Ecumenical Church Councils基督教教會理事會

Including the Roman Catholic Listing包括羅馬天主教上市

General Information 一般信息

An ecumenical council gathers bishops and other representatives of the Christian church from all over the world to formulate positions intended to bind or influence the members everywhere. The term ecumenical (from the Greek oikoumene) refers to "the whole inhabited world," but in the history of Christianity it has come to refer to efforts to bring together Christians. After the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, it became impossible for Western Christians to convoke fully ecumenical councils, since those that have been held under papal auspices, the Council of Trent (1545-63) and the First and Second Vatican Councils (1869-70, 1962-65), have excluded Protestants and Eastern Orthodox Christians.普通的收集主教理事會和其他代表的基督教教堂來自世界各地制訂的立場意圖約束或影響各地的成員。 任期普世(來自希臘語oikoumene )指的是“整個有人居住的世界” ,但在基督教歷史上它已經提及努力匯集基督徒。新教改革後的16世紀,它成為西方基督徒不可能完全合一召集議會,因為這些已經舉行的教皇的主持下,安理會的遄( 1545年至1563年)和第一屆和第二屆梵蒂岡理事會( 1869年至1870年, 1962至1965年) ,已排除新教和東正教基督徒。

History歷史

The idea of a council for the purpose of furthering the goals of the church and, even more, for dealing with divisive matters of doctrine, began before AD 50. According to the Acts of the Apostles [Acts 15], the disciples of Jesus Christ called a council at Jerusalem to discuss stresses between two parties.的設想,安理會的目的是促進各項目標的教堂和更有什者,在處理分歧問題的學說,前開始公元50 。根據使徒行傳[行為15 ] ,在基督耶穌的門徒呼籲安理會在耶路撒冷討論強調兩方之間。 One party, led by St. Peter and St. James (the "Lord's brother"), an early leader in Jerusalem, stressed continuity between ancient Judaism and its law and the community that had gathered around Christ. The other, led by St. Paul, stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with its preponderance of Gentiles (or non-Jews).一黨領導的聖彼得和聖雅各福群(以下簡稱“上帝的兄弟” ) ,早期領導人在耶路撒冷,強調古代猶太教之間的連續性及其法律和社會,已聚集在基督。另外,由街保羅強調,特派團的基督教徒居住的整個世界,其優勢外邦人(或非猶太人) 。 At the council the latter group tended to prevail.在安理會後者往往會佔上風。

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The council at Jerusalem is not counted among the 21 general councils of the church.安理會在耶路撒冷是沒有指望的21個一般理事會的教會。 For 3 centuries, no general council was possible because Christianity was an outlaw religion, and it was difficult for anyone with authority to call scattered Christians together. 3世紀以來,沒有總理事會是因為基督教是一個非法的宗教,這是任何人都難以管理局呼籲分散基督徒在一起。 After Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, both civil authority and bishops who had greater power could work together in calling councils.在基督教成為官方宗教的羅馬帝國在4世紀,包括公民的權力和主教誰具有更大的功率可以共同努力,呼籲議會。 Before long, the bishop of Rome (Pope) was seen as preeminent; in Roman Catholic belief he must always convoke a council, and after the bishops have voted, he must officially spread the decrees they pass.不久,羅馬主教(教皇)被認為是卓越的;在羅馬天主教的信仰,他必須始終召開理事會後,投了反對票的主教,他必須正式傳播,他們通過的法令。

Non-Roman Catholic Christians for the most part respect the earlier councils, but it is not plausible to call any gathering since the Second Council of Nicaea (787), truly representative.非羅馬天主教基督教徒大部分是尊重早先議會,但它不是合理要求任何收集自第二次尼西亞( 787 ) ,真正具有代表性。 Since that date, Eastern and Western churches, and since the 16th century Protestant and Catholic churches, have not met together.從那時起,東歐和西歐的教堂,自16世紀新教和天主教教堂,從未見過在一起。 Throughout the Middle Ages, even Western or Roman Catholics themselves debated the convoking and authority of councils.整個中世紀,甚至西方或羅馬天主教徒的召開本身辯論和權威的理事會。 Although all the bishops and theologians agreed that the pope should have special prerogatives, for several centuries reformers claimed that when protesters had grievances, they could appeal from the pope to a council.儘管所有的主教和神學家一致認為,教皇應該有特權,數百年的改革者聲稱,當示威者的不滿,他們可以上訴教宗理事會。 Out of these reformist parties came a theory of Conciliarism, the idea that a council is ultimately above the pope.在這些改革的各方來的理論Conciliarism的想法安理會最終是上述教皇。 The Great Schism in 1378 brought this debate to a head, since there were then two and later three popes.大分裂1378年使本次辯論,以一個頭,因為有那麼兩年後三個教皇。 The Council of Constance (1414-18) settled the division, but conciliar power was again limited when the pope declared the Council of Basel (1431-37) heretical.安理會的康斯( 1414年至1418年)確定的分工,但再次被conciliar權力有限,當教宗宣布理事會巴塞爾( 1431年至1437年)的邪教。

