Council of Ephesus安理會以弗所

General Information 一般信息

The Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council of the Christian church was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ.安理會以弗所( 431 ) ,第三個基督教會的基督教教堂有顯著的教條法令的立場聖母在天球上的層次和性質的化身耶穌。 It was convened by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II with the approval of Pope Celestine I in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism). After lengthy debates continuing even after the end of the council, the pope's representative, Cyril of Alexandria, reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all.它召開了東羅馬皇帝狄奧多二世的批准教皇塞萊斯廷我為了響應的教誨,涅斯多留瑪麗被視為唯一的“基督的母親”而不是“上帝之母” (見景教) 。經過長時間的辯論持續甚至結束後,安理會,教宗的代表,西里爾亞歷山大,達成了一項協議,在該決議中的稱謂: “上帝之母” ,正式頒布的理事會,是大家所接受。 The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ.安理會還進一步完善了這種教條的人力和神聖方面的耶穌,現在宣布為兩個單獨的性質完全聯合國雖然在基督。

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In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus.在449另一個理事會,在歷史上已知的latrocinium ,或強盜會議,會見了在以弗所。 It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned (451) at the Council of Chalcedon.它批准的理論Eutyches ,後來譴責( 451 )在安理會迦克墩。

T. Tackett噸Tackett


Ephesus以弗所

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Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor.以弗所是首都proconsular亞洲,這是西部地區的小亞細亞。 It was colonized principally from Athens.這是殖民統治的主要是從雅典。 In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia."在規定的時間內它的羅馬人負有“稱號的第一和亞洲最大的大都市。 ” It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (qv), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators.這是尊敬的黛安娜神廟( qv ) ,誰有她的首席靖國神社;及其劇院,這是世界上最大的,能夠包含50000觀眾。 It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky.這是,像所有古老的劇院,開放的天空。 Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts.這裡展出的鬥爭的野獸和男子與野獸。 (Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9). ( Comp. 1心病。 4時09分; 9時24分, 25 ; 15:32 。 )了許多猶太人居住在這個城市,這裡的種子播下了福音後立即降臨(使徒2時09分; 6 : 9 ) 。

At the close of his second missionary journey (about AD 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city.在結束他的第二次宣教旅程(約公元51 ) ,當保羅,他返回希臘,敘利亞( 18:18-21 ) ,他第一次訪問這個城市。 He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel.他仍然存在,但是,只有很短的時間,因為他是加快使盛宴,可能的降臨,在耶路撒冷,但他左雕和普里西拉身後進行的工作,傳播福音。 During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), ie, from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10). Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes.在他的第三個傳教旅程保羅達成以弗所從“上海岸” (使徒行19:1 ) ,即從內陸地區的小亞細亞,和tarried這裡大約三年;和如此成功和豐富了他的辛勤勞動, “所有他們是住在亞洲聽到的話,主耶穌,猶太人和希臘人“ ( 19:10 ) 。也許在此期間,七個教會的啟示為基礎,而不是由保羅的個人勞動,但他的傳教士可能派出由以弗所,並通過轉換的影響,返回自己的家園。

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35. Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3).在他返回他的旅程,保羅在米利觸及約30公里處以弗所(使徒20時15分) ,並派遣了presbyters以弗所與他會面,他提供給他們,感人的告別是負責記錄的行為20:18-35 。以弗所沒有再次提到直到臨近收盤保羅的生活,當他寫信給提摩太敦促他“遵守仍然以弗所” ( 1蒂姆。 1:3 ) 。 Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12).兩個保羅的同伴, Trophimus和Tychicus ,也許本地人以弗所(使徒二十點04分, 21時29分; 2蒂姆。四時12分) 。 In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18).在他的第二次書信向霍震霆,保羅談到Onesiphorus作為他擔任過許多事情以弗所( 2蒂姆。 1:18 ) 。 He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there.他還“發送到以弗所Tychicus ” ( 4時12分) ,可能出席的利益教會有。 Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1).以弗所的兩倍中所提到的啟示( 1:11 ; 2:1 ) 。 The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried.使徒約翰,按照傳統,花了很多年的以弗所,在那裡他死後被埋葬。 A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; ie, "the holy divine."部分網站的一次著名的城市現在是被佔領土的一個小村莊, Ayasaluk ,這被看作是腐敗的兩個希臘字, hagios theologos ,即“羅馬神。 ”

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


The Council of Ephesus - 431 AD安理會以弗所-公元431

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Contents目錄

  1. Introduction導言
  2. Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved第二封信的西里爾到奈斯脫流斯-核准
  3. Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril - condemned第二封信的涅斯多留,以西里爾-譴責
  4. Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved第三封信的西里爾到奈斯脫流斯-核准
  5. The judgment against Nestorius涅斯多留的判決
  6. Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.) Synodical信的驅逐東部主教(等) 。
  7. Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]定義信仰尼西亞[第6次會議7月22日431 ]
  8. Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites定義對impious Messalians或Euchites
  9. Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations決議:即主教塞浦路斯本身可能進行祝
  10. Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch公式聯盟之間Cyrill和約翰的安提阿
  11. Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace信西里爾約翰安提阿的和平
  12. Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon accepting the Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace.摘自安理會接受迦克墩信西里爾約翰安提阿的和平。

Introduction導言

Nestorius , who had been condemned in a council at Rome on 11 August 430, asked the emperor Theodosius II to summon this council. 涅斯多留 ,誰已經譴責了安理會在羅馬8月11日430 ,詢問皇帝狄奧二傳喚本局。 The emperor therefore decided to summon it together with his co-emperor Valentinian III and with the agreement of Pope Celestine I . Theodosius's letter of 19 November 430 requested all those who had been summoned to be present at Ephesus on 7 June 431, the feast of Pentecost.皇帝因此決定傳喚連同他的同事皇帝瓦倫蒂安三並徵得其同意教皇塞萊斯廷我 。狄奧的信11月19日430請所有這些誰已經傳喚出席以弗所6月7日, 431節聖靈降臨節。

On 22 June, however, 6月22日,然而,

  • before the arrival either of the Roman legates or the eastern bishops led by John of Antioch ,到達之前,無論是羅馬東部legates或主教由約翰的安提阿
  • Cyril of Alexandria began the council. 西里爾亞歷山大開始安理會。
  • Nestorius was summoned three times but did not come. 涅斯多留被傳喚3倍,但沒有來。
  • His teaching was examined and judgment passed upon it, which 197 bishops subscribed at once and others later accepted.他的教學是通過審查和判決後,這197主教認購一次和其他後來接受。

    Shortly afterwards John of Antioch and the easterners arrived: they refused communion with Cyril and set up another council. The Roman legates (the bishops Arcadius and Projectus and the priest Philip), on arriving, joined Cyril and confirmed the sentence against Nestorius.不久之後,約翰的安提阿和東部抵達:他們拒絕共融與西里爾和設立另一個安理會。 羅馬legates (主教Arcadius和Projectus和牧師菲利普) ,抵達, 加入西里爾和證實了一句對涅斯多留。 Then the council in its fifth session on 17 July excommunicated John and his party.那麼,安理會在其第五次會議於7月17日逐出教會約翰和他的政黨。

    The documents of the Cyrilline council , the only one which is ecumenical , are included below and are as follows. 文件Cyrilline理事會 ,只有一個是基督教 ,包括以下內容如下。

    1. The central dogmatic act of the council is its judgment about whether the second letter of Cyril to Nestorius, or Nestorius's second letter to Cyril, was in conformity with the Nicene creed which was recited at the opening of the council's proceedings.中央教條的行為,安理會的判斷是否第二封信的西里爾至涅斯多留,或涅斯多留的第二封信的Cyril ,是符合尼西亞信經這是開幕式上朗誦了安理會的程序。
      • Cyril's letter was declared by the fathers to be in agreement with Nicaea,西里爾的信所宣布的父親是同意尼西亞,
      • Nestorius's was condemned涅斯多留的是譴責
      Both are here printed.兩者都是在這裡印刷。 Mention is made of Cyril's letter in the definition of Chalcedon.提到了西里爾的信的定義中迦克墩。
    2. The 12 anathemas and the preceding explanatory letter, which had been produced by Cyril and the synod of Alexandria in 430 and sent to Nestorius, were read at Ephesus and included in the proceedings . 12 anathemas和前解釋性信已產生西里爾主教亞歷山大 430送往涅斯多留, 宣讀以弗所,並納入訴訟程序
    3. The decision about Nestorius.涅斯多留的決定。
    4. The letter of the council advising all the bishops, clergy and people about the condemnation of John of Antioch; and some paragraphs dealing with the discipline of the Nestorian party.信中建議安理會所有的主教,神職人員和人民的譴責,約翰的安提阿;和某些段落處理紀律景教黨。
    5. A decree on the faith, approved in the sixth session on 22 July, which confirmed the Nicene creed, ordered adherence to that alone and forbade the production of new creeds.一項法令的信心,批准了第六屆會議於7月22日,這證實了尼西亞信經,下令遵守,僅和禁止生產的新信條。
    6. A definition against the Messalians.的定義對Messalians 。
    7. A decree about the autonomy of the church of Cyprus.一項法令的自治教堂的塞浦路斯。

    Both councils sent legates to the emperor Theodosius, who approved neither and sent the bishops away.兩局發出legates皇帝狄奧多,誰都不批准並送交主教消失。 Nestorius had already been given permission to revisit his monastery at Antioch, and on 25 October 431 Maximianus was ordained patriarch at Constantinople. The decrees of the council were approved by Pope Sixtus III shortly after his own ordination on 31 July 432.涅斯多留已經獲准重新審視他的修道院安提阿,並於10月25日431 Maximianus被祝聖主教在君士坦丁堡。 法令理事會批准了教皇西斯篤三世後不久他自己的協調7月31日432 。

    The reconciliation between the Cyrilline party and the eastern bishops was not easy.之間的和解Cyrilline黨和東部地區主教是不容易。 In the end, on 23 April 433, Cyril and John of Antioch made peace.最後, 4月23日433 ,西里爾和約翰安提了和平。 John's profession of faith was accepted by Cyril and became the doctrinal formula of union.約翰的信念接受了西里爾成為理論公式聯盟。 It is included here, together with Cyril's letter in which he at some length praises John's profession and accepts it, adding to it some explanation about his own expressions; this letter is mentioned in the definition of Chalcedon.這是列在這裡,連同西里爾的信中,他用了一些時間讚揚約翰的職業,並接受它,增加了一些解釋,他自己的表現形式;在此信中所提到的定義迦克墩。 Shortly afterwards, probably in 436, Nestorius was definitely sent into exile by the emperor .此後不久,很可能在436 ,涅斯多留肯定發送流亡的皇帝。

    The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version.的英文翻譯是從希臘文,這是更權威的版本。


    Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius第二封信的西里爾至涅斯多留

    [Declared by the council of Ephesus to be in agreement with Nicaea] [宣布安理會以弗所將同意尼西亞]

    Cyril sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Nestorius西里爾發出問候上帝最宗教和牧師研究員部長涅斯多留

    I understand that there are some who are talking rashly of the reputation in which I hold your reverence, and that this is frequently the case when meetings of people in authority give them an opportunity.據我所知,有一些正在談論誰貿然的聲譽,我握住你的崇敬,這是經常的情況下,會議的人民權力給他們機會。 I think they hope in this way to delight your ears and so they spread abroad uncontrolled expressions.我認為,他們希望以這種方式取悅你的耳朵,所以他們在國外傳播不受控制表情。 They are people who have suffered no wrong, but have been exposed by me for their own profit, one because he oppressed the blind and the poor, a second because he drew a sword on his mother, a third because he stole someone else's money in collusion with a maidservant and since then has lived with such a reputation as one would hardly wish for one's worst enemy.他們是誰的人都沒有受到錯誤的,但已經暴露了我對自己的利潤,一個是因為他的盲目和被壓迫的窮人,第二,因為他畫了一把,他的母親,三分之一是因為他偷了別人的錢勾結的女僕,此後一直生活在這樣的聲譽作為一個很難希望一個人的最可怕的敵人。 For the rest I do not intend to spend more words on this subject in order not to vaunt my own mediocrity above my teacher and master or above the fathers.其餘我不打算花更多的話就這個問題,以便不誇自己的平庸以上我的老師和碩士或以上的父親。 For however one may try to live, it is impossible to escape the malice of evil people, whose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness and who will have to defend themselves before the judge of all.但是對於一個可能會嘗試生活,就不可能擺脫惡意人民的罪惡,他的嘴裡充滿了咒罵和怨恨和誰可以為自己辯護在法官面前的所有。

