Epistle to the Ephesians書信的以弗所

General Information 一般信息

The Epistle to the Ephesians is a book of the New Testament in the Bible.在書信的以弗所書是一部在新約聖經。 The text states that it was written by Saint Paul while in prison (3:1, 4:1; 6:20), but most scholars attribute it to a later follower of Paul.案文說,它的作者是聖保羅,而在監獄中( 3:1 , 4:1 ; 6:20 ) ,但大多數學者屬性到後來的追隨者保羅。 It uses much Pauline terminology in an unusual rhetorical style and has, along with Colossians, ideas that seem later than Paul. The reference to the Ephesians (1:1) is missing in some manuscripts, and the epistle may have been a circular letter to several churches.它採用多波利娜術語不尋常的修辭風格,並連同歌羅西書,想法似乎遲於保羅。提到以弗所( 1:1 )中缺少一些手稿和書信可能是一個通函一些教堂。

Ephesians proclaims the unity of all people and the universe in Jesus Christ, and describes the church as a body and a building with the apostles and prophets as a foundation (2:20).以弗所宣布團結全體人民和宇宙中的耶穌基督,並介紹了教會作為一個機構和建設與宗徒和先知為基礎( 2點20分) 。 It also proposes the relationship of Christ to the church as a model for marriage relationships.它還提議的關係,基督是教會的一個典範的婚姻關係。 Later, the proponents of Gnosticism used the symbolic and spiritual aspect of the church's relationship to Christ for their own teachings, and the Fathers of the Church emphasized the apostolic foundations of the church.後來,使用的倡導者諾斯替主義的象徵和精神方面的教會的關係,以基督為自己的教導,對教會的教父們強調使徒基礎的教堂。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Anthony J Saldarini安東尼J Saldarini

Bibliography 參考書目
CE Arnold, Ephesians (1989); M Barth, ed., Ephesians (1974).行政長官阿諾德以弗所書( 1989年) ; M巴特,教育署。以弗所書( 1974年) 。


Epistle to the Ephesians書信的以弗所

Brief Outline簡述

  1. Doctrine (redemptive blessings, Jew and Gentile one Body in Christ, Paul the messenger of this mystery) (1-3)學說(救贖祝福,猶太人和詹蒂萊一具屍體在基督,保羅的使者這個謎) ( 1-3 )
  2. Practical exhortations (Christians to walk as God's Saints; their duties as God's Family; the Christian warfare) (4-6)實際規勸(基督教徒步行作為上帝的聖徒,他們的職責上帝的家庭;基督教戰) ( 4-6 )


Epistle to the Ephe'sians書信的Ephe'sians

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Epistle to the Ephesians was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles.在書信的以弗所書的作者是保羅在羅馬的同時,要在歌羅西書,這在許多相似點它。 Contents of the Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there.內容書信的歌羅西書主要是論戰,旨在駁斥某些theosophic錯誤已經悄悄進入教堂那裡。 That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the church there, and indicative of his earnest desire that they should be fully instructed in the profound doctrines of the gospel.這給以弗所似乎沒有起源於任何特殊情況,但只是一個信雨後春筍般從保羅的愛教會,並指示他的真誠願望,他們應該得到充分的指示,深刻的理論福音。

It contains (1) the salutation (1:1, 2); (2) a general description of the blessings the gospel reveals, as to their source, means by which they are attained, purpose for which they are bestowed, and their final result, with a fervent prayer for the further spiritual enrichment of the Ephesians (1:3-2:10); (3) "a record of that marked change in spiritual position which the Gentile believers now possessed, ending with an account of the writer's selection to and qualification for the apostolate of heathendom, a fact so considered as to keep them from being dispirited, and to lead him to pray for enlarged spiritual benefactions on his absent sympathizers" (2:12-3:21); (4) a chapter on unity as undisturbed by diversity of gifts (4:1-16); (5) special injunctions bearing on ordinary life (4:17-6:10); (6) the imagery of a spiritual warfare, mission of Tychicus, and valedictory blessing (6:11-24).它包含( 1 )稱呼( 1:1 , 2 ) ; ( 2 )的一般說明的祝福福音顯示,他們的來源,途徑,使他們實現,目的是賦予他們,他們的最後結果,以熱切的祈禱進一步精神充實以弗所( 1:3-2:10 ) ; ( 3 ) “的記錄,這明顯變化,精神立場的詹蒂萊現在擁有信徒,結束帳戶的作家的選擇和資格的牧靈的heathendom ,這一事實使視為保持它們被沮喪,並導致他祈禱擴大會議精神benefactions在他缺席的同情者“ ( 2:12-3:21 ) ; ( 4 )一章關於統一不受干擾的多樣性禮物( 4:1-16 ) ; ( 5 )特殊的禁令影響到正常的生活( 4:17-6:10 ) ; ( 6 )意象的精神戰,使命Tychicus ,並告別祝福( 6:11-24 ) 。

Planting of the church at Ephesus.種植教會以弗所。 Paul's first and hurried visit for the space of three months to Ephesus is recorded in Acts 18:19-21.保羅的第一次和匆匆訪問的空間的3個月至以弗所記錄在行為18:19-21 。 The work he began on this occasion was carried forward by Apollos (24-26) and Aquila and Priscilla.這項工作,他開始在此之際結轉的阿波羅( 24-26 )和雕和普里西拉。 On his second visit, early in the following year, he remained at Ephesus "three years," for he found it was the key to the western provinces of Asia Minor.在他第二次訪華,早在一年後,他留在以弗所“三年” ,因為他發現它的關鍵是西部省份的小亞細亞。 Here "a great door and effectual" was opened to him (1 Cor. 16:9), and the church was established and strengthened by his assiduous labours there (Acts 20:20, 31).這裡“大門口及作用”開幕式給他( 1心病。 16:9 ) ,並教會是建立和加強他的勤奮勞動有(使徒20時20分, 31 ) 。 From Ephesus as a centre the gospel spread abroad "almost throughout all Asia" (19:26).從以弗所為中心的福音傳播海外“幾乎所有亞洲” ( 19:26 ) 。 The word "mightily grew and prevailed" despite all the opposition and persecution he encountered.改為“強烈和普遍增長” ,儘管所有的反對和迫害,他遇到的。 On his last journey to Jerusalem the apostle landed at Miletus, and summoning together the elders of the church from Ephesus, delivered to them his remarkable farewell charge (Acts 20:18-35), expecting to see them no more.他最後的旅程,以耶路撒冷使徒降落在米利塔斯,並召集在一起長老教會從以弗所,交付給他們的傑出告別收費(使徒20:18-35 ) ,期待看到他們沒有更多。

The following parallels between this epistle and the Milesian charge may be traced:- (1.) Acts 20:19 = Eph.以下相似之處本書信和Milesian費可追溯到: - ( 1 。 )行為20:19 =弗。 4:2. 4時02分。 The phrase "lowliness of mind" occurs nowhere else. “一語lowliness的心態”發生在其他地方。 (2.) Acts 20:27 = Eph. ( 2 。 )行為20:27 =弗。 1:11. The word "counsel," as denoting the divine plan, occurs only here and Heb. 1:11 。單詞“律師, ”象神的計劃,只發生在這裡和河北。 6:17. 6點17分。 (3.) Acts 20:32 = Eph. ( 3 。 )行為20:32 =厄。 3:20. 3時20分。 The divine ability.神聖的能力。 (4.) Acts 20:32 = Eph. ( 4 。 )行為20:32 =厄。 2:20. 2點20分。 The building upon the foundation.該建築的基礎上。 (5.) Acts 20:32 = Eph. ( 5 。 )行為20:32 =弗。 1:14, 18. 1點14分, 18 。 "The inheritance of the saints." “繼承的聖人。 ” Place and date of the writing of the letter.地點和日期的書面信函。 It was evidently written from Rome during Paul's first imprisonment (3:1; 4:1; 6:20), and probably soon after his arrival there, about the year 62, four years after he had parted with the Ephesian elders at Miletus.這顯然是在從羅馬書面保羅的第一次監禁( 3:1 ; 4:1 ; 6:20 ) ,並可能在抵達後不久,有大約62年, 4年後他已分手的以弗所長者米利。 The subscription of this epistle is correct.認購本書信是正確的。 There seems to have been no special occasion for the writing of this letter, as already noted.人們似乎沒有特別的機會,寫這封信,正如已經指出的那樣。 Paul's object was plainly not polemical.保羅的對象顯然不是論戰。

No errors had sprung up in the church which he sought to point out and refute.沒有錯誤已如雨後春筍般冒出來的教會,他試圖指出和駁斥。 The object of the apostle is "to set forth the ground, the cause, and the aim and end of the church of the faithful in Christ. He speaks to the Ephesians as a type or sample of the church universal."對象宗徒是“闡明理由,原因,目的和最終的教會在基督信徒。他講的以弗所書作為一種或樣品教會普遍。 ” The church's foundations, its course, and its end, are his theme.教會的基礎,其過程,其目的,是他的主題。 "Everywhere the foundation of the church is the will of the Father; the course of the church is by the satisfaction of the Son; the end of the church is the life in the Holy Spirit." “無處不在的基礎,教會是將父親的過程中,教會是滿意的兒子;年底教會生活中的聖靈。 ” In the Epistle to the Romans, Paul writes from the point of view of justification by the imputed righteousness of Christ; here he writes from the point of view specially of union to the Redeemer, and hence of the oneness of the true church of Christ.在書信的羅馬,保羅寫的角度理由的估算義基督;這裡他寫的角度特別的聯盟救世主,因此對一體的真正基督教會。 "This is perhaps the profoundest book in existence." “這也許是最深刻的圖書存在。 ” It is a book "which sounds the lowest depths of Christian doctrine, and scales the loftiest heights of Christian experience;" and the fact that the apostle evidently expected the Ephesians to understand it is an evidence of the "proficiency which Paul's converts had attained under his preaching at Ephesus."這是一本書: “這聽起來最低深度基督教教義,並表的最高高度基督教經驗; ”和這樣一個事實,即使徒的以弗所預期顯然明白這是一個證據, “熟練而保羅的轉換達到了下他鼓吹以弗所。 “ Relation between this epistle and that to the Colossians (qv).這一關係的書信,並到歌羅西書( qv ) 。