Three councils have been held since the Reformation.三個理事會已舉行了自改革。 The first, at Trent, met over a period of 18 years to deal with the Protestant revolt; it was decisively anti-Protestant in its decrees.第一,在特倫特,會見了一段18歲的處理新教徒反抗,這是決定性的反新教在其法令。 The First Vatican Council, convened at Rome in 1869-70, not only continued the attempts to define Roman Catholicism against the rest of ecumenical Christendom, but decreed that--in matters of faith and morals when he speaks officially and with clear intention to do so--the pope is infallible.第一屆梵蒂岡理事會在羅馬召開的1869至70年,不僅繼續試圖界定天主教對其餘的普世基督教,但命令-在信仰方面的和道德的時候,他談到正式和明確的打算這樣做所以-教宗是萬無一失的。 The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also met in Rome, showed a different outlook.梵二大公會議( 1962年至65年) ,這也在羅馬舉行了會議,表現出不同的看法。 First, it invited observers from Orthodox and Protestant churches; second, the bishops did vote for a principle of collegiality, which gave higher status to their participation.首先,它邀請觀察員東正教會和新教團體;第二,主教們也投票選舉的原則共事,使較高的地位,它們的參與。 Collegiality, however, did not effectively limit the supremacy of the pope.合議制,但是,沒有有效地限制了至高無上的教皇。

Significance意義

The earlier councils have tremendous moral authority even if they are not seen as binding, and most Christians regard the Creeds and statements they produced as authoritative or highly influential for subsequent statements of faith.早先的議會產生巨大的道德權威,即使他們不會被視為具有約束力,大多數基督徒的信仰和有關聲明,他們生產的具有權威性或具有重大影響以後的報表信仰。 At the same time, these councils expressed something of the power situation and much of the world view of their day, and their dictums cannot be followed easily without some interpretation and translation.同時,表達了這些委員會的權力狀況和對世界上許多國家認為他們一天,他們dictums不能輕易下應遵循的一些口譯和筆譯。 Thus, the First Council of Nicaea (325), the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, but it did so in the language of Greek philosophy, a language that differs considerably in impact from the simple and concrete Hebrew expression of much of the Scriptures.因此,第一屆理事會的尼西亞( 325 ) ,第一次基督教理事會,致力於該問題的三位一體,但它這樣做的語言希臘哲學,語言差別很大的影響,簡單的和具體的希伯來語表達許多聖經。 Similarly, the Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.同樣,安理會的卡爾西( 451 ) ,確定如何神與人類有關的內容在耶穌( “ unconfusedly , unchangeably ,不可分割的,不可分割的” ) ,採用了一些條件,不熟悉的當代耳朵。

The councils that raise the greatest problems for modern ecumenical Christianity are those that were exclusively Roman: the Council of Trent and the First Vatican Council. For almost 30 years before 1545, Protestants were belligerent against Roman authority and teaching, and the Council of Trent replied in kind.安理會,以提高最大的問題現代普世基督教是那些專門羅馬:安理會的遄達和第一梵蒂岡會議。將近30年前1545年,新教徒是交戰國對羅馬的權威和教學,以及安理會的遄回答實物。 Protestants in particular had difficulty with the way Trent saw the authority of the church partly in Scripture and partly in tradition and with the way its bishops rejected their teaching that humans are justified only by Grace through faith.新教徒特別是有困難的方式特倫特看到權力的部分在聖經教會,部分傳統的方式的主教們拒絕了他們的教學,人是有道理的只有格雷斯通過信仰。 The definition of papal Infallibility at the First Vatican Council was even more unacceptable to them.教皇的定義絕對在第一屆梵蒂岡理事會更是不能接受的。 For this reason, they welcomed the efforts of the Second Vatican Council to bring Roman Catholics and others into greater accord.為此,他們的努力表示歡迎的第二次梵蒂岡會議,使羅馬天主教和其他更大的協議。

Non-Roman Catholics in the modern world, through the World Council of Churches at its plenary conventions, have on occasion felt something of the ecumenical character of conciliar thought again; although representative of most non-Roman Christians, however, these assemblies lack authoritative and binding power and gain credibility only through their power to persuade, and not to coerce, assent.非天主教徒在現代世界中,通過世界基督教協進會在全體會議公約,有時覺得有點普世性質conciliar思想再次;雖然多數代表的非羅馬基督徒,但是,這些組件缺乏權威性和有約束力的權力和利益的信譽,只有通過他們的權力,說服,而不是強迫,同意。

Martin E. Marty馬丁體育馬蒂

Bibliography 參考書目
Hughes, Philip, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils, 235-1870 (1961); Jaeger, Lorenz, The Ecumenical Council, the Church, and Christendom (1961); Jedin, Hubert, Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church (1970); Lowrey, Mark D., Ecumenism: Striving for Unity amid Diversity (1985); Rusch, William G., Ecumenism: A Movement toward Church Unity (1985); Watkin, EI, The Church in Council (1960).休斯,菲利普,教會在危機:歷史的總理事會, 235-1870 ( 1961年) ;積架,洛倫茲,基督教會,教會,和基督教( 1961年) ; Jedin ,休伯特,基督教議會天主教( 1970年) ;勞雷,馬克博士,普世:爭取統一在多樣性( 1985年) ;盧什,威廉G ,普世:運動對教會的統一( 1985年) ;金,依愛,教會理事會( 1960年) 。


Church Councils堂議會

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A council is a conference called by the leaders of the church to give guidance to the church.理事會是大會要求的領導人教會給予指導,教會。 The first council took place in Jerusalem (ca. AD 50) for the purpose of opposing Judaizing efforts and is recorded in Acts 15.第一屆理事會在耶路撒冷舉行(約公元50 ) ,目的是反對猶太化的努力,並記錄在行為15 。 The results of this first Council of Jerusalem were normative for the entire early Christian church.結果第一次理事會耶路撒冷規範整個早期基督教教堂。 However, the Jerusalem Council must be distinguished from succeeding councils in that it had apostolic leadership.然而,耶路撒冷安理會必須區別於接替理事會說,它已使徒領導。