    But I turn to a subject more fitting to myself and remind you as a brother in Christ always to be very careful about what you say to the people in matters of teaching and of your thought on the faith.但是,我要談談一個主題更適合自己,並提醒你作為一個兄弟在基督總是非常小心你說的話的人的問題的教學和你的思想信念。 You should bear in mind that to scandalise even one of these little ones that believe in Christ lays you open to unendurable wrath.你應該牢記,以scandalise即使這些孩子們說,相信在基督開放奠定您難以忍受憤怒。 If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth.如果一些人感到不安誰是非常大的,那麼我們應該利用一切能力和護理,消除醜聞,並闡述了健康的話信仰那些誰尋求真理。 The most effective way to achieve this end will be zealously to occupy ourselves with the words of the holy fathers , to esteem their words, to examine our words to see if we are holding to their faith as it is written, to conform our thoughts to their correct and irreproachable teaching.最有效的方式實現這一目標將熱忱佔領自己的話神聖的父親 ,向他們的自尊的話,審查我們的話,看看我們是堅持自己的信仰,因為它是書面的,以符合我們的想法正確的和無可指責的教學。

    The holy and great synod, therefore, stated that神聖和偉大的會議,因此,說,

  • 1. 1 。 the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, 唯一的獨生子,生的父神根據性質,真正的上帝的真神,光從光,一個經手的父親所有的東西,下來,成為肉身,成為人,
  • 2. 2 。 suffered, rose on the third day and ascended to heaven .遭受上升第三天和升天。

  • 1. 1 。 We too ought to follow these words and these teachings and consider what is meant by saying that the Word from God took flesh and became man.我們也應遵循這些話和這些教義和考慮是什麼意思的詞說,從上帝變成了有血有肉的人。 For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that he was turned into a whole man made of body and soul.對於我們不說, 自然的Word改變,成為肉體,也沒有說,他變成了整個男子的身體和靈魂。 Rather do we claim that the Word in an unspeakable, inconceivable manner united to himself hypostatically flesh enlivened by a rational soul, and so became man and was called son of man, not by God's will alone or good pleasure, nor by the assumption of a person alone.相反,我們主張這個詞在一個無法形容的,不可想像的方式hypostatically聯合國對自己的肉體活躍的一個合理的靈魂,所以成為人與被稱為人的兒子,而不是由天意單獨或好高興,也由假設人單。 Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity , and from both arose one Christ, one Son.而沒有兩個不同性質的走到一起,形成一個團結 ,都出現一個救世主,一個兒子。 It was not as though the distinctness of the natures was destroyed by the union , but divinity and humanity together made perfect for us one Lord and one Christ, together marvellously and mysteriously combining to form a unity.不是因為儘管差異的性質被摧毀的聯盟 ,但神和人類的共同理想,我們提出一個主,一個基督,加上奇妙和神秘的結合,形成一個團結。 So he who existed and was begotten of the Father before all ages is also said to have been begotten according to the flesh of a woman, without the divine nature either beginning to exist in the holy virgin, or needing of itself a second begetting after that from his Father.所以,他的存在,是誰生的父親在所有年齡也說已經生根據肉的一個女人,但不是神性開始存在的聖母,或需要的本身就是一個後,第二begetting從他的父親。 (For it is absurd and stupid to speak of the one who existed before every age and is coeternal with the Father, needing a second beginning so as to exist.) The Word is said to have been begotten according to the flesh, because for us and for our salvation he united what was human to himself hypostatically and came forth from a woman. (對於這是荒謬和愚蠢的發言之前就存在一個誰每個年齡和是coeternal的父親,需要第二次開始,以存在。 )這個詞,據說是生根據肉,因為對我們來說和我們的拯救,他是什麼人的聯合國自己hypostatically和出來的一個女人。 For he was not first begotten of the holy virgin, a man like us, and then the Word descended upon him; but from the very womb of his mother he was so united and then underwent begetting according to the flesh, making his own the begetting of his own flesh.因為他不是第一次生的Holy Virgin ,一個人跟我們一樣,然後在Word降臨他,但非常子宮從他的母親,他很聯合國然後進行begetting根據肉,使自己的begetting他自己的血肉。

  • 2. In a similar way we say that he suffered and rose again, not that the Word of God suffered blows or piercing with nails or any other wounds in his own nature (for the divine, being without a body, is incapable of suffering), but because the body which became his own suffered these things, he is said to have suffered them for us. 2 。在一個類似的方法,我們說,他遭受再次上升,而不是神的話語遭受打擊或穿孔釘子或任何其他的傷口在他自己的性質(為神,是沒有一個機構,沒有能力痛苦) ,但由於身體成為自己受到這些事情,據說,他是受到他們對我們來說。 For he was without suffering, while his body suffered.因為他沒有痛苦,而他的身體受到影響。 Something similar is true of his dying.類似的情況也發生在他臨死的。 For by nature the Word of God is of itself immortal and incorruptible and life and life-giving, but since on the other hand his own body by God's grace, as the apostle says, tasted death for all, the Word is said to have suffered death for us, not as if he himself had experienced death as far as his own nature was concerned (it would be sheer lunacy to say or to think that), but because, as I have just said, his flesh tasted death.由自然神的話語是本身的不朽和廉潔和生活和生命,但由於另一方面他自己的身體是上帝的恩典,因為使徒說,嚐到死亡的所有中,據說是受到死亡對我們來說,如果不是他自己經歷過死亡至於他自己的性質有關(這將是純粹的精神失常說或認為) ,而是因為,正如我剛才所說,他的肉體嚐到死亡。 So too, when his flesh was raised to life, we refer to this again as his resurrection, not as though he had fallen into corruption--God forbid--but because his body had been raised again.同樣,當有人提出他的肉體的生命,我們指的這再次為他的復活,而不是儘管他已陷入腐敗-但願-而是因為他的身體已被再次提出。

    So we shall confess one Christ and one Lord.因此,我們應承認一個基督和一個主。 We do not adore the man along with the Word, so as to avoid any appearance of division by using the word "with".我們不喜歡的人一起詞,以避免任何外觀司用這個詞“與” 。 But we adore him as one and the same, because the body is not other than the Word, and takes its seat with him beside the Father, again not as though there were two sons seated together but only one, united with his own flesh. If, however, we reject the hypostatic union as being either impossible or too unlovely for the Word, we fall into the fallacy of speaking of two sons .但是,我們喜歡他的是同一個,因為身體不是以外的文字,並與他的座位旁邊的父親,又不是說有兩個兒子坐在一起,但只有一個,美國自己的肉體。 然而,如果我們拒絕本質聯盟作為根本無法支持,或過於unlovely的一句話,我們陷入了謬誤講的兩個兒子 We shall have to distinguish and speak both of the man as honoured with the title of son, and of the Word of God as by nature possessing the name and reality of sonship, each in his own way.我們必須區分,講兩個人的榮幸與標題的兒子,和神的話語作為自然擁有的名稱和現實sonship ,每一個在他自己的方式。 We ought not, therefore, to split into two sons the one Lord Jesus Christ.我們不應該因此,分成兩個兒子一個主耶穌基督。 Such a way of presenting a correct account of the faith will be quite unhelpful, even though some do speak of a union of persons.這樣的方式提出了正確的帳戶的信仰將非常無益的,即使有些人談論聯盟的人。 For scripture does not say that the Word united the person of a man to himself, but that he became flesh.對於經文並沒有說這個詞的人的聯合國人對自己,但他成為肉體。 The Word's becoming flesh means nothing else than that he partook of flesh and blood like us; he made our body his own, and came forth a man from woman without casting aside his deity, or his generation from God the Father, but rather in his assumption of flesh remaining what he was.在Word的手段成為肉體沒有別的比他partook的血肉同我們一樣,他使我們自己的身體,和出來的男子女子沒有拋開他的神,或其代從父神,而是在他的假設肉剩下什麼他。

    This is the account of the true faith everywhere professed . 這是該帳戶的真正的信仰到處宣稱 So shall we find that the holy fathers believed.因此,我們應找到,羅馬父親認為。 So have they dared to call the holy virgin, mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word or his godhead received the origin of their being from the holy virgin, but because there was born from her his holy body rationally ensouled, with which the Word was hypostatically united and is said to have been begotten in the flesh.所以,他們敢於呼籲聖母, 上帝之母 ,但不作為的性質,他的神格Word或收到的起源他們正在從聖母,但因為從她出生的神聖機構合理ensouled ,與這些詞是hypostatically聯合國和據說是生的肉。 These things I write out of love in Christ exhorting you as a brother and calling upon you before Christ and the elect angels, to hold and teach these things with us, in order to preserve the peace of the churches and that the priests of God may remain in an unbroken bond of concord and love.我寫這些東西的愛在基督敦促您作為一個兄弟,並呼籲您公元前和選舉天使,持有和傳授這些東西與我們合作,以維護和平的教堂和神職人員說,上帝的可能留在一個完整的債券的和諧與愛。


    Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril第二封信的涅斯多留,以西里爾

    [condemned by the council of Ephesus] [譴責安理會以弗所]

    Nestorius sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Cyril.涅斯多留派問候上帝最宗教和牧師研究員部長西里爾。 I pass over the insults against us contained in your extraordinary letter.本人1986年對我們的侮辱中包含的特殊的信。 They will, I think, be cured by my patience and by the answer which events will offer in the course of time.他們將我認為,治愈了我的耐心和回答這些活動將隨著時間的推移。 On one matter, however, I cannot be silent, as silence would in that case be very dangerous.一件事,但是,我不能沉默,沉默將在這種情況下,是十分危險的。 On that point, therefore avoiding longwindedness as far as I can, I shall attempt a brief discussion and try to be as free as possible from repelling obscurity and undigestible prolixity.關於這一點,因此,避免longwindedness至於我,我會嘗試了簡短的討論,並盡量免費盡可能擊退默默無聞和undigestible羅唆。 I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word.我將開始從您的英明言論崇敬,設置他們一字。 What then are the words in which your remarkable teaching finds expression ?那麼什麼是你的話,其中顯著的教學表現?

    "The holy and great synod states that the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, suffered, rose." “的神聖和偉大的國家,會議的唯一獨生子,生的父神根據性質,真正的上帝的真神,光從光,一個經手的父親所有的東西,下來,成了肉身,成為男人,遭受上升。 “

    These are the words of your reverence and you may recognise them.這些都是你的話你可以尊敬和表揚他們。 Now listen to what we say, which takes the form of a brotherly exhortation to piety of the type of which the great apostle Paul gave an example in addressing his beloved Timothy: "Attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. For by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers".現在,聽我們說什麼,它的形式是兄弟告誡虔誠的類型,而偉大的使徒保羅做了個榜樣,在處理自己心愛的蒂莫: “出席公眾讀經文,以說教,給教學。對於這樣你會節省你和你的聽眾。 “ Tell me, what does "attend" mean?告訴我,什麼是“參加”是什麼意思? By reading in a superficial way the tradition of those holy men (you were guilty of a pardonable ignorance), you concluded that they said that the Word who is coeternal with the Father was passible.通過閱讀的方式在一個膚淺的傳統,這些神聖的男人(你是犯了情有可原的無知) ,你的結論是,他們說,這個詞誰是coeternal的父親是passible 。 Please look more closely at their language and you will find out that that divine choir of fathers never said that the consubstantial godhead was capable of suffering, or that the whole being that was coeternal with the Father was recently born, or that it rose again, seeing that it had itself been the cause of resurrection of the destroyed temple.請更深入地研究他們的語言,你會發現,這種神聖的合唱團的父親從來沒有說,同質神格能夠痛苦,或整個被認為是coeternal與父親剛剛出生,或者它再次上升,看到它本身的原因復活被毀寺。 If you apply my words as fraternal medicine, I shall set the words of the holy fathers before you and shall free them from the slander against them and through them against the holy scriptures.如果您套用我的話作為兄弟醫學,我將成立的話,然後再神聖的父親,並應使他們擺脫對他們的誹謗,並通過他們對聖經。

    "I believe", they say, "also in our Lord Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son". “我相信” ,他們說, “在我們的主耶穌基督,他唯一的獨生子” 。 See how they first lay as foundations "Lord" and "Jesus" and "Christ" and "only begotten" and "Son", the names which belong jointly to the divinity and humanity.看到他們如何作為第一奠定基礎“主”和“耶穌”和“救世主”和“只生”與“兒子”的名稱屬於共同的神和人類。 Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion.然後,他們在這一基礎上建立的傳統的化身和復活和激情。 In this way, by prefixing the names which are common to each nature, they intend to avoid separating expressions applicable to sonship and lordship and at the same time escape the danger of destroying the distinctive character of the natures by absorbing them into the one title of "Son".通過這種方式,由前綴的名字這是每一個共同的性質,他們打算以避免分離表達適用於sonship和貴族身份,並在同一時間逃跑的危險,破壞了顯著特徵的性質吸收他們進入一個標題“兒子” 。 In this Paul was their teacher who, when he remembers the divine becoming man and then wishes to introduce the suffering, first mentions "Christ", which, as I have just said, is the common name of both natures and then adds an expression which is appropriate to both of the natures.在這保羅誰是他們的老師時,他還記得神成為人,然後希望引進的痛苦,第一次提到“基督” ,這正如我剛才所說的,是雙方共同的名字,然後性質增加了表達的是適當的兩種性質。 For what does he say ?對他說什麼? "Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus who though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped", and so on until, "he became obedient unto death, even death on a cross". “有這個考慮到你們之間,這是你在基督耶穌誰儘管他採用的是上帝,不計算在平等與上帝的事應把握” ,並依此類推,直至“ ,他成為順從你們死亡,甚至死亡在十字架上“ 。 For when he was about to mention the death, to prevent anyone supposing that God the Word suffered, he says "Christ", which is a title that expresses in one person both the impassible and the passible natures, in order that Christ might be called without impropriety both impassible and passible impassible in godhead, passible in the nature of his body.因為當他正要提到死亡,以防止任何人假定的Word遭受上帝,他說, “基督” ,這是一個標題,表明在一個人的傷害和passible性質,為了使基督可稱為沒有不當既傷害和傷害的passible神格, passible的性質,他的身體。