"The letters of the apostle are the fervent outburst of pastoral zeal and attachment, written without reserve and in unaffected simplicity; sentiments come warm from the heart, without the shaping out, pruning, and punctilious arrangement of a formal discourse. There is such a fresh and familiar transcription of feeling, so frequent an introduction of coloquial idiom, and so much of conversational frankness and vivacity, that the reader associates the image of the writer with every paragraph, and the ear seems to catch and recognize the very tones of living address." “信使徒的熱切突出牧區的熱情和附件,書面毫無保留,並不受影響簡單;感情來溫暖的心,而塑造的,修剪,並拘泥形式的安排,正式的話語。有這樣的新的和熟悉的轉錄感覺,所以經常介紹coloquial習語,以及這麼多的對話坦率,活力充沛,讀者同夥的形象,每一個作家段,與耳朵似乎漁獲物和承認非常噸生活地址。 “ It is then any matter of amazement that one letter should resemble another, or that two written about the same time should have so much in common and so much that is peculiar?它是那麼任何問題驚訝一個字母應類似於另一個,或者說兩個書面大約在同一時間應該有這麼多的共同點,這是非常特殊的? The close relation as to style and subject between the epistles to Colosse and Ephesus must strike every reader.的密切關係,以風格和主題之間的書信,以Colosse和以弗所必須在每一個讀者。 Their precise relation to each other has given rise to much discussion.它們精確的相互關係已引起廣泛的討論。

The great probability is that the epistle to Colosse was first written; the parallel passages in Ephesians, which amount to about forty-two in number, having the appearance of being expansions from the epistle to Colosse.偉大的概率是,書信,以Colosse首次書面;平行通道在以弗所,相當於約42的數量,而目前出現的擴張從書信到Colosse 。 "The style of this epistle is exceedingly animated, and corresponds with the state of the apostle's mind at the account which their messenger had brought him of their faith and holiness (Eph. 1:15), and transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's redemption, and of his astonishing love towards the Gentiles in making them partakers through faith of all the benefits of Christ's death, he soars high in his sentiments on those grand subjects, and gives his thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expression." “的作風,這是極其動畫書信,並符合國家的宗徒銘記在他們的即時通訊帳戶,帶來了他自己的信仰和聖潔( Eph. 1:15 ) ,運輸與審議unsearchable的智慧上帝的工作中顯示人的贖回,以及他的驚人的熱愛外邦人,使他們通過信仰partakers的所有優點,基督的死,他矗立在他的情緒高的那些大課題,並給出他的崇高思想話語和豐富的表情。 “

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Epistle to the Ephesians書信的以弗所

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

This article will be treated under the following heads:本文將處理以下首長:

I. Analysis of the Epistle;一,分析書信;

II.二。 Special Characteristics:特點:

(1) Form: (a) Vocabulary; (b) Style; ( 1 )表格: (一)詞彙; (二)風格;

(2) Doctrines; ( 2 )理論;

III.三。 Object;對象;

IV.四。 To Whom Addressed;人處理;

V. Date and Place of Composition; Occasion;五,日期和地點組成;紀念;

VI.六。 Authenticity:真實性:

(1) Relation to other books of the New Testament; ( 1 )關係到其他圖書的新約全書;

(2) Difficulties arising from the form and doctrines; ( 2 )引起的困難形式和理論;

(3) Tradition. ( 3 )傳統。

I. ANALYSIS OF THE EPISTLE一,分析的書信

The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title "To the Ephesians" comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Ephesians 3:20 sq.).信中載有書信手稿的聖保羅市的標題是“為了在以弗所書”由兩部分組成明顯隔開, doxology (以弗所3點20分平方米) 。 The address, in which the Apostle mentions himself only, is not followed by a prologue; in fact, the entire dogmatic part develops the idea which is usually the subject of the prologue in the letters of St.地址,其中只有使徒提到自己,是不是隨後序幕,事實上,整個發展教條部分的想法通常是主題的序幕在信街 Paul.保羅。 In a long sentence that reads like a hymn (Ephesians 1:3-14), Paul praises God for the blessings which He has bestowed upon all the faithful in accordance with the eternal plan of His will, the sublime plan by which all are to be united under one head, Christ, a plan which, although heretofore secret and mysterious, is now made manifest to believers.在一個長句的內容像讚美詩(以弗所書1:3-14 ) ,保羅讚美上帝的祝福,他賦予所有忠實按照計劃,他的永恆的意志,崇高的計劃,這一切是團結在一個頭,基督,一個計劃,但在此之前的秘密和神秘的,現在已經取得了明顯的信徒。 Those to whom the Epistle is addressed, having received the Gospel, have, in their turn, been made participants of these blessings, and the Apostle, having recently learned of their conversion and their faith, assures them that he ceases not to give thanks to Heaven for the same (Ephesians 1:15, 16) and that, above all, he prays for them.那些人的書信處理,收到了福音,已經在其反過來,已取得參加這些祝福,並使徒,最近的經驗教訓的轉換和他們的信仰,確保這些人,他不再不給感謝天堂相同(以弗所書1:15 , 16 ) ,而且最重要的是,他為他們祈禱。 The explanation of this prayer, of its object and motives, constitutes the remainder of the dogmatic part (cf. Ephesians 3:1, 14).在解釋這一祈禱,其目的和動機,構成了剩餘的教條式的一部分(參看以弗所書3:1 , 14 ) 。 Paul asks God that his readers may have a complete knowledge of the hope of their calling, that they may be fully aware both of the riches of their inheritance and the greatness of the Divine power which guarantees the inheritance.保羅問上帝,他的讀者可有一個完整的知識,希望他們的要求,他們可以充分了解雙方的財富,他們繼承和偉大的神聖權力,保證繼承。 This Divine power manifests itself first in Christ, Whom it raised from the dead and Whom it exalted in glory above all creatures and established head of the Church, which is His body. Next, this power and goodness of God was evidenced in the readers, whom it rescued from their sins and raised and exalted with Christ.這神聖的權力體現在基督第一,誰提出的死亡和人崇高的榮譽高於一切動物,並設立負責教會,這是他的身體。下一步,這一權力和善良的上帝是體現在讀者,獲救的人從他們的罪孽,並提出和崇高與基督。 But it shone forth, above all, in the establishment of a community of salvation welcoming within its fold both Jews and Gentiles without distinction, the Death of Christ having broken down the middle wall of partition, ie the Law, and both sections of the human race having thus been reconciled to God so as thenceforth to form but one body, one house, one temple, of which the apostles and Christian prophets are the foundation and Christ Himself is the chief cornerstone.但是,照規定,首先是建立了一個社會的救恩歡迎在其倍猶太人和外邦人不加區分,死亡基督具有細分中東牆的分割,即法律,這兩個階層的人比賽因此被調和了上帝,以便此後形成,但一個機構,一所房屋,一個廟,其中使徒和基督教先知的基礎和耶穌是行政基石。 (Ephesians 1:16-2:20) Paul, as his readers must have heard, was the minister chosen to preach to the Gentiles of this sublime mystery of God, hidden from all eternity and not revealed even to the angels, according to which the Gentiles are made coheirs with the Jews, constitute a part of the same body, and are joint partakers in the same promises (Ephesians 3:1-13). (以弗所書1:16-2:20 )保羅,因為他的讀者,必須聽取被選為部長向外邦人傳教這一崇高天主,隱藏永恆和沒有透露甚至天使,根據該外邦人是coheirs的猶太人,構成的一部分,同一個機構,並聯合partakers在同一個承諾(以弗所書3:1-13 ) 。 Deeply imbued with this mystery, the Apostle implores the Father to lead his readers to the perfection of the Christian state and the complete knowledge of Divine charity (Ephesians 3:14-19), continuing the same prayer with which he had begun (Ephesians 1:16 sq.).深充滿這個奧秘,使徒懇請父親帶領讀者的完善基督教國家和完整的知識神聖慈善(以弗所書3:14-19 ) ,繼續同樣的祈禱,使他已經開始(以弗所書1 : 16平方米) 。

Having praised God anew in the solemn doxology (Ephesians 3:20 sq.), Paul passes on to the moral part of his letter.在讚揚上帝再次在莊嚴doxology (以弗所3點20平方米) ,保羅通行證的道義上的一部分,他的信。 His exhortations, which he bases more than is his wont on dogmatic considerations, all revert to that of chapter iv, verse 1, wherein he entreats his readers to show themselves in all things worthy of their vocation.他告誡,他的基地多是他習慣的教條式的因素,所有恢復到第四章,詩句1 ,其中他entreats讀者展示自己的一切事情值得他們的使命。 First of all, they must labour to preserve the unity described by the author in the first three chapters and here again brought into prominence: One Spirit, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God.首先,他們必須勞動,維護團結的作者所描述的頭三章並在這裡再次帶入突出:一是精神,一主,一信,一洗,一神。 There is, of course, a diversity of ministries, but the respective offices of apostles, prophets, etc. have all been instituted by the same Christ exalted in glory and all tend to the perfection of the society of saints in Christ (Ephesians 4:2-16).有,當然是各種各樣的部門,但各辦事處的使徒,先知,等等都被提起了同樣的基督崇高的榮譽和所有往往完善社會聖人在基督(以弗所書4 : 2月16日) 。 From these great social duties, Paul proceeds to the consideration of individual ones.從這些巨大的社會責任,保收益的考慮個別的。 He contrasts the Christian life that his readers are to lead, with their pagan life, insisting above all on the avoidance of two vices, immodesty and covetousness (Ephesians 4:17-5:3).他對比了基督徒的生活,他的讀者是領導,他們的異教徒的生命,堅持上述所有關於避免兩個惡習, immodesty和貪婪(以弗所書4:17-5:3 ) 。 Then, in treating of family life, he wells on the duties of husbands and wives, whose union he likens to that of Christ with His Church, and the duties of children and servants (v, 21-vi, 9).接著,在治療的家庭生活,他水井的職責,丈夫和妻子,他們的聯盟,他把這個基督與他的教會,以及兒童的職責和人員(五, 21六, 9 ) 。 In order to fulfil these duties and to combat adverse powers, the readers must put on the armour of God (vi, 10-20).為了履行這些職責和權力,以打擊不利,讀者必須把對上帝的盔甲(六, 10月20號) 。

The Epistle closes with a short epilogue (vi, 21-24), wherein the Apostle tells his correspondents that he has sent Tychicus to give them news of him and that he wishes them peace, charity, and grace.關閉的書信和一個短的尾聲(六, 21日至24日) ,其中使徒告訴記者,他已Tychicus給他們的消息他說,他希望他們和平,博愛,寬限期。

