Conscience良心

General Information 一般信息

Conscience is the awareness that an action conforms to or is contrary to one's standards of right and wrong (Acts 23:1; 1Tim 1:5; Heb. 13:18). Important New Testament passages that deal with conscience are Rom.良心是認識到行動符合或違背人的標準的正確和錯誤的(使徒23時01分; 1Tim 1:5 ;希伯來。十三點18 ) 。重要新約全書通道處理良知是光盤。 2:14,15 and 1Cor. 2:14,15和1Cor 。 8:10. 8:10 。 The New Testament stresses the need of having a good conscience toward God.新約強調,需要有一個有良知的上帝。


Con'science

General Information 一般信息

Conscience is the capacity for moral judgment (moral awareness).良知的能力,道德判斷(道德認識) 。 Evidence of appeals to conscience to determine right from wrong date from ancient times. Such appeals have been adopted by all religious traditions, in which conscience is always related to the acceptance of the divine will.證據呼籲良知,以確定對錯日期從遠古時代。 這種呼籲已通過所有的宗教傳統,在這種良知始終是有關接受了天主。 As such, conscience has been explained popularly as the voice of God inwardly directing a person to do right. 因此,良心已普遍解釋為上帝的聲音,一個人內心導演做的權利。

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Conscience has been variously explained by philosophers.良心已不同解釋的哲學家。 In one conception, conscience is a kind of intuitive perception.在一個概念,良心是一種直觀的感受。 Francis Hutcheson and the 3d earl of Shaftesbury, for example, thought conscience could be described as a moral sense, an intuitive faculty that operates through feelings of right and wrong.弗蘭西斯哈奇森和三維沙夫茨伯里伯爵,例如,思想,良心可被認為是一種道德意義上說,教師是一個直觀的感受是通過正確和錯誤的。 In another conception, conscience is reason applied to moral principles.在另一概念,良心的理由適用於道德原則。 Philosophers such as Samuel Clarke and Richard Price proposed that conscience be explained as a kind of reasoning process that makes it possible to distinguish what is right from what is wrong.哲學家如塞繆爾克拉克和理查德價格提議,良心被解釋為一種推理過程,使我們能夠區分什麼是正確的,什麼是錯的。 Proponents of Empiricism have suggested that conscience is the cumulative and subjective inference from past experience giving direction to the choices made by an individual.經驗主義的倡導者認為,良知是累積性的,主觀的推理從過去的經驗指導作出的選擇是個人。

A widely accepted explanation of conscience stems from the depth psychology of Sigmund Freud, according to which a form of conscience, the Superego, is a product of the unconscious activity of the underlying instinctive reality. Some psychologists have identified conscience with an expression of values or guilt feelings.被廣泛接受的解釋源於良心的深度心理學弗洛伊德,其中一種形式的良心,是超我,是一種產品的無意識活動的基本本能現實。一些心理學家發現良心的價值或表達內疚的感情。 Others regard conscience as learned reaction to stimuli.其他方面的經驗教訓良心反應刺激。 One of the tasks of Ethics is to determine the nature and function of conscience and to explain why divergence exists both within and between cultures in what conscience says one must do.的任務之一是確定道德的性質和功能的良知,並解釋為什麼內部存在分歧和不同文化之間在說什麼良心的一個必須做的事。

Richard H. Popkin理查德金

Bibliography 參考書目
Bier, WC, ed., Conscience: Its Freedom and Limitations (1971); Carmody, J., Reexamining Conscience (1982); Kroy, Michael, The Conscience: A Structural Theory (1974); Nelson, C. Ellis, ed., Conscience: Theological and Psychological Perspective (1973); Reik, Theodor, Myth and Guilt (1970); Stuart, Grace, Conscience and Reason (1951).比埃爾,廁所,教育署。 ,良心:自由和限制( 1971年) ;卡莫迪,學者,重新審視良心( 1982年) ; Kroy ,邁克爾,良知:一個結構理論( 1974年) ;納爾遜角埃利斯,教育署。 ,良心:神學和心理透視( 1973年) ; Reik ,西奧多,神話和罪責( 1970年) ;斯圖爾特,格雷斯,良心和理性( 1951年) 。


Conscience良心

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Conscience is that faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct.良心是教師的思想,或先天是非感,使我們法官的品德的人的行為。 It is common to all men.這是所有男人。 Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall (John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Rom. 2:15).像我們所有其他院系,已扭曲的秋季(約16:2 ;行為26:9 ;光盤。 2:15 ) 。 It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15), and "seared" (1 Tim. 4:2).這是講的是“玷污” (提圖斯1:15 ) ,和“烙印” ( 1蒂姆。四點02分) 。 A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16; Rom. 9:1; 2 Cor. 1:12; 1 Tim. 1:5, 19; 1 Pet. 3:21). “良心無效的罪行” ,是為了尋求和培育(使徒24:16 ;光盤。 9:1 ; 2心病。 1:12 ; 1蒂姆。 1點05分, 19 ;彼前。 3時21分) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Conscience良心

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word is derived from the Latin conscientia, which is a compound of the preposition con and scio, meaning "to know together," "joint knowledge with others," "the knowledge we share with another."這個詞源於拉丁文conscientia ,這是一個複合的介詞節能和國務院,意思是“知道在一起” , “共同的知識與他人” , “我們的知識共享是另一套。 ” It stems from the same root as consciousness, which means "awareness of." Conscience is an awareness restricted to the moral sphere.它源於同根的意識,這意味著“認識。 ”良心是一種認識僅限於道德領域。 It is a moral awareness.這是一個道義上的認識。 The Greek equivalent in the NT is syneidesis, a compound of syn, "together," and eidenai, "to know," that is, to know together with, to have common knowledge together with someone.希臘相當於在NT是syneidesis ,一種化合物的合成, “在一起” ,並eidenai , “知道” ,也就是知道連同,有共同的知識與某人。 The German Gewissen has the same meaning.德國Gewissen具有相同含義。 The prefix ge expresses a collective idea, the "together with," and wissen is "to know."前綴表示葛集體理念, “同”和知識是“知道。 ”

In the Bible在聖經

The word "conscience" does not appear in the OT. However, the idea is well known and is expressed by the term "heart." It appears at the very dawn of human history as a sense of guilt with Adam and Eve after the fall.用“良心”沒有出現在加時賽。然而,這個想法是眾所周知的,而且是這個詞所表示的“心臟” 。看來在非常曙光作為人類歷史上的罪惡感與亞當和夏娃的陷落後。 We read of David that his heart smote him (II Sam. 24:10).我們讀到的大衛,他的心臟smote他(二山姆。 24:10 ) 。 Jobs says: "My heart shall not reproach me" (Job 27:6).喬布斯說: “我的心不應責備我” (約伯記27:6 ) 。 And Pss.和症狀評分。 32:1-5 and 51:1-9 are the cries of anguish of an aroused conscience. 32:1-5和51:1-9是痛苦的呼聲,一個引起良知。

The Babylonians, like the Hebrews, identified conscience with the heart.巴比倫人,如猶太人,確定良心的心。 The Egyptians had no specific word for conscience but recognized its authority, as is evident from the Book of the Dead.埃及人沒有具體詞的良知,但認識到它的權威,就證明了這一點從書中的死者。 The early Greeks and Romans personified conscience and depicted it as fiendish female demons called Erinyes and Furies respectively.早期的希臘人和羅馬人的良知和人格化描述它作為fiendish女魔要求Erinyes和復仇女神分別。

The word syneidesis or "conscience" appears thirty times in the NT, nineteen times in the writings of Paul, five times in Hebrews, three times in the letters of Peter, twice in Acts, and once in the Gospel of John, although the correctness of the latter reading (8:9) has been questioned.這個詞syneidesis或“良心”出現30次在新界, 19倍的著作保羅,在希伯來人的5倍, 3倍的信中的彼得,兩次行為,一旦在約翰福音,但正確性後者讀( 8時09 )受到了質疑。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)


Conscience良心

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. THE NAME一,名稱

In English we have done with a Latin word what neither the Latins nor the French have done: we have doubled the term, making "conscience" stand for the moral department and leaving "consciousness" for the universal field of objects about which we become aware.在英文我們已經做了一個拉丁詞既不是拉丁人什麼也不是法國人做:我們已經增加了一倍的任期,讓“良心”的道德立場部和離開“意識”普遍外地的物體是我們認識。 In Cicero we have to depend upon the context for the specific limitation to the ethical area, as in the sentence: "mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo" (Att., XII, xxviii, 2).在西塞羅我們必須取決於方面的具體限制的道德領域,如在一句: “千年生態系統評估mihi conscientia pluris市盈率華富Omnium公司sermo ” ( Att. ,十二,二十八, 2 ) 。 Sir W. Hamilton has discussed how far we can be said to be conscious of the outer objects which we know, and how far "consciousness" ought to be held a term restricted to states of self or self-consciousness.美國哈密爾頓爵士討論了多遠,我們可以說是有意識的外部物體,我們知道的程度,以及“意識”應該舉行任期限制的國家的自我或自我意識。 (See Thiele, Die Philosophie des Selbstbewusstseins, Berlin, 1895.) In the two words Bewusstsein and Gewissen the Germans have made a serviceable distinction answering to our "consciousness" and "conscience". (見蒂勒,模具哲學Selbstbewusstseins ,柏林, 1895年。 )在這兩個詞的意識和Gewissen德國作出了可用的區別回答我們的“意識”和“良心” 。 The ancients mostly neglected such a discrimination.古人大多忽略這種歧視。 The Greeks often used phronesis where we should use "conscience", but the two terms are far from coincident.希臘人常用phronesis ,我們應該使用“良心” ,但是這兩個條件還遠遠沒有同步。 They also used suneidesis, which occurs repeatedly for the purpose in hand both in the Old and the New Testament.他們還利用suneidesis ,其中反复出現的目的,一方面在老和新約。 The Hebrews had no formal psychology, though Delitzsch has endeavoured to find one in Scripture. There the heart often stands for conscience.希伯來人沒有正式的心理,但德里一直努力找到一個在聖經。有心臟往往代表良知。