    I could say much on this subject and first of all that those holy fathers, when they discuss the economy, speak not of the generation but of the Son becoming man.我可以說很多關於這個問題首先是,這些神聖的父親,當他們討論經濟,講的不是一代人,但子成為男人。 But I recall the promise of brevity that I made at the beginning and that both restrains my discourse and moves me on to the second subject of your reverence.但我記得簡潔的承諾,我開始時所作的,這兩個制約我國話語和動作我的第二個問題您的崇敬。 In that I applaud your division of natures into manhood and godhead and their conjunction in one person.在這我讚揚你司性質到成年和神格和他們一起在一個人。 I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering.我還讚揚你的發言,上帝的Word不需要第二代的一個女人,和你的供詞說,神格無力的痛苦。 Such statements are truly orthodox and equally opposed to the evil opinions of all heretics about the Lord's natures.這樣的聲明是真正東正教和同樣反對邪惡的意見都異端的上帝本性。 If the remainder was an attempt to introduce some hidden and incomprehensible wisdom to the ears of the readers, it is for your sharpness to decide.如果其餘的是企圖引進一些隱藏的和難以理解的智慧耳朵的讀者,這是您的清晰度來決定。 In my view these subsequent views seemed to subvert what came first.我認為這些意見後來似乎顛覆什麼排名第一。 They suggested that he who had at the beginning been proclaimed as impassible and incapable of a second generation had somehow become capable of suffering and freshly created, as though what belonged to God the Word by nature had been destroyed by his conjunction with his temple or as though people considered it not enough that the sinless temple, which is inseparable from the divine nature, should have endured birth and death for sinners, or finally as though the Lord's voice was not deserving of credence when it cried out to the Jews: "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.'' He did not say, "Destroy my godhead and in three days it will be raised up."他們建議說,他誰曾在年初被宣布為不能傷害和第二代已成為能以某種痛苦和創造新鮮,好像什麼屬於上帝的Word的性質已被摧毀,他與他的寺院或作為雖然人們認為這是不夠的無罪寺,這是不可分割的神聖性質,應該經歷出生率和死亡率的罪人,或最後,好像上帝的聲音不值得信任時,哭了猶太人: “摧毀這個寺廟和在3天內我將提高了。 ''他沒有說, “破壞我神格和在三天內將提出的行動。 ”

    Again I should like to expand on this but am restrained by the memory of my promise.我要再次擴大,但我對這一限制的記憶我的諾言。 I must speak therefore but with brevity.因此,我必須說,但簡潔。 Holy scripture, wherever it recalls the Lord's economy, speaks of the birth and suffering not of the godhead but of the humanity of Christ, so that the holy virgin is more accurately termed mother of Christ than mother of God .聖經,無論它回顧了上帝的經濟,講的誕生和痛苦不是神格,而且是人類的救世主, 使聖母是更準確地稱為母親比基督天主之母 Hear these words that the gospels proclaim: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham."聽到這些話的福音宣布: “這本書的代耶穌基督的兒子大衛的兒子,亞伯拉罕。 ” It is clear that God the Word was not the son of David.很顯然,上帝是不是在Word的兒子大衛。 Listen to another witness if you will: "Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called the Christ. " Consider a further piece of evidence: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, she was found to be with child of the holy Spirit."聆聽另一名證人如果你將: “雅各布begat約瑟夫,瑪麗的丈夫,其中出生耶穌,誰被稱為基督。 ”考慮進一步的證據: “現在耶穌基督誕生了以這種方式。當他的母親瑪麗已訂婚約瑟夫,她被發現與兒童的聖靈。 “ But who would ever consider that the godhead of the only begotten was a creature of the Spirit?但誰會認為神格唯一生的產物,是精神? Why do we need to mention: "the mother of Jesus was there"?我們為什麼需要提及: “耶穌的母親在那裡” ? And again what of: "with Mary the mother of Jesus"; or "that which is conceived in her is of the holy Spirit"; and "Take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt"; and "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh"?並再次什麼的: “與瑪麗的母親耶穌” ;或“這是在她的設想是聖靈”和“帶著孩子和他的母親和逃往埃及”和“關於他的兒子,誰出生的種子大衛根據肉“ ? Again, scripture says when speaking of his passion: "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh"; and again "Christ died for our sins" and "Christ having suffered in the flesh"; and "This is", not "my godhead", but "my body, broken for you".同樣,聖經說,在談到他的激情: “上帝派遣自己的兒子在相似的罪孽深重的肉體和罪惡,他譴責罪惡的肉” ,並再次“基督為我們的罪死”和“基督而遭受的肉“和”這是“ ,而不是”我的神祖“ ,而是”我的身體,破碎的你“ 。

    Ten thousand other expressions witness to the human race that they should not think that it was the godhead of the Son that was recently killed but the flesh which was joined to the nature of the godhead.一萬其他表達見證人類,他們不應該認為這是神格的兒子最近被打死,但肉是加入的性質,神格。 (Hence also Christ calls himself the lord and son of David: " 'What do you think of the Christ ? Whose son is he ?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' Jesus answered and said to them, 'How is it then that David inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, sit at my right hand"?'". He said this as being indeed son of David according to the flesh, but his Lord according to his godhead.) The body therefore is the temple of the deity of the Son, a temple which is united to it in a high and divine conjunction, so that the divine nature accepts what belongs to the body as its own. (因此也耶穌自稱上帝的兒子大衛: “你覺得基督?的兒子是誰? ' ,他們對他說, '的兒子大衛。耶穌回答對他們說, '如何那麼大衛鼓舞的精神,要求他主,他說: “上帝說,我的上帝,坐在我的右手"?'".他說,這是確實的兒子大衛根據肉,但他上帝根據他的神格。 )身體因此廟的神的兒子,這是美國坦普爾它的高度和神聖的結合,使神性接受哪些屬於它自己的身體。 Such a confession is noble and worthy of the gospel traditions.這種坦白是崇高的,值得的福音傳統。 But to use the expression "accept as its own" as a way of diminishing the properties of the conjoined flesh, birth, suffering and entombment, is a mark of those whose minds are led astray, my brother, by Greek thinking or are sick with the lunacy of Apollinarius and Arius or the other heresies or rather something more serious than these.但是,使用“接受為自己的” ,以此作為減少的屬性連體肉,出生,痛苦和降半旗致哀,是一個標誌,那些思想引入歧途,我的兄弟,由希臘思想或生病在精神錯亂的Apollinarius和阿里烏斯或其他異端或東西,而比這些更嚴重。

    For it is necessary for such as are attracted by the name "propriety" to make God the Word share, because of this same propriety, in being fed on milk, in gradual growth, in terror at the time of his passion and in need of angelical assistance.因為它是必要的,如被吸引的名字叫“禮” ,使上帝的Word份額,因為同樣的禮,在被餵牛奶,在逐步增長,在反恐的時候,他的激情,需要angelical援助。 I make no mention of circumcision and sacrifice and sweat and hunger, which all belong to the flesh and are adorable as having taken place for our sake.我沒有提到割禮和犧牲和汗水和飢餓,這都屬於肉,並有可愛的地方採取的酒。 But it would be false to apply such ideas to the deity and would involve us in just accusation because of our calumny.但是,如果是虛假的申請這種想法的神,將包括我們在短短的指責,因為我們的誹謗。

    These are the traditions of the holy fathers .這些是傳統的羅馬父親 These are the precepts of the holy scriptures .這些戒律的聖經 In this way does someone write in a godly way about the divine mercy and power, "Practise these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress''. This is what Paul says to all. The care you take in labouring for those who have been scandalised is well taken and we are grateful to you both for the thought you devote to things divine and for the concern you have even for those who live here. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. In fact the church daily progresses here and through the grace of Christ there is such an increase among the people that those who behold it cry out with the words of the prophet, "The earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the water covers the sea". As for our sovereigns, they are in great joy as the light of doctrine is spread abroad and, to be brief, because of the state of all the heresies that fight against God and of the orthodoxy of the church, one might find that verse fulfilled "The house of Saul grew weaker and weaker and the house of David grew stronger and stronger".通過這種方式也有人寫在一個虔誠的方式對神恩和權力, “實踐這些職責,把自己給他們,以便使所有可能會看到您的進展'' 。這是保羅說所有。照顧你的勞動的人誰已經scandalised是採取和我們感謝你都以為你的東西奉獻給神和你的關切,甚至對那些誰住在這裡。但是你應該明白,你已經通過一些誤導誰在這裡已被推翻的主教會議的摩尼教或神職人員說服自己。事實上,教會在這裡每天的進展,並通過基督的恩典有這種增加人民之間的那些誰看哪它呼喚的話先知說: “地球將要填補的知識勳爵的水涵蓋海” 。至於我們的統治者,他們在巨大的喜悅作為根據的理論是國外的傳播,並作簡短發言,是因為國家所有的歪理邪說的打擊上帝和正統教會,人們可能會發現,詩履行“的房子掃羅增長弱和眾議院大衛成長壯大。 ”

    This is our advice from a brother to a brother.這是我們的兄弟的意見,以一個兄弟。 "If anyone is disposed to be contentious", Paul will cry out through us to such a one, "we recognize no other practice, neither do the churches of God". “如果有人是將有爭議的處置” ,保羅將大聲疾呼通過我們這樣的人, “我們承認沒有其他的做法,也沒有上帝的教會” 。 I and those with me greet all the brotherhood with you in Christ.我和那些與我打招呼所有兄弟你在基督。 May you remain strong and continue praying for us, most honoured and reverent lord.可你依然強勁,並繼續為我們祈禱,非常榮幸和虔誠的上帝。


    Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius第三封信的西里爾至涅斯多留

    [Read at the council of Ephesus and included in the proceedings . [閱讀安理會以弗所,並納入訴訟程序。 We omit the preface of the letter]我們省略了前言的信]

    We believe in one God .我們相信,在一個上帝。 . .[Nicene Creed] 。 [尼西亞信經]

    Following in all points the confessions of the holy fathers, which they made with the holy Spirit speaking in them , and following the direction of their opinions and going as it were in the royal way, we say that the only-begotten Word of God, who was begotten from the very essence of the Father, true God from true God, the light from the light and the one through whom all things in heaven and earth were made, for our salvation came down and emptying himself he became incarnate and was made man. This means that以下的所有點的供詞神聖的父親,他們與聖靈的發言,並按照他們的意見方向去,因為它是在皇家的方式,我們僅生神的話語,誰是生從根本所在父,從真正的上帝的真神,光從光和通過其中的一個萬物天地發了言,對我們的拯救下來和胃排空本人和他成為體現了男子。 這就意味著,

  • he took flesh from the holy virgin and made it his own, undergoing a birth like ours from her womb and coming forth a man from a woman.他肉,聖母,使他自己,經歷了像我們這樣從出生她的子宮裡和未來提出了男子一女。
  • He did not cast aside what he was, but although he assumed flesh and blood, he remained what he was, God in nature and truth.他沒有拋棄了他,但儘管他假定血肉,他依然是他,上帝的性質和真相。
  • We do not say that his flesh was turned into the nature of the godhead or that the unspeakable Word of God was changed into the nature of the flesh.我們不說,他的肉體變成的性質神格或無法形容天主的聖言改為性質的肉體。 For he (the Word) is unalterable and absolutely unchangeable and remains always the same as the scriptures say.因為他(在Word )是不可改變的,絕對不變的,仍然總是一樣的經文說。 For although visible as a child and in swaddling cloths, even while he was in the bosom of the virgin that bore him, as God he filled the whole of creation and was fellow ruler with him who begot him.因為儘管可見作為兒童和swaddling衣服,甚至當他在懷裡的美屬維爾京生,他是上帝,他充滿整個創作和研究員的統治者是誰與他begot他。 For the divine is without quantity and dimension and cannot be subject to circumscription.為神聖的是沒有數量和尺寸,可以不作限定。