A council may be either ecumenical and thus representative of the entire church, or it may be local, having regional or local representation.理事會可以是基督教,從而代表整個教會,也可能是當地的,具有區域或地方的代表性。 For example, twelve regional councils met to discuss the Arian heresy between the ecumenical councils of Nicaea in 325 and Constantinople in 381.例如, 12個地區議會開會討論異端之間的基督教理事會尼西亞在君士坦丁堡在325和381 。

Whereas previously the term "ecumenical" meant a representation based on the widest geographical coverage, during our present millennium the meaning shifted to denote the pope's inherent authority to declare a council ecumenical.而以前的“普世”意味著代表性最廣泛的基礎上的地理覆蓋面,在我們目前的千年轉移的含義指教宗的固有權力,宣布理事會合一。 Thus the pope, understood as exercising Christ's rule on earth, has authority to declare or to reject a council as ecumenical.因此,教宗,理解為行使基督的統治地球上有權宣布或拒絕安理會合一。 Although this papal prerogative was operative earlier, it finds explicit affirmation in the Vatican II decree "Light of the Nations," which states: "A council is never ecumenical unless it is confirmed or at least accepted as such by the successor of Peter."雖然這是羅馬教皇的特權手術前,它找到明確的肯定在梵二法令“光的國家” ,其中規定: “理事會是從來沒有普世除非它是證實或至少接受這種由繼承彼得。 ” The situation became problematic with general councils that had been called by emperors, as was Nicaea in 325.局勢變得問題一般安理會已要求的皇帝一樣,在325尼西亞。 These were declared ecumenical by the popes ex post facto.這些被宣布為基督教的教皇事後。

It was precisely to this absolute authority of the pope to convene councils that Martin Luther directed one of his significant 1520 pamphlets, Address to the Christian Nobility.正是這種絕對權威的教皇召開理事會認為馬丁路德針對他的一個顯著1520年的小冊子,地址基督教貴族。 Luther viewed such papal prerogatives as one of the "three walls" that had to be broken down.路德認為這種教皇特權之一的“三牆” ,必須細分。

Historically, councils have been called by emperors, popes, and bishops.歷史上,議會已呼籲皇帝,教皇和主教。 The first seven councils were convoked in the East by emperors and were thus typical of Eastern caesaropapism (state over church).前7局被召集在東方的皇帝,因此典型的東歐caesaropapism (國家對教會) 。 In the Western church the pope typically convened councils, except for a time during the Great Schism (1378-1417) when the plurality of bishops both convened councils and deposed popes (conciliarism).在西方教會,教宗通常會召開理事會,除了時間在大分裂( 1378年至1417年)時,多數都主教召開理事會和廢黜教皇( conciliarism ) 。 Indeed, the Council of Constance in 1415 proclaimed the superiority of general councils over the pope.事實上,安理會的康斯在1415年宣布的優越性,一般理事會的教皇。 But their supremacy was short-lived.但他們的優勢是短暫的。 By 1500 the pontiff had overcome the conciliar movement and was again convening councils.由1500年的教宗克服conciliar運動和再次召開理事會。

While both Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox churches regard the first councils as ecumenical, Protestant churches also regard as valid many of the declarations of these councils.雖然羅馬天主教和東正教教堂方面首次議會作為基督教,新教也視為有效的許多聲明這些理事會。 This is because these councils largely concerned themselves with controversies over the diety, person, and natures of Christ.這是因為這些委員會主要關心爭論神,人,和性質基督。 After the split between the Roman Catholic (Western) and Orthodox (Eastern) churches each branch began its own authoritative councils.分裂後的羅馬天主教(西部)和東正教(東區)教會每個分支開始自己的權威理事會。

The most significant of the early councils were Nicaea (325) and Chalcedon (451).其中最重要的早期議會尼西亞( 325 )和卡爾西( 451 ) 。 The former settled the issue of the nature of Christ as God, whereas the latter dealt with the issues of the twofold natures of Christ and their unity.前者解決了這個問題的性質,基督是上帝,而後者涉及的問題的雙重性質,基督和他們的團結。 In the case of Nicaea a presbyter of Alexandria, Arius, maintained that Christ was not the eternal Son of God.在案件尼西亞一牧師亞歷山大,阿里烏斯,堅持認為,耶穌是不是永恆的神的兒子。 Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, vigorously opposed that idea, declaring Christ to be of the same substance (homoousios) with God. Athanasius and orthodoxy prevailed.亞他那修,主教亞歷山大,堅決反對這種想法,宣布基督是同一物質( homoousios )與上帝。亞他那修和正統佔了上風。 In general, this was the first binding theological declaration for the entire postapostolic church.一般情況下,這是第一份具有約束力的神學宣言為整個postapostolic教堂。

The Council of Chalcedon was called in 451 by the emperor Marcion for the purpose of settling disputes and clarifying the issue of the unity of the two natures of Christ.安理會的卡爾西被稱為在451的皇帝馬吉安的目的是解決爭端和澄清問題的統一的兩個性質的基督。 The resultant Chalcedonian Creed, or Definition, afforded the entire Christian Church a standard of Christological orthodoxy in declaring that Christ's two natures exist "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation."由此產生的Chalcedonian信仰,或定義,使整個基督教教會的標準基督正統在宣布基督的兩個性質的存在“沒有混亂,沒有改變,沒有分裂,沒有分離。 ”