II.二。 ORIGIN OF CONSCIENCE IN THE RACE AND IN THE INDIVIDUAL成因良知比賽,在個人

Of anthropologists some do and some do not accept the Biblical account of man's origin; and the former class, admitting that Adam's descendants might soon have lost the traces of their higher descent, are willing to hear, with no pledge of endorsing, what the latter class have to say on the assumption of the human development even from an animal ancestry, and on the further assumption that in the use of evidences they may neglect sequence of time and place.人類學家和一些做一些不接受聖經到人的起源和前級,承認亞當的後代可能很快失去了其較高的痕跡後裔,都願意聽到的,沒有保證的贊同,後者是什麼階級不得不說的假設人類發展甚至是從一種動物的祖先,並就進一步假設,即在使用的證據,他們可能會忽視序列的時間和地點。 It is not maintained by any serious student that the Darwinian pedigree is certainly accurate: it has the value of a diagram giving some notion of the lines along which forces are supposed to have acted.這是不能維持任何嚴重的學生說,達爾文的血統當然是準確的:它的價值給予一些概念圖的線沿部隊理應採取行動。 Not, then, as accepting for fact, but as using it for a very limited purpose, we may give a characteristic sketch of ethical development as suggested in the last chapter of Dr. LT Hobhouse's "Morals in Evolution".沒有,那麼,作為接受的事實,但它的使用非常有限的目的,我們可能會一個特點素描的道德發展中的建議的最後一章博士的LT霍布豪斯的“道德的進化” 。 It is a conjectural story, very like what other anthropologists offer for what it is worth and not for fully certified science. Ethics is conduct or regulated life; and regulation has a crude beginning in the lowest animal life as a response to stimulus, as reflex action, as useful adaptation to environment.這是一個猜測的故事,非常喜歡其他人類學家提供的是什麼價值,而不是為了充分證明的科學。倫理規範的行為或生活;和管理,擁有原油從最低動物生命作為回應刺激,因為反射行動,是有益的適應環境。 Thus the amoeba doubles itself round its food in the water and lives; it propagates by self-division.因此,阿米巴雙打比賽本身的食品在水和生命,它傳播的自我分裂。 At another stage in the animal series we find blind impulses for the benefit of life and its propagation taking a more complex shape, until something like instinctive purpose is displayed. Useful actions are performed, not apparently pleasurable in themselves, yet with good in the sequel which cannot have been foreseen.在另一個階段中,我們發現動物系列盲目衝動的利益,生命和其傳播到更複雜的形狀,直到類似本能的目的是顯示。有益的行動是執行,而不是在自己顯然愉快,但具有良好的續集不能預見。 The care of the animal for its young, the provision for the need of its future offspring is a kind of foreshadowed sense of duty.照顧動物的年輕人,提供了必要的後代是一種預示責任感。 St. Thomas is bold to follow the terminology of Roman lawyers, and to assert a sort of morality in the pairing and the propagating of the higher animals: "ius naturale est quod natura omnia animalia docuit".聖托馬斯是大膽遵循的術語羅馬律師,並聲稱某種道德的配對和繁殖的高等動物: “曼月樂®自然市盈率狴自然OMNIA公司動物界docuit ” 。 (It is the natural law which nature has taught all animals.--"In IV Sent.", dist. xxxiii, a. 1, art. 4.) Customs are formed under the pressures and the interactions of actual living. (這是自然法的性質已經告訴所有動物.-- “在四寄件。 ”區。三十三,答: 1 ,藝術。 4 。 )海關下形成的壓力和相互作用的實際生活水平。 they are fixed by heredity, and they await the analysis and the improvements of nascent reason.它們是固定的遺傳,他們等待的分析和改進新的理由。 With the advent of man, in his rudest state--however he came to be in that state, whether by ascent or descent--there dawns a conscience, which, in the development theory, will have to pass through many stages.隨著男子,在他的粗暴國家-但是,他將在該國,無論是上升或後裔-有良知的到來,而在發展理論,將不得不通過許多階段。 At first its categories of right and wrong are in a very fluid condition, keeping no fixed form, and easily intermixing, as in the chaos of a child's dreams, fancies, illusions, and fictions.起初,其類別的正確和錯誤的是在一個極不穩定的條件,沒有固定的形式保存,並輕鬆地混合,在混亂的一個孩子的夢想,幻想,幻想,小說。 The requirements of social life, which becomes the great moralizer of social action, are continually changing, and with them ethics varies its adaptations.的要求,社會生活,成為偉大的moralizer的社會行動,是不斷變化的,並與他們不同的道德適應。 As society advances, its ethics improves.隨著社會進步,提高其職業道德。 "The lines on which custom is formed are determined in each society by the pressures, the thousand interactions of those forces of individual character and social relationship, which never cease remoulding until they have made men's loves and hates, their hopes and fears for themselves and their children, their dread of unseen agencies, their jealousies, their resentments, their antipathies, their sociability and dim sense of mutual dependence all their qualities good and bad, selfish and sympathetic, social and anti-social." “該線路上形成的習慣是有決心在每一個社會的壓力, 1000互動的那些勢力的個性和社會的關係,從來沒有停止改造,直到他們取得了男子的愛和恨,他們的希望和恐懼,為自己他們的子女,他們害怕看不見的機構,他們的嫉妒,他們的怨恨,他們antipathies ,他們的社交和暗淡的感覺相互依存所有素質好的和壞的,自私和同情,社會和反社會的。 “ (Op. cit., Vol. II, p. 262.) The grasp of experience widens and power of analysis increases, till, in a people like the Greeks, we come upon thinkers who can distinctly reflect on human conduct, and can put in practice the gnothi seauton (know thyself), so that henceforth the method of ethics is secured for all times, with indefinite scope left for its better and better application. (同前。 ,第二卷。二,第262頁。 )掌握的經驗,擴大和增加功率的分析,到,在一個這樣的人,希臘人,我們來到思想家誰可以明顯反映出對人的行為,可以將在實踐中gnothi seauton (認識你自己) ,所以,從今以後,方法,道德是有擔保的所有時間,範圍與無限期離開其更好的應用。 "Here we have reached the level of philosophical or spiritual religions, systems which seek to concentrate all experience in one focus, and to illuminate all morality from one centre, thought, as ever, becoming more comprehensive as it becomes more explicit". “在這裡,我們已經達到了一級的哲學或精神宗教,制度,力求集中所有的經驗的一個重點,並照亮所有道德從一個中心,思想,為以往任何時候都變得更加全面,更加明確” 。 (ibid., p. 266.) (同上,第266頁。 )

What is said of the race is applied to the individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty.什麼是說的比賽是適用於個人,在他獲得的道德習慣規則的性質的認識不同的原則和理想,所有趨於統一或最終目標,這為單純的進化論是非常不確定的左側,但基督教有足夠的定義,一個完美的擁有上帝的知識和愛,沒有應急的進一步失誤稅款。 To come to the fullness of knowledge possible in this world is for the individual a process of growth.來充實知識可能在這個世界上,是對個人成長的過程。 The brain at first has not the organization which would enable it to be the instrument of rational thought: probably it is a necessity of our mind's nature that we should not start with the fully formed brain but that the first elements of knowledge should be gathered with the gradations of the developing structure.的大腦已經不是第一次組織這將使它能夠成為工具理性思考:也許這是一個需要我們銘記的性質,我們不應該開始的完全形成,但腦的第一要素的知識應該收集與該層次的發展結構。 In the morally good family the child slowly learns right conduct by imitation, by instruction, by sanction in the way of rewards and punishments.在道義上是良好的家庭的孩子慢慢地學會正確的行為模仿的指示,通過制裁的方式獎懲。 Bain exaggerates the predominance of the last named element as the source whence the sense of obligation comes, and therein he is like Shaftesbury (Inquiry, II, n. 1), who sees in conscience only the reprover.貝恩誇大優勢最後命名元素的來源何處義務感來了,和他一樣有沙夫茨伯里(調查,二,注1 ) ,誰看到良心只有reprover 。 This view is favoured also by Carlyle in his "Essay on Characteristics", and by Dr. Mackenzie in his "Manual of Ethics" (3rd ed., III, 14), where we read: "I should prefer to say simply that conscience is a feeling of pain accompanying and resulting from our non-conformity to principle."這種觀點也贊成由凱雷在他的“散文的特色” ,並通過博士麥肯齊在他的“道德手冊” (第3版。 ,三, 14 ) ,我們改為: “我喜歡簡單地說,良心是一種感覺疼痛,並伴隨產生的不符合的原則。 “ Newman also has put the stress on the reproving office of conscience.紐曼也將強調reproving辦公室的良知。 Carlyle says we should not observe that we had a conscience if we had never offended.卡萊爾說,我們不應該看到,我們有良知的,如果我們從未冒犯。 Green thinks that ethical theory is mostly of negative use for conduct.格林認為,主要是道德理論的負面使用的行為。 (Prolegomena to Ethics, IV, 1.) It is better to keep in view both sides of the truth and say that the mind ethically developed comes to a sense of satisfaction in right doing and of dissatisfaction in wrongdoing, and that the rewards and the punishments judiciously assigned to the young have for their purpose, as Aristotle puts it, to teach the teachable how to find pleasure in what ought to please and displeasure in what ought to displease. (緒論道德,四, 1 。 )這是更好地保持鑑於雙方的真相和說,考慮到倫理發展到了成就感,並在這樣做的權利的行為的不滿,而且獎勵和懲罰明智分配給年輕人有他們的目的,如亞里士多德所說的那樣,教教如何找到什麼高興地應和不滿,請在什麼應該得罪。 The immature mind must be given external sanctions before it can reach the inward.未成熟銘記必須考慮外部制裁,然後才能達到抵港。 Its earliest glimmering of duty cannot be clear light: it begins by distinguishing conduct as nice or as nasty and naughty: as approved or disapproved by parents and teachers, behind whom in a dim way stands the oft-mentioned God, conceived, not only in an anthropomorphic, but in a nepiomorphic way, not correct yet more correct than Caliban's speculations about Setebos.最早閃亮的責任不能明確輕:它一開始就很好區分行為或骯髒和頑皮:經批准或拒絕的家長和教師,在後面的人站在昏暗的方式經常提到上帝,構思,不僅在一種擬人化,但在nepiomorphic方式,不正確還比凱更正確的猜測, Setebos 。 The perception of sin in the genuine sense is gradually formed until the age which we roughly designate as the seventh year, and henceforth the agent enters upon the awful career of responsibility according to the dictates of conscience.黃大仙的看法的真正的感覺是逐漸形成的年齡之前,我們大約指定的第七個年頭,從今以後,代理人進入職業生涯後,可怕的責任根據要求的良知。 On grounds not ethical but scholastically theological, St. Thomas explains a theory that the unbaptized person at the dawn of reason goes through a first crisis in moral discrimination which turns simply on the acceptance or rejection of God, and entails mortal sin in case of failure.沒有道德的理由,但scholastically神學,聖托馬斯的理論解釋的unbaptized人的黎明原因經過第一次危機的道德歧視變成簡單的接受或拒絕上帝,需要彌天大罪的情況下失敗。 (I-II:89:6) (一至二: 89:6 )