    We confess the Word to have been made one with the flesh hypostatically , and we adore one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ.我們承認的單詞了一個肉hypostatically ,我們崇拜一個兒子和主耶穌基督。 We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God in him, as though the two natures were mutually united only through a unity of dignity and authority ; that would be an empty expression and nothing more.我們把他的部分分裂和獨立的人與神的他,好像這兩個性質是相互聯合國只有通過一個統一的尊嚴和權威 ,這將是一個空的表達,僅此而已。 Nor do we give the name Christ in one sense to the Word of God and in another to him who was born of woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. As man he was anointed with us, even though he himself gives the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it and not in measure, as the blessed evangelist John says.我們也不讓基督的名義在一個合理的神的話語,並在另一個誰給他出生的女人,但我們知道只有一個基督一詞從父神用自己的肉體。 至於男子與他受膏者我們,儘管他本人給出的精神是值得那些誰得到它,而不是衡量,作為神聖的傳播者約翰說。

    But we do not say that the Word of God dwelt as in an ordinary man born of the holy virgin, in order that Christ may not be thought of as a God-bearing man.但我們不說,天主的聖言住在一個普通的人所生的聖母,為了使基督可能不會被認為是上帝軸承男子。 For even though "the Word dwelt among us", and it is also said that in Christ dwelt "all the fullness of the godhead bodily", we understand that, having become flesh, the manner of his indwelling is not defined in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints , he was united by nature and not turned into flesh and he made his indwelling in such a way as we may say that the soul of man does in his own body.對於即使“字概括了我們中間” ,這也是說,住在基督裡說: “所有的豐滿的神格身體” ,我們的理解是,已經成為肉身, 他的方式留置沒有確定以同樣的方式因為據說,他是住在聖人 ,他是聯合國的性質,而不是變成肉和他作了留置以這樣一種方式,因為我們可以說,人的靈魂,並在他自己的身體。

    There is therefore one Christ and Son and Lord, but not with the sort of conjunction that a man might have with God as unity of dignity or authority .因此,有一個兒子和耶穌和上帝,但不同意那種結合,一名男子可能與上帝作為統一的尊嚴或權威 Equality of honour by itself is unable to unite natures.平等的榮幸本身是無法團結性質。 For Peter and John were equal in honour to each other, being both of them apostles and holy disciples, but they were two, not one.對彼得和約翰都是平等的榮幸對方,被他們兩個使徒和神聖的弟子,但是他們兩個,而不是一個。 Neither do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition for this is not enough for natural union.我們也不理解的方式結合是一個並存的,這是不夠的,自然的聯盟。 Nor yet is it a question of relative participation , as we ourselves, being united to the Lord, are as it is written in the words of scripture "one spirit with him".也不是一個問題, 相對的參與 ,為我們自己,而美國的上帝,是因為它是書面的話經文“的精神與他的一個” 。 Rather do we deprecate the term "conjunction" as being inadequate to express the idea of union.相反,我們姍的“結合”不足以表達的想法聯盟。

    Nor do we call the Word from God the Father, the God or Lord of Christ.我們也不要求的Word從父神的神或上帝基督 To speak in that way would appear to split into two the one Christ and Son and Lord and we might in this way fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself.發言以這種方式似乎一分為二的一個兒子和耶穌和上帝,我們可能會以這種方式屬於收費的褻瀆,這使他的上帝和主本人。 For, as we have already said, the Word of God was united hypostatically with the flesh and is God of all and Lord of the universe, but is neither his own slave or master.因為,正如我們已經說過,神的話語是聯合國hypostatically的血肉是所有人的天主和對宇宙的上帝,但既不是自己的奴隸或船長。 For it is foolish or rather impious to think or to speak in this way.因為這是愚蠢的或而impious想發言或以這種方式。 It is true that he called the Father "God" even though he was himself God by nature and of his being, we are not ignorant of the fact that at the same time as he was God he also became man, and so was subject to God according to the law that is suitable to the nature of manhood .的確,他所謂的父親“上帝” ,即使自己的上帝的性質和他的福祉,我們不能忽視一個事實,即在同一時間,他是上帝,他也成為男子,因此受到上帝根據法律適用的性質,男子氣概 But how should he become God or Lord of himself?但是,應該如何,他成為上帝或上帝的自己? Consequently as man and as far as it was fitting for him within the limits of his self-emptying it is said that he was subject to God like ourselves.因此作為人與至於有人適合他的限度內,他的自我胃排空它是說,他是受上帝喜歡自己。 So he came to be under the law while at the same time himself speaking the law and being a lawgiver like God.於是,他來到法律規定的同時說自己的法律和立法者想成為上帝。

    When speaking of Christ we avoid the expression: "I worship him who is carried because of the one who carries him; because of him who is unseen, I worship the one who is seen."在談到基督我們避免表達: “我崇拜他,因為誰是誰的一個帶有他,因為他誰是看不見的,我崇拜一個誰是。 ” It is shocking to say in this connexion: "The assumed shares the name of God with him who assumes."這是令人震驚的說,在這聯接: “假設股票真主的名義與他誰承擔。 ” To speak in this way once again divides into two Christs and puts the man separately by himself and God likewise by himself.發言以這種方式再次分為兩類基督並提出了該名男子分別由自己和上帝同樣由他本人。 This saying denies openly the union, according to which one is not worshipped alongside the other, nor do both share in the title "God", but Jesus Christ is considered as one, the only begotten Son, honoured with one worship, together with his own flesh.這句話公開否認聯盟,其中一個不是崇拜與其他,也不份額都在標題中“上帝” ,但耶穌被視為一個,唯一的獨生子,榮幸地與一個禮拜,連同他的自己的肉體。

    We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all".我們還承認, 唯一的獨生子出生的父神,但根據他自己的性質,他並不受痛苦,遭受的肉體,我們根據聖經,並在他釘在十字架上的身體, 沒有提出自己的痛苦他自己的痛苦自己的肉體 ,為“由上帝的恩典,他嚐到死亡的所有” 。 For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep".為此,他給了他自己的身體死刑雖然他的生活和大自然的復活,以使具有走過了死刑無法形容自己的權力,他可能第一次在自己的肉體成為第一個從死亡和“第一批成果,其中,睡眠“ 。 And that he might make a way for human nature to return to incorruption by the grace of God, as we have just said, "he tasted death for all" and on the third day he returned to life, having robbed the underworld.而且他可能的一種方式人性返回廉政建設的恩典的上帝,因為我們剛才說的, “他嚐到死亡所有” ,並在第三天,他回到生活,在搶劫了黑社會。 Accordingly, even though it is said that "through man came the resurrection of the dead", yet we understand that man to have been the Word which came from God, through whom the power of death was overcome.因此,即使有人說, “通過人來了,死人復活” ,但我們的理解是,人已在Word來自上帝,通過他們的力量,克服死亡。 At the right time he will come as one Son and Lord in the glory of the Father, to judge the world in justice, as it is written.在正確的時間,他將作為一個兒子和上帝的榮耀的父,來判斷世界正義,因為它是書面。

    We will necessarily add this also.我們一定會購買,這也。 Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all.宣布死亡據肉只有上帝的獨生子,也就是耶穌基督,並宣稱他返回生命從死亡和他的阿森松到天堂,我們提供了unbloody 崇拜 [ sacrificii servitutem ]在教堂等著手thanksgivings的神秘和神聖而partaken聖 [文集]和寶血基督救世主我們所有人。 This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .].這不是我們所收到的普通肉,天上禁止,也沒有因為誰的男子取得了神聖和加入該聯盟的Word的榮譽,或誰留置了神聖的,但作為真正的生命和真正肉在Word [ UT斯達康嚴重vivificatricem等ipsius Verbi propriam factam 。 ] 。 For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" .被生活的本質是上帝,當他成為自己的肉體,他也被賦予生命的,這也是他對我們說: “阿門我對你們說,除非你吃的肉的兒子男子喝他的血。 “ For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so.因為我們絕不能認為這是肉體的一名男子像我們(對如何才能肉男子被賦予生命的自身性質? ) ,但正在取得真正 [重症proprium eius factam ]一個誰對我們的酒成為男子的兒子,被稱為做。

    For we do not divide up the words of our Saviour in the gospels among two hypostases or persons .對於我們不劃分的話,我們的救主在福音中的兩名hypostases或個人 For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union.對於一個只有基督是不是雙重的,儘管他被認為是從兩個不同的現實情況,匯集成一個牢不可破的聯盟。 In the same sort of way a human being, though he be composed of soul and body, is considered to be not dual, but rather one out of two.在同樣的方式是一個人,儘管他組成的靈魂和身體,被認為是不雙,而是一出兩個。 Therefore, in thinking rightly, we refer both the human and divine expressions to the same person.因此,在思想正確,我們指的人力和神聖的表達式為同一人。 For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory".因為當他談到自己在一個神聖的方式, “他說,看到我看到了父親” ,以及“我與父原為一” ,我們認為他的神聖和不可言喻的性質,根據這些,他是一個與他自己的父親通過身份的性質,是“形象,留下深刻的印象和亮度的榮耀” 。 But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity.但是,當,而不是dishonouring衡量他的人性,他說,對猶太人: “但是現在你想殺死我,一名男子誰道出了事實真相給你” ,再次不低於前,我們認識到,他誰的,因為他的平等和相似性,以聖父是上帝這個詞,也是範圍之內他的人性。 For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man ?如果有必要認為是神的性質,他成為肉身,這是男子ensouled有一個合理的靈魂,任何人不論出於何種原因都應該感到慚愧的是在他所表達的話,他們應該都可以適用於他的人嗎? For if he should reject words suitable to him as man, who was it that forced him to become a man like us?因為如果他要拒絕的話適合他的人,是誰,迫使他成為一個人跟我們一樣? Why should he who submitted himself to voluntary self-emptying for our sake, reject expressions that are suitable for such self-emptying?為什麼要他誰提交本人自願自我胃排空我們的酒,拒絕表達,適合這種自我胃排空? All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word .所有的表現形式,因此,發生在福音中要提到一個人, 一個enfleshed本質的字詞 For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures.為有一個主耶穌基督,根據經文。

    Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood.儘管他被稱為“使徒和大祭司的自白” ,因為提供的上帝和父親的信條我們向他並通過他向上帝和父親,並聖靈,我們再次表示,他是天然的和唯一的,上帝的獨生子,我們不得轉讓給另一名男子除了他的名字和現實的祭司。 For he became the "mediator between God and humanity" and the establisher of peace between them, offering himself for an odour of sweetness to the God and Father . 他成了“之間的調解人上帝和人類”的組織者和他們之間的和平,提供自己的氣味甘甜的上帝和父親 Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book".因此,還他說: “犧牲和提供你不會,但你有一個機構準備對我來說; [在燔祭和犧牲的罪過你沒有高興] 。然後我說, '瞧我做您的意願, ö上帝' ,因為這是我寫的數量“一書。 For our sake and not for his own he brought forward his own body in the odour of sweetness.我們的酒,而不是為自己,他提出了他自己的身體的氣味甘甜。 Indeed, of what offering or sacrifice for himself would he have been in need, being as God superior to all manner of sin?事實上,如何提供服務或犧牲的,他本人將一直需要,正在為上帝優於所有形式的罪惡? For though "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God", and so we are prone to disorder and human nature has fallen into the weakness of sin, he is not so and consequently we are behind him in glory.雖然為“犯了罪,都達不到神的榮耀” ,所以我們很容易混亂和人性陷入疲軟的罪孽,他並非如此,因此我們在他身後的榮耀。 How then can there be any further doubt that the true lamb was sacrificed for us and on our behalf? The suggestion that he offered himself for himself as well as for us is impossible to separate from the charge of impiety .那麼,怎麼能有任何進一步的疑問,真正的羊肉是犧牲了我們和我們的代表? 的建議,他願意親自為自己以及對我們來說,不可能獨立於負責impiety For he never committed a fault at all, nor did he sin in any way.因為他從來沒有承諾在任何故障,也沒有以任何方式罪孽。 What sort of offering would he need then since there was no sin for which offering might rightly be made?什麼樣的產品需要那麼他將因為沒有罪過而提供可能作出正確?

