Books of Chronicles, the Books of Paralipomenon圖書的編年史,帳簿Paralipomenon

General Information 一般信息

The two Books of Chronicles are the 13th and 14th books of the Old Testament in the Authorized Version of the Bible. The name Chronicles is a free rendering of the Hebrew title "events of past times."這兩本書的編年史是第13和第14本書舊約核定版本的聖經。編年史的名稱是一個免費提供的希伯來語標題“事件過去的時間。 ” The author, known as the chronicler, is sometimes identified with Ezra.作者,被稱為記錄者,有時是確定以斯拉。 Those scholars who believe that Chronicles and Ezra And Nehemiah were written by a single author date the work in the period 400 - 250 BC; others date Chronicles as early as 515 - 500 BC. Chronicles recounts biblical history from Adam to Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC), paralleling and often directly excerpting from Genesis through Kings, but with additional sources, frequent omissions, and different emphases. Extracts from Samuel and Kings, historical and legendary materials, sermons, oracles, and prayers are included in a genealogical framework.這些學者認為,誰編年史和以斯拉和尼希米記寫的一個單一的作者日期工作期間400 -公元前250 ;其他日期納尼亞儘早515 - 500年。編年史敘述聖經歷史從亞當到居魯士大帝(四。 529年) ,並聯,並經常直接從成因excerpting通過國王,但與其他來源,經常遺漏,和不同的側重點。摘錄塞繆爾和國王,歷史和傳奇色彩的材料,布道,甲骨文,和祈禱中包含的譜系框架。

The work focuses on David and Solomon as founders of the Temple and its priestly and musical orders.工作重點是大衛和所羅門的創始人寺及其祭司和音樂的訂單。 The departure of the northern kingdom of Israel from the Davidic dynasty is deplored, and the history of the southern kingdom of Judah is told with the intent of reuniting all Palestinian Jews in the purified temple worship at Jerusalem in postexilic times (after 537 BC).離開英國北部的以色列從Davidic時期是遺憾,和歷史上的猶太王國南部是告訴意圖團聚所有巴勒斯坦猶太人在純化寺禮拜在耶路撒冷的postexilic次(後537年) 。 Chronicles gives a more flattering view of Judah's kings than do the books of Samuel and Kings, and it emphasizes the element of miraculous divine intervention in biblical history.納尼亞提供了更多的恭維鑑於猶太的國王相比,圖書的塞繆爾和國王,並強調要素奇蹟神聖干預聖經歷史。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Bibliography 參考書目
JC Whitcomb, Solomon to the Exile: Studies in Kings and Chronicles (1971).巴埃納惠特科姆,所羅門群島對流亡藏人:研究國王和編年史( 1971年) 。


Books of Chronicles, the Books of Paralipomenon圖書的編年史,帳簿Paralipomenon

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Genealogies, to enable the Jews to establish their lines of family descent (1Chr. 1-9)族譜,使猶太人建立自己的家庭出身線( 1Chr. 1月9日)
  2. The kingdom of David, as a pattern for the ideal theocratic state (1Chr. 10-29)大衛王國,作為一個理想的模式神國( 1Chr. 10月29日)
  3. The glory of Solomon (2Chr. 1-9)所羅門群島的榮耀( 2Chr. 1月9日)
  4. The history of the southern kingdom (2Chr. 10-36)歷史上的南部英國( 2Chr. 10-36 )


Books of Chron'icles圖書Chron'icles

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The two books were originally one.這兩本書最初1 。 They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew Dibre hayyamim, ie, "Acts of the Days."他們舉著的標題中Massoretic希伯來Dibre hayyamim ,即“行為的天。 ” This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles."本標題是所提供的杰羅姆在他的拉美版“ Chronicon ” ,因此“編年史” 。 In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, ie, "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books of Kings.在七十版圖書分為兩個,並承擔所有權Paraleipomena ,即“東西遺漏”或“補充” ,因為含有很多事情省略在帳簿國王。 The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads. (1.) The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than a list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of David.的內容,這些書籍理解以下四個元首。 ( 1 。 )前9章的預訂一包含多名單族譜在以色列線下跌的時間大衛。 (2.) The remainder of the first book contains a history of the reign of David. ( 2 ) 。其餘的第一本書包含的歷史時期大衛。 (3.) The first nine chapters of Book II. ( 3 。 )前9章的第二冊。 contain the history of the reign of Solomon.包含的歷史時期所羅門。 (4.) The remaining chapters of the second book contain the history of the separate kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from Babylonian Exile. ( 4 。 )的其餘章節的第二本書包含的歷史,不同的猶太王國的時間返回從巴比倫放逐。

The time of the composition of the Chronicles was, there is every ground to conclude, subsequent to the Babylonian Exile, probably between 450 and 435 BC The contents of this twofold book, both as to matter and form, correspond closely with this idea.的時間組成的編年史是,有一切理由得出結論,以後的巴比倫放逐,可能與公元前450和435的內容這兩個方面的圖書,都以物質和形式,緊密對應的這一想法。 The close of the book records the proclamation of Cyrus permitting the Jews to return to their own land, and this forms the opening passage of the Book of Ezra, which must be viewed as a continuation of the Chronicles.結束時宣布本書記錄了居魯士允許猶太人回到他們自己的土地上,這形成了開放通行以斯拉記,它必須被看作是一個持續的編年史。 The peculiar form of the language, being Aramaean in its general character, harmonizes also with that of the books which were written after the Exile.的特殊形式的語言,被Aramaean在其一般性質,也與和諧的書籍後撰寫的流亡生活。 The author was certainly contemporary with Zerubbabel, details of whose family history are given (1 Chr. 3:19).作者無疑是當代與Zerubbabel ,詳細的家族病史,給出( 1染色體。 3點19 ) 。

The time of the composition being determined, the question of the authorship may be more easily decided.時間的確定組成的問題,作者可能會更容易決定。 According to Jewish tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the Chronicles.根據猶太傳統,這是普遍接受下來到中東的17世紀,以斯拉被視為作者的編年史。 There are many points of resemblance and of contact between the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra which seem to confirm this opinion. The conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost identical in expression.有許多相似點和之間的聯繫編年史和以斯拉記這似乎證實了這種看法。締結一個並開始其他幾乎相同的表達。 In their spirit and characteristics they are the same, showing thus also an identity of authorship.在他們的精神和特質,他們是相同的,因此也表現出作者的身份。 In their general scope and design these books are not so much historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears to be to present moral and religious truth.在其一般的範圍和設計這些書籍沒有這麼多歷史的教誨。主要目的的作家似乎是目前的道德和宗教的真理。

He does not give prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions. "The genealogies, so uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted, the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known, being entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose."他不突出政治事件,因為工作是在薩穆埃爾和國王,而是要教會機構。 “的族譜,所以無趣,以最現代的讀者,真正的重要組成部分,公共記錄的希伯來文的國家。他們是基礎上的土地,不僅分佈和舉行,但公共服務的寺廟安排和進行的利和他們的後裔,僅眾所周知,有權設立和第一批成果除了用於這一目的。 “ The "Chronicles" are an epitome of the sacred history from the days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period of about 3,500 years.的“編年史”的一個縮影神聖的歷史,天亞當到返回從巴比倫放逐,為期約三千五百年。

The writer gathers up "the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity."作者收集了“線程舊的國家生活所衝破圈養。 ” The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews.來源何處的記錄者彙編他的工作是公開的記錄,登記冊,以及系譜表屬於猶太人。 These are referred to in the course of the book (1 Chr. 27:24; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 20:34; 24:27; 26:22; 32:32; 33:18, 19; 27:7; 35:25).這些被稱為過程中,這本書( 1染色體。 27:24 ; 29:29 ; 2染色體。 9時29分; 12:15 ; 13點22 ; 20:34 ; 24:27 ; 26:22 ; 32 : 32 ; 33:18 , 19 ; 27:7 ; 35:25 ) 。