III.三。 WHAT CONSCIENCE IS IN THE SOUL OF MAN?什麼良知的靈魂中的人嗎?

It is often a good maxim not to mind for a time how a thing came to be, but to see what it actually is.它往往是一個很好的座右銘沒有想到如何在一段時間內的事來,但看看它實際上是。 To do so in regard to conscience before we take up the history of philosophy in its regard is wise policy, for it will give us some clear doctrine upon which to lay hold, while we travel through a region perplexed by much confusion of thought.這樣做,關於良知採取行動之前,我們的歷史,哲學方面是其明智的政策,因為它將使我們一些明確的原則賴以奠定舉行,雖然我們穿過一個地區困惑許多混亂的思想。 The following points are cardinal:以下幾點是紅衣主教:

The natural conscience is no distinct faculty, but the one intellect of a man inasmuch as it considers right and wrong in conduct, aided meanwhile by a good will, by the use of the emotions, by the practical experience of living, and by all external helps that are to the purpose.自然良心是沒有明顯的教職,但一個理智的人,因為它認為正確和錯誤的行為,同時通過資助一個良好的意願,所使用的情緒,由實踐經驗的生活,和所有外部幫助是要達到的目的。

The natural conscience of the Christian is known by him to act not alone, but under the enlightenment and the impulse derived from revelation and grace in a strictly supernatural order.自然良心基督教是由他的行為並不孤單,但根據我們的啟示和衝動來自啟示和寬限期,在嚴格超自然秩序。

As to the order of nature, which does not exist but which might have existed, St.至於秩序的性質,它不存在,但可能存在,聖 Thomas (I-II:109:3) teaches that both for the knowledge of God and for the knowledge of moral duty, men such as we are would require some assistance from God to make their knowledge sufficiently extensive, clear, constant, effective, and relatively adequate; and especially to put it within reach of those who are much engrossed with the cares of material life.托馬斯(一至二: 109:3 )教導我們,無論對上帝的知識和對知識的道義上的責任,男子如我們需要一些援助上帝使他們的知識不夠廣泛,明確的,一貫的,有效的,和相對充足; ,尤其是將其付諸實現的人誰更全神貫注與關心的物質生活。 It would be absurd to suppose that in the order of nature God could be debarred from any revelation of Himself, and would leave Himself to be searched for quite irresponsively.這將是荒謬的假設,在該命令的性質上帝可能被禁止任何啟示自己和將離開自己被搜查相當irresponsively 。

Being a practical thing, conscience depends in large measure for its correctness upon the good use of it and on proper care taken to heed its deliverances, cultivate its powers, and frustrate its enemies. Even where due diligence is employed conscience will err sometimes, but its inculpable mistakes will be admitted by God to be not blameworthy.作為一個實際的事情,良心在很大程度上取決於其正確性時善用資訊科技和適當的照顧採取聽取其deliverances ,培養其權力,並阻礙其敵人。即使盡職受僱於良心有時會犯錯,但其inculpable錯誤將被接納上帝是不會受責備。 These are so many principles needed to steady us as we tread some of the ways of ethical history, where pitfalls are many.這些都是需要這麼多的原則,以穩定我們在胎面的一些方式的道德的歷史,那裡有很多陷阱。

IV.四。 THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIENCE CONSIDERED HISTORICALLY哲學的良心具歷史

(1) In pre-Christian times ( 1 )前基督教時代

The earliest written testimonies that we can consult tell us of recognized principles in morals, and if we confine our attention to the good which we find and neglect for the present the inconstancy and the admixture of many evils, we shall experience a satisfaction in the history.最早的書面證詞,我們可以協商,告訴我們的公認的原則在道德,如果我們談我們的注意,好,我們發現和忽視本的易變和外加劑的許多罪惡,我們將體驗到滿意的歷史。 The Persians stood for virtue against vice in their support of Ahura Mazda against Ahriman; and it was an excellence of theirs to rise above "independent ethics" to the conception of God as the rewarder and the punisher.波斯人主張打擊賣淫憑藉其支持胡馬自達對Ahriman ;這是一個優秀的他們超越“獨立道德”的概念,上帝作為rewarder和懲罰者。 They even touched the doctrine of Christ's saying, "What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?"他們甚至感動的理論基督說: “這有什麼doth利潤一名男子,如果他贏得整個世界,失去自己的靈魂? ” when to the question, what is the worth of the whole creation displayed before us, the Zend-Avesta has the reply: "the man therein who is delivered from evil in thought, word, and deed: he is the most valuable object on earth."的問題時,什麼是價值創造的整體展示在我們面前了Zend -阿維斯塔的答复: “該名男子有誰交付邪惡思想,文字,和行動:他是最有價值的物體在地球上。 “ Here conscience was clearly enlightened.這裡良心顯然是明智的。 Of the moral virtues among the Persians truthfulness was conspicuous.道德美德之間的波斯人真實性是顯眼。 Herodotus says that the youth were taught "to ride and shoot with the bow", and "to speak the truth".希羅多德說,青年教授“騎和拍攝弓”和“說實話” 。 The unveracious Greeks, who admired the wiles of an Odysseus, were surprised at Persian veracity (Herodotus, I, 136, 138); and it may be that Herodotus is not fair on this head to Darius (III, 72).該unveracious希臘人,誰欽佩維爾斯的奧德修斯,驚訝波斯真實性(希羅多德,我, 136 , 138 ) ;和可能是希羅多德是不公平的關於這個頭大流士(三72 ) 。 The Hindus in the Vedas do not rise high, but in Brahminism there is something more spiritual, and still more in the Buddhist reform on its best side, considered apart from the pessimistic view of life upon which its false asceticism was grounded.印度教徒在吠陀沒有上升很高,但在Brahminism有一些更多的精神,更在佛教改革了最好的方面,認為除了悲觀看法的生命,其虛假的禁慾主義是停飛。 Buddhism had ten prohibitive commandments: three concerning the body, forbidding murder, theft, and unchastity; four concerning speech, forbidding lying, slander, abusive language, and vain conversation; and three concerning the mind internally, covetousness, malicious thoughts, and the doubting spirit.佛教有10望而卻步誡命:三個關於機構,禁止謀殺,盜竊和不貞潔;四個有關講話,禁止撒謊,誹謗,辱罵性語言,並妄圖談話;和三個涉及到國內,貪婪,惡毒的想法,並懷疑精神。 The Egyptians show the workings of conscience.埃及人查看的運作良知。 In the "Book of the Dead" we find an examination of conscience, or rather profession of innocence, before the Supreme Judge after death.在“書的死亡” ,我們找到一個考試的良心,或者說專業無罪推定,在最高法院法官後死亡。 Two confessions are given enunciating most of the virtues (chap. cxxv): reverence for God; duties to the dead; charity to neighbours; duties of superiors and subjects; care for human life and limb; chastity, honesty, truthfulness, and avoidance of slander; freedom from covetousness.兩個口供給予闡明大多數美德(第一章第CXXV號) :敬畏上帝;職責死亡;慈善鄰國;職責上級和科目;照顧人的生命和肢體;貞節,誠實,真誠,和避免誹謗;免於貪婪。 The Assyro-Babylonian monuments offer us many items on the favourable side; nor could the people whence issued the Code of Hammurabi, at a date anterior to the Mosaic legislation by perhaps seven hundred years, be ethically undeveloped.亞述,巴比倫古蹟為我們提供了許多項目的有利方面,也可以人民何處發表了漢謨拉比法典,日期前的馬賽克立法或許七百年,是道義上欠發達。 If the Code of Hammurabi has no precepts of reverence to God corresponding with the first three Commandments of the Mosaic Law, at least its preface contains a recognition of God's supremacy.如果漢謨拉比法典沒有戒律敬畏上帝相應的頭三個誡命的摩西律法,至少在其前言中承認上帝的至高無上。 In China Confucius (c. 500 BC), in connection with an idea of heaven, delivered a high morality; and Mencius (c. 300 BC) developed this code of uprightness and benevolence as "Heaven's appointment".在中國孔子(約公元前500 ) ,與天上的想法,發表了高尚的道德追求;和孟子(約公元前300年)制定本守則的浩然正氣和善為“天堂的任命” 。 Greek ethics began to pass from its gnomic condition when Socrates fixed attention on the gnothi seauton in the interests of moral reflection.希臘倫理開始通過其gnomic條件時,蘇格拉底固定注意gnothi seauton的利益的道德反思。 Soon followed Aristotle, who put the science on a lasting basis, with the great drawback of neglecting the theistic side and consequently the full doctrine of obligation.隨後亞里士多德,誰把科學在持久的基礎上,與偉大的缺點,忽略了有神論一方,因此充分的理論義務。 Neither for "obligation" nor for "conscience" had the Greeks a fixed term.無論是對“義務” ,也為“良心”了希臘人固定期限。 Still the pleasures of a good conscience and the pains of an evil one were well set forth in the fragments collected by Stobaeus peri tou suneidotos.仍然是快樂的一個很好的良知和痛苦的一個邪惡的人們以及中規定的碎片收集斯托貝斯圍頭suneidotos 。 Penandros, asked what was true freedom, answered: "a good conscience" (Gaisford's Stobaeus, vol. I, p. 429). Penandros ,問什麼是真正的自由,回答說: “一個良好的良心” ( Gaisford的斯托貝斯,第二卷。一,第429頁) 。