II.二。 SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS特色

(1) Form ( 1 )表

(a) Vocabulary (一)詞彙

This letter like all of those written by St. Paul, contains hapax legomena, about seventy-five words which are not found in the Apostle's other writings; however, it were a mistake to make this fact the basis of an argument against Pauline authenticity.這封信像所有這些書面的聖保羅,包含hapax legomena ,大約75字的中找不到使徒的其他著作,但它是一個錯誤,使這一事實的基礎上提出理由反對波利娜真實性。 Of these works nine occur in quotations from the Old Testament and others belong to current language or else designate things which Paul elsewhere had had no occasion to mention.這些工程九個發生在引用舊約和其他屬於當前語言或其他指定的東西保羅其他地方已經沒有機會提。 Others, again, are derived from roots used by the Apostle and besides, in comparing these hapax legomena one with another, it is impossible to recognize in them a characteristic vocabulary that would reveal a distinct personality.其他人,再次,來自基層所使用的使徒和另外,在比較這些hapax legomena一個與另一個,就不可能認識到在他們的一個特點的詞彙,將顯示出獨特的個性。 (Cf. Brunet, De l'authenticité de l'épître aux Ephésiens; preuves philologiques", Lyons 1897; Nägeli, "Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus", Göttingen, 1905.) (參見布魯奈,法國authenticité法國épître輔助Ephésiens ; preuves philologiques “ ,里昂1897年;拿戈里, ”明鏡之Apostels保盧斯詞彙“ ,哥廷根, 1905年。 )

(b) Style (二)風格

This Epistle, even more than that to the Colossians, is remarkable for the length of its periods.這書信,甚至超過的歌羅西書,是了不起的長度的期限。 The first three chapters contain hardly more than three sentences and these are overladen with relative or participial causes that are simply strung together, frequently without being connected by the logical particles that occur so frequently in St. Paul.頭三個章節包含很難超過三句話,而這些是過分的,相對或詞的原因僅僅是串成,常常無需連接的邏輯粒子發生如此頻繁的聖保羅。 Each particular clause is itself encumbered with numerous prepositional modifiers (especially with en and syn) of which it is difficult to state the exact meaning.每個特定的條款本身就是擔保與許多介詞修飾語(特別是使用EN和SYN ) ,其中就難以國家的確切含義。 Often, too, several synonyms are in juxtaposition and in very many cases a noun has an explanatory genitive, the sense of which differs but very slightly from that of the noun itself.通常情況下,也有一些別名並列和在許多情況下有一個名詞解釋所有格,其中的意義不同,但很輕微,與名詞本身。 For all of these reasons the language of the Epistle, heavy, diffuse, and languid, seems very different from the dialectical, animated, and vigorous style of the Apostle's uncontested letters.出於所有這些原因的語言,書信,重型,瀰漫,並懶洋洋,似乎很不同的辯證,動畫和風骨的宗徒無可爭議的信件。 It is important to note that in the moral part of the Epistle these peculiarities of style do not appear and hence they would seem to depend more on the matter treated than on the author himself; in fact, even in the dogmatic expositions in the great Epistles, St Paul's language is frequently involved (cf. Romans 2:13 sq.; 4:16 sq.; 5:12 sq.; etc.).重要的是要注意到,在道義上的部分書信這些特點的風格不會出現,因此他們似乎更多地取決於在這個問題上處理,而不是作者自己,事實上,即使是在教條的論述,在偉大的書信,聖保祿語言是經常參與(參見羅馬書2點13平方米; 4時16平方米; 5時12平方米;等等) 。 Moreover, it must be observed that all these peculiarities spring from the same cause: They all indicate a certain redundancy of ideas surging in upon a deep and tranquil meditation on a sublime subject, the various aspects of which simultaneously appear to the author's mind and evoke his admiration.此外,必須指出的是,所有這些特點春季由同一原因:他們都顯示了一定的冗餘高漲的思想在一個深刻和寧靜冥想的崇高主題的各個方面,它同時顯示了作者的思想和喚起他的欽佩。 Hence also the lyric tone that pervades the first three chapters, which constitute a series of praises, benedictions, thanksgivings, and prayers.因此也抒情基調貫穿前三章,構成了一系列的讚譽, benedictions , thanksgivings和祈禱。 A sort of rhythmic composition has been pointed out in chapter i (cf. T. Innitzer, "Der 'Hymnus' im Eph., i, 3-14" in "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1904, 612 sq.), and in chapter iii traces of liturgical hymnology have been observed (Ephesians 3:20), but they are no more striking than in I Cor.一種藝術的組成已經指出的第一章(參見噸Innitzer , “明鏡' Hymnus '即時通訊弗。 ,我, 3月14日”中的“天主教神學雜誌” 1904年, 612平方米) ,以及中第三章的痕跡禮儀hymnology已觀測(以弗所3點20分) ,但它們沒有更加突出比本人心病。 and are not to be compared with the liturgical language of I Clement.並不得與禮儀語言我克萊門特。

(2) Doctrines ( 2 )理論

The doctrines on justification, the Law, faith, the flesh, etc., that are characteristic of the great Pauline Epistles, are not totally lacking in the Epistle to the Ephesians, being recognizable in chapter ii (1-16).理論的理由,法律,信仰,肉等,這些特徵非常波利娜書信,不完全缺乏書信的以弗所,被識別的第二章( 1月16日) 。 However, the writer's subject does not lead him to develop these particular doctrines.但是,作家的問題不會導致他制定這些特定理論。 On the other hand, he clearly indicates, especially in chapter i, the supreme place which, in the order of nature and grace, is allotted to Christ, the author and centre of creation, the point towards which all things converge, the source of all grace, etc. Although, in his great Epistles, St. Paul sometimes touches upon these doctrines (cf. 1 Corinthians 8:6; 15:45 sq.; 2 Corinthians 5:18 sq.), they constitute the special object of his letter to the Colossians, where he develops them to a much greater extent than in that to the Ephesians.另一方面,他清楚地表明,尤其是第一章中,最高的地方,在該命令的性質和風度,是分配給基督,作者和中心的建立,這一點對所有的東西融合的根源所有寬限期等雖然,在他偉大的書信,聖保祿有時涉及這些理論(參見哥林多前書8時06 ; 15:45平方米;哥林多後書5點18平方米) ,它們構成了特殊對象他寫信給歌羅西書,在那裡他開發他們更大的程度比在這向以弗所。 In fact this Epistle treats more of the Church than of Christ.事實上,這書信對待更多的教會,而不是基督。 (On the doctrine of the Church in the Epistle to the Ephesians see Méritan in "Revue biblique", 1898, pp. 343 sq., and WH Griffith Thomas in the "Expositor", Oct., 1906, pp. 318 sq.) The work church no longer means, as is usual in the great Epistles of St. Paul (see, however, Galatians 1:13; 1 Corinthians 12:28, 15:9), some local church or other, but the one universal Church, and organic whole uniting all Christians in one body of which Christ is the head. (的理論教會的書信中的以弗所見Méritan在“雜誌biblique ” 1898年,頁。 343平方米,和WH格里菲斯托馬斯在“ Expositor ” , 10月, 06年,頁。 318平方米)教堂的工作不再手段,通常是在大書信聖保羅(見然而,加拉太1時13分;哥林多前書12點28 ,十五點09 ) ,一些地方教會或其他,但一個普遍的教會,並有機的整體團結所有基督徒在一具屍體,其中基督的頭部。 Here we find the systematized development of elements insinuated from time to time in the letters to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans.在這裡,我們找到系統化發展的要素含沙射影不時在給加拉太,科林蒂安,和羅馬人。 The author who has declared that there is now neither Jew nor Greek but that all are one in Jesus (Galatians 3:28); that in each Christian the life of Christ is made manifest (Galatians 2:20; 2 Corinthians 4:11 sq.); that all are led by the Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9-14); that each one of the faithful has Christ for head (1 Corinthians 11:3), could, by combining these elements, easily come to consider all Christians as forming but one body (Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 12:12, 27), animated by one spirit (Ephesians 4:4), a single body having Christ for head.作者誰宣布,現在既沒有猶太人,也沒有希臘,但大家都在耶穌(加拉太3時28分) ; ,在每一個基督徒的生命,基督是體現(加拉太2點20分;哥林多後書4時11平方米。 ) ;所有是由聖靈和基督(羅馬書8:9-14 ) ; ,每一個基督信徒的頭(哥林多前書11時03分) ,可以結合這些因素,很容易現在是考慮所有基督徒的形成,但作為一個機構(羅馬書十二點05分;哥林多前書12:12 , 27 ) ,由一個動畫精神(以弗所書4點04 ) ,一個單一的機構有基督的頭。 To this body the Gentiles belong by the same right as the Jews.本機構屬於外邦人所享有同樣的權利猶太人。 Undoubtedly this mysterious dispensation of Providence was, according to the Epistle to the Ephesians, made manifest to all the Apostles, a declaration which, moreover, the Epistle to the Galatians does not contradict (Galatians 2:3-9); however, this revelation remains, as it were, the special gift of St. Paul (Ephesians 3:3-8), The right of pagans seems to be no longer questioned, which is easily understood at the close of the Apostle's life.這無疑神秘免除靜宜是,根據書信的以弗所,取得了明顯的所有的使徒,一項宣言,此外,書信向加拉太並不矛盾(加拉太2:3-9 ) ;但是,這一啟示仍然存在,因為它有特別的禮物聖保羅(以弗所書3:3-8 ) ,正確的異教徒似乎不再懷疑,這是容易理解的密切宗徒的生活。 At the death of Christ the wall of separation was broken down (cf. Galatians 3:13), and all have since had access to the Father in the same spirit.在死亡的基督隔離牆是細分(見加拉太3時13分) ,以及所有已獲得的父親以同樣的精神。 They do not meet on the Jewish ground of the abolished Law but on Christian ground, in the edifice founded directly on Christ.不符合地面上的猶太人的廢除法律,但對基督教地面,在成立的大廈上直接基督。 The Church being thus constituted, the author contemplates it just as it appears to him.教會正在從而構成,作者設想它就像覺得。 Besides, if in the extension of the Church he beholds the realization of the eternal decree by which all men have been predestined to the same salvation, he is not obliged to repeat the religious history of mankind in the way he had occasion to describe it in the Epistle to the Romans; neither is he constrained to explore the historical privileges of the Jews, to which he nevertheless alludes (Ephesians 2:12) nor to connect the new economy to the old (see, however, Ephesians 3:6) nor indeed to introduce, at least into the dogmatical exposition, the sins of the pagans, whom he is satisfied to accuse of having lacked intimate communion with God (Ephesians 2:12).此外,如果在延長的教會他beholds實現永恆的法令,其中所有的人已注定要同救贖,他沒有義務重複宗教在人類歷史上的方式,他有機會來描述它在在使徒的羅馬人;也不是他的限制,探索歷史的特權的猶太人,他不過暗示(以弗所書二時12分) ,也不連接新經濟的舊的(但是,見以弗所3點06 ) ,也不事實上介紹,至少到獨斷博覽會的罪過的異教徒,他滿意地指責了缺乏親密與上帝(以弗所書2時12分) 。 For the time being all these points are not the main subject of meditation.目前,所有這些並不是主要議題冥想。 It is rather the recent, positive fact of the union of all men in the Church, the body of Christ, that he brings into prominence; the Apostle contemplates Christ Himself in His actual influence over this body and over each of its members; hence it is only occasionally that he recalls the redemptive power of Christ's Death.它是最近的,積極的事實聯盟所有男人在教會,基督的身體,他帶入突出;使徒設想基督本人在實際的影響力和本機構的每一個成員;因此,只是偶爾,他回顧了救贖力量基督的死。 (Ephesians 1:7; 2:5-6) From heaven, where He has been exalted, Christ bestows His gifts on all the faithful without distinction, commanding, however, that in His Church certain offices be held for the common welfare. (以弗所書1:7 ; 2:5-6 )從天上,在那裡他一直崇高,基督賜予他的禮物的所有忠實而有區別,指揮,但是,在他的教會某些辦事處舉行的共同福祉。 The hierarchical terms used so constantly later on (episkopoi, presbyteroi, diakonoi) are not met with here.等級使用的術語,以便不斷更新的( episkopoi , presbyteroi , diakonoi )不符合在這裡。 The apostles and prophets, always mentioned together, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, play a like part, being the founders of the Church (Ephesians 2:20).使徒和先知,總是提到在一起,在書信的以弗所,發揮類似的一部分,是教會的創始人(以弗所書2點20 ) 。 Thus placed on an equality with the prophets, the apostles are not the chosen Twelve but, as indicated in the letters of St. Paul, those who have seen Christ and been commissioned by Him to preach His Gospel.因此,放在一個平等的先知,使徒們沒有選擇的12個,但是,如信用證的聖保羅,這些誰看到耶穌和委託他鼓吹他的福音。 It is for the same purpose that the prophets in the Epistle to the Ephesians used the charisma, or spiritual gifts described in I Cor., xii-xiv.正是出於同樣的目的,先知在書信的以弗所使用魅力,或精神禮物中所描述我心病。 ,第十二至十四。 The evangelists, who are not noticed in Eph, ii, 20, or iii, 5, are inferior in dignity to the apostles and prophets in connection with whom they are, nevertheless, mentioned (Ephesians 4:11).的福音,誰沒有注意到在厄,二, 20 ,或三,五,處於劣勢的尊嚴的使徒和先知與他們的,不過,提到(以弗所書4點11 ) 。 In his first letters St. Paul had no occasion to allude to them, but they belong to the Apostolic age, as at a later epoch they are never referred to.在他的第一次信件聖保祿沒有機會提到它們,但它們屬於使徒時代,因為在以後的時代他們從未提及。 Finally the "pastors and doctors" (AV pastors and teachers), who are clearly distinguished (Ephesians 4:11) from the apostles and prophets, founders of the churches, seem to be those local authorities already indicated in I Thess., v, 12; I Cor., xvi, 15 sq.; Act, xx, 28.最終的“牧師和醫生” (視聽牧師和教師) ,誰是明確區分(以弗所書4點11分)從使徒和先知,創始人教堂,似乎是這些地方當局已經表示在我Thess 。 ,五, 12 ,我心病。 ,十六, 15平方米;法XX條, 28 。 While the attention given to these different ministers forms a distinctive note in the Epistle to the Ephesians, we cannot therefore admit (with Klöpper, for example) that the author is preoccupied with the hierarchy as such.雖然重視這些不同的形式獨特的部長中的說明,書信的以弗所,我們不能因此承認(與Klöpper ,例如) ,作者是關注這類等級。 The unity of the Church, a point that he clearly emphasizes, is not so much the juridical unity of an organized society as the vital unity that binds all the members of the body to its head, the glorified Christ.教會合一,這一點,他明確地強調,沒有這麼多的法律統一的有組織的社會團結的重要紐帶所有成員的機構,其頭部,榮耀基督。 Nor is it true that the author already predicts centuries of future existence for this Church (Klopper) as, properly speaking, the ages to come, referred to in the Epistle to the Ephesians (ii, 7) are to come in the Kingdom of Heaven (cf. ii, 6).它也不是真正的作者已經預測未來幾個世紀的存在,這個教堂( Klopper )為妥善地說,年齡來,中提及的書信的以弗所(二7 )是來在天國(見二, 6 ) 。 On the other hand we know that St. Paul's hope of soon witnessing Christ's second coming kept constantly diminishing, and therefore, in the latter years of his life, he might well define (Ephesians 5:22 sq.) the laws of Christian marriage, which at an earlier period (1 Corinthians 7:37 sq.) he regarded only in the light of the approaching advent of Christ. The exposition that we have given of the doctrines proper to the Epistle to the Ephesians has been so made as to show that none of these doctrines taken separately contradicts the theology of the great Pauline Epistles and that each one individually can be connected with certain elements disseminated in these Epistles.另一方面,我們知道,聖保祿希望盡快看到基督的第二次來不斷減少,因此,在他的晚年生活,他很可能會確定(以弗所5時22平方米)的法律,基督教婚姻,而在更早時期(哥林多前書7點37平方米) ,他認為只有在根據接近基督的來臨。博覽會,我們必須給予適當的理論的書信向以弗所書已如此作為顯示沒有這些理論分別採取違背了神學的偉大波利娜書信和每一個單獨可與某些內容分發這些書信。 It is nevertheless true that, taken in its entirety, this letter to the Ephesians constitutes a new doctrinal system, the Pauline authenticity of which can only be critically defended by pointing out the circumstances in consequence of which the Apostle was able thus to develop his first theology and profoundly to modify his manner of setting it forth.但它仍然是正確的是,採取的全部,這封信的以弗所構成了新的理論體系,波利娜真實性只能批判辯護指出的情況,結果其中使徒能夠就此制定了第一個神學和深刻的方式來修改他的設置等等。 Naturally this leads us first of all to try to ascertain the object of the letter to the Ephesians.很自然,這使我們首先要嘗試,以確定對象的一封信,以弗所。