There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer both knew and used these records (1 Chr. 17:18; comp. 2 Sam. 7:18-20; 1 Chr. 19; comp. 2 Sam. 10, etc.).有在納尼亞,和書籍的塞繆爾和國王, 40相似之處,往往口頭,證明作家都知道並使用這些記錄( 1染色體。 17:18 ;壓縮機。 2山姆。 7:18-20 ; 1染色體。 19 ;壓縮機。 2三。 10 ,等等) 。 As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded (2 Sam. 6:20-23; 9; 11; 14-19, etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12; 22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.).相比塞繆爾和國王,這本書的編年史省略許多細節有記錄( 2山姆。 6:20-23 ; 9 ; 11 ; 14-19等) ,並包括許多事情本身所特有的( 1染色體。 12 ; 22 ; 23-26 ; 27 ; 28 ; 29日,等等) 。 Twenty whole chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not found elsewhere.第二十四整個章節,和2004年的部分章節,是被佔領的問題,不是其他地方找到。 It also records many things in fuller detail, as (eg) the list of David's heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1 Chr. 13; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; comp. 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah's leprosy and its cause (2 Chr. 26:16-21; comp. 2 Kings 15:5), etc.它也記錄許多事情在全面詳細,如(如)的清單大衛的英雄( 1染色體。 12:1-37 ) ,消除方舟從Kirjath - jearim以錫安山( 1染色體。 13 ; 15時02 -24 ; 16:4-43 ;壓縮機。 2山姆。 6 ) , Uzziah的麻風病及其原因( 2染色體。 26:16-21 ;補償。列王紀下15時05分)等

It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete.有人還指出,另一個特點是這本書的替代品,它的現代和較常見的表現形式為那些已經成為不尋常的或過時。 This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer (1 Chr. 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18), etc. The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or hagiographa.市場普遍認為這是特別是在替代現代地名,如在使用中的作家的一天,舊名稱;從而Gezer ( 1染色體。 20時04 )是用來代替採空區( 2山姆。 21:18 )等的書編年史的排名中khethubim或hagiographa 。 They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in the New Testament (Heb. 5:4; Matt. 12:42; 23:35; Luke 1:5; 11:31, 51).他們提到,雖然不是直接引用,在新約( Heb. 5時04分;馬特。 12點42分; 23:35 ;路加福音1:5 ; 11時31分, 51 ) 。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Chronicles編年史

General Information 一般信息

Chronicles are the words of the days, (1 Kings 14:19; 1 Chr. 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time.納尼亞是的話,天, (列王紀上14:19 ; 1染色體。 27:24 ) ,每日或每年記錄的交易王國;事件中記錄的順序的時間。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Chron'icles of King David Chron'icles大衛王

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(1 Chr. 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters. ( 1染色體。 27:24 )被統計的國家記錄;一個公共來源從編譯的圖書資料的編年史產生的各種公共事務。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


The Books of Paralipomenon (Chronicles)帳簿Paralipomenon (編年史)

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Paraleipomenon; Libri Paralipomenon). ( Paraleipomenon ;利布里Paralipomenon ) 。

Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity.兩本書的聖經載有神聖的歷史從亞當的結尾圈養。 The title Paralipomenon, books "of things passed over", which, from the Septuagint, passed into the old Latin Bible and thence into the Vulgate, is commonly taken to imply that they supplement the narrative of the Books of Kings (otherwise known as I-II Samuel and I-II Kings); but this explanation is hardly supported by the contents of the books, and does not account for the present participle.標題Paralipomenon ,書籍“的事情過去了” ,其中,從七十,進入舊拉丁美洲聖經,再進入武加大,普遍採取意味著他們補充說明的書國王(也稱為我二塞繆爾和第一和第二國王) ;但這一解釋是難以支持的書的內容,並不帳戶現在分詞。 The view of St. Jerome, who considers Paralipomenon as equivalent to "epitome of the Old Testament", is probably the true one.認為聖杰羅姆,誰認為Paralipomenon為等同於“縮影舊約” ,可能是真實的。 The title would accordingly denote that many things are passed over in these books.的標題將因此表示,很多事情都過去了在這些書籍。 The Hebrew title is Dibhere Hayyamim, "the acts of the days" or "annals".希伯來文標題是Dibhere Hayyamim “的行為天”或“編年史” 。 In the Protestant, printed Hebrew, and many Catholic bibles, they are entitled "Books of Chronicles".在新教,印刷希伯來語,許多天主教的聖經,他們有權“圖書的編年史” 。

UNITY AND PLACES IN THE CANON團結和地方佳能

The two books are really one work, and are treated as one in the Hebrew manuscripts and in the Massoretic summary appended to the second book.這兩本書是一個真正的工作,被視為一個在希伯來文手稿和Massoretic摘要附加到第二本書。 The division was first made in the Septuagint for the sake of convenience, and thence was adopted into the Latin Bibles.該司首次在七十為方便起見,並從那裡通過到拉丁美洲聖經。 The Hebrew text was first divided in Bomberg's edition of the rabbinical Bible (Venice, 1516-7).希伯來文是第一次分為Bomberg出版的猶太教聖經(威尼斯, 1516-7 ) 。 Moreover, there is a probability that Paralipomenon originally formed part of a larger work which included the two Books of Esdras (Esdras Nehemias).此外,有一個概率Paralipomenon最初的組成部分,更大的工作,其中包括兩本書的埃斯德拉斯(埃斯德拉斯Nehemias ) 。 For not only is there similarity of diction and style, of spirit and method, but I Esdras begins where II Paralipomenon ends, the decree of Cyrus being repeated and completed. It should be remarked, however, that these facts can be explained by simple community of authorship.不僅有相似的詞和作風,精神和方法,但我埃斯德拉斯開始在二Paralipomenon結束後,賽勒斯的法令被重複和完成。應當說,然而,這些事實可以解釋簡單社會作者。 In the Septuagint and Vulgate, as well as in the Protestant bibles, the Books of Paralipomenon are placed immediately after the Books of Kings.在七十和武加大,以及在新教聖經,帳簿Paralipomenon後立即放置書籍的國王。 In the printed edition of the Hebrew Bible they stand at the end of the third division, or Kethubhim.在印刷版的希伯來聖經它們結束時的第三次分裂,或Kethubhim 。