(2) In the Christian Fathers ( 2 )在基督教教父

The patristic treatment of ethics joined together Holy Scripture and the classical authors of paganism; no system was reached, but each Father did what was characteristic.教父治療道德共同聖經和古典作家的異教;沒有系統達成,但每個父親是什麼特點。 Tertullian was a lawyer and spoke in legal terms: especially his Montanism urged him to inquire which were the mortal sins, and thus he started for future investigators a good line of inquiry.特土良是一名律師,並以法律術語:尤其是他的孟他努敦促他詢問這是致命的罪過,因此他開始為未來的一個很好的在線調查調查。 Clement of Alexandria was allegoric and mystic: a combiner of Orientalism, Hellenism, Judaism, and Christianity in their bearing on the several virtues and vices.克萊門特亞歷山大是諷喻和神秘:一種合成的東方,希臘,猶太教和基督教的影響的一些美德和惡習。 The apologists, in defending the Christian character, dwelt on the marks of ethical conduct.辯護士,捍衛基督教性質,談到對馬克的道德行為。 St. Justin attributed this excellence to the Divine Logos, and thought that to Him, through Moses, the pagan philosophers were indebted (Apol., I, xliv).聖賈斯汀歸功於卓越的神聖標誌,並認為他說,通過摩西,異教徒的哲學家是負債( Apol. ,我XLIV )號決議。 Similarly Origen accounted for pre-Christian examples of Christian virtue.同樣奧利佔前基督教例子基督教美德。 As a Roman skilled in legal administration St. Ambrose was largely guided by Latin versions of Greek ethics, as is very well illustrated by his imitation in style of Cicero's "De Officiis", which he made the title of his own work.作為一個熟練的羅馬聖安布羅斯依法行政的指導下,主要是拉丁美洲版本的希臘職業道德,這是非常清楚說明了他的模仿風格西塞羅的“者Officiis ” ,他取得冠軍,他自己的工作。 He discusses honestum et utile (I, ix); decorum, or to prepon as exhibited in Holy Scripture (x); various degrees of goodness, mediocre and perfect, in connection with the text, "if thou wilt be perfect" (xi); the passions of hot youth (xvii).他討論honestum等有用(一,九) ;禮儀,或prepon作為展示聖經( 10 ) ;不同程度的善良,平庸和完善,結合文字, “如果你的病是完美的” (十一) ;情慾熱青年(十七) 。

Subsequent chapters dwell on the various virtues, as fortitude in war and its allied quality, courage in martyrdom (xl, xli).以後各章詳細闡述了各種美德,作為戰爭中的堅韌和其盟國的品質,勇氣,犧牲(儀, XLI )號決議。 The second book opens with a discussion of beatitude, and then returns to the different virtues.開放的第二本書的討論beatitude ,然後返回到不同的美德。 It is the pupil of St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, who is, perhaps, the most important of the Fathers in the development of the Christian doctrine of conscience, not so much on account of his frequent discourses about moral subjects, as because of the Platonism which he drank in before his conversion, and afterwards got rid of only by degrees.這是學生的聖安布羅斯,聖奧古斯丁,誰是,也許,最重要的父親在發展基督教教義的良心,沒有這麼多的帳戶,他經常論述道德科目,因為在柏拉圖在他之前,他喝的轉換,然後擺脫只有度。 The abiding result to the Scholastic system was that many writers traced their ethics and theology more or less to innate ideas, or innate dispositions, or Divine illuminations, after the example of St. Augustine.始終不渝結果的學術制度是,許多作家追查他們的職業道德和神學或多或少固有的想法,或先天處分,或神聖的燈飾,在聖奧古斯丁的例子。 Even in St. Thomas, who was so distinctly an Aristotelean empiricist, some fancy that they detect occasional remnants of Augustinianism on its Platonic side. Before leaving the Fathers we may mention St. Basil as one who illustrates a theorizing attitude.即使在聖托馬斯,誰是如此明顯的Aristotelean經驗主義,一些幻想,他們偶然發現殘留物的奧古斯丁柏拉圖在其一側。臨行前,我們的父輩可能提到之一聖巴茲爾誰說明了理論的態度。 He was sound enough in recognizing sin to be graver and less grave; yet in the stress of argument against some persons who seemed to admit only the worst offenses against God to be real sins, he ventured without approving of Stoic doctrine, to point out a sort of equality in all sin, so far as all sin is a disobedience to God (Hom. de Justitia Dei, v-viii).他是不夠健全的認識是嚴重的罪過不嚴重,但在壓力的論點誰對一些人似乎只允許最嚴重的罪行是對上帝真正的罪過,他大膽而批准的斯多葛學說,指出了一種平等的一切罪惡,迄今所有的罪是不服從上帝( Hom.日正義上帝,第五至第八) 。 Later Abelard and recently Dr. Schell abused this suggestion.後來亞伯拉德和夏偉博士最近濫用這一建議。 But it has had no influence in any way like that of St. Augustine's Platonism, of which a specimen may be seen in St. Bonaventure, when he is treating precisely of conscience, in a passage very useful as shedding light on a subsequent part of this article. Some habits, he says, are acquired, some innate as regards knowledge of singulars and knowledge of universals.但它沒有以任何方式影響一樣,聖奧古斯丁的柏拉圖,其中標本可以看出聖文德,當時他是治療精確的良心,在一段非常有用的揭示以後的部分本條。一些習慣,他說,被收購,一些先天至於知識singulars和知識的共性。 "Quum enim ad cognitionem duo concurrant necessario, videlicet praesentia cognoscibilis et lumen quo mediante de illo judicamus, habitus cognoscitivi sunt quodammodo nobis innati ratione luminis animo inditi; sunt etiam acquisiti ratione speciei"--"For as two things necessarily concur for cognition, namely, the presence of something cognoscible, and the light by which we judge concerning it, cognoscitive habits are in a certain sense innate, by reason of the light wherewith the mind is endowed; and they are also acquired, by reason of the species." “ Quum enim廣告cognitionem鐸concurrant necessario ,換言之praesentia cognoscibilis等流明現狀mediante日illo judicamus ,習性cognoscitivi必須遵守quodammodo諾比斯innati理由luminis animo inditi ;必須遵守etiam acquisiti理由speciei ” - “作為兩件事一定同意的認知,即,在場的一些cognoscible ,並根據其中關於它我們判斷, cognoscitive習慣是在一定意義上天生的,因鑑於wherewith精神賦予; ,他們還獲得,由於該物種。 “ ("Comment. in II Lib. Sent.", dist. xxxix, art. 1, Q. ii. Cf. St. Thomas, "De Veritate", Q. xi, art. 1: "Principia dicuntur innata quae statim lumine intellectus agentis cognoscuntur per species a sensibus abstractas".--Principles are called innate when they are known at once by the light of the active intellect through the species abstracted from the senses.) Then comes the very noticeable and easily misunderstood addition a little later: "si quae sunt cognoscibilia per sui essentiam, non per speciem, respectu talium poterit dici conscientia esse habitus simpliciter innatus, utpote respectu upote respectu hujus quod est Deum amare et timere; Deus enim non cognoscitur per similitudinem a sensu, immo `Dei notitia naturaliter est nobis inserta', sicut dicit Augustinus"--"if there are some things cognoscible through their very essence and not through the species, conscience, with regard to such things, may be called a habit simply innate, as, for example, with regard to loving and serving God; for God is not known by sense through an image; rather, 'the knowledge of God is implanted in us by nature', as Augustine says" ("In Joan.", Tract. cvi, n. 4; "Confess.", X, xx, xxix; "De Lib. Arbitr.", I, xiv, xxxi; "De Mor. Eccl.", iii, iv; "De Trin.", XIII, iii, vi; "Joan. Dam. de Fide", I, i, iii). ( “評論。在二庫。寄件。 ”區。三十九,藝術。 1 ,問:二。參看。聖托馬斯, “德Veritate ” ,問:喜,藝術。 1 : “原理dicuntur innata quae statim lumine intellectus agentis cognoscuntur每物種1 sensibus abstractas “ .--原則被稱為天生當他們知道一次鑑於積極智慧的物種,通過抽象的感覺。 )其次,非常明顯和容易誤解除了有點遲: “四quae必須遵守cognoscibilia每穗essentiam ,非每speciem , respectu talium poterit dici conscientia存在習性絕對地innatus , utpote respectu upote respectu hujus狴市盈率Deum斯塔德邁爾等timere ;天主enim非cognoscitur每similitudinem一意義上, '上帝immo通知書naturaliter市盈率諾比斯inserta ' , sicut dicit奧古斯丁“ - ”如果有一些事情cognoscible通過他們的本質,而不是通過物種,良心,對於這種事情,可稱為一種習慣只是天生的,例如,與關於愛和服務上帝上帝不知道的常識,通過圖片,而是'的知識,上帝是植入我們的自然的,因為奧古斯丁說: “ ( ”在瓊。 “道。 CVI的,注4 , “坦白。 ”十,二十,第29屆“解放。 Arbitr 。 ”時,我,十四,三十一; “者莫爾。 Eccl 。 ” ,三,四“者草。 ”十三,三,六“瓊。大壩。日善意” ,我,我,三) 。 We must remember that St. Bonaventure is not only a theologian but also a mystic, supposing in man oculus carnis, oculus rationis and oculus contemplationis (the eye of the flesh, the eye of reason, and the eye of contemplation); and that he so seriously regards man's power to prove by arguments the existence of God as to devote his labour to explaining that logical conviction is consistent with faith in the same existence (Comm. in III Sent., dist. xxiv, art. 1, Q. iv).我們必須記住,聖文德不僅是一個神學家,但也是一個神秘的,假如在男子oculus carnis , oculus理性和oculus contemplationis (眼睛的肉體,眼睛的原因,和眼睛的沉思) ;並說,他如此嚴重關於人的權力的理由來證明上帝存在的,以他的勞動投入,以合乎邏輯的解釋是一致的信念與信心,同時存在( Comm.在三寄件。區。二十四,藝術。 1 ,問:四) 。 All these matters are highly significant for those who take up any thorough examination of the question as to what the Scholastics thought about man having a conscience by his very nature as a rational being.所有這些問題都是非常重要的人誰佔用任何徹底審查的問題是,什麼學術思想有良知的人,他本身的性質作為一個理性的。 The point recurs frequently in Scholastic literature, to which we must next turn.這一點經常復發的學術文獻中,我們必須接下來。

