱為必須是由提圖斯在70個行政長官,這本書必須日期的最後一個季度的第一個世紀,大概90至96 。

II Esdras is a characteristic example of the growth of apocalyptic literature: the misery of the present world leads to the seeking of compensation in the happiness of the future.二埃斯德拉斯是一個典型例子的增長世界末日文學:苦難的當今世界導致尋求賠償的幸福未來。 But besides its historical value, this book is an unusually important monument of religious literature for all times.但是,除了其歷史價值,這本書是一個非常重要的紀念碑的宗教文獻的所有次。

Additions: Ch.增加:總。 i.字母i. and ii.和二。 of the Latin and English versions are of Christian origin (probably second century), and describe the rejection of the Jews in favor of the Christians.拉丁美洲和英文版本是基督教的起源(大概第二個世紀) ,並說明拒絕的猶太人有利於基督徒。 Ch.總。 xv.十五。 and xvi., which predict wars and rebuke sinners at length, may be Jewish; they date from the middle or the second half of the third century.和十六。 ,其中預測戰爭和指責罪人在長度,可能是猶太人,他們來自中東日期或下半年三世紀。

Richard Gottheil, Enno Littmann, Kaufmann Kohler理查德Gottheil ,恩諾德羅利特曼,考夫曼科勒

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Schürer, Gesch. Schürer , Gesch 。 3d ed., 1898, iii.三維版。 , 1898年,三。 246-250 (contains a complete bibliography); Gunkel, in Kautzsch, Apokryphen, etc., ii. 246-250 (包含一個完整的目錄) ;貢克爾,在Kautzsch , Apokryphen等二。 331 et seq.; idem, Der Prophet Esra, Tübingen, 1900.GE Li. 331起。 ;同上,明鏡先知Esra ,蒂賓根大學, 1900.GE李。

The author of II Esdras, also called "the prophet Ezra," in all probability, as shown by Wellhausen ("Skizzen und Vorarbeiten," vi. 248 et seq.), had before him the Baruch Apocalypse, written under the impression of the destruction of the Temple by the Romans; he reasons more on the general problems of sin and death and on the design of God regarding the few that are saved than on the national problem of Israel's adversity and the prosperity of the heathen.作者二埃斯德拉斯,也被稱為“先知以斯拉, ”在所有的可能性,表明豪森( “ Skizzen與Vorarbeiten , ”六。 248起。 ) ,收到了他的巴魯克啟示,書面的印象的破壞廟在羅馬,他的原因更多的一般性問題的罪惡和死亡和設計的上帝就為數不多的保存,而不是問題的國家以色列的逆境和繁榮的異教徒。 In the controversy between the schools of Shammai and of Hillel as to whether, in view of the prevalence of sin and sorrow, "it is good for man to be born or not" (; 'Er. 13b), the author sides with the pessimistic view of the former: "It would be better if we were not born than to live in sin and suffer, not knowing why" (II Esd. iv. 12).在學校之間所爭議的沙麥和希勒爾是否鑑於普遍存在的罪惡和悲傷, “這是件好事的人將出生或不” ( ; '呃。 13B條) ,作者雙方的悲觀的看法前: “這將是更好的,如果我們不是天生的,而不是生活在罪惡和痛苦,不知道為什麼” (二可持續發展教育。四。 12 ) 。 In the same light he views the final judgment of man by God. "The germ of evil sown into man by the first sin of Adam" ( ; 'Ab. Zarah 22b) results in sin and damnation for the great majority of men-indeed, there is no man who sinneth not-and makes the human destiny far inferior to that of the animal, which needs not fear the great Judgment Day (II Esd. vii. 45 [RV 115] et seq.; viii. 35). The author recognizes God's love for all His creatures (viii. 47), in spite of the fact that greater is the number of those lost than of those that are saved (ix. 15), but for him the end must be unrelenting justice and no mercy nor any intercession of saints; truth and righteousness alone must prevail (vii. 32-38 [RV 102-115]).在相同的光線,他認為最終判決的人的上帝。 “萌芽播下邪惡到人的第一次罪惡的亞當” ( ; '抗體。 Zarah 22B款)結果在罪惡和詛咒對於絕大多數的男人,確實,也沒有人誰sinneth不和使人類的命運遠遠不如動物,它並不需要擔心的偉大審判日(二可持續發展教育。七。 45 [右115 ]起。 ;八。 35 ) 。筆者認識天主的愛他的所有生物( viii. 47 ) ,儘管這一事實,更是失去了一些,而不是那些被保存( ix. 15 ) ,但他必須結束無情正義和沒有憐憫,也沒有任何干預的聖人;真理和正義必須單獨為準( vii. 32-38 [病毒102-115 ] ) 。 Here, too, the author differs from the Hillelites, who teach that those souls whose merits and demerits are equal are saved by the mercy of God (who inclines the scale toward mercy), and sides with the Shammaites, who claim that these souls must go through the purgatory of the Gehenna fire before they are admitted into paradise (Sanh. xiii. 4; RH 16b).在這方面,作者不同於Hillelites ,誰教這些靈魂,其優點和缺點都是平等保存的擺佈神(誰傾斜方向憐憫的規模) ,以及雙方的Shammaites ,誰主張,這些靈魂必須經過煉獄的Gehenna火災,才獲准進入天堂( Sanh.十三。 4 ;濕度16B款) 。 In another respect II Esdras (see iii. 30, ix. 22 et seq., xii. 34, xiii. 37 et seq.) manifests the spirit of the Shammaites in finding Messianic salvation granted only to the remnant of Israel, for it is Eliezer the Shammaite who, in opposition to the school of Hillel, denies all Gentiles a share in the world to come (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2).從另一個方面講二埃斯德拉斯(見三。 30日,九。 22起。 ,十二。 34 ,十三。 37起。 )體現的精神,在尋找救世主Shammaites救贖只給予以色列的殘餘,因為它是埃利澤在Shammaite誰,反對學校的希勒爾,否認所有外邦人分享世界來( Tosef. , Sanh 。十三。 2 ) 。