CONTENTS目錄

The first part of I Paralipomenon (i-ix), which is a sort of introduction to the rest of the work, contains a series of genealogical and statistical lists, interspersed with short historical notes.第一部分的I Paralipomenon (一至九) ,這是一種介紹剩下的工作,包含了一系列的家譜和統計清單,穿插短的歷史記錄。 It comprises: (1) the genealogy of the patriarchs from Adam to Jacob (i); (2) the genealogy of the twelve tribes (ii-viii); (3) a list of the families of Juda, Benjamin, and Levi dwelling in Jerusalem after the Exile, with the genealogy of the family of Saul repeated (ix).它包括: ( 1 )家譜的始祖從亞當到雅各布(一) , ( 2 )的家譜的12部落(二至八) ; ( 3 )的名單,家屬猶大,本傑明和Levi住宅在耶路撒冷的流亡後,與家譜的家人一再掃羅(九) 。 The second part of I Paralipomenon contains the history of the reign of David preceded by the account of the death of Saul (x-xxix).第二部分,我Paralipomenon包含的歷史時期大衛之前,該帳戶的死亡索爾(的X XXIX )號決議。 II Paralipomenon comprises the reign of Solomon (i-ix), and the reigns of the kings of Juda (x-xxxvi, 21).二Paralipomenon包括統治所羅門(一至九) ,以及普遍存在的國王的猶大(十- 36 , 21 ) 。 Part of the edict of Cyrus allowing the Jews to return and to rebuild the temple is added as a conclusion (xxxvi, 22-23).部分法令居魯士允許猶太人返回和重建廟宇作為一項結論( 36 , 22日至23日) 。 The historical part of Paralipomenon thus covers the same period as the last three Books of Kings. Hence naturally much of the matter is the same in both; often, indeed, the two narratives not only agree in the facts they relate, but describe them almost in the same words.歷史的一部分,從而涵蓋Paralipomenon同一時期的最後三本書的國王。因此自然許多問題是相同的兩個;往往,事實上,這兩個敘述不僅同意在有關的事實,但他們幾乎描述在相同的話。 The Books of Paralipomenon also agree with the Books of Kings in plan and general arrangement.帳簿Paralipomenon還同意書國王在計劃和一般安排。 But side by side with these agreements there are many differences.但是,並肩與這些協定有許多分歧。 The Books of Paralipomenon narrate some events more briefly. or present them in a different manner, and omit others altogether (eg, the adultery of David, the violation of Thamar, the murder of Amnon, and the rebellion of Absalom), while they dwell more on facts regarding the temple, its worship and its ministers, furnishing much information on these subjects which is not found in the other books.帳簿Paralipomenon敘述一些事件更簡略。或現在他們以不同的方式,和其他人完全忽略(例如,通姦大衛,違反Thamar ,謀殺阿姆農和叛亂押沙龍) ,而他們詳談更多的事實寺廟,其崇拜及其部長們,提供大量資料,這些問題是沒有發現的其他書籍。 Moreover, they ignore the northern kingdom except where the history of Juda requires mention of it.此外,他們忽視了,除非英國北部的歷史猶大需要提到它。

OBJECT對象

On comparing Paralipomenon with the Books of Kings we are forced to the conclusion that the writer's purpose was not to supplement the omissions of these latter books.比較Paralipomenon的書國王我們不得不得出結論認為,作家的目的不是補充遺漏這些後者書籍。 The objects of his interest are the temple and its worship, and he intends primarily to write the religious history of Juda with the temple as its centre, and, as intimately connected with it, the history of the house of David.的對象是他的興趣寺廟及其崇拜,他打算寫主要的宗教歷史猶大與寺為中心,並與它密切相關,歷史上的房子大衛。 This clearly appears when we consider what he mentions and what he omits. Of Saul he narrates only his death as an introduction to the reign of David.這清楚地顯示,當我們考慮他提到和他忽略。索爾貝他敘述的只有他的死亡的介紹在位大衛。 In the history of David's reign he gives a full account of the translation of the ark to Mount Sion, of the preparations for the building of the temple, and of the levitical families and their offices; the wars and the other events of the reign he either tells briefly, or passes over altogether.歷史上的大衛的統治,他提供了充分考慮到翻譯的方舟山錫永,籌備建設的寺廟,和levitical家庭和他們的辦事處;戰爭和其他事件,他的統治或者告訴短暫,或經過徹底。 Solomon's reign is almost reduced to the account of the building and the dedication of the temple. After the disruption of the kingdom the apostate tribes are hardly mentioned, while the reigns of the pious kings, Asa, Josaphat, Joas, Ezechias, and Josias, who brought about a revival of religion and showed great zeal for the temple and its worship, are specially dwelt on.所羅門統治幾乎減少到該帳戶的建立和獻身精神的聖殿。後,破壞了英國的叛教者部落是幾乎沒有提及,而普遍存在的虔誠的國王, ASA的約薩法特, Joas ,埃澤希亞甚和Josias ,誰帶來了復興的宗教和表現出極大的熱情為寺及其崇拜,專門談到。 Again, the additions to the narrative of the Books of Kings in most cases refer to the temple, its worship and its ministers.另外,補充說明的書國王在大多數情況下是指寺廟,其崇拜及其部長。 Nor is the decree of Cyrus allowing the rebuilding of the temple without significance.也不是賽勒斯的法令,允許重建寺廟沒有意義。 The same purpose may be noted in the genealogical section, where the tribes of Juda and Levi are given special prominence and have their genealogies continued beyond the Exile.同樣的目的可能會注意到在家譜節,在各部落的猶大和Levi給予特別突出,他們的族譜繼續超越流亡。 The author, however, writes his history with a practical object in view.該文件的作者,但是,他寫的歷史,以實際物體的看法。 He wishes to urge the people to a faithful and exact adherence to the worship of God in the restored temple, and to impress upon them that thus only will the community deserve God's blessings and protection.他希望敦促人民的忠實和確切遵守崇拜上帝在恢復寺廟,並給他們留下深刻印象,從而不僅將社區值得上帝的祝福和保護。 Hence he places before them the example of the past, especially of the pious kings who were distinguished for their zeal in building the temple or in promoting the splendour of its worship.因此,他面前有地方的例子,過去,特別是虔誠的國王誰是尊敬他們的熱情在建設寺廟或促進輝煌的崇拜。 Hence, too, he takes every occasion to show that the kings, and with them the people, prospered or were delivered from great calamities because of their attachment to God's worship, or experienced misfortune because of their unfaithfulness.因此,過多,他利用一切機會來表明,國王,並與他們的人民,繁榮或交付的重大災難,因為它們依附上帝的崇拜,或有經驗的不幸,因為他們不忠。 The frequent mention of the Levites and of their offices was probably intended to induce them to value their calling and to carry out faithfully their duties.經常提到的利和他們的辦事處可能是意在促使他們珍惜他們的要求和忠實地履行其職責。

AUTHOR AND TIME OF COMPOSITION作者的時間和組成

The Books of Paralipomenon were undoubtedly written after the Restoration.帳簿Paralipomenon無疑書面後恢復。 For the genealogy of the house of David is carried beyond Zorobabel (1 Chronicles 3:19-24), and the very decree of Cyrus allowing the return is cited.對於家譜的眾議院大衛是超越Zorobabel (歷代誌上3:19-24 )和賽勒斯非常法令允許返回引用。 Moreover, the value of the sums collected by David for the building of the temple is expressed in darics (1 Chronicles 29:7, Heb.), which were not current in Palestine till the time of the Persian domination.此外,價值的款項所收集大衛為建設寺廟中表示darics (歷代誌上29:7 ,希伯來。 ) ,這是不是目前在巴勒斯坦,直到時間的波斯統治。 The peculiarities of style and diction also point to a time later than the Captivity.特有的風格和用詞還指出,時間不遲於圈養。 The older writers generally attributed the authorship to Esdras.老一輩作家普遍認為,作者以埃斯德拉斯。 Most modern non-Catholic scholars attribute the work to an unknown writer and place its date between 300 and 250 BC The main reasons for this late date are that the descendants of Zorobabel are given to the sixth (in the Septuagint and the Vulgate to the eleventh) generation, and that in II Esdras (xii, 10, 11, 22) the list of the high-priests extends to Jeddoa, who, according to Josephus, held the pontificate in the time of Alexander the Great.最先進的非天主教學者的工作屬性一個不知名的作家,並把它的日期300至250年的主要理由是這晚的後裔Zorobabel獲得第六屆(中譯本和武加大第十一)產生,並在二埃斯德拉斯( 12 , 10 , 11 , 22 )名單的高神父延伸到Jeddoa ,誰,根據約瑟夫舉行的青年時代的亞歷山大大帝。 These lists, however, show signs of having been brought up to date by a later hand and cannot, therefore, be considered as decisive.這些名單,但是,有跡象表明長大迄今以後手,因此不能被認為是決定性的。 On the other hand, a writer living in Greek times would not be likely to express the value of ancient money in darics.另一方面,一個作家生活在希臘時間不會很可能表示的價值,古老的錢darics 。 Moreover, a work written for the purpose mentioned above would be more in place in the time immediately following the Restoration, while the position and character of Esdras would point him out as its author.此外,工作為目的的書面上述將更加到位的時間之後,立即恢復,而中的地位和性質埃斯德拉斯要指出他作為其作者。 Hence most Catholic authors still adhere to Esdrine authorship, and place the time of composition at the end of the fifth or at the beginning of the fourth century BC因此,大多數天主教作家仍堅持Esdrine作者,並把時間組成的第五年年底或年初的公元前4世紀