(3) In Scholastic times ( 3 )在學術倍

It will help to make intelligible the subtle and variable theories which follow, if it be premised that the Scholastics are apt to puzzle readers by mixing up with their philosophy of reason a real or apparent apriorism, which is called Augustinianism, Platonism, or Mysticism.這將有助於使可理解的微妙和可變的理論遵循,如果它為前提的學術很容易混合拼圖讀者與他們的哲學的原因,真正的或明顯的先驗論,這是所謂的奧古斯丁,柏拉圖,或神秘主義。

As a rule, to which Durandus with some others was an exception, the Schoolmen regarded created causes as unable to issue in any definite act unless applied or stimulated by God, the Prime Mover: whence came the Thomistic doctrine of proemotio physica even for the intellect and the will, and the simple concursus of the non-Thomists.作為一項規則,這與其他一些Durandus是一個例外,該Schoolmen視為創造原因無法在任何確定的問題採取行動,除非適用或刺激的上帝,原動機:何處出現了Thomistic理論proemotio物理學即使是智力和意願,並簡單地非Thomists 。

Furthermore they supposed some powers to be potential and passive, that is, to need a creative determinant received into them as their complement: of which kind a prominent example was the intellectus possibilis informed by the species intelligibilis, and another instance was in relation to conscience, the synteresis.此外,他們理應得到一些大國的潛力和被動,也就是需要一個創造性的決定因素收到到他們作為其補充:哪一類的一個突出的例子是intellectus possibilis通知物種intelligibilis ,和另一個例子是關於良心,該synteresis 。 (St. Thomas, De Verit., Q. xvi, art. 1, ad 13.) (聖托馬斯島,德Verit 。 ,問:十六,藝術。 1 ,廣告13 。 )

First principles or habits inherent in intellect and will were clearly traced by St. Thomas to an origin in experience and abstraction; but others spoke more ambiguously or even contradictorily; St. Thomas himself, in isolated passages, might seem to afford material for the priorist to utilize in favour of innate forms.第一原則或習慣所固有的智慧和意願,明確了聖托馬斯追查到原產地的經驗和抽象的;但其他以更加模糊,甚至自相矛盾;聖托馬斯本人,在偏僻的通道,似乎不起材料priorist利用贊成先天的形式。 But the Thomistic explanation of appetitus innatus, as contrasted with elicitus, saves the situation.但Thomistic解釋appetitus innatus ,作為對比elicitus ,保存狀況。

Abelard, in his "Ethics", or "Nosce Teipsum", does not plunge us into these depths, and yet he taught such an indwelling of the Holy Ghost in virtuous pagans as too unrestrictedly to make their virtues to be Christian.亞伯拉德,在他的“道德”或“ Nosce Teipsum ” ,沒有這些我們陷入深淵,但他教這樣一個留置的聖靈在良性異教徒過於不受限制地使它們的優點是基督徒。 He placed morality so much in the inward act that he denied the morality of the outward, and sin he placed not in the objectively disordered deed but in contempt for God, in which opinion he was imitated by Prof. Schell.他把道德這麼多的外來行為,他否認的道德外,並沒有罪過,他把無序的客觀行為,但在蔑視上帝,在這種見解,他模仿舍爾教授。 Moreover he opened a way to wrong opinions by calling free will "the free judgment about the will".此外,他開了一家以錯誤的意見,呼籲自由意志“的自由判斷的意願” 。 In his errors, however, he was not so wholly astray as careless reading might lead some to infer.在他的錯誤,但是,他並沒有因此完全誤入歧途小心閱讀可能會導致一些推斷。 It was with Alexander of Hales that discussions which some will regard as the tedious minutiae of Scholastic speculation began.這是亞歷山大的黑爾斯說,討論會方面的一些令人厭煩的細節學術投機開始。 The origin lay in the introduction from St. Jerome (in Ezech., I, Bk. I, ch. 1) of the term synteresis or synderesis.起源在於引進聖杰羅姆(在Ezech 。 ,我,淺灘。我,甲烷。 1 )的任期synteresis或synderesis 。 There the commentator, having treated three of the mystic animals in the Prophecy as symbolizing respectively three Platonic powers of the soul -- to epithumetikon (the appetitive), to thumikon (the irascible), and to logikon (the rational) -- uses the fourth animal, the eagle, to represent what he calls sunteresis.有評論家,在治療3個神秘的動物的預言作為分別代表權力的三個柏拉圖式的靈魂-以epithumetikon (的欲求) ,以thumikon (的暴躁) ,並logikon (合理) -使用第四動物,鷹,代表他所謂的sunteresis 。 The last, according to the texts employed by him to describe it, is a supernatural knowledge: it is the Spirit Who groans in man (Romans 8:26), the Spirit who alone knows what is in man (1 Corinthians 2:11), the Spirit who with the body and the soul forms the Pauline trichotomy of I Thess., v, 23.最後,根據他所僱用的文本描述,是一種超自然的知識:它是誰的精神呻吟的男子(羅馬書8時26分) ,聖靈誰知道什麼是僅在男子(哥林多前書2點11分) ,誰的精神與身體和靈魂的波利娜三分法形式的I Thess 。 ,五, 23 。 Alexander of Hales neglects this limitation to the supernatural, and takes synteresis as neither a potentia alone, nor a habitus alone but a potentia habitualis, something native, essential, indestructible in the soul, yet liable to be obscured and baffled.亞歷山大的黑爾斯忽略這一限制的超自然的,並synteresis的既不是一個潛在就有,也不是單獨習性,但潛在habitualis ,一些本地,必不可少的,堅不可摧的靈魂,但可被掩蓋和困惑。 It resides both in the intelligence and in the will: it is identified with conscience, not indeed on its lower side, as it is deliberative and makes concrete applications, but on its higher side as it is wholly general in principle, intuitive, a lumen innatum in the intellect and a native inclination to good in the will, voluntas naturalis non deliberativa (Summa Theologica I-II:71 to I-II:77).它居住在情報和會:這是有良知的確定,而不是實際上在其下側,因為它是審議,並提出了具體的應用,但其較高的一方,因為它完全是一般性的原則,直觀,一腔innatum的智慧和本地的傾向良好的意願,意志自然非deliberativa (神學大全一至二: 71一至二: 77 ) 。 St. Bonaventure, the pupil, follows on the same lines in his "Commentarium in II Sent."聖文德,瞳孔,如下就同一線在他的“ Commentarium在二發。 ” (dist. xxxix), with the difference that he locates the synteresis as calor et pondus in the will only distinguishing it from the conscience in the practical intellect, which he calls an innate habit--"rationale iudicatorium, habitus cognoscitivus moralium principiorum"-- "a rational judgment, a habit cognoscitive of moral principles". Unlike Alexander he retains the name conscience for descent to particulars: "conscientia non solum consistit in universali sed etiam descendit ad particularia deliberativa" --"conscience not only consists in the universal but also descends to deliberative particulars". ( dist. XXXIX )號,與不同之處在於,他找到synteresis為卡洛爾等pondus在只會區分從良心在實際的智慧,他呼籲天生習慣- “理由iudicatorium ,習性cognoscitivus moralium principiorum ” - - “一個合理的判斷,一種習慣cognoscitive的道德原則” 。與亞歷山大的名字,他保留良知後裔細節: “ conscientia非solum consistit在universali sed有關etiam descendit廣告particularia deliberativa ” - “良心不僅包括在普遍但也下降至審議細節“ 。 As regards general principles in the conscience, the habits are innate: while as regards particular applications, they are acquired (II Sent., dist xxxix, art. 1, Q; ii).至於一般原則的良心,是與生俱來的習慣:雖然至於具體應用,它們是後天(二寄件。區三十九,藝術。 1廠;二) 。