    When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him.當他說的精神, “他會讚美我” ,正確的理解,這並不是說,一個基督和兒子需要從另一個輝煌和榮耀,他從聖靈,為他的精神是沒有比他更好的,也不超過他。 But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him.而是因為他用他自己的精神,以顯示他的神格通過其強大的工程,他說,他一直讚美他,就像我們任何人或許應該說,例如他的內在力量和他的知識的話,他們美化他。 For even though the Spirit exists in his own hypostasis and is thought of on his own, as being Spirit and not as Son, even so he is not alien to the Son.對於即使精神存在於自己的本質 ,是思想對自己,為精神,而不是兒子,即便如此,他並不陌生兒子。 He has been called "the Spirit of truth", and Christ is the truth, and the Spirit was poured forth by the Son, as indeed the Son was poured forth from the God and Father.他被稱為“真理的聖靈” ,和基督是真理,是投入的精神提出的兒子,因為確實是兒子被噴湧而出,從上帝和父親。 Accordingly the Spirit worked many strange things through the hand of the holy apostles and so glorified him after the ascension of our lord Jesus Christ into heaven.因此工作的精神,通過許多奇怪的事情手的聖使徒和美化,使他升天後,我們的主耶穌基督進入天堂。 For it was believed that he is God by nature and works through his own Spirit.對於有人認為他是上帝的性質,並通過自己的精神。 For this reason also he said: "He (the Spirit) will take what is mine and declare it to you".出於這個原因,他也說: “他(聖靈)將採取什麼是地雷,並宣布它為你” 。 But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing.但是,我們不能說是明智的精神和強大的共享,通過與其他一些,因為他是完美的,在所有需要的任何一件好事。 Since he is the Spirit of the power and wisdom of the Father, that is the Son, he is himself, evidently, wisdom and power.因為他是精神的力量和智慧的父親,這是兒子,他是自己,很顯然,智慧和力量。

    Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb.因此,因為聖母負有上帝在肉身hypostatically誰是美國的肉,因此 ,我們呼籲她母親的上帝 ,但不作為的性質的Word開始了它的存在從肉體(對“詞是在一開始和Word是上帝的詞是與上帝“ ,和他的年齡和是coeternal與父親和工匠的所有東西) ,而是因為,我們已經說過,他對自己hypostatically美國的人力資源和經歷了出生根據肉,她的子宮裡。 This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face".這是不是說他需要一定或為自己的性質出生的時間和在過去時代的這個年齡段的, 而是為了他可能會保佑我們開始存在,以便看到,這是一個女人了生下他的肉體聯合國的詛咒對整場比賽應該停止,其後是委託我們所有的泥土機構死刑,以便消除通過他的詛咒, “你應該在悲痛帶來兒童” ,應表現出真相的話先知: “強吞噬他們死亡” ,並再次, “上帝已經抹去每一滴眼淚遠離都面臨著” 。 It is for this cause that we say that in his economy he blessed marriage and, when invited, went down to Cana in Galilee with his holy apostles. 正是由於這個原因 ,我們說,他在他的經濟和幸福的婚姻,當邀請,下降到加拿大,他在加利利聖使徒。

    We have been taught to hold these things by我們一直在學習這些東西的人

  • the holy apostles and evangelists and by使徒和福音和
  • all the divinely inspired scriptures and by the true confession of所有的神聖的經文和真實自白
  • the blessed fathers . 父親的祝福。

    To all these your reverence ought to agree and subscribe without any deceit.所有這些你的崇敬應該同意和訂閱沒有任何欺騙。 What is required for your reverence to anathematise we subjoin to this epistle.什麼是所需的崇敬anathematise我們添本書信。

    Twelve Anathemas Proposed by Cyril and accepted by the Council of Ephesus 12 Anathemas提議西里爾和接受安理會以弗所

    1. 1 。 If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God (for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema .如果有人不承認,艾曼紐是上帝的真理,因此,聖母是天主之母(為她承擔了肉慾方式天主的聖言成了血肉,讓他被詛咒

    2. 2 。 If anyone does not confess that the Word from God the Father has been united by hypostasis with the flesh and is one Christ with his own flesh, and is therefore God and man together, let him be anathema .如果有人不承認這個詞從父神已經被美國的本質與肉,是基督用自己的肉體,因此上帝和人類在一起,讓他被詛咒

    3. 3 。 If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union, joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power, and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature, let him be anathema .如果有人在一個分裂的hypostases基督聯盟後,加入他們只有結合的尊嚴或權威或權力,而不是而不是由一個共同的聯盟的性質,讓他被詛咒

    4. 4 。 If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema .如果任何人分發兩個人之間的表達或hypostases使用無論是在福音或使徒的著作,無論他們是使用羅馬作家的基督或由他本人,並賦予他的一些,以一個男人,思想分別從Word來自上帝,和其他人,如適當的上帝,他為到Word從父神,讓他被詛咒

    5. 5 。 If anyone dares to say that Christ was a God-bearing man and not rather God in truth, being by nature one Son, even as "the Word became flesh", and is made partaker of blood and flesh precisely like us, let him be anathema .如果有人膽敢說,基督是上帝軸承男子,而不是上帝的真理,而被一個兒子的性質,甚至是“字成了肉” ,並取得了關係者的血肉正是我們一樣,讓他成為詛咒

    6. 6 。 If anyone says that the Word from God the Father was the God or master of Christ, and does not rather confess the same both God and man, the Word having become flesh, according to the scriptures, let him be anathema .如果有人說這個詞從父神是上帝或主耶穌,不相同的,而承認這兩個上帝和人類中,已經成為肉,根據經文,讓他被詛咒

    7. 7 。 If anyone says that as man Jesus was activated by the Word of God and was clothed with the glory of the Only-begotten, as a being separate from him, let him be anathema .如果有人說,作為一名耶穌是由神的話語,並穿著與榮耀僅生,作為一個正在脫離他,讓他被詛咒

    8. 8 。 If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema .如果有人膽敢說,該名男子是誰應該承擔的崇拜和讚美與聖言和被稱為上帝和他一起,同時也獨立於他, (為增加“改為”必須始終迫使我們認為以這種方式) ,並不會相當崇拜艾曼紐一個崇拜和送他一個doxology ,甚至為“ Word中成為血肉” ,讓他被詛咒

    9. 9 。 If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema .如果有人說,一個主耶穌基督是榮耀的精神,充分利用外來的力量,通過他的工作和有收到他的權力,掌握不潔工作精神和神聖的奇蹟的人們,並沒有,而說這是他自己正確的精神,通過他的工作的神聖奇蹟,讓他被詛咒

    10. 10 。 The divine scripture says Christ became "the high priest and apostle of our confession"; he offered himself to God the Father in an odour of sweetness for our sake.神聖的經文說,基督成為“大司祭和使徒的自白” ;他提出自己父神的氣味甜度為我們的酒。 If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema .如果有人因此說,這不是一詞來自上帝誰成為我們的大祭司和使徒,當他成為一個人的肉體和我們一樣,但因為它是另一個誰是分開的他,特別是一個男人從女,或如果有人說,他還提供了犧牲,而不是為自己而不是為我們單獨(誰知道他沒有罪不需要提供) ,讓他被詛咒

    11. 11 。 If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema .如果有人不承認,肉體的上帝是生命和屬於詞從父神,但堅持認為,它屬於另一個除了他,與他一起在聯合國的尊嚴,或僅僅享受神聖留置,是不想生命,因為我們說,因為它是屬於肉體的Word誰有權把所有的東西生命,讓他被詛咒

    12. 12 。 If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema .如果有人不承認神的話語中所受的肉體和被釘在十字架上的肉和嚐到死亡的血肉成為第一個出生的人,雖然他是上帝的生活和生命,讓他被詛咒


    The judgment against Nestorius涅斯多留的判決

    The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties.羅馬主教說:作為,除了所有其他的優秀涅斯多留拒絕服從我們的傳票,並沒有得到應有的神聖和敬畏上帝主教我們送給他,我們有必要開始進行調查時,他impieties 。 We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by我們發現他的思想和發言中impious的方式,從他的信件,從他的著作已經宣讀了,從事情,他最近說,在這大都市已經目睹到的其他人;而且由於我們一直在迫使雙方的必要性

  • the canons and by在大砲和
  • the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans , to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.這封信是我們最神聖的父親和研究員僕人塞萊斯廷,主教教堂的羅馬人 ,發出這種可悲的譴責他,但我們這樣做了許多眼淚。

    Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.我們的主耶穌基督,誰褻瀆了他,已確定通過這一最神聖的主教,同樣涅斯多留應該剝奪他的尊嚴和主教從學院的神職人員。


    Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.) Synodical信的驅逐東部主教(等) 。

    The holy and ecumenical synod, gathered together in Ephesus at the behest of the most pious princes, [sends greeting] to the bishops, priests, deacons and the whole people in every province and city.羅馬和基督教主教會議,聚集在以弗所的指示最虔誠的王子, [發送賀卡]的主教,神父,執事和全體人民在每一個省,市。

    When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number.當我們聚集在根據法令,在虔誠的大都市以弗所,一些失散自己從我們來說,稍多於30的號碼。 The leader of this apostasy was John, bishop of Antioch, and their names are as follows: First the same John, bishop of Antioch in Syria, [the names of 33 other eastern bishops follow]領導人的這一叛教是約翰,主教安提阿,他們的名字如下:首先同約翰,主教安蒂奧克在敘利亞, [ 33名的其他東歐主教後續]

    These men, despite the fact that they were members of the ecclesiastical community, had no licence either to do harm through their priestly dignity or to do good, because some among their number had already been deposed.這些人,儘管他們是教會成員的社會,沒有執照或者損害他們的尊嚴或祭司做很好,因為他們當中有些已被廢黜。 Their support of the views of Nestorius and Celestius was clearly shown by their refusal to condemn Nestorius together with us.他們支持的意見, 涅斯多留Celestius是清楚地表明了他們拒絕譴責涅斯多留與我們一起。 By a common decree the sacred synod has expelled them from ecclesiastical communion and deprived them of the exercise of their priestly office, through which they have been able to harm some and help others.在一個共同的神聖法令主教驅逐他們從教會的共融,並剝奪了他們行使其祭司辦公室,通過他們能夠傷害一些和幫助他人。

    Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province.因為這是必要的,這些誰缺席會議和留在該國或城市,考慮到他們自己的教會事務,或因為他們的健康,不應被忽視的決定制定關於這些問題,我們知道您holinesses ,如果有任何大都市的一個省流露出從羅馬和基督教主教和重視自己的大會revolters ,或者應該這樣做後,或應他已通過的意見, Celestius ,或在將來這樣做,這樣的人被剝奪了一切權力採取措施對他的主教省。 He is thereby cast out by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is deprived of all ecclesiastical authority.他從而演員由來自所有教會主教共融和被剝奪了所有教會的權威。 Instead he is to be subjected to the bishops of his own province and the surrounding metropolitans, provided they be orthodox, even to the extent of being completely deposed from the rank of bishop.相反,他是受到了他自己的主教省和周邊大城市,只要他們是正統的,甚至到了完全廢黜的軍銜由主教。

    If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod, are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank.如果有任何省主教們缺席自己的主教會議,並已附上自己或企圖重視自己的叛教,或以後簽署的沉積涅斯多留回到了大會的叛徒,這些,根據決定主教會議,是被剝奪鐸和廢黜其排名。

    If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it.如果任何人士無論在城市或國家已被暫停的奈斯脫流斯和那些與他從他們的神職,因為他們的正統,我們認為,這些權利應當恢復其適當的級別和一般我們法令,這些神職人員誰是一致的與東正教和基督教主教會議不應以任何方式受到這些主教誰可能有反抗或反抗它。 If any clerics should apostatise and in private or in public dare to hold the views of Nestorius or Celestius, it is thought right that such should stand deposed by the holy synod.如果有任何神職人員應該apostatise並私下或公開不敢舉行的意見,涅斯多留或Celestius ,有人認為,這種權利應該廢黜的主教。

    Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before. 受到譴責的不當行為的主教或由他們自己的主教,並已uncanonically恢復共融和職級的涅斯多留或其同情者,他們慣常缺乏的歧視,這些人我們已經頒布得到任何好處,並通過這繼續廢黜前。

    Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated.同樣,如果任何人都應該想以任何方式擾亂了決定採取在每一個點的主教以弗所,羅馬會議決定,如果他們的主教神職人員 ,他們應該完全剝奪了自己的排名,如果他們被俗人他們應被逐出教會。


    Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]定義信仰尼西亞[第6次會議7月22日431 ]

    The synod of Nicaea produced this creed: We believe ...主教會議尼西亞生產這個信條是:我們相信... [the Nicene Creed follows] [尼西亞信經如下]

    It seems fitting that all should assent to this holy creed.似乎恰當的都應該同意這一神聖的信仰。 It is pious and sufficiently helpful for the whole world.這是虔誠的和充分的幫助整個世界。 But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it.但是,由於一些假裝承認和接受,同時扭曲的力量其表達自己的意見 ,因此迴避真相,被兒子的錯誤和兒童的破壞,它已被證明有必要增加證詞羅馬和東正教的父親 ,可以填寫這意味著他們已經考慮到他們的勇氣的話,並在宣布它。 All those who have a clear and blameless faith will understand, interpret and proclaim it in this way.所有這些誰有一個明確的和無可指責的信仰會理解,解釋,並宣布它以這種方式。

    When these documents had been read out, the holy synod decreed the following.當這些文件已被讀出,羅馬主教下令以下。