HISTORICAL VALUE歷史價值

The reliability of the Books of Paralipomenon as a historical work has been severely attacked by such critics as de Wette, Wellhausen etc. The author is accused of exaggeration, of misrepresenting facts, and even of appealing to imaginary documents.的可靠性圖書Paralipomenon作為一個歷史的工作也受到嚴重攻擊,這種批評是日Wette ,豪森等作者被指控誇張,歪曲事實的,甚至呼籲虛文件。 This harsh judgment has been considerably mitigated by more recent writers of the same school, who, while admitting errors, absolve the author of intentional misrepresentation.這一嚴酷的判決已經大大緩解了最近的作家,而在同一學校,誰,雖然承認錯誤,推卸的作者故意謊報。 The objections urged against the books cannot be examined here in detail; a few general remarks in vindication of their truthfulness must suffice.反對敦促對書籍不能在這裡詳細審查;少數一般性發言中證明其真實性必須不夠。 In the first place, the books have suffered at the hands of copyists; textual errors in names and in numbers, which latter originally were only indicated by letters, are especially numerous.首先,圖書遭受的手中copyists ;文字錯誤的名稱和數量,其中後者最初只是表明信件,尤其許多。 Gross exaggerations, such as the slaying of 7000 charioteers (1 Chronicles 19:18) as against 700 in 2 Samuel 10:18 and the impossibly large armies mentioned in 2 Chronicles 13:3, are plainly to be attributed to this cause.總的誇張,如魯維亞7000 charioteers (歷代誌上19:18 )對700撒母耳記下10:18和軍隊不可能大型中提到歷代誌下13時03 ,顯然應歸於這一事業。 In the next place, if the sections common to Paralipomenon and the Books of Kings are compared, substantial agreement is found to exist between them.其次,如果部分共同Paralipomenon和圖書的國王相比,大量的協議,發現它們之間存在。 If the author, then, reproduces his sources with substantial accuracy in the cases where his statements can be controlled by comparing them with those of another writer who has used the same documents, there is no reason to suspect that he acted differently in the case of other sources.如果作者,那麼,他的消息來源抄錄了大量準確的情況下,他的聲明是可以控制的比較與另一作家誰使用了同樣的文件,沒有任何理由懷疑他採取不同的情況下其他來源。 His custom of referring his readers to the documents from which he has drawn his information should leave no doubt on the subject.他的習慣,他的讀者提到的文件,他已引起他的資料應沒有任何疑問的主題。 In the third place, the omission of the facts not to the credit of the pious kings (eg the adultery of David) is due to the object which the author has in view, and proves no more against his truthfulness than the omission of the history of the northern tribes.第三,遺漏的事實而不是信貸的虔誠的國王(如通姦的大衛)是由於物體作者看法,並證明對他沒有真比遺漏的歷史北部部落。 He did not intend to write a full history of the kings of Juda, but a history for the purpose of edification. Hence, in speaking of the kings whom he proposes as models, he naturally omits details which are not edifying.他不打算寫全部歷史國王的猶大,而是一個歷史的目的是啟發。因此,在談到他的國王提出的模型,他自然忽略細節尚未啟發。 Such a presentation, while one-sided, is no more untruthful than a panegyric in which the foibles of the subject are passed over. The picture is correct as far as it goes, only it is not complete.這樣的介紹,而片面的,沒有更多的不實比頌其中foibles的主題是過去了。圖片是正確的就不用,只有它是不完整。

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.出版信息作者:樓貝克特爾。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.轉錄由Sean海侖。天主教百科全書,第十一。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


Book of Chronicles圖書的編年史

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Title.標題。

-Critical View.臨界查看。

Authorship and Date.作者和日期。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

The two books of Chronicles form a history of the Temple and its priesthood, and of the house of David and the tribe of Judah, as guardians of the Temple, with references to the other tribes, and with some connected material.這兩本書的編年史形式的歷史,廟宇及其牧師和眾議院大衛和部落猶太,作為監護人的聖殿,並提到了其他部落,和一些有關的材料。 The contents may be briefly summarized as follows:其內容可概括如下:

(a) I Chron. (一)我專欄。 i-ix.一至九。 contain chiefly genealogies, from Adam, through Noah's sons, and then particularly through the line of Shem to Esau and Israel and their descendants.包含主要族譜,從亞當,通過諾亞的兒子,然後尤其是通過線閃到以掃,以色列和他們的後裔。 The last twelve verses of ch.在過去的12詩句的CH 。 i. contain a list of Edomitish kings and chiefs.一載有名單Edomitish國王和酋長。 Brief narratives from various periods are interspersed among the genealogies (eg, ii. 23; iv. 9, 10, 39-43; v. 9, 10, 18-22, 25, 26).簡短說明各期之間的穿插族譜(如二。 23 ;四。 9 , 10 , 39-43 ;五, 9 , 10 , 18日至22日, 25日, 26日) 。 The last genealogy in this collection, ix.過去在這個家譜的收集,九。 35-44, that of Saul's family, forms a kind of transition to the following section. 35-44歲,即掃羅的家庭,形成了一種過渡到下面一節。

(b) I Chron. ( b )本人專欄。 x.-xxix.十,第29屆。 This section is concerned with David's reign, the introduction being the last battle and the death of Saul (x. 1-12, parallel to I Sam. xxxi. 1-13), and the conclusion, the accession of Solomon (xxiii. 1; xxviii. 5 et seq.; xxix. 22 et seq.).本節是關於大衛的統治,實行的最後戰鬥和死亡的索爾(十1月12日,平行我薩姆。三十一。 1月13日) ,以及最後,加入所羅門( xxiii. 1 ;二十八。 5起。 ;二十九。 22起。 ) 。

(c) II Chron. (三)二專欄。 i.-ix. is devoted to Solomon's reign.致力於所羅門統治。 The first chapter speaks of his sacrifice at Gibeon (vs. 1-13) and Solomon's splendor (vs. 14-17).第一章談到了他的犧牲在基遍(與1月13日)和所羅門的輝煌(對14-17 ) 。 The building of the Temple is described in ch.建設的寺是描述在CH 。 ii.-iv., and its dedication in v. 1-14. ii.-iv. ,並致力於在五, 1月14日。 The following chapters speak of Solomon's prayer, vision, sacrifices, glory, and in ix.以下章節談論所羅門群島的祈禱,遠見,犧牲,榮譽,並在九。 31 the death of Solomon is mentioned. 31日死亡的所羅門提到。