Subsequent councils found it necessary to consolidate the gains of Chalcedon and to oppose further Christological errors.隨後安理會認為有必要鞏固迦克墩和反對進一步基督錯誤。 These councils terminated with the Third Council of Constantinople in 680-81.這些理事會終止與第三安理會君士坦丁堡在680-81 。

In the West the Second Synod of Orange (529) was very significant in both combating semi-Pelagianism and setting forth the gracious character of salvation apart from works.在西方國家的第二次會議上的橙色( 529 )是非常重要的兩個打擊半Pelagianism並提出盛情性質救贖除了工程。 Although it was not officially ecumenical, its declarations prevailed de jure but not de facto in the Roman Catholic Church down to the Reformation era.雖然不是正式合一,其申報佔了上風,但在法律上沒有事實上在羅馬天主教會,以改革的時代。

After the separation of the Eastern and Western churches in 1054 it became characteristic of the pope to convene councils in the Roman Catholic Church.分離後的東歐和西歐的教堂在1054年成為教皇的特點,召開理事會在羅馬天主教會。 Beginning in 1123 a series of so-called Lateran Councils was held at Rome in the Church of St. John Lateran.在1123年開始了一系列所謂的拉特蘭議會是在羅馬舉行的聖約翰教堂拉特蘭。 The most important of these was the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) convened by the great Pope Innocent III.其中最重要的是第四次拉特蘭理事會( 1215 )召開了偉大的教皇英諾森三世。 This council declared transubstantiation to be the accepted interpretation of Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper.本局宣布transubstantiation是公認的解釋基督在聖餐。

The next most significant council was the Council of Trent, 1545-63. This council should be viewed as both a counter to the Protestant Reformation and an establishing of key tenets of Roman Catholicism. Both Scripture and tradition were declared authoritative for the church.下一個最重要的理事會理事會特倫特, 1545年至1563年。安理會應該被看作是一個反的新教改革和建立的關鍵原則信奉羅馬天主教。聖經和傳統都被宣布為教會的權威。 Salvation by grace alone through faith was jettisoned in favor of sacramental and works righteousness.救贖的恩典僅通過信仰是放棄支持聖禮和工程義。 Modern Roman Catholicism, in general, continues to be Tridentine Catholicism.現代羅馬天主教,總的來說,仍然是Tridentine天主教。

The two Vatican Councils each represent both the old and the new. Vatican I (1869-70) made official what had long been practiced, papal infallibility.這兩個梵蒂岡代表安理會的每一個新和舊。梵蒂岡口( 1869年至1870年)正式什麼早就練,教皇犯錯誤。 Vatican II (1962-65) was attended by both traditional and radical Roman Catholics.梵二( 1962年至65年)都出席了傳統的和激進的羅馬天主教徒。 Its pronouncements regarding the universal character of the church approach sheer universalism.就其聲明的普遍性質的教會的做法純粹的普遍性。 Its more open stance toward the Bible is hailed by most Protestants as very salutary. Thus the term used at Vatican II, aggiornamento (modernization), has to some extent been realized in post-Vatican II Roman Catholicism.更開放的姿態走向聖經譽為最新教徒是非常有益的。因此,長期使用梵二, aggiornamento (現代化) ,已在一定程度上得到實現後梵二信奉羅馬天主教。

JH Hall紅廳
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
GJ Cuming and D. Baker, eds., Councils and Assemblies; P. Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils 325-1870; The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church: Their Canons and Dogmatic Degrees, NPNF.連接愛和D.貝克合編。 ,理事會和大會;體育休斯,教會在危機:歷史總理事會325-1870 ;七基督教理事會不可分割教會:他們規和教條式學位, NPNF 。


Ecumenical Councils基督教理事會

General Information 一般信息

Twenty-one official Ecumenical Councils have been held. 21個官方基督教理事會已舉行了。 They are listed and briefly described as follows, with the inclusion of some additional Synods and Councils that have historical importance:他們列出,並簡要說明如下,其中包括一些額外的主教會議和安理會有重要的歷史意義:

Council at Jerusalem (not counted in the 21 Councils) 48 AD 安理會在耶路撒冷 (不計入21議會) 48公元
According to the Acts of the Apostles, the disciples of Jesus Christ called a council at Jerusalem to discuss stresses between two parties.據使徒行傳,門徒耶穌基督稱為安理會在耶路撒冷討論強調兩方之間。 One party, led by St. Peter and St. James (the "Lord's brother"), an early leader in Jerusalem, stressed continuity between ancient Judaism and its law and the community that had gathered around Christ. The other, led by St. Paul, stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with its preponderance of Gentiles (or non-Jews).一黨領導的聖彼得和聖雅各福群(以下簡稱“上帝的兄弟” ) ,早期領導人在耶路撒冷,強調古代猶太教之間的連續性及其法律和社會,已聚集在基督。另外,由街保羅強調,特派團的基督教徒居住的整個世界,其優勢外邦人(或非猶太人) 。 At the council the latter group tended to prevail.在安理會後者往往會佔上風。