As forming a transition from the Franciscan to the Dominican School we may take one whom the Servite Order can at least claim as a great patron, though he seems not to have joined their body, Henry of Ghent.由於形成了過渡到濟多米尼加學校,我們可能採取一人Servite訂單至少可以索賠作為一個偉大的贊助,但他似乎沒有加入自己的身體,亨利的根特。 He places conscience in the intellect, not in the affective part--"non ad affectivam pertinet"--by which the Scholastics meant generally the will without special reference to feeling or emotion as distinguished in the modern sense from will.他地方的良知在智力,而不是情感的一部分- “非廣告affectivam pertinet ” -其中一般學術意味著將沒有特別提及的感覺或情感作為傑出的一所現代意義上的意願。 While Nicholas of Cusa described the Divine illumination as acting in blind-born man (virtus illuminati coecinati qui per fidem visum acquirit), Henry of Ghent required only assistances to human sight.雖然尼古拉的庫薩介紹了神聖照明代理盲目出生的人( virtus光明coecinati歸仁每fidem簽證acquirit ) ,根特的亨利只需要援助人的視線。 Therefore he supposed:因此,他假定:

an influentia generalis Dei to apprehend concrete objects and to generalize thence ideas and principles;上帝一般的influentia逮捕的具體對象和概括再思想和原則;

a light of faith;輕的信念;

a lumen speciale wherewith was known the sincera et limpida veritas rerum by chosen men only, who saw things in their Divine exemplars but not God Himself;一腔speciale wherewith是已知的sincera等limpida Veritas的事物只能由指定的男子,誰看到自己的神聖的東西,但不是典範上帝;

the lumen gloriæ to see God.管腔gloriæ看到上帝。

For our purpose we specially note this: "conscientia ad partem animae cognitivam non pertinet, sed ad affectivam"--"conscience belongs not to the cognitive part of the mind, but to the affective" (Quodlibet., I, xviii).為了我們的目的,我們特別注意到這一點: “ conscientia廣告partem animae cognitivam非pertinet , sed有關廣告affectivam ” - “良心不屬於認知的一部分的立場,觀點,但對情感” ( Quodlibet. ,我十八) 。 St. Thomas, leading the Dominicans, places synteresis not in the will but in the intellect, and he applies the term conscience to the concrete determinations of the general principle which the synteresis furnishes: "By conscience the knowledge given through synteresis is applied to particular actions".聖托馬斯島,多米尼加領導,地方synteresis不是將,但在智力,他的任期良知適用的具體確定的一般原則的synteresis提供: “通過良心的知識是通過synteresis特別是適用於行動“ 。 ("De Verit.", Q. xvii, a. 2.; Cf. Summa Theologica, Q. lxxix, a. 13; "III Sent.", dist. xiv, a. 1, Q. ii; "Contra Gent.", II, 59.) Albertus agrees with St. Thomas in assigning to the intellect the synteresis, which he unfortunately derives from syn and hoerere (haerens in aliquo) (Summa Theol., Pt. II, Q. xcix, memb. 2, 3; Summa de Creaturis, Pt. II, Q. lxix, a. 1). ( “者Verit 。 ”問:十七,答: 2 。 ;參看。神學大全,問: lxxix ,答: 13 ; “三發。 ”區。第十四答: 1 ,問:二; “康特拉特。 “二, 59 。 )艾伯塔斯同意聖托馬斯在指定的synteresis的智慧,他不幸的是來自綜合徵和hoerere ( haerens在aliquo ) (神學Theol 。鉑。二,問: xcix ,膜。 2 , 3 ;神學日Creaturis ,鉑。二,問: lxix ,答: 1 ) 。 Yet he does not deny all place to the will: "Est rationis practicae . . . non sine voluntate naturali, sed nihil est voluntatis deliberativae (Summa Theol., Pt. II, Q. xcix, memb. 1). The preference of the Franciscan School for the prominence of will, and the preference of the Thomistic School for the prominence of intellect is characteristic. (See Scotus, IV Sent., dist. xlix, Q. iv.) Often this preference is less significant than it seems. Fouillée, the great defender of the idée force-- idea as the active principle--allows in a controversy with Spencer that feeling and will may be involved in the idea. Having shown how Scholasticism began its research into conscience as a fixed terminology, we must leave the matter there, adding only three heads under which occasion was given for serious errors outside the Catholic tradition:然而,他並不否認所有地方的意願: “市盈率理性practicae 。 。 。非正弦voluntate naturali , sed有關nihil市盈率voluntatis deliberativae (神學Theol 。鉑。二,問: xcix ,膜。 1 ) 。喜歡的方濟各學校中的突出地位,將和偏好的Thomistic學校的突出特點是智慧。 (見司各脫,四寄件。區。 xlix ,問:四。 )這往往傾向於重要性不亞於看來。 Fouillée ,偉大的後衛部隊的主要概念-思想的積極原則-允許在一個爭議斯賓塞這種感覺,並可能參與了這一想法。表現出如何士林開始研究良知作為一個固定的術語,我們必須離開這個問題存在,只增加三頭下,有時是嚴重的錯誤之外的天主教的傳統:

While St. Augustine did excellent service in developing the doctrine of grace, he never so clearly defined the exact character of the supernatural as to approach the precision which was given through the condemnation of propositions taught by Baius and Jansenius; and in consequence his doctrine of original sin remained unsatisfactory.雖然聖奧古斯丁沒有優質的服務在發展理論的寬限期,他從來沒有如此明確規定的確切性質的超自然的辦法精度是考慮通過譴責主張教Baius和Jansenius ;並在他的理論的後果原罪仍然不能令人滿意。 When Alexander of Hales, without distinction of natural and supernatural, introduced among the Scholastics the words of St. Jerome about synteresis as scintilla conscientia, and called it lumen innatum, he helped to perpetuate the Augustinian obscurity.當亞歷山大海爾斯,不加區分地對自然和超自然的,介紹了在學術的話,聖杰羅姆約synteresis作為火花conscientia ,並呼籲它流明innatum ,他幫助永久奧古斯丁默默無聞。

As regards the intellect, several Scholastics inclined to the Arabian doctrine of intellectus agens, or to the Aristotelean doctrine of the Divine nous higher than the human soul and not perishable with it.至於智力,一些學術傾向於阿拉伯理論intellectus agens ,或Aristotelean學說神聖靜脈高於人的靈魂,而不是腐壞的。 Roger Bacon called the intellectus agens a distinct substance.羅傑培根稱為intellectus agens一個獨特的內容。 Allied with this went Exemplarism, or the doctrine of archetypic ideas and the supposed knowledge of things in these Divine ideas.盟軍與此去Exemplarism ,或archetypic理論的思想和知識的事情理應在這些神聖的想法。 [Compare the prolepseis emphutoi of the Stoics, which were universals, koinai ennoiai]. [比較prolepseis emphutoi的Stoics ,這是共性, koinai ennoiai ] 。 Henry of Ghent distinguished in man a double knowledge: "primum exemplar rei est species eius universalis causata a re: secundum est ars divina, continens rerum ideales rationes" --"the first exemplar of a thing is universal species of it caused by the thing: the second is the Divine Art containing the ideal reasons (rationes) of things" (Theol., I, 2, n. 15).根特的亨利在男子尊敬的雙重知識: “ primum典範物1-5種eius泛causata重新:孔型市盈率敷設神聖, continens事物ideales rationes ” - “第一典範的事是普遍物種所造成的它的東西:第二個是神聖的藝術理想的原因載( rationes )的東西“ ( Theol. ,我, 2 ,注15 ) 。 Of the former he says: "per tale exemplar acquisitum certa et infallibilis notitia veritatis est omnino impossibilis"--"through such an acquired exemplar, certain and infallible knowledge of truth is utterly impossible" (n. 17); and of the latter: "illi soli certam veritatem valent agnoscere qui earn in exemplari (aeterno) valent aspicere, quod non omnes valent"--"they alone can know certain truth who can behold it in the (eternal) exemplar, which not all can do" (I, 1, n. 21;).前他說: “每個故事範例acquisitum certa等infallibilis通知書veritatis市盈率omnino impossibilis ” - “通過這樣的收購榜樣,一定的知識和做人的真理是完全不可能的” (注17 ) ;和後者: “伊利索利索certam veritatem價agnoscere歸仁收入在exemplari ( aeterno )價aspicere ,狴非義務價” - “他們就可以知道某些真相誰可以看見它的(永久)範例,這不是所有可以做” (我, 1 ,注21 ; ) 。 The perplexity was further increased when some, with Occam, asserted a confused intuition of things singular as opposed to the clearer idea got by the process of abstraction: "Cognitio singularis abstractiva praesupponit intuitivam ejusdem objecti"--"abstractive cognition of a singular presupposes intuitive cognition of the same object" (Quodlib., I, Q. xiii).的困惑時,進一步提高一些,與奧卡姆,聲稱混亂直覺奇異的事情而不是更清楚地了解了該進程的抽象: “文理singularis abstractiva praesupponit intuitivam ejusdem客觀” - “抽象認知奇異的前提直觀認知同一對象“ ( Quodlib. ,我問:十三) 。 Scotus also has taught the confused intuition of the singulars.司各脫還告訴混亂的直覺的singulars 。 Here was much occasion for perplexity on the intellectual side, about the knowledge of general principles in ethics and their application when the priority of the general to the particular was in question.這裡是許多場合困惑方面的知識,對知識的一般原則的道德和應用的優先次序時,一般到特殊的問題。

The will also was a source of obscurity.該也將是一個默默無聞的來源。 Descartes supposed the free will of God to have determined what for conscience was to be right and what wrong, and he placed the act of volition in an affirmation of the judgment.笛卡兒假定的自由意志上帝已經確定的良心是什麼是正確的,哪些是錯的,他將採取行動的意志在一個肯定的判斷。 Scotus did not go thus far, but some Scotists exaggerated the determining power of Divine will, especially so as to leave it to the choice of God indefinitely to enlarge a creature's natural faculties in a way that made it hard to distinguish the natural from the supernatural.司各脫不去迄今,但一些Scotists誇大確定將權力神聖,特別是,以讓上帝選擇無限期放大的產物,自然系的方式,使得很難區分自然從超自然。 Connected with the philosophy of the will in matters of conscience is another statement open to controversy, namely, that the will can tend to any good object in particular only by reason of its universal tendency to the good.與哲學的問題將在另一份聲明中良知是開放的爭論,即可以將傾向於任何好的對象,特別是唯一的,因為它的普遍趨勢良好。 This is what Alexander of Hales means by synteresis as it exists in the will, when he says that it is not an inactive habit but a habit in some sense active of itself, or a general tendency, disposition, bias, weight, or virtuality.這是亞歷山大的海爾斯手段synteresis ,因為它存在於意志,當他說這不是一個無效的習慣,但習慣在一定程度上活躍的本身,或一般的趨勢,處置,偏見,體重,或虛擬。 With this we might contrast Kant's pure noumenal will, good apart from all determinedly good objects.與此相反,我們可能康德的純粹本體意願,良好的除了所有毅然良好對象。