(d) II Chron. (四)二專欄。 x.-xxxvi.十,三十六。 contains the history of the kingdom of Judah down to the fall of Jerusalem, with the division of the kingdoms as preface, and the restoration-edict of Cyrus as appendix (viz., x. 1-19, accession of Rehoboam and division of the kingdom; xi. xii., Rehoboam; xiii. 1-22, Abijah; xiv.-xvi., Asa; xvii.-xx., Jehoshaphat; xxi., Jehoram;xxii. 1-9, Ahaziah; xxii. 10-12, xxiii., Athaliah; xxiv., Joash; xxv., Amaziah; xxvi., Uzziah; xxvii., Jotham; xxviii., Ahaz; xxix-xxxii., Hezekiah; xxxiii. 1-20, Manasseh; xxxiii. 21-25, Amon; xxxiv., xxxv., Josiah; xxxvi. 1-3, Jehoahaz; xxxvi. 4-8, Jehoiakim; xxxvi. 9, 10, Jehoiachin; xxxvi. 11-13, Zedekiah; xxxvi. 17-21, fall of Jerusalem; xxxvi. 22, 23, restoration-edict of Cyrus.包含的歷史,猶太王國到秋天耶路撒冷,司演義為序,並恢復,法令居魯士作為附錄(即,十1月19日,加入Rehoboam和司英國;十一。十二。 , Rehoboam ;十三。 1月22日, Abijah ; xiv. -十六。 ,阿沙; xvii.-xx. , Jehoshaphat ;二十一。 , Jehoram ;二十二。 1月9日, Ahaziah ;二十二。 10 - 12日,二十三。 , Athaliah ;二十四。 ,喬阿什;二十五。 , Amaziah ;二十六。 , Uzziah ;二十七。 ,喬薩姆;二十八。 , Ahaz ;第29屆,三十二。 , Hezekiah ;三十三。 1月20日,瑪;三十三。 21 -25 ,阿蒙;三十四。 ,三十五。 ,喬賽亞;三十六。 1-3 , Jehoahaz ;三十六。 4月8日, Jehoiakim ;三十六。 9日, 10日, Jehoiachin ;三十六。 11月13日, Zedekiah ;三十六。 17-21屬於耶路撒冷;三十六。 22日, 23日,恢復,法令居魯士。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Rabbinical literature does not recognize the division of Chronicles into two books.猶太教文學不承認司納尼亞到兩本書。 In BB 15a it is named as one ), and the Masorah counts the verse I Chron.在BB心跳15A條已改名為1 ) ,以及Masorah計數的詩句我專欄。 xxvii.二十七。 25 as the middle of the book. Tradition regards this one book as consisting of two unequal parts; viz., (1) lists largely of a genealogical nature with brief historical details; and (2) an extensive history of the kings in Jerusalem. 25中東的書籍。傳統認為這是一本書組成的兩個不平等的地方;即。 , ( 1 )列出了主要的家譜性質與簡單的歷史細節;和( 2 )廣泛的歷史,國王在耶路撒冷。 The authorship of the first part, which is designated "Yaḥas" ( = "genealogy") of the "Dibre ha-Yamim" is ascribed to Ezra (BB 15a).作者的第一部分,這是指定的“ Yaḥas ” ( = “家譜” )的“ Dibre河Yamim ”原因是以斯拉( BB心跳15A條) 。 In Pes.在瘟。 62b this part is connected with a Midrash and quoted as ("Book of the Descents"); while Rashi names the Midrash (), "Mishnah of Dibre ha-Yamim," etc., which, according to him, contained expositions of certain passages of the Torah. 62b這一部分是與一米德拉士和引述( “圖書的下降” ) ;而Rashi名稱米德拉士( ) , “米示拿的Dibre河Yamim ”等,其中,據他說,載有某些論述通道的律法。 This part was not to be explained to the men of Lud nor to those of Nehardea, for reasons not stated; perhaps it was feared that these interpretations might meet with irreverence.這部分是不能解釋的男子Lud ,也不是Nehardea的原因,沒有說明,也許有人擔心,這些解釋可能與不敬。

On the whole, Chronicles was regarded with suspicion; its historical accuracy was doubted by the Talmudic authorities, it being held to be a book for homiletic interpretation, (Lev. R. i. 3; Ruth R. ii., beginning; compare Meg. 13a).從總體上看,歷代被視為懷疑;其歷史準確性懷疑的塔木德當局,它被認為是一本書的homiletic解釋, ( Lev.河島3 ;露絲河二。開始;比較梅格。 13A條) 。 The names were treated with great freedom; and many which clearly belonged to different persons were declared to indicate one and the same man or woman (Soṭah 12a; Ex. R. i. 17, et passim).治療的名字非常自由;和許多這顯然屬於不同的人被宣布為表明同一個男人還是女人( Soṭah 12A條;前。河一17等各處) 。 Numerous as these fanciful interpretations of verses in Chronicles are in Talmudic-Midrashic literature, the loss of many similar expositions was deplored (Pes. 62b).許多解釋,因為這些幻想中的詩句是在塔木德編年史- Midrashic文學,喪失許多類似的論述表示遺憾( Pes. 62b ) 。 EGH歐洲加沙醫院

Title.標題。

-Critical View.臨界查看。

-I.一。 Position in Old Testament Literature: Chronicles, which in the Hebrew canon consists of a single book, is called in the Hebrew Bible ("Annals"); in the LXX.-Codex B, παραλειπομέω ("of things left out"); Codex A adds (τῶ) βασιλέω ιοδà ("concerning the kings of Judah"); ie, a supplement to the Book of Kings; in the Vulgate, Liber Primus (and Secundus) "Paralipomenon."位置在舊約文學:編年史,它在希伯來文佳能是一個單獨的書,被稱為在希伯來文聖經( “春秋” ) ;在LXX. -法典乙, παραλειπομέ  ω  ( “的東西排除在外” ) ;法典甲增加( τῶ  ) βασιλέω  ιο  δà ( “關於國王的猶太” ) ;即補充圖書的國王;在武加大,書普里穆斯(和Secundus ) “ Paralipomenon 。 ” The modern title "Chronicles" was suggested by Jerome's speaking of the book in his "Prologus Galeatus" as "Chronicon totius divinæ historiæ."現代的標題是“納尼亞”建議傑爾姆的講這本書在他的“ Prologus Galeatus ”作為“ Chronicon totius divinæ historiæ 。 ” The book belongs to the Hagiographa, or "Ketubim," the third and latest-formed section of the Hebrew canon.這本書屬於Hagiographa ,或“ Ketubim , ”第三和最新成立的部分希伯來語佳能。 The view that its canonicity was matter of discussion among the Jews seems to rest on insufficient evidence (Buhl, "Kanon und Text des AT" Eng. ed., p. 31).認為它是正規的討論事項的猶太人似乎休息證據不足(布爾, “加隆與文字之於”工程。男女。 ,第31頁) 。 In Hebrew lists, manuscripts, and printed Bibles, Chronicles is placed either first (Western or Palestinian practise, as in the St. Petersburg Codex), or last (Eastern or Babylonian, as in the Babylonian Talmud); see Ginsburg, "Introduction," pp.希伯來文清單,手稿,印刷聖經,納尼亞放在要么第一(西方或巴勒斯坦執業,如在聖彼得堡法典) ,或最後(東區或巴比倫,在巴比倫塔木德) ;見金斯伯格, “導言, “頁。 1-8. 1-8 。 In Greek and Latin lists, and in manuscripts and editions of the LXX.在希臘和拉丁名單,並在手稿和版本的LXX 。 and Vulgate, Chronicles usually follows Kings; the exceptions are more numerous in the Latin lists (Swete, "The Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint," Introduction, pp. 201-230). Chronicles, originally a single work, is first found divided into two books in Codices A and B of the LXX., which were followed by subsequent versions, and ultimately by printed editions of the Hebrew text.和武加大,歷代國王通常如下的例外是多在拉丁美洲名單( Swete , “舊約中希根據七十, ”導言,頁。 201-230 ) 。編年史,原來單一的工作,首先是發現分為書籍Codices A和B LXX 。 ,這之後,隨後的版本,並最終以印刷版的希伯來文。 It is part of a larger work, Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah, composed (see Section II.) in the Greek period between the death of Alexander (BC 323) and the revolt of the Maccabees (BC 167).這是一個更大的工作,編年史,以斯拉,尼希米記,組成(見第二節。 )在希臘期間死亡的亞歷山大(公元前323 )和反抗的馬加比(公元前167 ) 。 It expresses the piety of the Temple community, and their interest in its services and history.它表達了虔誠的寺社區,他們的興趣,它的服務和歷史。 They felt that the services had reached an ideal perfection, and were led to think of the "good kings" as having shaped their religious policy according to this ideal. Probably the author of Chronicles did not intend to supersede Samuel and Kings.他們認為,服務已達到一個理想的完美,並導致認為的“好國王”有型的宗教政策根據這一理想。也許編年史的作者並不打算取代薩穆埃爾和國王。 There are slight traces of Chronicles in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), (eg, xlvii. 8 et seq.; compare I Chron. xxv.); perhaps also in Philo (see Ryle, "Philo and Holy Scriptures," pp. 286 et seq.), and in the NT (for example, compare II Chron. xxiv. 21 with Matt. xxiii. 35).有輕微的痕跡,納尼亞在Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach ) , (例如,四十七。 8起。 ;比較我專欄。二十五。 ) ;或許也斐羅(見賴爾, “斐洛和聖經” ,頁。 286條及以後各條。 ) ,並在新台幣(例如,比較二專欄。二十四。 21馬特。二十三。 35 ) 。 The references to Samuel-Kings are more numerous.提到塞繆爾國王多。 The omission (see Swete, lcp 227) of Chronicles from some Christian lists of canonical books is probably accidental.遺漏(見Swete ,液晶227 )的編年史從一些典型基督教書籍清單可能是偶然的。