First Council at Nicaea (#1) 325 AD 第一屆理事會在尼西亞 ( # 1 )公元325
The First Council of Nicaea (began on either May 20 or June 19, 325 and met until about Aug. 25, 325), the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, in an attempt to settle the controversy raised by Arianism over the nature of the Trinity.第一屆理事會的尼西亞(始於5月20日或要么6月19日, 325和會見,直到8月25日, 325 ) ,第一次基督教理事會,致力於該問題的三位一體,試圖解決爭議提出的Arianism的性質的三一。 It was the decision of the council, formalized in the Nicene Creed , that God the Father and God the Son were consubstantial and coeternal and that the Arian belief in a Christ created by and thus inferior to the Father was heretical. Arius himself was excommunicated and banished.這是安理會的決定,正式在尼西亞信經 ,即聖父上帝的兒子被同質和coeternal而且阿里安斯在基督信仰所造成的,因此不如父親是邪教。阿里烏斯本人逐出教會和放逐。 The council was also important for its disciplinary decisions concerning the status and jurisdiction of the clergy in the early church and for establishing the date on which Easter is celebrated.安理會也很重要,其紀律處分決定的地位和管轄範圍內的神職人員在初期教會和建立的日期復活節慶祝。
First Council at Constantinople (#2) May to July, 381 AD 第一屆理事會在君士坦丁堡 ( # 2 ) 5月至7月, 381廣告
Constantinople I was called primarily to confront Arianism, the heresy that had been subdued only temporarily by the First Council of Nicaea.君士坦丁堡我要求主要是為了對付Arianism ,邪教已疲弱只是暫時的第一屆理事會的尼西亞。 It reaffirmed the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and to depose Maximus, the Arian patriarch of Constantinople.它重申了理論尼西亞信經和罷免馬克西穆斯的阿里安斯君士坦丁堡牧首。 They also condemned Apollinarianism, a position that denied the full humanity of Christ. The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit as proceeding from God the Father, coequal and consubstantial with him. It also confirmed the position of the patriarch of Constantinople as second in dignity only to the bishop of Rome.他們還譴責亞波里拿留派的立場,即不能充分人類的救世主。理事會確定的立場,聖靈三位一體的範圍內,它描述了聖靈作為從父神, coequal和同質他。會議還確認了立場君士坦丁堡宗主教第二的尊嚴不僅是羅馬的主教。
Council of Ephesus (#3) June 22 to July 17, 431 AD 安理會以弗所 ( # 3 )六月22號至7月17號, 431廣告
The Council of Ephesus was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. It was convened in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism).安理會以弗所顯著的教條法令的立場聖母在天球上的層次和性質的化身耶穌。 這是在為了響應的教誨,涅斯多留瑪麗被視為唯一的“基督的母親”而不是“上帝之母” (見景教) 。 After lengthy debates the council reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all. The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ.經過長時間的辯論,安理會達成了一項協議,在該決議中的稱謂: “上帝之母” ,正式頒布的理事會,是大家所接受。理事會還進一步完善了這種教條的人力和神聖方面的耶穌,現在宣布為兩個雖然完全不同的性質聯合國在基督。
Robber Synod (not counted) 449 AD 強盜主教 (不計) 449廣告
In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus.在449另一個理事會,在歷史上已知的latrocinium ,或強盜會議,會見了在以弗所。 It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned at the Council of Chalcedon.它批准的理論Eutyches ,隨後在安理會譴責迦克墩。
Council of Chalcedon (#4) Oct. 8 to Nov. 1, 451 AD 理事會卡爾西 ( # 4 ) 10月8日至11月1日, 451廣告
The Council of Chalcedon (451), which defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.安理會的卡爾西( 451 ) , 確定如何神與人類有關的內容在耶穌( “ unconfusedly , unchangeably ,不可分割的,不可分割的” ) ,採用了一些條件,不熟悉的當代耳朵。 It also condemned the Robber Synod.會議還譴責強盜主教。
Council of Orange (not counted) 529 AD 理事會橙 (不計) 529廣告
Augustine had insisted that humans require the help of God's Grace to do good and that this grace is a free gift, given by God without regard to human merit.奧古斯丁曾堅持認為,人類需要的幫助下,上帝做好,這恩典是免費的禮物,因為上帝沒有考慮到人類優點。 Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation.因此,只有上帝確定誰將會收到寬限期,僅保證救贖。 In this sense God predestines some to salvation.從這個意義上講上帝predestines一些救贖。 Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange .奧古斯丁的教學普遍堅持的教會, 但進一步的想法,有些是注定要譴責是明確拒絕在安理會的橙色
Second Council at Constantinople (#5) May 5 to June 2, 553 AD 第二次理事會在君士坦丁堡 ( # 5 ) 5月5號至6月二號,公元553
Constantinople II was convoked to condemn the Nestorian writings called the "Three Chapters." Under the virtual tutelage of the emperor, the council proscribed Nestorianism and reconfirmed the doctrine that Christ's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person. Pope Vigilius at first defended the Three Chapters, but later accepted the council's ruling.君士坦丁堡二是召集譴責景教著作被稱為“三個章節。 ”根據虛擬監護皇帝,安理會被禁景教和確認原則,即基督的兩個性質,一個人,一個神聖的,是完全統一在一個人。教皇在第一Vigilius辯護三個章節,但後來又接受了安理會的裁決。
Third Council of Toledo (not counted) 589 AD 第三次理事會托萊多 (不計) 589廣告
This Council developed the additional phrase to the Nicene Creed that resulted in the Filioque Controversy and eventually in the Great Schism that divided Christianity into Roman Catholic and Orthodox. 本局制定了額外的詞組,尼西亞信經,導致Filioque爭議,並最終在大分裂基督教分裂成天主教和東正教。
Third Council at Constantinople (#6) Nov. 7, 680 to Sept. 16,681 AD 第三次理事會在君士坦丁堡 ( # 6 ) 11月7日, 680至9月16681公元
Constantinople III condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Christ has two wills, one human and one divine, but that these are without division or confusion. In addition, it condemned an earlier pope, Honorius I, for supporting that heresy.康士坦丁堡第三次會議譴責Monothelitism並申明基督有兩個遺囑,一個人,一個神聖的,但這些都沒有分裂或混亂。此外,它譴責早些時候教皇,挪留一,為支持這一異端。 This Council is also called Trullanum.本會也被稱為Trullanum 。
'Robber' Council of Constantinople (Orthodox) 754 '強盜'安理會君士坦丁堡(東正教) 754
Second Council of Nicaea (#7) 787 AD 第二次尼西亞 ( # 7 ) 787廣告
This Council ruled on the use of saints' images and icons in religious devotion, declaring that whereas the veneration of images was legitimate and the intercession of saints efficacious, the veneration of icons must be carefully distinguished from the worship due God alone.本局裁決使用聖徒的圖片和圖示的宗教虔誠,宣布而崇拜圖像是合法和有效干預的聖人的崇拜圖標必須認真區別於崇拜由於只有上帝。