Anti-Scholastic Schools反學術學校

The history of ethics outside the Scholastic domain, so far as it is antagonistic, has its extremes in Monism or Pantheism on the one side and in Materialism on the other.歷史的道德域以外的學校,只要它是對立的,都有其極端論或泛神論為一方和歷史唯物主義的問題。

Spinoza斯賓諾莎

Spinoza is a type of the Pantheistic opposition.斯賓諾莎是一個類型的Pantheistic反對。 His views are erroneous inasmuch as they regard all things in the light of a fated necessity, with no free will in either God or man; no preventable evil in the natural course of things; no purposed good of creation; no individual destiny or immortality for the responsible agent: indeed no strict responsibility and no strict retribution by reward or punishment.他的觀點是錯誤的,因為他們認為所有的事情,鑑於一個注定必要性,沒有自由意志的不是上帝或人為;沒有預防的邪惡在自然的事情;沒有專用創造良好的,沒有個人的命運或不朽的負責代理:的確沒有嚴格的責任,並沒有嚴格的懲罰的獎勵或處罰。 On the other hand many of Spinoza's sayings if lifted into the theistic region, may be transformed into something noble.另一方面許多斯賓諾莎的說法,如果解除納入有神論地區,有可能被轉化為高尚的東西。 The theist, taking up Spinoza's phraseology in a converted sense, may, under this new interpretation, view all passionate action, all sinful choice, as an "inadequate idea of things", as "the preference of a part to the detriment of the whole", while all virtue is seen as an "adequate idea" taking in man's "full relation to himself as a whole, to human society and to God".在有神論者,採取斯賓諾莎用語意義上的轉換,可根據這一新的解釋,認為所有的熱情行動,所有罪惡的選擇,作為一項“不足想法的東西” ,因為“喜歡的一部分,損害了整個“ ,而所有的美德被看作是”足夠的思想“的人採取的”全面關係對自己作為一個整體,對人類社會和上帝“ 。 Again, Spinoza's amor Dei intellectualis becomes finally, when duly corrected, the Beatific Vision, after having been the darker understanding of God enjoyed by Holy men before death, who love all objects in reference to God.再次,斯賓諾莎傑阿穆爾上帝intellectualis成為最後,當適當的糾正,幸福的遠景後,被暗了解上帝聖男子享有死亡前,誰愛中的所有對象提及上帝。 Spinoza was not an antinomian in conduct; he recommended and practiced virtues.斯賓諾莎不是antinomian的行為;他建議,並實行美德。 He was better than his philosophy on its bad side, and worse than his philosophy on its good side after it has been improved by Christian interpretation.他比他的哲學就其不良副作用,並比他的哲學就其好的一面後,提高了基督教的解釋。

Hobbes霍布斯

Hobbes stands for ethics on a Materialistic basis.霍布斯主張道德上的唯物史觀基礎。 Tracing all human action to self-love, he had to explain the generous virtues as the more respectable exhibitions of that quality when modified by social life.追踪所有人權的行動,自愛,他解釋慷慨美德作為更受人尊敬展覽的質量時,修改社會生活。 He set various schools of antagonistic thought devising hypotheses to account for disinterested action in man.他的學校的設置各種敵對思想制定假設佔無私行動的人。 The Cambridge Platonists unsatisfactorily attacked him on the principle of their eponymous philosopher, supposing the innate noemata to rule the empirical aisthemata by the aid of what Henry More called a "boniform faculty", which tasted "the sweetness and savour of virtue".劍橋Platonists不能令人滿意攻擊他的原則,其同名的哲學家,假如天生noemata統治經驗aisthemata的援助更多是亨利稱為“ boniform系” ,其中嚐到“甜頭和品味的美德” 。 This calling in of a special faculty had imitators outside the Platonic School; for example in Hutcheson, who had recourse to Divine "implantations" of benevolent disposition and moral sense, which remind us somewhat of synteresis as imperfectly described by Alexander of Hales.這要求在一個特殊的教師已模仿以外的柏拉圖學院;例如,在哈奇森,誰求助於神“植入”的慈善處置和道德感,這提醒我們有些synteresis的不完善所描述的亞歷山大海爾斯。 A robust reliance on reason to prove ethical truth as it proved mathematical truths, by inspection and analysis, characterized the opposition which Dr. Samuel Clarke presented to Hobbes.一個強大的依靠理由來證明道德真理,因為它證明了數學真理,通過檢查和分析,其特點反對派塞繆爾克拉克博士提交給霍布斯。 It was a fashion of the age to treat philosophy with mathematical rigour; but very different was the "geometrical ethics" of Spinoza, the necessarian, from that of Descartes, the libertarian, who thought that God's free will chose even the ultimate reasons of right and wrong and might have chosen otherwise.這是一個時尚的年齡與治療哲學的數學嚴格;但非常不同的是“幾何倫理學”斯賓諾莎的necessarian ,從笛卡爾的自由,誰認為上帝的自由意志選擇的最終原因,甚至權和錯誤的,可以選擇其他方式。 If Hobbes has his representatives in the Utilitarians, the Cambridge Platonists have their representatives in more or less of the school of which TH Green is a leading light.如果霍布斯已經他的代表在功利主義,劍橋Platonists有他們的代表在或多或少的學校,其中跳綠色是一家領先的光。 A universal infinite mind seeks to realize itself finitely in each human mind or brain, which therefore must seek to free itself from the bondage of mere natural causality and rise to the liberty of the spirit, to a complete self-realization in the infinite Self and after its pattern.一個普遍的無限銘記力求實現本身有限在每個人的心靈和大腦,因此必須設法擺脫桎梏的僅僅是自然的因果關係,並導致自由的精神,以一個完整的自我實現自我的無限和後格局。 What this pattern ultimately is Green cannot say; but he holds that our way towards it at present is through the recognized virtues of European civilization, together with the cultivation of science and art.這是綠色模式最終不能說,但他認為,我們的道路是目前公認的是歐洲文明的美德,同時培養科學和藝術。 In the like spirit GE Moore finds the ascertainable objects that at present can be called "good in themselves" to be social intercourse and æsthetic delight.在通用電氣公司像精神摩爾認為,核實對象,目前可以說是“好自己”的社會交往和審美享受。

Kant康德

Kant may stand midway between the Pantheistic and the purely Empirical ethics. On the one side he limited our knowledge, strictly so called, of things good to sense-experiences; but on the other he allowed a practical, regulative system of ideas lifting us up to God.康德可能站在中間Pantheistic和純粹實證道德。一方面,他有限的知識,嚴格所謂,事情好意義的經驗;但另一方面,他不允許實際,調節系統的思想解除了我們上帝。 Duty as referred to Divine commands was religion, not ethics: it was religion, not ethics, to regard moral precepts in the light of the commands of God.責任所指的命令是神聖的宗教,而不是倫理:它是宗教,沒有道德,把道德戒律根據上帝的命令。 In ethics these were restricted to the autonomous aspect, that is, to the aspect of them under which the will of each man was its own legislator.這些道德限制在自主方面,這就是他們的問題將根據該是每個人自己的立法。 Man, the noumenon, not the phenomenon, was his own lawgiver and his own end so far as morality went: anything beyond was outside ethics proper. Again, the objects prescribed as good or forbidden as bad did not enter in among the constituents of ethical quality: they were only extrinsic conditions.人的本體,而不是這種現象,是他自己的立法者和他自己的結束,只要道德去:任何超越道德之外適當的。同樣,對象明一樣好或一樣糟糕禁止沒有輸入之間的三方中的倫理質量:他們只是外在條件。 The whole of morality intrinsically was in the good will as pure from all content or object of a definite kind, from all definite inclination to benevolence and as deriving its whole dignity from respect for the moral law simply as a moral law, self-imposed, and at the same time universalized for all other autonomous individuals of the rational order.整個道德在本質上是良好的意願為純從所有內容或目標明確的實物,由所有明確的傾向善和所產生的整個尊嚴不受尊重的道德法律僅僅作為一種道義上的法律,自我強加,同時普遍化的所有其他個人自主的合理秩序。 For each moral agent as noumenal willed that the maxim of his conduct should become a principle for all moral agents. We have to be careful how in practice we impute consequences to men who hold false theories of conscience.對於每一個道德本體代理人的意志他的行為準則應該成為一個原則,所有的道德代理人。我們必須小心,我們在實踐中如何估算的後果男子誰持有謬論的良知。 In our historical sketch we have found Spinoza a necessarian or fatalist; but he believed in effort and exhortation as aids to good life.在我們的歷史素描我們發現斯賓諾莎一necessarian或宿命論者,但他相信在努力和告誡作為艾滋病美好的生活。 We have seen Kant assert the non-morality of Divine precept and of the objective fitness of things, but he found a place for both these elements in his system.我們已經看到康德斷言非道德的神聖戒律和健身的目標的事情,但他發現了一個地方這些因素都在他的系統。 Similarly Paulsen gives in the body of his work a mundane ethics quite unaffected by his metaphysical principles as stated in his preface to Book II.同樣提供保爾森在他的屍體工作相當不受世俗道德形而上的原則,他指出在他的序言第二冊。 Luther logically might be inferred to be a thorough antinomian: he declared the human will to be enslaved, with a natural freedom only for civic duties; he taught a theory of justification which was in spite of evil deeds; he called nature radically corrupt and forcibly held captive by the lusts of the flesh; he regarded divine grace as a due and necessary complement to human nature, which as constituted by mere body and soul was a nature depraved; his justification was by faith, not only without works, but even in spite of evil works which were not imputed.路德邏輯將可推定為徹底antinomian :他宣布人類將要被奴役,自由與自然不僅為公民義務;他教的理論的理由是,儘管劣跡;他呼籲性質根本腐敗和強行扣押的肉體的情慾,他認為神的恩典作為一個適當的和必要的補充,人的本性,它是由單純的身體和靈魂是一個性質的墮落,他的理由的信仰,不僅沒有工作,但即使在儘管邪惡工程未估算。 Nevertheless he asserted that the good tree of the faith-justified man must bring forth good works; he condemned vice most bitterly, and exhorted men to virtue.不過他說,良好的樹的信仰理由男子必須帶來好的作品,他最強烈的譴責副主席,並告誡男子美德。 Hence Protestants can depict a Luther simply the preacher of good, while Catholics may regard simply the preacher of evil.因此,新教徒可以簡單地描繪了路德的佈道者良好,而天主教會認為只是傳道邪惡。 Luther has both sides.路德已經雙方。