    1. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea.這是不允許生產或寫或撰寫其他任何信仰,但其中所定義的神聖父親誰是聚集在聖靈在尼西亞。
    2. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised.任何誰膽敢撰寫或帶來或產生另一種信仰的利益,這些誰想談談從希臘或猶太教或其他一些異端的了解真相,如果他們是主教神職人員 ,他們應該被剝奪各自收費如果他們是外行 ,他們將被anathematised 。
    3. In the same way if any should be discovered, whether bishops, clergy or laity, thinking or teaching the views expressed in his statement by the priest Charisius about the incarnation of the only-begotten Son of God or the disgusting, perverted views of Nestorius, which underlie them, these should be subject to the condemnation of this holy and ecumenical synod.以同樣的方式是否應當發現,無論是主教,神職人員或俗人,教學思想或所表達的意見,他的發言的神父Charisius的化身唯一,上帝的獨生子,或噁心,扭曲的意見涅斯多留,他們背後,這些應該受到譴責這一神聖的基督教主教會議。 A bishop clearly is to be stripped of his bishopric and deposed, a cleric to be deposed from the clergy, and a lay person is to be anathematised, as was said before.一位主教顯然是被剝奪他的主教和廢黜, 一名神職人員被廢黜的神職人員,和一位非法律界人士要anathematised ,正如以前說過。


    Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites定義對impious Messalians或Euchites

    The most pious and religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius came together to us and made a joint enquiry about the so called Messalians or Euchites or Enthusiasts, or whatever name this appalling heresy goes under, who dwell in the region of Pamphylia.最虔誠和宗教主教纈草Amphilochius走到一起,我們發表了一項聯合查詢所謂MessaliansEuchites愛好者,或以任何名義這一駭人聽聞的邪教下去,誰住在該地區的潘菲利亞。 We made investigation and the god-fearing and reverent Valerian produced a synodical document concerning these people, which had been drawn up in great Constantinople in the time of Sisinnius of blessed memory.我們取得了調查和敬畏上帝和虔誠的纈草synodical文件製作了一個關於這些人,這已經制訂了在偉大的君士坦丁堡的時間Sisinnius的幸福記憶。 When this had been read out in the presence of all, it was agreed that it had been well made and was correct.當這個已經宣讀了,在場的所有人,與會者一致認為,它已得到很好的進展和是正確的。 We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria .我們都同意,也最宗教主教纈草和Amphilochius和所有虔誠的主教省潘菲利亞Lycaonia ,這是什麼已登記的synodical文件應證實,絕不服從,顯然不妨礙行為亞歷山大 Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion.因此這些地方在該省誰訂閱了邪教的Messalians或發燒友,或者誰被懷疑的疾病,無論是文書或奠定基礎,是能夠走到一起;如果他們簽署anathemas據頒布了上述會議,它們應當神職人員應保持這樣的,如果俗人他們留在共融。 But if they decline and do not anathematise, if they are presbyters or deacons or hold any other rank in the church, they are to forfeit their clerical status and grade and communion, and if they are laity let them be anathematised.但是,如果他們拒絕,不anathematise ,如果他們是presbyters或執事或持有任何其他排名在教堂裡,他們放棄自己的地位和辦事員級和共融,如果他們是俗人讓他們成為anathematised 。

    In addition, those who have been condemned are not to be permitted to govern monasteries, lest tares be sown and increase.此外,這些已被譴責誰不被准許執政寺廟,以免tares是播種面積和提高。 The vigorous and zealous execution of all these decrees is enjoined upon the reverent bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops throughout the whole province.有力和熱心的執行所有這些法令是責成主教的虔誠和Amphilochius纈草和其他虔誠的主教,在整個省。 Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him.此外,它似乎很好,骯髒的書這一邪教,它已經出版,並呼籲他們Asceticon ,應anathematised ,作為組成的異端,其副本最虔誠和宗教纈帶來了。 Any other production savouring of the like impiety which is found anywhere is to be treated similarly.任何其他的生產品嚐一樣impiety這是任何地方發現是類似的處理。

    In addition, when they come together, they should commit clearly to writing whatever conduces to the creation of concord, communion and order.此外,當他們走到一起,他們應以書面形式明確承諾的任何有利於創造和諧,共融和秩序。 But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out.但是,如果任何討論中出現的聯接應與本企業的最虔誠的主教纈草, Amphilochius和其他虔誠的主教在該省的,如果有困難或模棱兩可的作物,那麼在這種情況下,似乎良好的敬虔主教的利西亞和Lycaonia應提請中,和首都的任何省這些選擇不應被排除在外。 In this way the disputed questions should through their means be brought to an appropriate solution.這樣有爭議的問題應通過其手段把一個適當的解決辦法。


    Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations.決議:即塞浦路斯的主教祝聖可能自己的行為。

    The holy synod declared:教廷主教會議宣布:

    The most reverent bishop Rheginus and with him Zenon and Evagrius, revered bishops of the province of Cyprus, have brought forward what is both an innovation against the ecclesiastical customs and the canons of the holy fathers and concerns the freedom of all.最虔誠的主教和他的Rheginus澤農Evagrius ,尊敬的主教省的塞浦路斯,已經提出了什麼是創新海關對教會和大砲聖父親和關注的所有的自由。 Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- t he prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom.因此,由於需要更多的常見疾病的治療,因為它們帶來更大的傷害他們,如果沒有一個持續的古老風俗的安提阿主教舉行祝塞浦路斯-因為它是中聲稱紀念館和口頭宗教男子誰來到主教會議-筆他主教聖教會應塞浦路斯,不受騷擾和暴力行為,利用他們的權利,履行自己的主教祝虔敬的島嶼,根據大砲聖父親和古老風俗。

    The same principle will be observed for other dioceses and provinces everywhere . 同樣的原則將遵守其他教區和各省各地 None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors.沒有一個虔誠的主教是佔有另一個省份一直沒有在其領導下的第一次或根據他的前任。 Any one who has thus seized upon and subjected a province is to restore it, lest the canons of the fathers be transgressed and the arrogance of secular power effect an entry through the cover of priestly office .任何一個誰就此抓住並受到省是恢復它,以免大砲的父親是transgressed和世俗權力的傲慢的影響入境通過覆蓋神父辦公室 We must avoid bit by bit destroying the freedom which our lord Jesus Christ the liberator of all people, gave us through his own blood.我們必須避免一點一滴摧毀了自由,我們的主耶穌基督解放者全體人民,讓我們通過自己的血液。 It is therefore the pleasure of the holy and ecumenical synod to secure intact and inviolate the rights belonging to each province from the first, according to the custom which has been in force from of old.因此,它是很高興的神聖和基督教主教會議,以確保完整和不可侵犯的權利屬於每一個省的第一,根據習俗已生效的舊。 Each metropolitan has the right to take a copy of the proceedings for his own security.每一個大城市都有權採取的副本程序為自己的安全。 If any one produces a version which is at variance with what is here decided, the holy and ecumenical synod unanimously decrees it to be of no avail.如果任何一個產品的一個版本是不符合是什麼在這裡決定,羅馬和基督教主教會議一致通過的法令它是無濟於事的。


    Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch公式聯盟之間Cyrill和約翰的安提阿

    We will state briefly what we are convinced of and profess about我們將國家簡述我們相信和信奉約

  • the God-bearing virgin and上帝軸承維爾京和
  • the manner of the incarnation of the only begotten Son of God --的方式的化身,只有上帝的獨生子- For, as we have just said, that creed is sufficient both for the knowledge of godliness and for the repudiation of all heretical false teaching.因為,正如我們剛才所說,這兩個信條是足夠的知識,信仰和否定所有邪教虛假教學。 We shall speak not presuming to approach the unapproachable; but we confess our own weakness and so shut out those who would reproach us for investigating things beyond the human mind.我們講不推定來處理接近;但我們承認我們自己的弱點,因此關閉了這些誰責備我們將進行調查的事情超出了人的心靈。

    We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place.我們承認,那麼,我們的主耶穌基督,唯一的獨生子上帝完美的上帝和完美的人一個合理的靈魂和身體,生之前,所有年齡的父親在他的神格,同樣在過去的幾天,我們和為我們的拯救,生於童貞瑪利亞,根據他的人類,同一個同質同父親在神格同質同我們人類 ,為兩個聯盟的性質發生了。 Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord.因此,我們承認一個基督,一個兒子,一個主。 According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be the mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her.根據這一理解unconfused聯盟,我們承認聖母是天主之母 ,因為上帝的Word成為了有血有肉的人,他非常概念聯合國對自己的寺廟,他從她的。 As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.至於福音和使徒表達對上帝,我們知道,神學治療某些共同作為一個人與其他人區分開的兩個性質,並解釋神在適當的聯接與神格基督和卑賤的同他的人性。


    Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace信西里爾約翰安提阿的和平

    Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers.在閱讀這些神聖的詞語,並找到自己在協議(為“有一主,一信,一洗” ) ,我們給予的榮耀上帝誰是救世主共同所有和喜悅,我們的教會和你是一個在信奉同一宗教的啟發經文傳統對我們神聖的父親。 But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin, I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you.但自從我發現,有一些總是渴望找到故障,誰言論一樣四處憤怒吐痰等等蜂和邪惡對我的話,其大意是,我說,羅馬基督的奧體是從天而不是從聖母,我認為有必要在回答他們說,一些關於這件事給你。

    O fools, whose only competence is in slander! ö傻子,他們唯一的能力是在誹謗! How did you become so perverted in thought and fall into such a sickness of idiocy?你怎麼變得如此墮落的思想和落入這種疾病的白痴? For you must surely know that almost all our fight for the faith arose in connexion with our insistence that the holy virgin is the mother of God .你一定知道, 幾乎所有的鬥爭中出現的信仰聯接我們堅持認為聖母是天主之母 But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer?但是,如果我們聲稱羅馬機構我們的共同救主基督誕生從天上,而不是她,為什麼她仍然被視為上帝的旗手? For whom indeed did she bear, if it is untrue that she bore Emmanuel according to the flesh?人確實她承擔,如果它是不真實的,她承擔艾曼紐根據肉? It is rather they who speak such nonsense against me who deserve to be ridiculed.這是誰說話,而他們對我這樣的廢話誰應該被嘲笑。 For the holy prophet Isaiah does not lie when he says, "Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is interpreted God with us".為神聖先知以賽亞不在時,他說, “看哪處女應設想,並承擔一個兒子,他們將請他的名字艾曼紐,這是我們的上帝的解釋” 。 Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins".再次羅馬加布里埃爾講實話時,他總說,向聖母: “不要怕,瑪麗。您找到贊成與上帝,瞧你將在你的子宮內受孕,並承擔了兒子,你會請他的名字耶穌。對於他將拯救他的人民從他們的罪孽“ 。

    But when we say that our lord Jesus Christ came from heaven and above, we do not apply such expressions as "from above" and "from heaven" to his holy flesh.但是,當我們說,我們的主耶穌基督來自天堂和上述情況,我們並不適用於這種表現為“從上面”和“天堂” ,以他的聖潔的肉體。 Rather do we follow the divine Paul who clearly proclaimed: "The first man was of the earth, earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven".相反,我們按照神保誰明確宣布: “第一個男子地球,人間,第二人是上帝從天上” 。

    We also recall our Saviour who said: "No one has gone up into heaven except him who came down from heaven, the son of man".我們還記得我們的救主誰說: “沒有人上升到天堂誰除他從天上下來的兒子的人” 。 Yet he was born, as I have just said, from the holy virgin according to the flesh.然而,他誕生了,正如我剛才所說,從聖母根據肉。

    But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person.但是,由於上帝這個詞,誰從上面下來,並從天上, “掏空自己,採取的形式是一個奴隸” ,並要求兒子,但所有的人,而他依然是他,這是上帝(因為他是不可改變的和不可改變的性質) ,據說,他從天降臨,因為他現在被理解為一個用自己的肉體,他也因此被指定為男子從天上,既是完善的神格和完善在人類並認為是在一個人。 For there is one lord Jesus Christ, even though we do not ignore the difference of natures, out of which we say that the ineffable union was effected.為有一個主耶穌基督,儘管我們並不忽視的差異性,其中我們說,工會是無法形容的影響。 As for those who say that there was a mixture or confusion or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let your holiness see fit to stop their mouths.至於誰說,有一種混合物或混淆或混合上帝的Word與肉,讓你認為合適的成聖停止他們的嘴。 For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things.因為它很可能是,有些應該傳播國外,我覺得還是說這種事情。 But I am so far from thinking anything of the kind that I think that those are quite mad who suppose that "a shadow of change" is conceivable in connexion with the divine nature of the Word.但我至今沒有從思想的那種東西,我認為這些都是非常瘋狂誰假設“的影子變化”是可以想像的聯接與神性的字詞。 For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it.因為他仍然是他總是和從未改變,也無法改變他以往或很容易的。 Furthermore we all confess that the Word of God is impassible though in his all-wise economy of the mystery he is seen to attribute to himself the sufferings undergone by his own flesh.此外,我們都承認,神的話語是在他的傷害雖然所有明智的經濟之謎,他被視為屬性自己所經歷的痛苦自己的肉體。 So the all-wise Peter speaks of "Christ suffering for us in the flesh" and not in the nature of his unspeakable godhead. 因此所有明智的彼得說的是“耶穌的苦難,我們的血肉” ,而不是性質其不可告人的神格。 For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" .為使該人可能會認為是救世主的是,按照我們的經濟撥款,正如我所說,他提到自己的痛苦自己的肉體,在大致相同的方式,建議通過的聲音預言未來,因為它是從他在說: “我讓我回到我的雙頰smiters和打,我不隱瞞我的臉從羞恥和隨地吐痰” 。