III.三。 OBJECT對象

It has been said that St. Paul combated immoral doctrines and an antinomian propaganda that especially endangered those to whom the letters were addressed (Pfleiderer), but this hypothesis would not explain the dogmatic part of the Epistle, and even in the hortatory part nothing betokens polemical preoccupation.有人說,聖保祿打擊不道德的理論和antinomian宣傳,特別是那些瀕危的人致函(弗萊德爾) ,但這種假設不會解釋教條的部分書信,而且即使在勸告部分沒有betokens爭論的當務之急。 All the warnings administered are called forth by the pagan origin of the readers, and when the author addresses his prayers to Heaven in their behalf (Ephesians 1:17 sqq; 3:14 sqq.) he does not mention any particular peril from which he would have God deliver their Christian life.所有的警告管理被稱為異教徒提出的原產地的讀者,作者和地址時,他祈禱上天的代表(以弗所1時17 sqq ; 3:14 sqq 。 )他沒有提及任何特定的危險而他本來上帝交付其基督徒的生活。 Klopper thought that the author had Judeo-Christians in view, still denying converted pagans their full right in the Church, and Jacquier gives this as an additional motive. Others have said that the Gentile-Christians of the Epistle had to be reminded of the privileges of the Jews. Klopper認為,作者有猶太教和基督教的觀點,仍然拒絕轉化異教徒他們完全有權在教會,並Jacquier使這是一個額外的動機。另一些人說,詹蒂萊基督徒的書信不得不提醒的特權猶太人。 But not one word in the letter, even in the section containing exhortations to unity (Ephesians 4:2 sq.), reveals the existence of any antagonism among those to whom the Apostle writes, and there is no question of the reproduction or re-establishment of unity.但不是一個字的信中,即使是在一節載有告誡團結(以弗所書四點02平方米) ,揭示了存在任何對抗那些人之間使徒寫道,也沒有問題,複製或建立統一。 The author never addresses himself to any save converted pagans, and all his considerations tend solely to provide them with a full knowledge of the blessings which, despite their pagan origin, they have acquired in Christ and of the greatness of the love that God has shown them.作者本人從未涉及任何節省轉換異教徒,和他的所有因素往往只為他們提供了一個充分了解的祝福,儘管他們的異教徒出身,他們已獲得在耶穌和偉大的愛,上帝已經表明他們。 If, in chapter iii, St. Paul speaks of his personal Apostleship, it is not by way of defending it against attacks but of expressing all his gratitude for having been called, in spite of his unworthiness, to announce the great mystery of which he had sung the praises. Briefly, nothing in the letter allows us to suspect that it responds to any special need on the part of those to whom it is addressed, nor that they, on their side, had given the author any particular occasion for writing it.如果在第三章,聖保祿談到他個人的Apostleship ,它不是以維護它的攻擊,但他表示感謝所有曾呼籲,儘管他無價值,宣布偉大的奧秘,他唱唱讚歌。簡言之,在信中沒有讓我們懷疑,它反映了任何特殊需要的一部分,這些送達收件人,也沒有他們,站在他們一邊,給了作者的任何特定場合寫它。 In so far as either its dogmatic or moral part is concerned, it might have been addressed to any churches whatever founded in the pagan world.在迄今為止作為其教條或道義上的部分而言,它可能已經給任何教堂無論成立於異教徒的世界。

IV.四。 TO WHOM ADDRESSED誰信

To whom, then, was the Epistle addressed?人,然後是書信處理? This question has evoked a variety of answers.這一問題引起了不同的答案。 There are critics who maintain the traditional opinion that the Epistle was written to the Ephesians exclusively (Danko, Cornely), but the greater number consider it in the light of a circular letter.有人批評誰保持傳統認為,書信是寫信給以弗所完全(照剛, Cornely ) ,但更多考慮根據通函。 Some maintain that it was addressed to Ephesus and the churches of which this city was, so to speak, the metropolis (Michelis, Harless, and Henle), while others hold that it was sent to the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse (H. Holtzmann) or to the circle of Christian communities within and around Coloss Colossae aelig; and Laodicea (Godet, Haupt, Zahn, and Belser); or again to the faithful of Asia Minor (B. Weiss) or to all the Gentile-Christian Churches (Von Soden).有人認為,這是給以弗所和教會的這個城市是,這麼說吧,大都市(米歇莉絲, Harless ,和亨利) ,而其他人認為它被送往七教會的啟示(閣下Holtzmann )或循環的基督教社區內和周圍Coloss Colossae aelig ;和老底嘉(代,豪普特,贊恩,並Belser ) ;或再次忠實小亞細亞(灣魏斯)或所有詹蒂萊,基督教(馮索登) 。 The question can only be solved by comparing the Epistle with the knowledge possessed of the life and literary activity of the Apostle.這個問題只能解決比較書信的知識擁有的生活和文學活動的使徒。 Those who deny the authenticity of the letter must certainly grant that the Pseudo-Paul (i, 1) was careful to conform to literary and historical probabilities, and if not, since the letter vouchsafes no direct indication as to the correspondents whom he supposed the Apostle to be addressing, it would be idle to imagine who they were.這些誰否認的真實性信一定補助的偽保羅(我1 )小心地符合文學和歷史的概率,如果沒有,因為信中沒有直接說明vouchsafes向記者提供了他使徒要解決,這將是閒置想像他們是誰。