Note: The above seven great councils are regarded as ecumenical by both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The Orthodox Church even identifies itself as the 'Church of the Seven Councils'. 注:上述七個偉大議會被視為基督教由羅馬天主教會與東正教會。東正教會更確定自己為'教會七政局。
Photius (not counted by either Catholic or Orthodox) 867 AD Photius (不計由天主教或東正教)公元867
In 867, Photius summoned a council that deposed Pope Nicholas. The conflict, purely administrative at the beginning, had acquired doctrinal undertones when Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as Pope Nicholas' emissaries, began to introduce an interpolated text of the Nicene Creed.在867 , Photius召集安理會,廢黜教皇尼古拉斯。衝突,純粹的行政年初,獲得了理論的意味當法蘭克人傳教士在保加利亞,作為教皇尼古拉使者,開始引入插值文尼西亞信經。 In the original text the Holy Spirit was said to have proceeded "from the Father," whereas in Carolingian Europe (but not yet in Rome) the text had been revised to say "from the Father and the Son" (filioque).即在原始文本聖靈據說接著“父親” ,而在加洛林歐洲(但尚未在羅馬) 的案文進行了修訂說“來自父親的兒子” ( filioque ) 。 This began the division that eventually split the Catholic and Orthodox Churches apart two hundred years later in the Great Schism. 這開始了分工,最終分裂的天主教會與東正教會除了二百年後的大分裂。
Fourth Council at Constantinople (#8) Oct. 5, 869 to Feb. 28, 870 AD 第四次理事會在君士坦丁堡 ( # 8 ) 10月5日, 869至2月28日,公元870
Constantinople IV made no new dogmatic decisions; instead, it greatly contributed to the growing split between the Eastern and Western churches.君士坦丁堡四作出的決定沒有任何新的教條,而是巨大的貢獻日益分裂的東,西方的教堂。 The principal action was to depose Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, for usurping his ecclesiastical position. This Council was only first called Ecumenical about two hundred years afterwards.主要行動是廢除Photius ,君士坦丁堡牧首,為篡奪他的教會的立場。本局第一只要求普世約二百年後。 Later, Photius was restored to his see, and he held another council in 879-80. That later council, not that of 869, is considered ecumenical by the Orthodox church.後來, Photius恢復他看到,他又舉行了安理會在879-80 。 後來安理會,而不是869 ,被認為是基督教的東正教教堂。
Photius (not counted by Catholic, but #8 by Orthodox) Nov. 879 to Mar. 13, 880 AD Photius (不計的天主教徒,但由東正教# 8 ) 11月879至3月13日,公元880
In 879-80 a great council, presided over by Photius, confirmed the original form of the Nicene creed, and normal relations between Rome and Constantinople were restored. The Orthodox Church called this the Council of Union.在879-80一個偉大理事會主持Photius , 證實了最初的形式,尼西亞信經,和兩國的正常關係,羅馬和君士坦丁堡恢復。東正教會要求安理會的這一聯盟。
Council of Clermont 1095 理事會克萊蒙 1095
Pope Urban II preached for and launched the First Crusade.教宗城市二鼓吹和推出了第一遠征。
First Lateran Council (#9) Mar. 18 to Apr. 6, 1123 第一拉特蘭理事會 ( # 9 ) 3月18日至4月6日, 1123年
The First Lateran Council was called to ratify the Concordat of Worms (1122), which formally ended the lengthy Investiture controversy.第一拉特蘭安理會呼籲批准該協約的蠕蟲( 1122年) ,正式結束了漫長的Investiture爭議。
Second Lateran Council (#10) April, 1139 理事會第二次拉特蘭 ( # 10 ) 4月, 1139年
The Second Lateran Council was convoked to reaffirm the unity of the church after the schism (1130-38) of the antipope Anacletus II (d. 1138).第二拉特蘭召集安理會重申教會合一後的分裂( 1130年至1138年)的對立教皇Anacletus二( 4 1138年) 。 It also condemned the teachings of Arnold of Brescia.它還譴責的教誨阿諾德布雷西亞。
Third Lateran Council (#11) Mar. 5 to 19, 1179 第三次拉特蘭理事會 ( # 11 ) 3月5日至19日, 1179年
The Third Lateran Council ended the schism (1159-77) of the antipope Callistus III and his predecessors.理事會第三次拉特蘭結束分裂( 1159年至1177年)的對立教皇卡利斯圖斯三世和他的前任。 It also limited papal electors to members of the College of Cardinals.它還有限教皇選民成員樞機主教。