    Let your holiness be persuaded and let no one else cherish any doubt, that we everywhere follow the opinions of the holy fathers especially those of our blessed and glorious father Athanasius, with whose opinions we differ not in the slightest.讓你的聖潔被說服,讓任何人珍惜任何疑問, 我們都遵循的意見,特別是那些神聖的父親的祝福和光榮的父親亞他那修,與我們不同的意見中沒有絲毫的。 I would have added many of their testimonies, proving my opinions from theirs, had I not feared that the length of the letter would be made tedious thereby.我會說他們的許多證詞,證明我的意見,他們的,如果我不擔心的長度信將乏味從而。 We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded.我們不允許任何人以任何方式擾亂了界定信仰或信仰起草了羅馬父親誰組裝尼西亞時代要求。 We give neither ourselves nor them the licence to alter any expression there or to change a single syllable, remembering the words: "Remove not the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set".我們既沒有給他們自己也沒有牌照的表達有任何改變或改變一個音節,記住的話: “刪除而不是古老的標誌你父親已成立” 。

    For it was not they that spoke, but the Spirit of God the Father, who proceeds from him and who is not distinct from the Son in essence .因為這是他們在發言中,但精神的父神,誰收益,誰是他沒有有別於兒子在本質 We are further confirmed in our view by the words of our holy spiritual teachers.我們進一步證實了我們認為的話對我們神聖的精神的教師。 For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written: "When they came to Mysia, they tried to go to Bithynia and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them".中使徒行傳它寫道: “當他們來到Mysia ,他們試圖去螺和精神耶穌不允許他們” 。 And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him".和神聖的保羅寫道如下: “誰是在肉體不能請上帝。但是,你是不是在肉體,你的精神,如果真是聖靈居住在你。任何人誰不有本著基督不屬於他。 “ When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame.當,因此,任何人誰愛打破健全理論歪曲我的話,以他們的思維方式,您的成聖不應感到驚訝,但應該記住每一個邪教的追隨者摘錄啟發經文之際,他們的錯誤 ,和所有異教徒腐敗的真實表達聖靈自己的邪惡思想和他們動用自己的頭一個inextinguishable火焰。

    Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have.自因此,我們了解到,即使是我們的光榮信父親亞他那修的祝福愛比克泰德 ,這完全是正統的,已損壞,並分發了一些,結果,許多人受傷,因此,認為這既是有益的,必要的弟兄們,我們已經寄發到您的成聖準確副本原件,純正的著作我們。


    Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon摘自理事會卡爾西

    The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals, as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.".安理會的卡爾西“已經接受了synodical來信得天獨厚的Cyril ,牧師教會在亞歷山德里亞,以涅斯多留和東方人,是非常適合批駁涅斯多留的瘋狂愚蠢,並提供了一個解釋這些誰在他們的宗教熱情可能渴望了解節約的信條。 “ 。


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed.介紹和翻譯從法令基督教議會 ,教育署。 Norman P. Tanner諾曼體育唐納

    Ephesus以弗所

    Catholic Information 天主教新聞

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century BC by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists.阿領銜archiespiscopal見小亞細亞,據說是建於公元前11世紀的安德奇士,兒子的雅典國王Codrus ,借助愛奧尼亞殖民者。 Its coinage dates back to 700 BC, the period when the first money was struck.其造詞可以追溯到公元前700期間,第一次當錢了。 After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC).屬於後,先後到了國王的麗迪雅,波斯人,與敘利亞的繼承人亞歷山大大帝,通過後,戰鬥氧化鎂( 199年) ,對國王的帕加馬,最後的人,阿塔盧斯三,留給他的英國的羅馬人( 133年) 。 It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100,000 persons.這是以弗所的米德拉底特六世( 88年)簽署了法令,命令所有的羅馬人在亞洲付諸死亡,其中有大屠殺死亡100000人。 Four years later Sulla, again master of the territory, slaughtered at Ephesus all the leaders of the rebellion.四年後蘇拉,再次主的領土,屠殺以弗所所有領導人叛亂。 From 27 BC till a little after AD 297, Ephesus was the capital of the proconsular province of Asia, a direct dependency of the Roman Senate.從27年到公元後一點, 297 ,以弗所是首都proconsular省亞洲,直接依賴羅馬參議院。 Though unimportant politically, it was noted for its extensive commerce.雖然不重要政治,有人指出其廣泛的商業。 Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon.許多傑出的人出生在以弗所,如哲學家赫拉克利特和Hermodorus , Hipponax詩人,畫家Parrhasius (所有在第六或公元前五世紀) ,在地理學家阿忒密多魯斯,另一個阿忒密多魯斯,占星家和吹牛,無論是在第二個世紀的基督教時代,歷史學家和散文家,色諾芬。 Ephesus owed its chief renown to its temple of Artemis (Diana), which attracted multitudes of visitors.以弗所欠其首席著名的阿耳忒彌斯神廟(戴安娜) ,吸引了眾多遊客。 Its first architect was the Cretan Chersiphron (seventh to sixth century BC) but it was afterwards enlarged.它的第一個建築師是克里特島Chersiphron (第七至公元前6世紀) ,但後來被擴大。 It was situated on the bank of the River Selinus and its precincts had the right of asylum.這是坐落在河岸Selinus及其選區了庇護權。 This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates.這個大樓,這是視在古代是一種奇蹟的世界,被燒毀的Herostratus ( 356年)晚出生的亞歷山大大帝,被改造後,幾乎在同樣的比例,由建築師Dinocrates 。 Its construction is said to have lasted 120 years, according to some historians 220.它的建設,是說已持續120多年,據一些歷史學家220 。 It was over 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and rested upon 128 pillars of about sixty feet in height.這是超過400英尺長, 200名在廣度,休息時128支柱大約60英尺的高度。 It was stripped of its riches by Nero and was finally destroyed by the Goths (AD 262).這是剝奪了其財富的尼祿和最終摧毀的哥特(公元262 ) 。

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus.正是通過猶太人,基督教首次引入以弗所。 The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12).原來社會的領導下,太陽神(哥林多前書1:12 ) 。 They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla.他們的門徒聖施洗約翰,並轉換雕和普里西拉。 Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles. Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.).然後是聖保羅,誰住三年以弗所建立並組織新的教會,他是慣於教導在schola或講座廳雄辯家Tyrannus (使徒行十九點09分) ,並進行有許多奇蹟。最後他不得不離開時,在後果,煽動挑起的金匠德梅和其他製造商的前votoes為黛安娜神廟(使徒18:24 sqq 。 ; 19:1 sqq 。 ) 。 A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35).有一點之後,他前往耶路撒冷,他派出的長者社區以弗所來米利和吩咐他們有一個感人的告別(使徒20:17-35 ) 。 The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12).以弗所的教會致力於弟子,聖提摩太是一個土生土長的城市(提摩太前書1 , 3 ;提摩太后書1 ,第18條; 4時12 ) 。 The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches.在使徒聖保羅的以弗所沒有可能直接送交給他們,這可能只是一個圓形他信的幾個教堂。 The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists.逗留和死亡的使徒聖約翰以弗所沒有提到在新約,但都證明,早在後者的一部分,第二個世紀的聖Irenæus ( Adv. Haer 。 ,三,三,四) , Polycrates ,主教以弗所(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,五, XXI )號決議,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,在“ Joannis學報” ,並早一點聖賈斯汀和Montanists 。 Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle.拜占庭式的傳統一向以弗所古墓宗徒。 Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen.另一個傳統,這可能是值得信賴的,儘管不那麼古老,使得現場的以弗所死亡聖瑪利亞瑪達肋納。 On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin.另一方面認為,聖母在那裡死亡的在於沒有古代作證;的經常引用,但含糊不清的文字理事會的以弗所( 431 ) ,只意味著有當時以弗所教會的維京。 (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (見拉姆齊在“ Expositor ” , 6月, 1905年,也是他的“七城市的亞洲” 。 )我們學習,此外,來自優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。 ,五,二十四) ,這三個女兒的使徒聖菲利普是埋葬在以弗所。

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles.約110聖伊格內修的安提阿,已迎接了信使士每拿教會的以弗所,向它發出的,他的七個著名的書信。 During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor.在最初的三個世紀,以弗所是,旁邊的安提阿,行政中心,基督教在小亞細亞。 In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches.在今年190的主教,聖Polycrates ,舉行了一次會議,審議逾越的爭議,並宣布自己贊成Quartodeciman做法;儘管如此,以弗所教會盡快符合在這一特殊的做法,所有其他教會。 It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority. But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus.似乎可以肯定的是,第六佳能理事會的尼西亞( 325 ) ,確認其為以弗所教會管轄整個“教區”或民間領土小亞細亞,即在11教會省份;在所有的事件,佳能的第二安理會君士坦丁堡( 381 )正式承認這種權力。但君士坦丁堡已經聲稱首次躋身教會東方並試圖附件教會的色雷斯,亞洲和龐。 To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria.抵制這些侵害,以弗所的共同事業取得的亞歷山大。 We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches.因此,我們認為主教Memnon以弗所偏袒聖西里爾在第三次全基督教會舉行,在431以弗所譴責景教,另一個主教,斯蒂芬,支持Dioscorus在所謂的強盜理事會( Latrocinium Ephesinum )的449 ,批准了異端Eutyches 。 But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.但是,抵抗以弗所是克服在安理會的卡爾西( 451 ) ,其著名的第二十八佳能置於28教會省龐,亞洲和色雷斯的管轄之下的君士坦丁堡牧首。 Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights.但此後以弗所是第二大都市的東正教君士坦丁堡,也沒有任何恢復其前站立,儘管安理會在其中的474保羅的Monophysite主教亞歷山大恢復其古老的權利。 Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops.埃及影響負責舉行的基督一性上漲以弗所在第六屆世紀著名的教會歷史學家約翰亞洲,當時它的一個主教。 The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees. Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage.大都市以弗所在那些日子裡統治36副主教認為。查士丁尼,誰模仿君士坦丁在剝離城市的許多藝術作品以裝飾君士坦丁堡,建有宏偉的教堂神聖到聖約翰;這是一個著名的地方盡快朝聖。

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs.以弗所是在655和717的阿拉伯人。 Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians.後來,它成為資本的主題Thracesians 。 During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century. In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images.在Iconoclastic期間兩位主教以弗所遭受殉道, Hypatius在735和奧菲勒斯在第九世紀。在同一城市的激烈一般Lachanodracon處死38僧侶修道院Pelecete在螺和其他黨派的聖像。 In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople.在899利奧智者移交的文物聖瑪麗馬格德林向君士坦丁堡。 The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John.這個城市在1090年被抓獲,並摧毀了塞爾柱土耳其人,但拜占庭成功地奪回它並重建對鄰近山區的聖約翰教堂。 Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo.此後它通常稱為Hagios Theologos (羅馬神學家,即聖約翰) ,或在土耳其綾Solouk (希臘人使徒聖約翰是“神學” ) ;法國呼籲網站Altelot和意大利奧拓Luogo 。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins.開始的時候, 13世紀的大都市,尼古拉Mesarites ,發揮了重要作用之間的會議上,希臘人和拉丁人。 The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks. The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop.該市再次被掠奪的土耳其人的頭幾年, 14世紀,當時的加泰羅尼亞僱傭軍支付拜占庭,一旦更多的土耳其人。在聖約翰教堂變成了一座清真寺,和城市是由土耳其阿米爾,誰進行一些貿易與西方的,但它再也不能維持其希臘主教。 A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411.一系列的拉丁美洲主教管轄看到1318年至1411年。 The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters.廢墟以弗所完成鐵木爾楞在1403年和近半個世紀的內戰中土耳其的主人。 When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks. It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway. The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village. There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held. The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia.當在安理會在1439年的佛羅倫薩馬克以弗所(馬庫斯Eugenicus )表明自己對這樣高傲的拉丁人,他是一個可憐的牧師村莊,這一切仍然是偉大的城市,一度被稱為alterum普林尼管腔Asiae ,或第二眼睛的亞洲( Hist.的NAT 。 ,第五,第29屆;還Apoc 。 ,二,五;比照。總統Brockhoff , “以弗所論vierten基督教。 Jhdt 。之二seinem毀滅: ,耶拿, 1906年) 。今天有3000綾Solouk居民,所有希臘人。這是坐落在caza的Koush Adassi ,在vilayet的艾登或士每拿,約50英里士每拿,在士每拿- Aidin鐵路。遺址以弗所站在沼澤和不健康低於平原村。另外,這裡還有廟宇的戴安娜,戲劇,可容納25000觀眾的體育場,偉大的健身房,以及“雙會” ,可能是古老的大教堂,一個過道的是致力於聖母,另一個是聖約翰,其中安理會431和449了。希臘首都居住在Manissa ,古老的鎂。