The words en Epheso, in the first verse of the Epistle, do not belong to the primitive text.途中Epheso的話,在第一個詩的書信,不屬於原始文字。 St. Basil attests that, even in his day, they were not met with in the ancient manuscripts; in fact they are missing from the Codices B and Aleph (first hand).聖巴茲爾證明,即使在他的天,他們沒有得到在古代手稿;事實上,他們缺少Codices B和阿萊夫(第一手) 。 Moreover, the examination of the Epistle does not warrant the belief that it was addressed to the church in which the Apostle had sojourned longest.此外,檢查書信不值得相信,這是給教會的使徒曾旅居最長。 When St. Paul writes to one of his churches, he constantly alludes to his former relations with them (see Thess., Gal., Cor.), but here there is nothing personal, no greeting, no special recommendation, no allusion to the author's past.當聖保羅寫入他的一個教堂,他不斷提到他的前與他們的關係(見Thess 。乳糖。 ,肺心病。 ) ,但這裡並沒有什麼個人的,沒有問候,沒有特別的建議,沒有提及到作者過去。 Paul is unacquainted with his correspondents, although he has heard them spoken of (Ephesians 1:15), and they have heard of him (Ephesians 3:2; cf. 4:21).保羅不了解他的記者,儘管他已經聽到他們談到(以弗所書1:15 ) ,他們已經聽到了他(以弗所書3:2 ;比照。 4時21分) 。 When addressing himself to any particular church, even be it at the time still a stranger to him as, for instance, Rome or Coloss Colossae,aelig;, the Apostle always assumes a personal tone; hence the abstract and general manner in which he treats his subject from the beginning to the end of the Epistle to the Ephesians can best be accounted for by beholding in this Epistle a circular letter to a group of churches still unknown to Paul.在談到自己的任何特別的教堂,即使是在當時還是一個陌生人給他,例如,羅馬或Coloss Colossae , aelig ; ,使徒總是假定個人基調,因此,抽象的,一般以何種方式對待他其主題從開始到結束的書信的以弗所,才能最好地佔了看見在這書信通函的一組教堂仍然不明保羅。 Bur this explanation, founded on the encyclical character of the Epistle, loses its value if the Church of Ephesus is numbered among those addressed; for, during his three years' sojourn in this city, the Apostle had had frequent intercourse with the neighbouring Christian communities, and in this case he would have had Ephesus especially in view, just as in wring to all the faithful of Achaia (2 Corinthians 1:1) it was chiefly to the Church of Corinth that he addressed himself.柏迪這一解釋,建立在通諭性質的書信,即失去其價值,如果教會以弗所編號那些處理;的,在他三年逗留在這個城市,使徒不得不頻繁的交往與鄰國基督教社區,並在這種情況下,他將不得不以弗所尤其是鑑於,就像在擰所有的信徒亞該亞(哥林多後書1:1 )它主要是對教會的科林斯,他給自己。

Nevertheless, it was to a rather restricted circle of Christian communities that Paul sent this letter, as Tychicus was to visit them all and bring news of him (Ephesians 6:21 sq.), which fact precludes the idea of all the churches of Asia Minor or of all the Gentile-Christian churches.然而,這是一個循環的限制,而基督教社區保羅發出這封信,因為Tychicus要訪問所有的消息,使他(以弗所書6時21分平方米) ,這實際上排除了所有的想法教會的亞洲未成年人或所有的詹蒂萊基督教教堂。 Moreover, since Tychicus was bearer of the Epistle to the Colossians and that to the Ephesians at one and the same time (Colossians 4:7 sq.), those to whom the latter was addressed could not have been far from Coloss Colossae,aelig;, and we have every reason to suppose them in Asia Minor.此外,由於是無記名Tychicus的書信向歌羅西書,並在以弗所在同一時間(歌羅西書4點07平方米) ,那些人,後者是針對無法遠離Coloss Colossae , aelig ; ,我們有充分理由假定他們在亞洲的未成年人。 However, we do not believe that the Epistle in question was addressed to the churches immediately surrounding Coloss Colossae,aelig;, as the perils which threatened the faith of the Colossians virtually endangered that of the neighbouring communities, and wherefore, then, two letter differing in tone and object?但是,我們並不認為,書信中的問題是給教堂周圍Coloss Colossae , aelig ; ,因為危險威脅信仰的歌羅西書幾乎瀕臨滅絕,在鄰近社區,並何故,然後,兩個不同的信在語氣和對象? Having had no personal intercourse with the Colossians, the Apostle would have been satisfied to address to them and their Christian neighbours an encyclical letter embodying all the matter treated in both Epistles.有沒有個人交往與歌羅西書,使徒將得到滿足,以解決他們和他們的基督教鄰居通諭信體現了所有的問題都處理書信。 Hence it behooves us to seek elsewhere in Asia Minor, towards the year 60, a rather limited group of churches still unknown to St. Paul.因此,我們應當尋求在亞洲其他地區小,對今年60歲,在相當有限的一批教堂仍然不明聖保祿。 Now, in the course of his three journeys, Paul had traversed all parts of Asia Minor except the northern provinces along the Black Sea, territory which he did not reach prior to his captivity.現在的過程中,他的三個行程,保羅曾走過的所有部分除外小亞細亞的北部省份沿黑海,領土,他沒有達到之前,他被關押。 Nevertheless, the First Epistle of St. Peter shows us that the Faith had already penetrated these regions; hence, with the historical data at our disposal, it is in this vicinity that it seems most reasonable to seek those to whom the Epistle was addressed.然而,第一使徒聖彼得告訴我們,信仰已經侵入這些地區,因此,與歷史數據我們掌握,正是在這附近,看來最合理,尋求那些人的書信處理。 These Christians must have been named in the authentic text of the inscription of this Epistle, as they are in all of St. Paul's letters.這些基督徒必須在已命名的真確文本的題詞本書信,因為它們是在所有的聖保祿信件。 Now, whenever the substantive participle appears in one of these inscriptions, it serves the sole purpose of introducing the mention of locality. We are therefore authorized to believe that, in the address of the Epistle to the Ephesians (Ephesians 1:1: tois hagiois ousin kai pistois en Christo Iesou), this participle, so difficult to understand in the received text, originally preceded the designation of the place inhabited by the readers.現在,每當實質性詞出現在其中的題詞,它的唯一目的是介紹提到地方。因此,我們有權認為,在地址書信的以弗所(以弗所書1:1 : tois hagiois ousin啟pistois恩克里斯托Iesou ) ,這個詞,所以很難理解在收到文字,原來之前指定地點居住的讀者。 One might assume that the line containing this designation was omitted owing to some distraction on the part of the first copyist; however, it would then be necessary to admit that the mention of locality, now in question, occurred in the midst of qualifying adjectives applied by the Apostle to his readers (hagiois tois ousin . . . . . pistois), and this is something that is never verified in the letters of St. Paul.人們可能會以為行指定省略由於一些分心的一部分,第一抄寫;然而,那麼必須承認,提及地方,現在的問題,發生在預選賽中的應用形容詞由他的讀者使徒( hagiois tois ousin 。 。 。 。 。 pistois ) ,這是這是從來沒有核實的信件聖保祿。 Hence we may suppose that, in this address, the indication of place was corrupted rather than omitted, and this paves the way for conjectural restorations.因此,我們可以假設,在這個地址,說明被損壞的地方,而不是省略,這鋪平了道路推測修復。 We ourselves have proposed the following: tois hagiois tois ousin kat Irin tois en Christo Iesou.我們自己提出以下建議: tois hagiois tois ousin吉Irin tois恩克里斯托Iesou 。 (Ladeuze in Revue biblique, 1902, pp 573 sq.) Grammatically, this phrase corresponds perfectly with the Apostle's style (cf. Galatians 1:22; 1 Corinthians 1:2; Philippians 1:1) and palaeographically, if transcribed in ancient capitals, it readily accounts for the corruption that has certainly been produced in the text. ( Ladeuze雜誌biblique在1902年,第573平方米)語法,這句話完全對應的使徒的風格(參看加拉太1時22分;哥林多前書1:2 ;腓1:1 )和palaeographically ,如果轉錄的古都,它隨時帳戶腐敗無疑是產生於文字。 The Epistle to the Ephesians was, therefore, written to distant churches, located perhaps in various provinces [Pontus, Galatia, Polemonium (the kingdom of Polemon)] and, for this reason, requiring to be designated by the general term, but all situated along the River Iris.在書信的以弗所,因此寫信給遠方的教堂,位於也許在各省[龐,加拉提亞,花(王國Polemon ) ] ,為此,需要到指定的一般用語,但都位於沿江虹膜。

These churches of the north-east of Asia Minor played rather an obscure part in the first century.這些教堂東北小亞細亞發揮相當一部分在一個不起眼的第一個世紀。 When the first collection of the Apostle's letters was made, a collection on which the entire textual tradition of these letters depends (cf. Zahn, Geschichte des NT Kanons, I, ii, p. 829), it was Ephesus that furnished the copy of this Epistle, having obtained it when Tychicus landed at that port, thence to set out for Coloss Colossae aelig; and in the direction of Pontus, and in this copy the text of the address had already been corrupted.當第一個收集宗徒信的是,在收集關於整個文本傳統取決於這些信件(參見贊恩,史新台幣Kanons ,一,二,第829頁) ,這是以弗所的家具副本本書信,獲得Tychicus時降落在該港口,然後列出的Coloss Colossae aelig ;和方向龐,並在此複製文本的地址已經被損壞。 Having come from Ephesus, this letter quickly passed for one to the Ephesians, the more so as there was no other written by the Apostle to the most celebrated of churches. This explains why, from the beginning, all except Marcion, even those who did not read the words en Epheso in the first verse (Origen, Tertullian), look upon this letter as an Epistle to the Ephesians, and why in all manuscripts, it is transcribed under this title.來自於以弗所,這封信很快通過一個對以弗所,更何況是因為沒有其他書面的使徒的最著名的教堂。這就解釋了為什麼從一開始,所有的除外馬吉安,甚至那些沒有誰無法讀取的話恩Epheso第一詩(奧利,良) ,視本函作為書信的以弗所,為什麼在所有的手稿,它是根據本轉錄標題。