Authorship and Date.作者和日期。

II.二。 Composition:成分:

(a) Relation to Ezra-Nehemiah. (一)關係以斯拉,尼希米記。 Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah were originally a single work.編年史,以斯拉和尼希米記最初單一的工作。 This is shown by the identity of style, theological standpoint, and ecclesiastical interests, as well as by the fact that Chronicles concludes with a portion of a paragraph (II Chron. xxxvi. 22, 23) which is repeated and completed in Ezra i. 1-4.這是所表現出的風格特徵,神學的角度來看,和教會的利益,以及一個事實,即納尼亞最後部分的第( ii專欄。三十六。 22日, 23日)這是重複和完成以斯拉島1-4 。 Comparison shows that Chronicles ends in the middle of a sentence.比較結果表明,歷代結束在中東的一個句子。 The division of the original work arose from the diverse nature of its contents: Chronicles was merely a less interesting edition of Samuel-Kings; but Ezra-Nehemiah contained history not otherwise accessible.該司的原創作品產生於不同性質的內容:納尼亞只是一個更感興趣版塞繆爾國王;但以斯拉,尼希米記載歷史不能使用。 Hence readers desired Ezra-Nehemiah alone; and Chronicles (from its position in many manuscripts, etc., after Nehemiah) only obtained its place in the canon by an afterthought.因此,讀者期望以斯拉,尼希米記單;和編年史(從它的立場在許多手稿等,經過尼希米記)只獲得了在佳能的事後。

(b) Author. (二)作者。 The author's name is unknown; the ascription by some Peshiṭta manuscripts to "Johanan the priest," perhaps the Johanan of Neh.作者姓名不詳;歸屬一些Peshiṭta手稿“ Johanan神父, ”也許是Johanan的Neh 。 xii.十二。 23 (Barnes, "Chronicles," p. xii., in "Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges"; idem, "An Apparatus Criticus to Chronicles in the Peshiṭta Version," p. 1), can have no weight. 23 (巴恩斯, “編年史” ,第十二。 ,在“劍橋聖經學校和學院” ;同上, “裝置Criticus ,以編年史的Peshiṭta版本”第1頁) ,可以沒有任何重量。 From the keen interest shown in the inferior officials of the Temple, especially the singers, the author seems to have been a Levite, possibly one of the Temple choir.從表現出的濃厚興趣的劣勢官員寺,特別是歌星,作者似乎是一個利未人,可能是一個寺合唱團。

(c) Date. (三)日期。 Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah must be later than the times of Ezra and Nehemiah (458-432).納尼亞-以斯拉,尼希米記必須不遲於時代的以斯拉和尼希米記( 458-432 ) 。 In style and language the book belongs to the latest period of Biblical Hebrew.在風格和語言的圖書屬於最新的時期聖經希伯來語。 The descendants of Zerubbabel (I Chron. iii. 24) are given, in the Masoretic text, to the sixth generation (about BC 350); in the LXX., Syriac, and Vulgate, to the eleventh generation after Zerubbabel (about BC 200).後裔Zerubbabel (一專欄。三。 24 ) ,給出了在馬所拉文本,到第六代(約公元前350 ) ;在LXX 。 ,敘利亞,和武加大,第十一代Zerubbabel (約公元前200 ) 。 The list of high priests in Neh.清單的高神父在Neh 。 xii.十二。 10, 11, extends to Jaddua (c. 330). These lists might, indeed, have beenmade up to date after the book was completed; but other considerations point conclusively to the Greek period; eg, in Ezra vi. 10日, 11日,擴展到Jaddua (角330 ) 。這些名單可能,事實上,有beenmade最新的這本書後,已經完成,但其他方面的考慮點地向希臘時期;例如,在以斯拉六。 22, Darius is called "the king of Assyria." 22日,達賴是所謂的“亞述國王。 ” On the other hand, the use of the book in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) referred to above, the absence of any trace of the Maccabean struggle, and the use of the LXX.另一方面,使用這本書在Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach )上面提到的,沒有任何痕跡的Maccabean的鬥爭,以及使用LXX 。 Chronicles by Eupolemus (c. BC 150; see Swete, lcp 24), point to a date not later than BC 200.納尼亞的Eupolemus (約公元前150 ;見Swete ,液晶24 ) ,指向一個日期不晚於公元前200 。 Hence Chronicles is usually assigned to the period BC 300-250.因此納尼亞通常是分配給該時期公元前300-250 。

see I Chronicles.看,我編年史。

see II Chronicles.看到歷代。

(d) Sources. (四)資金來源。 Chronicles contains (see Section I.) much material found, often word for word, in other books of the Bible, and has also frequent references to other authorities.編年史載(見第一節)發現很多材料,往往一字,在其他書籍的聖經,也經常提到其他當局。 In regard to these sources, the contents may be classified thus: (A) passages taken from other OT books, with textual or editorial changes, the latter sometimes important; (B) passages based upon sections of other OT books, largely recast; (C) passages supposed on internal evidence to have been taken from or based on ancient sources, no longer extant and not much later than the close of the Exile, and in some cases perhaps earlier (see classification, p. 62); (D) passages supposed on internal evidence to be the work of latepost-exilic writers (compare ib.).在對這些資料來源,內容可劃分為: (一)段落取自其他加時賽書籍,或與文字編輯上的改動,後者有時是重要的; (二)根據章節段落其他加時賽書籍,基本上改寫; (丙類)的內部通道提供的證據已採取或基於古老的來源,再也沒有多少現存的和最遲結束流亡,在某些情況下也許是較早(見分類,第62頁) ; (四)通道假定內部證據的工作, latepost -放逐作家(比較國際文憑。 ) 。 In the preceding table space prevents the presentation of details.在前面的表空間阻止介紹細節。 In C and D, Kittel's analysis in "SBOT" is mostly followed, but not in all details, nor in his separation of the D material into various strata.在C和D ,基特爾的分析“ SBOT ”主要是其次,但並不是在所有的細節,也沒有在他離職的D材料到各個階層。 Small portions from extant books embedded in B, C, and D are not indicated. The non-Biblical sources may be classified thus:從現存的一小部分圖書嵌入式在B , C和D都沒有表明。非聖經來源可劃分為:

(1) An earlier historical work cited as: "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel" (II Chron. xvi. 11, xxv. 26, xxviii. 26); "The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah" (ib. xxvii. 7, xxxv. 26); "The Acts of the Kings of Israel" (ib. xxxiii. 18); and perhaps also as "The Midrash of the Book of Kings" (ib. xxiv. 27). ( 1 )早期歷史工作列為: “這本書的國王猶太和以色列的” (二專欄。十六。 11 , 25 。 26日,二十八。 26 ) ; “這本書的國王以色列和猶太” (國際文憑。二十七。 7 ,三十五。 26 ) ; “的行為,以色列國王” ( ib.三十三。 18 ) ; ,或許也為“米德拉士的圖書的國王” ( ib.二十四。 27 ) 。

(2) Sections of a similar history of David and Solomon (unless these references are to that portion of the former work which dealt with these kings), cited as: "The Words of Samuel the Seer" (I Chron. xxix. 29); "The Words of Nathan the Prophet" (ib.; II Chron. ix. 29); and "The Words of Gad the Seer" (I Chron. xxix. 29). ( 2 )第一個類似的歷史,大衛和所羅門(除非這些提法是這部分前工作,其中涉及這些國王) ,引為: “的話塞繆爾的先知” (我專欄。二十九。 29 ) “的話彌敦道先知” ( ib. ;二專欄。九。 29 ) ;和“的話蓋德的先知” (我專欄。二十九。 29 ) 。

(3) Sections of "The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," and possibly of other similar works, cited as: "The Words of Shemaiah the Prophet and of Iddo the Seer" (II Chron. xii. 15); "The Words of Jehu the Son of Hanani" (ib. xx. 34); "The Words of the Seers" (LXX., RV, margin); "of his Seers" ("SBOT"); "of Hozai" (II Chron. xxxiii. 19-20, RV); "The Vision of Iddo the Seer" (ib. ix. 29); "The Vision of Isaiah the Prophet" (ib. xxxii. 32); "The Midrash of the Prophet Iddo (ib. xiii. 22); "The Acts of Uzziah, Written by Isaiah the Prophet" (ib. xxvi. 22); and "The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite" (ib. ix. 29). ( 3 )第的“這本書的國王以色列和猶太” ,並可能對其他類似工程,引為: “的話Shemaiah先知和Iddo的先知” (二專欄。十二。 15 ) ; “的話Jehu的兒子Hanani “ ( ib.二十。 34 ) ; ”的話西爾斯“ ( LXX. ,風疹病毒,保證金) ; ”他西爾斯“ ( ” SBOT “ ) ; ”的Hozai “ (二專欄。三十三。 19-20 ,風疹病毒) ; “視野Iddo的先知” ( ib.九。 29 ) ; “視野以賽亞先知” ( ib.三十二。 32 ) ; “的米德拉士先知Iddo ( ib.十三。 22 ) ; “的行為Uzziah撰寫的以賽亞先知” ( ib.二十六。 22 ) ;和“預言Ahijah的Shilonite ” ( ib.九。 29 ) 。

In the absence of numbered divisions like the present chapters and verses, portions of the work are indicated by the name of the prophet who figures in it-probably because the Prophets were supposed to have been the annalists (ib. xxvi. 22).由於缺乏有分歧,如本章節和詩句,其中的部分工作是靠名字誰先知數字信息技術可能是因為先知被假定已經在annalists ( ib.二十六。 22 ) 。 Thus, "the Vision of Isaiah" is said to be in "The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel"; and "the Words of Jehu the son of Hanani," inserted in "The Book of the Kings of Israel."因此, “視野以賽亞”據說是在“這本書的國王猶太和以色列”和“詞Jehu的兒子Hanani , ”插入“這本書的國王以色列。 ”

Thus the main source of Chronicles seems to have been a late post-exilic Midrashic history of the kings of Judah and Israel. Possibly, this had been divided into histories of David and Solomon, and of the later kings.因此,主要來源納尼亞似乎已經太晚後放逐Midrashic歷史國王猶太和以色列。也許,這已被分為歷史的大衛和所羅門,和後來的國王。 The author may also have used a collection of genealogies; and perhaps additions were made to the book after it was substantially complete.作者也可用於收集族譜;也許增加了這本書作出後,大致完成。 In dealing with matter not found in other books it is difficult to distinguish between matter which the chronicler found in his source, matter which he added himself, and later additions, as all the authors concerned wrote in the same spirit and style; but it may perhaps be concluded that details about Levites, porters, and singers are the work of the chronicler (compare Section III. of this article).在處理此事中沒有發現其他書籍是很難區分的記錄者的問題,發現在他的來源,問題,他說他自己,和後來的補充,因為所有有關的作者寫道:在同樣的精神和作風,但也可能也許可以得出結論,細節利,搬運工,和歌手的工作,記錄者(比較第三節。本條) 。

III.三。 Relationship to Samuel-Kings:與塞繆爾國王:

(a) Comparison of Contents. (一)內容的比較。 Chronicles omits most of the material relating to Saul and the northern kingdom, including the accounts of Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha, and most of what is to the discredit of the "good kings"; eg, the story of Bathsheba.納尼亞忽略大多數有關的材料和北部掃羅王國,包括賬戶的塞繆爾,以利亞和以利沙,而且大多數是在敗壞的“好國王” ;例如,拔示巴的故事。 Chronicles adds (see table, B and D) long accounts of the Temple, its priests and its services, and of the observance of the Pentateuchal laws; also records of sins which account for the misfortunes of "good kings"-eg, the apostasy of Joash (II Chron. xxiv.); of the misfortunes which punished the sins of "bad kings"-eg, the invasions in the reign of Ahaz (ib. xxviii.); and of the repentance which resulted in the long reign of Manasseh (ib. xxxiii.); besides numerous genealogies and statistics.納尼亞增加(見表, B和D )長期帳目寺,其司鐸和服務,以及遵守Pentateuchal法律;還記錄罪孽佔不幸的“好國王” ,例如,叛教的喬阿什(二專欄。二十四。 ) ;的不幸而受到懲罰的罪過“壞國王” ,例如,入侵時期Ahaz ( ib.二十八。 ) ;和懺悔導致長期統治索加瓦里( ib.三十三。 ) ;除了眾多的族譜和統計。 Chronicles has numerous other alterations tending, like the additions and omissions, to show that the "good kings" observed the law of Moses, and were righteous and prosperous (compare ib. viii. 2 and I Kings ix. 10, 11; see also below).歷代有許多其他的改變趨勢,如增加和遺漏,以表明“好國王”觀察摩西律法,而且正義與繁榮的(比較國際文憑。八。 2和王九。 10 , 11 ;又見下文) 。

(b) Literary Connection. (二)文學連接。 It might seem natural to identify the main source of Chronicles with Samuel-Kings, or with "The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" and "The Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah," frequently referred to in Kings.似乎自然確定的主要來源納尼亞塞繆爾國王,或與“這本書的歷代國王的以色列”和“圖書的納尼亞國王猶太” ,經常提到的國王。 But the principal source can not have been Kings, because "The Book of the Kings" is sometimes said to contain material not in Kings-eg, the wars of Jotham (II Chron. xxvii. 7); neither can it have been the "Chronicles" cited in Kings, because it is styled "Midrash" (AV, "story"; RV, "commentary"), which was a late form of Jewish literature (II Chron. xiii. 22, xxiv. 27).但主要來源不能被國王隊,因為“這本書的國王” ,有時說,不包含材料國王,例如,戰爭的喬薩姆(二專欄。二十七。 7 ) ;既不能一直“編年史“中提到的國王,因為它稱為”米德拉士“ (視聽, ”故事“ ;風疹病毒, ”評注“ ) ,這是一個晚期形式猶太文學(二專欄。十三。 22 , 24 。 27 ) 。 This main source, "The Book of the Kings," is therefore commonly supposed (see II. d) to have been a postexilic work similar in style and spirit to Chronicles.這主要來源, “這本書的國王” ,因此普遍支持(見二。 d )為了postexilic類似的工作作風和精神,以編年史。 The relation of this source to Kings is difficult to determine.的關係,這一來源的國王是難以確定。 It is clear that Chronicles contains matter taken either directly or indirectly from Kings, because it includes verses inserted by the editor of Kings (compare II Chron. xiv. 1, 2 and I Kings xv. 8, 11).很顯然,無論採取編年史包含直接或間接地從國王,因為它包括詩句插入編輯國王(比較二專欄。十四。 1 ,第2和王十五。 8日, 11日) 。 Either Chronicles used Kings and "The Book of the Kings," both of which works used the older "Chronicles" (so Driver, "Introduction to the Literature of the OT" 6th ed., p. 532), or Chronicles used "The Book of the Kings," which had used both Kings and the older "Chronicles," or works based on them.或是歷代國王和使用“這本書的國王” ,這兩項工程使用的是舊式的“編年史” (所謂驅動程序, “文學概論的催產素”第6版。 ,第532頁) ,或用編年史“的圖書的國王“ ,其中使用了兩個國王和老年人”編年史“ ,或工程的基礎上他們。