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.出版信息書面的S. Vailhé 。天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

    Bibliography參考書目

    Wood, On the Antiquities of Ephesus having relation to Christianity in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology, VI, 328; Idem, Discoveries at Ephesus (London, 1877); Falkener, Ephesus and the Temple of Diana (London, 1862); Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor (London, 1834), II, 247-272; Barclay-Head, History of the Coinage of Ephesus (London, 1880); Guhl, Ephesiaca (Berlin, 1843); Curtius, Ephesos (Berlin, 1874); Benndorf, Forschungen in Ephesos (Vienna, 1905); Chapot, La province Romaine proconsulaire d'Asie (Paris, 1904); Gude, De ecclesiae ephesinae statu aevo apostolorum (Paris, 1732); Cruse-Blicher, De statu Ephesiorum ad quos scripsit Paulus (Hanover, 1733); Le Camus in Vig., Dict.伍德,在古物以弗所了有關基督教的交易中學會聖經考古學,六, 328 ;同上,發現以弗所(倫敦, 1877年) ; Falkener ,以弗所和廟戴安娜(倫敦, 1862年) ; Arundell ,發現在小亞細亞(倫敦, 1834年) ,二, 247-272 ;巴克萊頭,歷史硬幣以弗所(倫敦, 1880年) ; Guhl , Ephesiaca (柏林, 1843年) ;庫爾提烏斯, Ephesos (柏林, 1874年) ; Benndorf , Forschungen在Ephesos (維也納, 1905年) ; Chapot ,羅曼proconsulaire香格里拉省德亞洲(巴黎, 1904年) ; Gude ,德教會ephesinae statu aevo宗徒(巴黎, 1732年) ;克魯斯- Blicher ,者statu Ephesiorum廣告quos scripsit保盧斯(漢諾威, 1733年) ;樂加繆的維格。 ,快譯通。 de la Bible, sv Ephese; Zimmermann, Ephesos im ersten christl.德拉薩聖經希沃特Ephese ;齊默爾曼, Ephesos即時通訊ersten christl 。 Jhdt. Jhdt 。 (Berlin, 1894): Lequien, Oriens christianus (Paris, 1740), I, 671-694; Brockhoff, Studien zur Gesch. (柏林, 1894年) : Lequien , Oriens christianus (巴黎, 1740年) ,我, 671-694 ; Brockhoff , Studien楚Gesch 。 der Stadt Ephesos (Jena, 1905); Weber, Le guide du voyageur a Ephese (Smyrna, 1891); Buerchner, Ephesos in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc., sv; Ramsey, The Seven Cities of Asia (London, 1907).德國城市Ephesos (耶拿, 1905年) ;韋伯樂指南杜voyageur 1 Ephese (士每拿, 1891年) ; Buerchner , Ephesos在保利, Wissowa ,實時Encyc 。 ,希沃特;拉姆西,在七個城市的亞洲(倫敦, 1907年) 。

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus.正是通過猶太人,基督教首次引入以弗所。 The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12).原來社會的領導下,太陽神(哥林多前書1:12 ) 。 They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla.他們的門徒聖施洗約翰,並轉換雕和普里西拉。 Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles. Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.).然後是聖保羅,誰住三年以弗所建立並組織新的教會,他是慣於教導在schola或講座廳雄辯家Tyrannus (使徒行十九點09分) ,並進行有許多奇蹟。最後他不得不離開時,在後果,煽動挑起的金匠德梅和其他製造商的前votoes為黛安娜神廟(使徒18:24 sqq 。 ; 19:1 sqq 。 ) 。 A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35).有一點之後,他前往耶路撒冷,他派出的長者社區以弗所來米利和吩咐他們有一個感人的告別(使徒20:17-35 ) 。 The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12).以弗所的教會致力於弟子,聖提摩太是一個土生土長的城市(提摩太前書1 , 3 ;提摩太后書1 ,第18條; 4時12 ) 。 The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches.在使徒聖保羅的以弗所也許沒有直接處理的人;這可能是唯一一個圓形他信的幾個教堂。 The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists.逗留和死亡的使徒聖約翰以弗所沒有提到在新約,但都證明,早在後者的一部分,第二個世紀的聖Irenæus ( Adv. Haer 。 ,三,三,四) , Polycrates ,主教以弗所(優西比烏,組織胺。 Eccl 。 ,五, XXI )號決議,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞的“獸類Joannis ” ,並早一點聖賈斯汀和Montanists 。 Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle.拜占庭式的傳統一向以弗所古墓宗徒。 Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen.另一個傳統,這可能是值得信賴的,儘管不那麼古老,使得現場的以弗所死亡聖瑪利亞瑪達肋納。 On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin.另一方面認為,聖母在那裡死亡的在於沒有古代作證;的經常引用,但含糊不清的文字理事會的以弗所( 431 ) ,只意味著有當時以弗所教會的維京。 (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (見拉姆齊在“ Expositor ” , 6月, 1905年,也是他的“七城市的亞洲” 。 )我們學習,此外,來自優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。 ,五,二十四) ,這三個女兒的使徒聖菲利普是埋葬在以弗所。

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles.約110聖伊格內修的安提阿,已迎接了信使士每拿教會的以弗所,向它發出的,他的七個著名的書信。 During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor.在最初的三個世紀,以弗所是,旁邊的安提阿,行政中心,基督教在小亞細亞。 In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches.在今年190的主教,聖Polycrates ,舉行了一次會議,審議逾越的爭議,並宣布自己贊成Quartodeciman做法;儘管如此,以弗所教會盡快符合在這一特殊的做法,所有其他教會。 It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority. But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus.似乎可以肯定的是,第六佳能理事會的尼西亞( 325 ) ,確認其為以弗所教會管轄整個“教區”或民間領土小亞細亞,即在11教會省份;在所有的事件,佳能的第二安理會君士坦丁堡( 381 )正式承認這種權力。但君士坦丁堡已經聲稱首次躋身教會東方並試圖附件教會的色雷斯,亞洲和龐。 To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria.抵制這些侵害,以弗所的共同事業取得的亞歷山大。 We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches.因此,我們認為主教Memnon以弗所偏袒聖西里爾在第三次全基督教會舉行,在431以弗所譴責景教,另一個主教,斯蒂芬,支持Dioscorus在所謂的強盜理事會( Latrocinium Ephesinum )的449 ,批准了異端Eutyches 。 But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.但是,抵抗以弗所是克服在安理會的卡爾西( 451 ) ,其著名的第二十八佳能置於28教會省龐,亞洲和色雷斯的管轄之下的君士坦丁堡牧首。 Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights.但此後以弗所是第二大都市的東正教君士坦丁堡,也沒有任何恢復其前站立,儘管安理會在其中的474保羅的Monophysite主教亞歷山大恢復其古老的權利。 Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops.埃及影響負責舉行的基督一性上漲以弗所在第六屆世紀著名的教會歷史學家約翰亞洲,當時它的一個主教。 The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees. Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage.大都市以弗所在那些日子裡統治36副主教認為。查士丁尼,誰模仿君士坦丁在剝離城市的許多藝術作品以裝飾君士坦丁堡,建有宏偉的教堂神聖到聖約翰;這是一個著名的地方盡快朝聖。

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs.以弗所是在655和717的阿拉伯人。 Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians.後來,它成為資本的主題Thracesians 。 During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century. In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images.在Iconoclastic期間兩位主教以弗所遭受殉道, Hypatius在735和奧菲勒斯在第九世紀。在同一城市的激烈一般Lachanodracon處死38僧侶修道院Pelecete在螺和其他黨派的聖像。 In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople.在899利奧智者移交的文物聖瑪麗馬格德林向君士坦丁堡。 The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John.這個城市在1090年被抓獲,並摧毀了塞爾柱土耳其人,但拜占庭成功地奪回它並重建對鄰近山區的聖約翰教堂。 Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo.此後它通常稱為Hagios Theologos (羅馬神學家,即聖約翰) ,或在土耳其綾Solouk (希臘人使徒聖約翰是“神學” ) ;法國呼籲網站Altelot和意大利奧拓Luogo 。 At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins.開始的時候, 13世紀的大都市,尼古拉Mesarites ,發揮了重要作用之間的會議上,希臘人和拉丁人。 The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks. The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop.該市再次被掠奪的土耳其人的頭幾年, 14世紀,當時的加泰羅尼亞僱傭軍支付拜占庭,一旦更多的土耳其人。在聖約翰教堂變成了一座清真寺,和城市是由土耳其阿米爾,誰進行一些貿易與西方的,但它再也不能維持其希臘主教。 A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411.一系列的拉丁美洲主教管轄看到1318年至1411年。 The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters.廢墟以弗所完成鐵木爾楞在1403年和近半個世紀的內戰中土耳其的主人。 When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks. It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway. The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village. There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held. The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia.當在安理會在1439年的佛羅倫薩馬克以弗所(馬庫斯Eugenicus )表明自己對這樣高傲的拉丁人,他是一個可憐的牧師村莊,這一切仍然是偉大的城市,一度被稱為alterum普林尼管腔Asiae ,或第二眼睛的亞洲( Hist.的NAT 。 ,第五,第29屆;還Apoc 。 ,二,五;比照。總統Brockhoff , “以弗所論vierten基督教。 Jhdt 。之二seinem毀滅: ,耶拿, 1906年) 。今天有3000綾Solouk居民,所有希臘人。這是坐落在caza的Koush Adassi ,在vilayet的艾登或士每拿,約50英里士每拿,在士每拿- Aidin鐵路。遺址以弗所站在沼澤和不健康低於平原村。另外,這裡還有廟宇的戴安娜,戲劇,可容納25000觀眾的體育場,偉大的健身房,以及“雙會” ,可能是古老的大教堂,一個過道的是致力於聖母,另一個是聖約翰,其中安理會431和449了。希臘首都居住在Manissa ,古老的鎂。

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.出版信息書面的S. Vailhé 。天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

    Bibliography參考書目

    Wood, On the Antiquities of Ephesus having relation to Christianity in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology, VI, 328; Idem, Discoveries at Ephesus (London, 1877); Falkener, Ephesus and the Temple of Diana (London, 1862); Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor (London, 1834), II, 247-272; Barclay-Head, History of the Coinage of Ephesus (London, 1880); Guhl, Ephesiaca (Berlin, 1843); Curtius, Ephesos (Berlin, 1874); Benndorf, Forschungen in Ephesos (Vienna, 1905); Chapot, La province Romaine proconsulaire d'Asie (Paris, 1904); Gude, De ecclesiae ephesinae statu aevo apostolorum (Paris, 1732); Cruse-Blicher, De statu Ephesiorum ad quos scripsit Paulus (Hanover, 1733); Le Camus in Vig., Dict.伍德,在古物以弗所了有關基督教的交易中學會聖經考古學,六, 328 ;同上,發現以弗所(倫敦, 1877年) ; Falkener ,以弗所和廟戴安娜(倫敦, 1862年) ; Arundell ,發現在小亞細亞(倫敦, 1834年) ,二, 247-272 ;巴克萊頭,歷史硬幣以弗所(倫敦, 1880年) ; Guhl , Ephesiaca (柏林, 1843年) ;庫爾提烏斯, Ephesos (柏林, 1874年) ; Benndorf , Forschungen在Ephesos (維也納, 1905年) ; Chapot ,羅曼proconsulaire香格里拉省德亞洲(巴黎, 1904年) ; Gude ,德教會ephesinae statu aevo宗徒(巴黎, 1732年) ;克魯斯- Blicher ,者statu Ephesiorum廣告quos scripsit保盧斯(漢諾威, 1733年) ;樂加繆的維格。 ,快譯通。 de la Bible, sv Ephese; Zimmermann, Ephesos im ersten christl.德拉薩聖經希沃特Ephese ;齊默爾曼, Ephesos即時通訊ersten christl 。 Jhdt. Jhdt 。 (Berlin, 1894): Lequien, Oriens christianus (Paris, 1740), I, 671-694; Brockhoff, Studien zur Gesch. (柏林, 1894年) : Lequien , Oriens christianus (巴黎, 1740年) ,我, 671-694 ; Brockhoff , Studien楚Gesch 。 der Stadt Ephesos (Jena, 1905); Weber, Le guide du voyageur a Ephese (Smyrna, 1891); Buerchner, Ephesos in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc., sv; Ramsey, The Seven Cities of Asia (London, 1907).德國城市Ephesos (耶拿, 1905年) ;韋伯樂指南杜voyageur 1 Ephese (士每拿, 1891年) ; Buerchner , Ephesos在保利, Wissowa ,實時Encyc 。 ,希沃特;拉姆西,在七個城市的亞洲(倫敦, 1907年) 。


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