V. DATE AND PLACE OF COMPOSITION; OCCASION五,日期和地點組成; OCCASION

Like the Epistles to the Colossians, to the Philippians, and to Philemon, that to the Ephesians was written during the leisure hours of one of the Apostle's imprisonments (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; 6:20), when he had but little reason to resort to the services of a disciple to write in his name (De Wette, Ewald, and Renan).如書信向歌羅西書,向腓利,並腓利門書,即在以弗所寫在閒暇時間的一個宗徒監禁(以弗所書3:1 ; 4:1 ; 6:20 ) ,但是當他沒有理由訴諸服務弟子寫在他的名字(者Wette ,埃瓦爾德和雷南維) 。 Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, Berlin, 1900) is the only one nowadays who claims that these letters antedate the great captivity of St. Paul, maintaining that the Apostle must have written them while a prisoner in Ephesus in 57 and prior to those which he sent to the Corinthians and Romans.利斯科( Vincula Sanctorum ,柏林, 1900 )是唯一一個現在誰聲稱,這些信件antedate偉大圈養聖保羅,認為使徒必須有書面的囚犯,而他們在以弗所在57之前,他發出的那些在哥林多前書和羅馬。 But we are not acquainted with any of the details of this captivity at Ephesus.但是,我們不熟悉的任何細節,這被關押在以弗所。 Moreover, the doctrine set forth in the letters in question belongs to an epoch subsequent to the composition of the Epistle to the Romans (58); hence they were not written previously to the captivity in Caesarea (58-60).此外,該原則中規定的字母問題屬於一個時代以後組成的使徒的羅馬( 58 ) ,因此他們沒有書面以前的囚禁在凱撒利亞( 58-60 ) 。 On the other hand, they are anterior to the first persecution, to which the author makes no allusion when describing the armour and combats of the faithful; wherefore they cannot be assigned to the last captivity.另一方面,他們是前第一迫害,對此不作任何暗示作者敘述時,裝甲和戰鬥的忠實;何故不能被分配到去年囚禁。 It consequently remains for them to be ascribed to a period between 58 and 63, but whether they were produced in Caesarea or in Rome (61-63) is still a much mooted question.因此它仍然是對它們進行歸因於期間58和63 ,但無論是生產凱撒利亞或在羅馬( 61-63 )仍然是一個很大的問題提出。 The information gleaned here and there is very vague and the arguments brought forward are very doubtful.收集的信息在這裡和那裡非常模糊和提出的論點是非常值得懷疑的。

However, the freedom allowed Paul, and the evangelical activity he displays at the time of writing these letters, would seem more in keeping with his captivity in Rome (Acts 28:17-31) than in Caesarea (Acts, xxiii, sq.).然而,自由讓保羅和他的福音的活動顯示在撰寫本報告時這些信件,似乎更符合他的囚禁在羅馬(使徒28:17-31 )比在凱撒利亞(使徒,二十三,平方米) 。 One thing, however, is certain, once the authenticity of the Epistles to the Colossians and to the Ephesians is admitted, and that is that they were written at the same time.一件事,但是,可以肯定,一旦真實性書信向歌羅西書和以弗所被接納,這是他們寫在同一時間。 They both show fundamentally and formally a very close connection of which we shall speak later on.他們都表現出從根本上和形式上是一種非常密切的聯繫,我們將稍後發言的。 Tychicus was appointed to convey both Epistles to those to whom they were respectively addressed and to fulfil the same mission in behalf of them (Colossians 4:7 sq.; Ephesians 6:21 sq.). Tychicus被任命為雙方轉達書信,以那些人,他們分別處理,並履行同團代表他們(歌羅西書四點○七平方米;以弗所書6時21分平方米) 。 Verse 16 of chapter iv of Colossians does not seem to allude to the letter to the Ephisians, which would need to have been written first; besides, the Epistle here mentioned is scarcely an encyclical, the context leading us to look upon it as a special letter of the same nature as that sent to the Colossians.新詩16第四章歌羅西書似乎沒有提到,信Ephisians ,這將需要已書面第一;此外,書信這裡提到的是幾乎沒有一個通諭中,領導我們的背景下看待它作為一個特殊信性質相同的是發送到歌羅西書。 If, moreover, Paul knew that, before reaching Coloss Colossae,aelig;, Tychicus would deliver the Epistle to the Ephesians to the Christians at Laodicea, there was no reason why he should insert greetings for the Laodiceans in his Epistle to the Colossians (Colossians 4:15).此外,如果保羅知道,才能到達Coloss Colossae , aelig ; , Tychicus將提供書信的以弗所的基督徒在老底嘉,沒有理由他應該插入問候的Laodiceans在他的書信向歌羅西書(歌羅西書4:15 ) 。 It is more probable that the Epistle to the Ephesians was written in the second place.它更可能是書信的以弗所寫在第二位。 It would be less easy to understand why, in repeating to the Colossians the same exhortations that he had made to the Ephesians, for instance, on remarriage (Ephesians 5:22 sqq.), the author should have completely suppressed the sublime dogmatic considerations upon which these exhortations had been based.這將是不太容易理解為什麼,在重複的歌羅西書相同的規勸,他提出的以弗所,例如,對再婚(以弗所5時22 sqq 。 ) ,作者應具有完全抑制的崇高教條考慮後這些規勸了基礎。 Moreover we believe with Godet that: It is more natural to think that, of these two mutually complemental letters, the one provoked by a positive request and a definite need [Col.] came first, and that the other [Eph.] was due to the greater solicitude evoked by the composition of the former."此外,我們認為同代說:這是更自然地認為,這兩個相互補充的信,一個挑起了積極的請求,並確實需要[上校]排名第一,而其他[弗。 ]是由於以更大的關懷誘發組成的前。 “

How, then, admitting that St. Paul wrote the Epistle to the Ephesians, shall we explain the origin of this document?那麼,如何承認聖保祿寫書信的以弗所,我們解釋的起源此文件嗎? The Apostle, who was captive at Rome, was informed by Epaphras of the dogmatic and moral errors that had come to light in Coloss Colossae aelig; and the neighbouring cities, in churches of which he was not the founder.使徒,誰是圈養在羅馬,告訴Epaphras的教條和道義上的錯誤,已經到了輕Coloss Colossae aelig ;和鄰近城市的教堂,而他不是創始人。 He also learned that he had been censured for not bringing to the perfection of Christianity those whom he had once converted, and for not taking sufficient interest in churches that had sprung up side by side with his own, although without his personal intervention (Colossians 1:28-2:5).他還了解到,他被指責為不使完善基督教的人,他曾經改裝,並沒有採取足夠的興趣教會了如雨後春筍般冒出來並肩自己,雖然沒有他的親自干預(歌羅西書1 :28 - 2 : 5 ) 。 At the same time that Paul received the news concerning Coloss Colossae,aelig;, and its surroundings, he also heard (Ephesians 1:15) that in a distant part of Asia Minor Christian communities had been brought to the Faith, perhaps by evangelists (Ephesians 4:11).與此同時,保羅收到的消息有關Coloss Colossae , aelig ; ,及其周邊地區,他還聽取了(以弗所書1:15 ) ,在一個遙遠的小亞細亞的一部分基督教社區已提請信仰,或許由福音(以弗所書4點11分) 。 Impressed by the accusations made against him, Paul took advantage of the departure of Tychicus for Coloss Colossae,aelig;, to enter into communication with those Christians who had heard of him (Ephesians 3:2) and to address them a letter in which he had to limit himself to general considerations on Christianity, but he wished to prove his Apostolic solicitude for them by making them realize not only the dignity of their Christian vocation, but the oneness of the Church of God and the intimate union by which all the faithful, no matter what their history, are constituted a single body of which Christ is the head.下了深刻的印象,對他的指控,保羅趁機離開Tychicus的Coloss Colossae , aelig ; ,進入通信與基督徒誰聽說過他(以弗所書3:2 ) ,並解決他們的信中,他必須限制自己的一般考慮對基督教,但他想證明他的使徒關懷他們,使它們不僅實現的尊嚴,他們的基督教使命,但一體的天主的教會和親密的聯盟,所有的信徒,不管其歷史,是構成一個單一的機構,其中基督的頭部。

VI.六。 AUTHENTICITY真實性

If one would only remember to whom the Epistle was addressed and on what occasion it was written, the objections raised against its Pauline authenticity could be readily answered.如果人們只記得他們的書信處理和以什麼場合是書面的,提出的反對意見對波利娜真實性很容易回答。

(1) Relation to Other Books of the New Testament ( 1 )與其他圖書的新約全書

The letter to the Ephesians bears some resemblance to the Epistle to the Hebrews and the writings of St. Luke and St. John, in point of ideas and mode of expression, but no such resemblance is traceable in the great Pauline Epistles. Of course one of the Apostle's writings might have been utilized in these later documents but these similarities are too vague to establish a literary relationship.厄佛所書負有一些相似的書信向希伯來和著作聖盧克和聖約翰,這一點的想法和表達方式,但沒有這樣的相似性是可追踪大波利娜書信。當然宗徒的著作可能已經利用這些文件,但後來這些相似之處過於含糊建立一個文學的關係。 During the four years intervening between the Epistle to the Romans and that to the Ephesians, St. Paul had changed his headquarters and his line of work, and we behold him at Rome and Caesarea connected with new Christian centres.在四年的干預之間的書信,以羅馬,並在以弗所,聖保祿改變了總部和他行的工作,我們看見他在羅馬和愷撒與新的基督教中心。 It is, therefore, easy to understand why his style should savour of the Christian language used in these later books, when we recall that their object has so much in common with the matter treated in the Epistle to the Ephesians.因此,不難理解他的風格應該體驗基督教中使用的語言這些書籍後,當我們回顧,其目的有許多共同的問題與處理的書信的以弗所。 Whatever may now and then have been said on the subject, the same phenomenon is noticeable in the Epistle to the Colossians.無論現在,然後一直說,關於這個問題,同樣的現象是很明顯的書信向歌羅西書。 If, indeed, the Epistle to the Ephesians agrees with the Acts in more instances than does the Epistle to the Colossians, it is because the two former have one identical object, namely, the constitution of the Church by the calling of the Jews and Gentiles.事實上,如果在書信的以弗所同意的行為更多的情況下比在書信的歌羅西書,這是因為兩個前有一個相同的對象,即憲法的要求教會的猶太人和外邦人。