V. CONSCIENCE IN ITS PRACTICAL WORKING五,良心及其實際工作

The supremacy of conscience至高無上的良心

The supremacy of conscience is a great theme of discourse.至高無上的良心是一個偉大的主題話語。 "Were its might equal to its right", says Butler, "it would rule the world". “是它可能等於其權” ,巴特勒說, “這將統治世界” 。 With Kant we could say that conscience is autonomously supreme, if against Kant we added that thereby we meant only that every duty must be brought home to the individual by his own individual conscience, and is to this extent imposed by it; so that even he who follows authority contrary to his own private judgment should do so on his own private conviction that the former has the better claim.與康德我們可以說,良心是自主最高法院,如果我們對康德說,因此我們只意味著,每一個工作地點必須是帶回家給自己的個人的個人良知,是這所施加它的程度,所以,即使他誰如下當局違背自己的私人判斷應該這樣做對自己的私人的信念,前者具有較好的索賠。 If the Church stands between God and conscience, then in another sense also the conscience is between God and the Church.如果教會站在上帝和良心之間,然後又在另一種意義上的良心是上帝與教會。 Unless a man is conscientiously submissive to the Catholic Church his subjection is not really a matter of inner morality but is mechanical obedience.除非一個人是認真的順從他隸屬天主教會是不是一個真正的內在道德的問題,但機械服從。

Conscience as a matter of education and perfectibility良知作為教育和完善

As in all other concerns of education, so in the training of conscience we must use the several means.正如在其他所有問題的教育,所以在訓練的良心,我們必須使用一些手段。 As a check on individual caprice, especially in youth, we must consult the best living authorities and the best traditions of the past.作為檢查個人反复無常,特別是在青年,我們必須徵求最佳生活當局和優良傳統的過去。 At the same time that we are recipient our own active faculties must exert themselves in the pursuit with a keen outlook for the chances of error.與此同時,我們正在積極接受我們自己的院系必須盡自己的追求與渴望前景錯誤的機會。 Really unavoidable mistakes will not count against us; but many errors are remotely, when not proximately, preventable.確實無法避免的失誤就不會反對我們,但許多錯誤是遠程,當不近,可以預防的。 From all our blunders we should learn a lesson.從我們所有的失誤,我們應該從中吸取教訓。 The diligent examiner and corrector of his own conscience has it in his power, by long diligence to reach a great delicacy and responsiveness to the call of duty and of higher virtue, whereas the negligent, and still more the perverse, may in some sense become dead to conscience.勤勞檢驗和校正自己的良心在他的權力,通過長期的努力來達成一個微妙和響應偉大的使命的召喚和較高的美德,而疏忽,更是有害的,可能在一定程度上成為死者的良知。 The hardening of the heart and the bad power to put light for darkness and darkness for light are results which may be achieved with only too much ease.硬化心臟和壞的權力,把輕的黑暗和黑暗的光線的結果可能是,只有實現太多緩解。 Even the best criteria will leave residual perplexities for which provision has to be made in an ethical theory of probabilities which will be explained in the article PROBABILISM.即使是最好的標準將剩餘的困惑所規定,必須在道德理論的概率將解釋在文章中或然論。 Suffice it to say here that the theory leaves intact the old rule that a man in so acting must judge that he certainly is allowed thus to act, even though sometimes it might be more commendable to do otherwise.我只想說這裡的理論保持不變的舊規則,即一個人在這樣做時,必須判斷,他肯定是可以採取行動,因此,即使有時可能更值得稱道的,則作別。 In inferring something to be permissible, the extremes of scrupulosity and of laxity have to be avoided.在推斷的東西是允許的,極端的scrupulosity和鬆懈,必須避免。

The approvals and reprovals of conscience批准和reprovals良心

The office of conscience is sometimes treated under too narrow a conception. Some writers, after the manner of Socrates when he spoke of his doemon as rather a restrainer than a promoter of action, assign to conscience the office of forbidding, as others assign to law and government the negative duty of checking invasion upon individual liberty.該辦公室的良心有時下處理過於狹隘的概念。一些作家,在蘇格拉底的方式時,他談到了doemon作為而是一個restrainer比啟動的行動,並分配辦公室的良心禁止,正如其他依法轉讓和政府的消極義務檢查入侵後,個人自由。 Shaftesbury (Inquiry II, 2, 1) regards conscience as the consciousness of wrongdoing, not of rightdoing.沙夫茨伯里(詢價二, 2 , 1 )關於良心的意識行為,而不是rightdoing 。 Carlyle in his "Essay on Characteristics" asserts that we should have no sense of having a conscience but for the fact that we have sinned; with which view we may compare Green's idea about a reasoned system of ethics (Proleg., Bk. IV, ch. ii, sect. 311) that its use is negative "to provide a safeguard against the pretext which in a speculative age some inadequate and misapplied theories may afford our selfishness rather than in the way of pointing out duties previously ignored". Others say that an ethics of conscience should no more be hortatory than art should be didactic.卡萊爾在他的“散文的特色”聲稱,我們應該沒有任何意義的,但有良知的事實是,我們犯了罪;與看法,我們可能比較綠色的想法合理的制度倫理( Proleg. ,淺灘。四,總。二, A節。 311 ) ,它的使用是否定的“ ,以提供防範為藉口,在一些投機年齡不足和誤用我們的理論可能負擔不起,而不是自私的方式指出了先前被忽略的職責。 ”還有人說,一個道德良心更是不應該勸告應比藝術教學。 Mackenzie (Ethics, 3rd ed., Bk. III, ch. I, sect. 14) prefers to say simply that "conscience is a feeling of pain accompanying and resulting from nonconformity to principle".麥肯齊(倫理,第三版。淺灘。三總。一, A節。 14 )喜歡說簡單,即“良心是一種感覺疼痛,並伴隨產生的不符合原則” 。 The suggestion which, by way of contrary, these remarks offer is that we should use conscience largely as an approving and an instigating and an inspiring agency to advance us in the right way.其中的建議,經由相反,這些備註提供的是,我們應該利用良心主要作為審批和一個鼓舞人心的煽動和機構以推進我們在正確的道路。 We should not in morals copy the physicists, who deny all attractive force and limit force to vis a tergo, a push from behind.我們不應該在道德複製物理學家,誰拒絕所有引力和限制武力相tergo ,推動從後面。 Nor must we think that the positive side of conscience is exhausted in urging obligations: it may go on in spite of Kant, beyond duty to works of supererogation.我們也決不能認為,積極的一面是良心用盡敦促義務:它可能會繼續下去,儘管康德,超越責任的額外的工作。 Of course there is a theory which denies the existence of such works on the principle that every one is simply bound to the better and the best if he feels himself equal to the heroic achievement.當然有一個理論否認存在此類作品的原則是,每個人都只不過是必然的更好,最好的,如果他覺得自己等同於輝煌的成就。 This philosophy would lay it down that he who can renounce all and give it to the poor is simply obliged to do so, though a less generous nature is not bound, and may take advantage --if it be an advantage--of its own inferiority.這一理念將奠定下來,他誰可以放棄一切,並給窮人只是不得不這樣做,雖然不太慷慨性質並不約束,可利用-如果它是一種優勢-它自己的自卑感。 Not such was the way in which Christ put the case: He said hypothetically, "if thou wilt be perfect", and His follower St. Peter said to Ananias "Was not [thy land] thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? . . . Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God."沒有這樣的方式,把基督的情況:他說,可以想像, “如果你的病是完美的” ,他跟隨聖彼得說阿納尼亞斯“不是[你的土地]你自己?和後,出售,是它不是在你自己的權力嗎? 。 。 。你不能給男人撒謊,但你們的上帝。 “ (Acts 5:4) We have, then, a sphere of duty and beyond that a sphere of free virtue, and we include both under the domain of conscience. (使徒行5點04 )我們,然後,一個領域的工作地點及以後的一個領域自由美德,我們既包括網域下的良心。 It is objected that only a prig considers the approving side of his conscience, but that is true only of the priggish manner, not of the thing itself; for a sound mind may very well seek the joy which comes from a faithful, generous heart, and make it an effort of conscience that outstrips duty to aim at higher perfection, not under the false persuasion that only after duty has been fulfilled does merit begin, but under the true conviction that duty is meritorious, and that so also is goodness in excess of duty.這是反對,只有prig審批方面認為他的良知,這是真正的唯一的priggish方式,而不是事物本身;一個心智健全很可能尋求的快樂來自忠實,慷慨的心,並使其努力的良知超過責任目標是更高的完善,而不是虛假的勸說下,只有在工作地點已經完成並開始優點,但在真正的信念,工作地點是有理由的,而且這樣也超過善良工作地點。 Not that the eye is to be too narrowly fixed on rewards: these are included, while virtue for virtue's sake and for the sake of God is carefully cultivated.不就是眼睛過於狹隘固定在獎勵:這些被列入,而憑藉為美德的緣故,為了上帝的精心培育。

Publication information Written by John Rickaby.出版信息作者約翰Rickaby 。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.轉錄由里克邁卡蒂。天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat 。 Remy Lafort, Censor.雷米Lafort ,審查。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


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