(c) Text. ( c )文本。 It is not always possible to distinguish minor editorial changes from textual errors; but, when the former have been eliminated, Chronicles presents an alternative text for the passages common to it and Samuel-Kings.並非總是能夠區分小改動的文字錯誤,但是,當前已經被淘汰,歷代介紹了替代案文的段落,並共同塞繆爾國王。 As in the case of two manuscripts, sometimes the one text, sometimes the other, is correct.至於兩個手稿,有時一個文字,有時另一方面,是正確的。 For example, I Chron.例如,我專欄。 xviii.十八。 3 has, wrongly, "Hadarezer," where II Sam. viii. 3 ,錯誤, “ Hadarezer ” ,其中二三。八。 3 has "Hadadezer"; but conversely I Chron. 3 “ Hadadezer ” ;但相反我專欄。 xvii.十七。 6 has, rightly, "judges," where II Sam. 6 ,正確的, “法官” ,其中二山姆。 vii.七。 7 has "tribes." 7 “部落。 ”

IV.四。 Historical Value:歷史價值:

(a) Omissions. (一)遺漏。 Almost all these are explained by the chronicler's anxiety to edify his readers (compare Section III. a); and they in no way discredit the narratives omitted.幾乎所有這些都說明了記錄者的焦慮,以陶冶他的讀者(比較第三節。一) ,他們絕不貶低說明省略。

(b) Contradictions. (二)矛盾。 Where Chronicles contradicts Samuel-Kings preference must be given to the older work, except where the text of the latter is clearly corrupt.凡違背塞繆爾歷代國王偏好必須考慮到老年人的工作,除非案文,後者顯然是腐敗。 With the same exception, it may be assumed that sections of the primitive "Chronicles" are much more accurately preserved in Samuel-Kings than in Chronicles.以同樣的例外,可以假定,部分原始的“編年史”更準確地保存在塞繆爾國王比編年史。

(c) Additions. (三)補充。 The passages which describe theTemple ritual and priesthood and the observance of the Pentateuchal law before the Exile are a translation of ancient history into the terms of the chronicler's own experience.通道描述theTemple儀式和祭司和遵守法律的Pentateuchal流亡的前翻譯成古代歷史條件的記錄者本身的經驗。 The prophetical admonitions and other speeches are the chronicler's exposition of the religious significance of past history according to a familiar convention of ancient literature.該預言的告誡和其他發言的記錄者的論述的宗教意義的歷史據熟悉公約的古代文學。 Such material is most valuable: it gives unique information as to the Temple and the religious ideas of the early Greek period.這種材料是最寶貴的:它獨特的信息,以寺和宗教思想的早期希臘時期。 Most of the material included under C in Section II. d, above has apparently been borrowed from an older source, and may constitute an addition to present knowledge of pre-exilic Israelitish history.多數材料列入C在第二。 D ,上面明顯地從舊借款來源,並可能構成除了本知識前放逐Israelitish歷史。 The religious and other interests of the chronicler and his main source do not seem to account for the origin of the genealogies, statistics, accounts of buildings, etc., in C. The character of another set of additions is not so clear; viz., Abijah's victory (II Chron. xiii.), Zerah's invasion (ib. xiv., xv.), and Manasseh's captivity (ib. xxxiii.).宗教和其他利益的記錄者和他的主要來源似乎沒有考慮到原產地的族譜,統計,核算的建築物等,在角的性質另一套是增加不是很清楚;即。 , Abijah的勝利(二專欄。十三。 ) Zerah入侵( ib.十四。 ,十五。 )和瑪的囚禁( ib.三十三。 ) 。 However little the chronicler may have cared about writing scientific history, the fact that he narrates an incident not mentioned elsewhere does not prove it to be imaginary.但是很少的記錄者可能關心書面科學史的事實,他敘述了事件沒有提到其他地方不能證明它是虛構的。 Kings is fragmentary; and its editors had views as to edification different from those of the chronicler (see Judges), which might lead them to omit what their successor would restore.國王是零散的,而且它的編輯了看法熏陶不同於記錄者(見法官) ,這可能會導致他們忽略他們的繼任者將恢復。 Driver and others hold that Chronicles is connected with early sources by another line than that through Kings (note also C, Section II. d).司機和其他人認為是與歷代早期來源的一條生產線比通過國王(還注意到節二。 D ) 。 Hence the silence of Kings is not conclusive against these additions.因此,保持沉默,沒有下結論,國王對這些增加。 Nevertheless, such narratives, in the present state of knowledge, rest on the unsupported testimony of a very late and uncritical authority.然而,這樣的說明,在當前的知識狀態,其餘的不支持的證詞很晚盲目權威。 Much turns on internal evidence, which has been very variously interpreted.許多原來對內部的證據,這是非常不同的解釋。 Some recognize a historical basis for these narratives (WE Barnes, in "Cambridge Bible," pp. xxx. et seq.; AH Sayce, "The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments," p. 465); others regard them as wholly unhistorical (see "Chronicles, Books of," in "Encyc. Bibl.").一些認識歷史的基礎上對這些說明(我們巴恩斯在“劍橋聖經”頁。三十。起。 ;架AH Sayce , “在批判與裁決的紀念物” ,第465頁) ;其他方面為全unhistorical (見“納尼亞,書, ”在“ Encyc 。 Bibl 。 ” ) 。 As to Chronicles in general, Professor Sayce writes (lcp 464): "The consistent exaggeration of numbers on the part of the chronicler shows us that from a historical point of view his unsupported statements must be received with caution. But they do not justify the accusations of deliberate fraud and 'fiction' which have been brought against him. What they prove is that he did not possess that sense of historical exactitude which we now demand from the historian."至於納尼亞一般來說,教授Sayce寫道(液晶464 )說: “毫不誇張的數字相一致的部分記錄者告訴我們,從歷史角度來看,他不支持的聲明必須得到持謹慎態度。但他們並不證明指控故意欺詐和'小說'已對他起訴。他們證明,是因為他不具備這個意義上的歷史精密我們現在的需求歷史學家。 “

Emil G. Hirsch WH Bennett埃米爾赫斯基武漢班尼特灣

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

R. Kittel, The Books of Chronicles in Hebrew, in SBOT ed.河基特爾,帳簿納尼亞希伯來文,在SBOT版。 Haupt, 1895; WH Bennett, The Books of Chronicles, in The Expositor's Bible, 1894; F.豪普特, 1895年;武漢貝內特,帳簿編年史,在Expositor的聖經, 1894年;樓 Brown, Chronicles, I. and II., in Hastings, Dict.布朗編年史,一和二。 ,在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bible, 1898; SR Driver, Chronicles, Books of, in Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bibl.聖經, 1898年;簡驅動,方志,圖書,在陳和黑色, Encyc 。 Bibl 。 1899.EGHWHB


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