The relationship between the Epistle to the Ephesians and I Peter is much closer.之間的關係,書信的以弗所和彼得更接近。 The letter to the Ephesians, unlike most of the Pauline Epistles, does not begin with an act of thanksgiving but with a hymn similar, even in its wording, to that which opens I Peter.厄佛所書,不像大多數波利娜書信,沒有開始行動的感恩與讚美,但類似的,即使是在它的措詞,並開闢彼得。 Besides, both letters agree in certain typical expressions and in the description of the duties of the domestic life, which terminates in both with the same exhortation to combat the devil.此外,雙方同意在某些字母的典型表現形式和說明義務的家庭生活,而終止在以同樣的告誡,打擊魔鬼。 With the majority of critics, we maintain the relationship between these letters to be literary.由於大多數的批評,我們之間的關係保持這些信件是文學。 But I Peter was written last and consequently depends on the Epistle to the Ephesians; for instance, it alludes already to the persecution, at least as impending.但我彼得寫上,因此取決於書信的以弗所;例如,它的意思已經向迫害,至少在即將到來的。 Sylvanus, the Apostle's faithful companion, was St. Peter's secretary (1 Peter 5:12), and it is but natural that he should make use of a letter, recently written by St. Paul, on questions analogous to those which he himself had to treat, especially as according to us, those addressed in both of these Epistles are, for the greater part, identical (cf. 1 Peter 1:1). The attacks made upon the authenticity of the Epistle to the Ephesians have been based mainly on its similarity to the Epistle to the Colossians, although some have maintained that the latter depends upon the former (Mayerhoff). 1861 ,使徒的忠實伴侶,是聖彼得秘書(彼得前書5時12分) ,這是自然的,但他應該利用的信,最近寫的聖保羅,類似的問題上,那些他本人治療,特別是據我們,這些處理在這兩個書信是,對於大部份相同(參見彼得前書1:1 ) 。襲擊時所作的真實性,書信的以弗所已主要依據其相似的書信向歌羅西書,雖然有些人認為,後者依賴於前者( Mayerhoff ) 。 In the opinion of Hitzig and Holtzmann, a forger living early in the second century and already imbued with Gnosticism used an authentic letter, written by Paul to the Colossians against the Judeo-Christians of the Apostolic Age, in composing the Epistle to the Ephesians, in conformity to which he himself subsequently revised the letter to the Colossians, giving it the form it has in the canon.認為希齊格和Holtzmann ,一個偽造的生活早在二世紀,已經充滿了諾斯替主義使用真正的信,寫的保羅的歌羅西書對猶太教和基督教的使徒時代,在撰寫的書信的以弗所,在符合其本人隨後修訂了一封信給歌羅西書,使它的形式已在佳能。 De Wette and Ewald looked upon the Epistle to the Ephesians as a verbose amplification of the uncontroversial parts of the letter to the Colossians.者Wette和埃瓦爾德期待的書信向以弗所作為一個詳細擴增沒有爭議的部分信歌羅西書。 However, it is only necessary to read first one of these documents and then the other, in order to see how exaggerated is this view.然而,這只是必要的第一個閱讀這些文件,然後另一方面,以了解如何誇大是這個觀點。 Von Soden finds a great difference between the two letters but nevertheless holds that several sections of the Epistle to the Ephesians are but a servile paraphrase of passages from the letter to the Colossians (Ephesians 3:1-9 and Colossians 1:23-27; Ephesians 5:21-6:9 and Colossians 3:18-4:1) and that still more frequently the later author follows a purely mechanical process by taking a single verse from the letter to the Colossians and using it to introduce and conclude, and serve as a frame, so to speak, for a statement of his own.馮索登發現很大的差異兩封但認為幾個章節書信的以弗所只是奴役釋義的通道從信歌羅西書(以弗所書3:1-9和歌羅西書1:23-27 ;以弗所書5:21-6:9和歌羅西書3:18-4:1 ) ,而且還更頻繁的更新作者如下一個純粹的機械過程,採取單一的詩句從信歌羅西書並用它來介紹和總結,並作為一個框架,可以說,為他自己的聲明。 Thus, he maintains that in Eph., iv, 25-31, the first words of verse 8 of Col., iii, have served as an introduction (Ephesians 4:25) and the last words of the same verse as a conclusion (Ephesians 4:31).因此,他堅持認為,在弗。 ,四, 25-31 ,第一個字的詩8上校,三,擔任過介紹(以弗所書4點25分)和過去所說的話同樣的詩句作為結論(以弗所書4時31分) 。 Evidently such methods could not be attributed to the Apostle himself. But, neither are we justified in ascribing them to the author of the Epistle to the Ephesians.顯然,這種方法不能歸咎於使徒自己。但是,我們也不理由歸咎於他們的作者書信的以弗所。 For instance, the duties of husband and wife are well set forth in Col., iii, 18, 19, but in these verses there is no comparison whatever between Christian marriage and that union of Christ with His Church such as characterizes the same exhortation in Eph., v, 22 sq.; consequently, it would be very arbitrary to maintain the latter text to be a vulgar paraphrase of the former.舉例來說,職務的丈夫和妻子都在規定的上校,三,第18 ,第19 ,但在這些經文沒有什麼比較婚姻和基督教之間的聯盟與他的基督堂等特點,在同樣的告誡弗。 ,五, 22平方米;因此,那將是非常武斷保持後者的文字是一個粗俗的釋義前。 In comparing the texts quoted, the phenomenon of framing, to which von Soden called attention, can be verified in a single passage (Ephesians 4:2-16, where verse 2 resembles Colossians 3:12 sq. and where verses 15-16 are like Colossians 11 and 19).在比較文本引用,這一現象的框架,而馮索登呼籲注意,可以驗證在一個單一的通道(以弗所書4:2-16 ,在詩2類似於歌羅西書平方米和3時12分在15-16日的詩句像歌羅西書11日和19日) 。 In fact, throughout his entire exposition, the author of the Epistle to the Ephesians is constantly repeating ideas and even particular expressions that occur in the letter to the Colossians, and yet neither a servile imitation nor any one of the well-known offences to which plagiarists are liable, can be proved against him.事實上,在他整個博覽會的作者書信的以弗所是不斷重複的想法和具體表現,甚至發生在信歌羅西書,但既不是奴隸,也沒有模仿任何一個眾所周知的罪行,其中plagiarists者,可以證明對他的。

Moreover, it is chiefly in their hortatory part that these two letters are so remarkably alike and this is only natural if, at intervals of a few days or hours, the same author had to remind two distinct circles of readers of the same common duties of the Christian life.此外,它主要是在他們的勸告的一部分,這兩個字母都非常顯著,這是很自然的,如果每隔幾天或幾小時,同一作者不得不提醒兩個截然不同的圈子的讀者共同的職責基督徒的生活。 In the dogmatic part of these two Epistles there is a change of subject, treated with a different intention and in another tone.在教條式的一部分,這兩個書信有一個變化的主題,對待不同的意圖,並在另一個基調。 In the one instance we have a hymn running through three chapters and celebrating the call of both Jews and Gentiles and the union of all in the Church of Christ; and in the other, an exposition of Christ's dignity and of the adequacy of the means He vouchsafes us for the obtaining of our salvation, as also thanksgiving and especially prayers for those readers who are liable to misunderstand this doctrine.在一個例子,我們有一個讚美詩貫穿三章和慶祝的呼籲猶太人和外邦人和聯盟中的所有基督教會;以及其他,闡述了基督的尊嚴和是否有足夠的手段,他vouchsafes我們獲得我們的拯救,這也是感恩和祈禱是誰的讀者有可能誤解了這一理論。 However, these two objects, Christ and the Church, are closely akin.然而,這兩個對象,基督和教會,都相近。 Besides, if in his letter to the Ephesians, St. Paul reproduces the ideas set forth in that to the Colossians, it is certainly less astonishing than to find a like phenomenon in the Epistles to the Galatians and to the Romans, as it is very natural that the characteristic expressions used by the Apostle in the Epistle to the Colossians should appear in the letter to the Ephesians, since both were written at the same time.此外,如果在他的信的以弗所,聖保祿抄錄思想中所述的歌羅西書,這無疑是驚人的,而不是更少找到像現象書信向加拉太和羅馬人,因為這是非常自然的特點所用詞句的使徒在書信的歌羅西書應該會出現在信以弗所,因為兩者都寫在同一時間。 In fact it has been remarked that he is prone to repeat typical expressions he has one coined (cf. Zahn, Einleitung, I, p. 363 sq.).事實上,它一直表示,他很容易重複典型的表現形式之一,他創造的(參見贊恩導論,我,第363平方米) 。 Briefly, we conclude with Sabatier that: "These two letters come to us from one and the same author who, when writing the one, had the other in mind and, when composing the second, had not forgotten the first."簡言之,我們的結論與薩巴蒂爾說: “這兩封信來我們從同一個作者誰,寫作時的一個,有其他考慮,並在撰寫第二,沒有忘記第一次。 ” The vague allusions made in the Epistle to the Ephesians to some of the doctrinal questions treated in the Epistle to the Colossians, can be accounted for in this manner, even though these questions were never proposed by those to whom the former Epistle was addressed.含糊不清的典故在書信的以弗所的一些理論問題的待遇,書信向歌羅西書,可佔以這種方式,即使這些問題從來沒有提出的那些人前書信處理。

(2) Difficulties Arising from the Form and Doctrines ( 2 )引起的困難的形式和教義

The denial of the Pauline authenticity of the Epistle to the Ephesians is based on the special characteristics of the Epistle from the viewpoint of style as well as of doctrine, and, while differing from those of the great Pauline Epistles, these characteristics although more marked, resemble those of the letter to the Colossians.剝奪波利娜真實性書信的以弗所是基於特殊性質書信的觀點風格以及學說,儘管不同的是大寶書信,雖然這些特徵更為明顯,相似的信歌羅西書。 But we have already dwelt upon them at sufficient length.但是,我們已經談論他們足夠的長度。