In regard to the return of the Lost Ten Tribes, also, the author shares the view of Eliezer, in opposition to Akiba, that they will take part in the Messianic redemption, and the very name for the land of the exile of the Ten Tribes used by him, but obviously misunderstood by the translator, rests on the same Biblical words referred to by the two tannaim-"ereẓ aḥeret" (another land; Deut. xxix. 27; II Esd. xiii. 45, comp. 40; Sanh. x. 3; see Arzareth). The length of the Messianic time is stated to be 400 years (II Esd. vii. 28: this is based upon Ps. xc. 15 and Gen. x. 13; comp. Sanh. 99a; Pesiḳ. R. 1).關於返回的損失了10部落,也,作者同意這樣的觀點的埃利澤,反對秋葉,他們將參加彌賽亞贖回,並非常名稱的土地,流亡的10個部落用他,但顯然誤解翻譯,在於同聖經的話所提到的兩個tannaim , “埃雷茲aḥeret ” (另一個土地; Deut 。二十九。 27 ;二可持續發展教育。十三。 45 ,壓縮機。 40 ; Sanh 。十, 3 ;見Arzareth ) 。的長度彌賽亞時間是表示要400年(二可持續發展教育。七。 28 :這是根據聚苯乙烯。坐標。將軍15日和13日第十;補償。 Sanh 。 99a ; Pesiḳ 。河1 ) 。 Especially significant is the apocalyptic sign for the Messianic era taken from Gen. xxv.特別重要的是世界末日的跡象彌賽亞時代從將軍二十五。 26, RV ("His [Jacob's] hand had hold on Esau's heel"), which is interpreted: "The end of Esau's [Edom's] reign, willform the beginning of Jacob's-that is, the Messiah's-kingdom" (II Esd. vi. 8, exactly as in Gen. R. lxiii.; comp. Yalḳ.). 26 ,風疹病毒( “他[雅各布的]手已經舉行的以掃的腳跟” ) ,這是解釋: “結束以掃的[以東的]統治, willform開始Jacob's ,這就是Messiah's -王國” (二可持續發展教育。六。 8日,正是在將軍河lxiii 。 ;補償。 Yalḳ 。 ) 。 For other parallels to rabbinical sayings of the first century see Rosenthal, "Vier Apocryphische Bücher aus der Zeit und Schule R. Akiba's," 1885, pp.至於其他的相似之處,以猶太格言的第一個世紀見羅森塔爾, “四方Apocryphische Bücher澳大利亞時代和學派河秋葉的” 1885年,頁。 39-71. 39-71 。 Rosenthal also thinks (ib. p. 40) that the five sages who during forty days put into writing the twenty-four canonical and seventy hidden (apocryphal) books dictated by Ezra under inspiration (II Esd. xiv. 23-46) reflect the work of the five disciples of Johanan ben Zakkai.K.羅森塔爾還認為( ib.第40頁)的五位聖人誰在四十天投入寫作的2004年典型和70隱藏(未經證實)書籍出於以斯拉下靈感(二可持續發展教育。十四。 23-46 )反映工作五年的門徒Johanan本Zakkai.K 。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在