Fourth Lateran Council (#12) Nov. 11 to 30, 1215 第四次拉特蘭理事會 ( # 12 ) 11月11日至30日, 1215年
This council sanctioned a definition of the Eucharist in which the word transubstantiation was used officially for the first time. The council also attempted to organize a new crusade to the Holy Land and to encourage crusading efforts against the Albigenses and Waldenses. Many precepts still binding on Roman Catholics (such as the Easter duty, or obligation, of annual confession and Holy Communion) were adopted at this council.本局認可的定義,在聖體中,這個詞被用來transubstantiation正式首次。安理會還試圖組織一個新的十字軍東征的聖地,並鼓勵十字努力對Albigenses和Waldenses 。 許多戒律仍然具有約束力羅馬天主教(如復活節的責任,或承擔的債務,每年供詞和聖餐)通過了本會。
First Council of Lyons (#13) June 28 to July 17, 1245 第一屆理事會萊昂斯 ( # 13 ) 6月28的1245年7月17日
Confirmed the deposition of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.證實了沉積羅馬皇帝弗雷德里克二世。
Second Council of Lyons (#14) May 7 to July 17, 1274 第二屆理事會萊昂斯 ( # 14 ) 5月7的1274年7月17日
A new crusade was organized, and regulations regarding the papal election were approved.一種新的十字軍東征是有組織,有規章有關教皇選舉獲得批准。 An effort at reconciling the Catholic and Orthodox Churches failed.努力調和的天主教會與東正教會失敗。
Council of Vienne (#15) Oct. 16, 1311 to May 6, 1312 理事會維埃納 ( # 15 ) 10月16日, 1311年至1312年5月6日
Abolished the Order of Templars, and passed some Church reforms.取消訂單的聖殿,並通過一些教會改革。
Council in the Orthodox Church 1341 安理會在 1341年的東正教教堂
Doctrinal definition of Grace.理論定義的寬限期。
Council in the Orthodox Church 1351 安理會在 1351年的東正教教堂
Doctrinal definition of Grace.理論定義的寬限期。
Council of Constance (#16) Nov 5, 1414 to Apr. 22, 1418 理事會康斯 ( # 16 ) 1414年11月5日至4月22日, 1418年
Throughout the Middle Ages, even Western or Roman Catholics themselves debated the convoking and authority of councils.整個中世紀,甚至西方或羅馬天主教徒的召開本身辯論和權威的理事會。 Although all the bishops and theologians agreed that the pope should have special prerogatives, for several centuries reformers claimed that when protesters had grievances, they could appeal from the pope to a council. Out of these reformist parties came a theory of Conciliarism, the idea that a council is ultimately above the pope. The Great Schism in 1378 brought this debate to a head, since there were then two and later three popes.儘管所有的主教和神學家一致認為,教皇應該有特權,數百年的改革者聲稱,當示威者的不滿,他們可以上訴教宗理事會。 其中改革派各方來的理論Conciliarism的想法,安理會最終是上述教宗。大分裂1378年使本次辯論,以一個頭,因為有那麼兩年後三個教皇。 The Council of Constance (1414-18) settled the division.安理會的康斯( 1414年至1418年)確定的分工。
Council of Basel (#17a) July, 1431 to May 4, 1437 理事會巴塞爾 ( # 17A條) 7月, 1431年至1437年5月4日
Established that the Council had higher authority than the Pope, but conciliar power was again limited when the pope declared the Council of Basel heretical.確定安理會有較高的權威高於教皇,但再次被conciliar權力有限,當教宗宣布理事會巴塞爾邪教。
Council of Ferrara-Florence (#17b) Sept 17, 1437 to January 1939 (Ferrara); January 1439 to Apr. 25, 1442 (Florence); Apr. 理事會費拉拉,佛羅倫薩 ( # 17B款) 1437年9月17日至1939年1月(費拉拉) ; 1439年1月至4月25日, 1442年(佛羅倫薩) ; 4月 25, 1442 to 1445 (Rome) 25日, 1442年至1445年(羅馬)
The Council of Ferrara-Florence was convened for the primary purpose of ending the schism between that church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.理事會費拉拉,佛羅倫薩召開為主要目的的終止之間的鴻溝是教會和東正教。
Fifth Lateran Council (#18) May 3, 1512 to Mar. 16, 1517 第五拉特蘭理事會 ( # 18 ) 1512年5月3日至3月16日, 1517年
The Fifth Lateran Council was convoked for the purpose of reform, but the main causes of the Reformation were left untouched.第五拉特蘭召集安理會改革的目的,但主要的原因是改革倖免。 Its most significant decree was a condemnation of Conciliarism.其最重要的法令是一項譴責Conciliarism 。