The circumstances under which the Apostle must have written the Epistle to the Ephesians seem to account for the development of the doctrine and the remarkable change of style.在何種情況下必須有書面使徒的書信向以弗所似乎帳戶發展的原則和顯著的變化的風格。 During his two years' captivity in Caesarea, Paul could not exercise his Apostolic functions, and in Rome, although allowed more liberty, he could not preach the Gospel outside of the house in which he was held prisoner. Hence he must have made up for his want of external activity by a more profound meditation on "his Gospel".在他兩年的囚禁在凱撒利亞,保羅不能行使他的使徒的職能,並在羅馬,雖然允許更多的自由,他不能傳福音,外面的房子中,他被關押的囚犯。因此他必須彌補他想要的外部活動更深刻的思考“的福音” 。 The theology of justification, of the Law, and of the conditions essential to salvation, he had already brought to perfection, having systematized it in the Epistle to the Romans and, although keeping it in view, he did not require to develop it any further.神學的理由,該法的條件和必要的救贖,他已經提請完善,具有系統化的書信中的羅馬,雖然保持在認為,他並不需要任何進一步的開發。 In his Epistle to the Romans (viii-xi, xvi, 25-27) he had come to the investigation of the eternal counsels of Providence concerning the salvation of men and had expounded, as it were, a philosophy of the religious history of mankind of which Christ was the centre, as indeed He had always been the central object of St. Paul's faith. Thus, it was on Christ Himself that the solitary meditations of the Apostle were concentrated; in the quiet of his prison he was to develop, by dint of personal intellectual labour and with the aid of new revelations, this first revelation received when "it pleased God to reveal His Son in him".在他的書信,以羅馬(八喜,十六, 25日至27日)他是來調查的永恆律師靜宜關於救贖的男子,並闡述了,因為它是,哲學的宗教是人類歷史上其中基督中心,事實上他一直是中央對象聖保祿的信念。因此,對耶穌說,孤立沉思宗徒集中;在安靜的監獄,他的發展,憑藉個人的智力勞動和借助新的啟示,這第一次的啟示時,收到“它高興上帝揭示他的兒子他” 。 He was, moreover, urged by the news brought him from time to time by some of his disciples, as, for instance, by Epaphras, that, in certain churches, errors were being propagated which tended to lessen the role and the dignity of Christ, by setting up against Him other intermediaries in the work of salvation.他,此外,敦促的消息使他不時由他的一些門徒,因為,例如, Epaphras ,認為,在某些教會,錯誤被傳播往往以減輕作用和尊嚴的基督,通過建立對他的其他中介機構的工作,救恩。 On the other hand, separated from the faithful and having no longer to travel constantly from one church to another, the Apostle was able to embrace in one sweeping glance all the Christians scattered throughout the world.另一方面,脫離忠實並不再前往教堂不斷從一個到另一個,使徒能夠在一個廣泛的擁抱一目了然所有基督教徒散佈在世界各地。 While he resided in the centre of the immense Roman Empire which, in its unity, comprised the world, it was the one universal Church of Christ, the fulfilment of the mysterious decrees revealed to him, the Church in which it had been his privilege to bring together Jews and pagans, that presented itself to him for contemplation.雖然他住在該中心的巨大的羅馬帝國,在它的統一,包括世界各地,這是一個普遍的基督教會,完成神秘的法令透露給他,教會它曾經是他的榮幸把猶太人和異教徒,即提出了自己對他的沉思。

These subjects of habitual meditation are naturally introduced in the letters that he had to write at that time.這些科目的慣常冥想自然的信中介紹,他已寫在那個時候。 To the Colossians he speaks of Christ's dignity; to the Ephesians, and we have seen why, of the unity of the Church.給他講歌羅西書基督的尊嚴;的以弗所,我們已經看到為什麼教會合一。 But in these Epistles, Paul addresses those who are unknown to him; he no longer needs, as in preceding letters, to combat theories which undermined the very foundation of the work and to refute enemies who, in their hatred, attacked him personally.但是,在這些書信,保羅處理這些誰是陌生人,他不再需要他,因為在前面的字母,以打擊破壞理論的根本基礎的工作,並駁斥了誰的敵人,在他們的仇恨,攻擊他本人。 Accordingly, there is no further occasion to use the serried argumentation with which he not only overthrew the arguments of his adversaries but turned them to the latters' confusion.因此,沒有進一步的場合使用密集論證,使他不僅推翻了論據他的對手,但他們正在後者的'混淆。 There is more question of setting forth the sublime considerations with which he is filled than of discussions. Then, ideas so crowd upon him that his pen is overtaxed; his sentences teem with synonyms and qualifying epithets and keep taking on new propositions, thus losing the sharpness and vigour of controversy and assuming the ample proportions of a hymn of adoration.還有更多的問題提出了崇高的考慮,使他充滿比的討論。然後,設想,以使觀眾對他,他的筆是超負荷;他服刑滿利用同義詞和排位賽辱罵和不斷採取新的命題,從而失去了銳度和活力的爭議,並承擔了大量比例的讚美詩朝拜。 Hence we can understand why, in these letters, Paul's style grows dull and sluggish and why the literary composition differs so widely from that of the first Epistles.因此,我們可以理解,為什麼在這些信件中,保羅的風格越來越遲鈍和緩慢,因此,文學的組成不同,以便廣泛地從第一書信。 When writing to the Colossians he at least had one particular church to deal with and certain errors to refute, whereas, in the Epistle to the Ephesians, he addressed himself at one and the same time to a group of unknown churches of which he had received but vague information.寫作時的歌羅西書他至少有一個特別的教堂,以處理和某些錯誤反駁,而在書信的以弗所書,他給自己在同一時間,一群身份不明的教堂,而他已收到但是模糊的信息。 There was nothing concrete in this and the Apostle was left entirely to himself and to his own meditations.有沒有具體的這方面和使徒是完全留給自己和自己的沉思。 This is the reason why the special characteristics already indicated in the Epistle to the Colossians appear even more pronounced in that to the Ephesians, particularly in the dogmatic part.這就是為什麼的特殊性已經表示在書信的歌羅西書出現更為明顯的是在以弗所書,特別是教條主義的一部分。

(3) Tradition ( 3 )傳統

If we thus keep in mind the circumstances under which Paul wrote both of these letters, their peculiar character seems no obstacle to their Pauline authenticity.如果因此,我們記住在何種情況下,保羅寫道:這兩個字母,其獨特的性質似乎沒有任何障礙的波利娜真實性。 Therefore, the testimony which, in their inscriptions (Colossians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1), they themselves render to this authenticity and the very ancient tradition which unanimously attributes them to the Apostle preserve all their force.因此,證詞,在他們的題詞(歌羅西書1:1 ;以弗所書1:1 ) ,使他們對這一真實性和非常古老的傳統一致屬性他們使徒維護其所有部隊。 From the traditional viewpoint the Epistle to the Ephesians is in the same class as the best attested letters of St. Paul.從傳統觀點的書信的以弗所是在同一個班的最好證明信聖保羅。 Used in the First Epistle of St. Peter, in the Epistle of St. Polycarp, in the works of St. Justin, perhaps in the Didache and I Clement, it appears to have been already well known towards the end of the first century.用於第一使徒聖彼得在使徒聖波利卡普,作品中街賈斯汀,也許是在十二使徒遺訓,我克萊門特,它似乎已經眾所周知快要結束時的第一個世紀。 Marcion and St. Irenæus ascribe it to St. Paul and it seems that St. Ignatius, when writing to the Ephesians, had already made use of it as Pauline.馬吉安和聖Irenæus賦予它聖保羅和看來,聖伊格內修,當書面向以弗所,已經使用了它作為波琳。 It is also to be noted that if the authenticity of this Epistle has been denied by most of the liberal critics since Schleiermacher's day, it is nevertheless conceded by many modern critics, Protestants among them, and held at least as probable by Harnack and Julicher. In fact the day seems to be approaching when the whole world will recognize as the work of St. Paul, this Epistle to the Ephesians, of which St. John Chrysostom admired the sublime sentences and doctrines: noematon meste .還應該指出,如果這一書信的真實性已經否認了最自由的批評,因為施萊爾馬赫的一天,但它仍然是承認了許多現代的批評,它們之間的新教徒,並舉行了至少可能由哈爾納克和Julicher 。事實上,每天似乎接近時,整個世界將承認的工作聖保祿,這書信的以弗所,其中聖約翰金口羨慕的崇高的句子和理論: noematon meste 。 . . . . . 。 。 . hypselon kai dogmaton. hypselon啟dogmaton 。

Publication information Written by P. Ladeuze. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.出版信息書面由P. Ladeuze 。天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat , 1909年5月1號。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Consult Introductions to the New Testament.諮詢,介紹新約。 We shall content ourselves here with indicating the latest commentaries, in which the earlier bibliography is mentioned.我們將自己的內容,說明這裡的最新評論,其中提到早先書目。 Catholic Commentaries: Bisping, Erklarung der Briefe an die Epheser, Philipper und Kolosser (Munster, 1866); Henle, Der Epheserbrief des hl.天主教評: Bisping , Erklarung之書信的死亡Epheser , Philipper與Kolosser (明斯特, 1866年) ;亨勒,明鏡Epheserbrief萬hl 。 Apostela Paulus erklart Augsburg, 1908); Belser, Der Epheserbrief ubersetzl und erklart (Freiburg im Br., 1908); Maunoury, Commentaire sur l'epitre aux Galates, aux Ephesiens, etc. (Paris, 1881). Apostela保盧斯erklart奧格斯堡, 1908年) ; Belser ,明鏡Epheserbrief ubersetzl與erklart (弗賴堡一二。 , 1908年) ;莫努裡,評要件epitre輔助Galates ,輔助Ephesiens等(巴黎, 1881年) 。 Non-Catholic Commentaries: Oltramare, Commentair sur les epitres de S. Paul aux Colossiens, aux Ephesiens et a Philemon (Paris, 1891); Von Soden, Die Briefe an die Kolosser, Epheser, Philemon in Hand-Commeniar sum NT, ed.非天主教評:奧爾特拉馬爾, Commentair要件epitres日由保羅輔助Colossiens ,輔助Ephesiens等一腓利門書(巴黎, 1891年) ;馮索登,模具的模具Kolosser書信, Epheser ,腓利門書在手Commeniar金額新台幣,教育署。 Holtzmann (Freiburg im Br., 1893); Haupt, Die Gefangenachaftsbriefe in Krit.-exeg. Holtzmann (弗賴堡一二。 , 1893年) ;豪普特,模具Gefangenachaftsbriefe在Krit. - exeg 。 Kommentar, ed. Kommentar ,教育署。 Meyer (8th ed., Gottingen, 1902); Ewald, Die Briefe des Paulus an die Epheser, Kolosser, und Philemon in Kommentar zum NT , ed.邁耶(第8版。 ,哥廷根大學, 1902年) ;埃瓦爾德,模具之保羅書信的死亡Epheser , Kolosser ,與腓利門書在Kommentar zum新台幣,教育署。 Zahn (Leipzig, 1905); Baljon, Commentaar op de briven van Paulus aan der Thess., Ef., Kol.贊恩(萊比錫, 1905年) ; Baljon , Commentaar同日briven範保羅濱海之Thess 。因子。 ,科爾。 en aan Philemon (Utrecht, 1907); Abbott, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Epistles to the Ephisians and to the Colossians in International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh, 1897); Robinson, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1903); Westcott, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1906); Gore, St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1907).恩河畔腓利門書(烏得勒支, 1907年) ;雅培,一個關鍵和訓詁評書信向Ephisians和歌羅西書國際評論文章(愛丁堡, 1897年) ;魯濱遜聖保祿使徒的以弗所(倫敦, 1903年) ; Westcott ,聖保祿使徒的以弗所(倫敦, 1906年) ;戈爾,聖保祿使徒的以弗所(倫敦, 1907年) 。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在