Three Western Ecumenical Councils have been held since the Reformation.三個西方基督教議會以來舉行的改革。

Council of Trent (#19) Dec. 13, 1545 to 1563 安理會的遄達 ( # 19 ) 12月13日, 1545年至1563年
The Council of Trent met over a period of 18 years to deal with the Protestant revolt; it was decisively anti-Protestant in its decrees. Trent saw the authority of the church partly in Scripture and partly in tradition and its bishops rejected the teaching of Protestants that humans are justified only by Grace through faith. Dogmatic decisions were passed regarding original sin and justification, the seven Sacraments, and the Mass, and the cult of the saints.安理會的遄達會見了一段18歲的處理新教徒反抗,這是決定性的反新教在其法令。 特倫特看到的權威,教會在聖經的部分,部分傳統及其主教拒絕教學的新教徒人類是有道理的只有格雷斯通過信仰。教條主義決定通過了關於原罪和理由,七聖禮,大眾,和崇拜的聖人。

First Vatical Council (#20) Dec. 8, 1869 to Oct. 20, 1870 第一Vatical理事會 ( # 20 ) 12月8日, 1869年10月20日, 1870年
The First Vatican Council, convened at Rome in 1869-70, not only continued the attempts to define Roman Catholicism against the rest of ecumenical Christendom, but decreed that--in matters of faith and morals when he speaks officially and with clear intention to do so-- the pope is infallible .第一屆梵蒂岡理事會在羅馬召開的1869至70年,不僅繼續試圖界定天主教對其餘的普世基督教,但命令-在信仰方面的和道德的時候,他談到正式和明確的打算這樣做所以-教宗是萬無一失的
Second Vatican Council (#21) Oct. 11, 1962 to Dec. 8, 1965 梵二大公會議 ( # 21 ) 10月11日, 1962年12月8日, 1965年
The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), which also met in Rome, showed a different outlook.梵二大公會議( 1962年至65年) ,這也在羅馬舉行了會議,表現出不同的看法。 First, it invited observers from Orthodox and Protestant churches; second, the bishops did vote for a principle of collegiality, which gave higher status to their participation.首先,它邀請觀察員東正教會和新教團體;第二,主教們也投票選舉的原則共事,使較高的地位,它們的參與。 Collegiality, however, did not effectively limit the supremacy of the pope.合議制,但是,沒有有效地限制了至高無上的教皇。


Ecumenical Councils基督教理事會

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Ecumenical Councils were Councils that originated from the link between the Christian church and Roman state during the fourth century.基督教議會委員會,來自之間的聯繫,基督教堂和羅馬國在4世紀。 Originally summoned by emperors to promote unity, the early councils were intended to represent the whole church.原來皇帝召見,以促進團結,早日委員會的目的是代表整個教會。 Throught the centuries the Roman Catholic canon law came to stipulate that an ecumenical council must be convened by the pope and be duly representative of the dioceses of the Roman Church (although decision making was subordinated to papal confirmation).思想世紀的羅馬天主教教會法來規定,普通的安理會必須召開了教皇和得到適當的代表教區的羅馬教會(儘管決策是服從教皇確認) 。 Because of this switch in policy and representation, Christians have disagreed on which councils were "ecumenical."由於此開關在政策和代表性,基督信徒不上安理會是“普世” 。 While the Roman Catholic Church accepts twenty-one, the Coptic, Syrian, and Armenian churches accept only the first three in the Roman Catholic list.雖然羅馬天主教會接受2001年,科普特,敘利亞,和亞美尼亞教堂只接受前三個在羅馬天主教名單。 Most Protestant groups and the Eastern Orthodox Church accept the first seven.大多數新教團體和東正教接受首七個月。 To the Roman Catholic Church the ecumenical or universal council binds the whole church, while a particular council binds only one part of the church.羅馬天主教教會的基督教或普遍約束力安理會整個教會,而尤其是安理會綁定僅僅是問題的一個教堂。

The first eight councils that were called by emperors and had a representation of both Eastern and Western bishops were the councils of Nicaea I (325); Constantinople I (381); Ephesus (431); Chalcedon (451); Constantinople II (553); Constantinople III (680-81); Nicaea II (787); and Constantinople IV (869-70).前8局被稱為皇帝和有代表性的東部和西部兩個主教是安理會尼西亞口( 325 ) ;君士坦丁堡口( 381 ) ;以弗所( 431 ) ;卡爾西( 451 ) ;君士坦丁堡第二( 553 ) ;康士坦丁堡第三次會議( 680-81 ) ;尼西亞二( 787 ) ;和君士坦丁堡四( 869-70 ) 。

With the First Lateran Council (1123) the papacy initiated and assumed control, continuing this policy with Lateran II (1139); Lateran III (1179); Lateran IV (1215); Lyon I (1245); Lyon II (1274); and Vienne (1311-12).與第一拉特蘭理事會( 1123年)的教皇發起並承擔控制,繼續這一政策與拉特蘭二( 1139年) ;拉特蘭三( 1179年) ;拉特蘭四( 1215年) ;里昂口( 1245年) ;里昂二( 1274年) ;和維埃納( 1311年至1312年) 。 During the conciliar movement, when the papacy had reached a low ebb, the Council of Constance (1414-18) and the Council of Basel (called 1431, transferred to Ferrara in 1438 and Florence in 1439) were convened.在conciliar運動時,教皇已達到低谷,安理會的康斯( 1414年至1418年)和理事會的巴塞爾(稱為1431年,轉移到在1438年費拉拉和佛羅倫薩在1439年)召開了。 During the sixteenth century the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17) and the Council of Trent (1545-63) were called to meet challenges to the Roman Church.在16世紀委員會第五次拉特蘭( 1512年至1517年)和理事會的遄達( 1545年至1563年)被稱為迎接挑戰的羅馬教會。 In the modern period the papacy has convened two councils nearly a century apart, Vatican I (1869-70) and Vatican II (1962-65).在現代時期,教皇已召開了兩次理事會除了近一個世紀以來,梵蒂岡口( 1869至1870年)和梵二( 1962至1965年) 。

DA Rausch大勞施
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)


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