Book of Baruch書巴魯克

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha 一本書,舊約偽經

General Information 一般信息

Baruch, considered a canonical book of the Bible by Roman Catholics, follows the Book of Lamentations.巴魯克,視為一個典型的圖書聖經的羅馬天主教徒,如下書耶利米哀歌。 It is not found in the Hebrew Bible and is included in the Apocrypha by Protestants.這是沒有找到在希伯來文聖經,並包括在偽經的新教徒。 The book, a brief compilation of verses from the books of Job, Daniel, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, is named after Baruch (fl. 600 BC), secretary of the prophet Jeremiah.這本書,簡要彙編詩句從書本作業,丹尼爾,以賽亞和耶利米,命名巴魯克( fl.公元前600年) ,秘書長的先知耶利米。 Its dependence upon later works such as Daniel, however, suggests a composition date in the 2d century BC. Written in three sections, it contains liturgical prayers and a homily on wisdom.其依賴以後的作品如丹尼爾,不過,提出了組成迄今為止,在公元前2世紀。書面的三個部分,它包含禮儀祈禱和講道的智慧。


Book of Baruch書巴魯克

General Information 一般信息

Baruch is a book of the Old Testament in those versions of the Bible following the Septuagint (generally Roman Catholic and Orthodox). Baruch is included with the Apocrypha in the King James Version; it does not appear in the Hebrew Bible.巴魯克是一本書舊約在這些版本的聖經譯本後(一般羅馬天主教和東正教) 。巴魯克附帶偽經的國王詹姆斯版本,它不會出現在希伯來聖經。 The book is attributed to Baruch, trusted friend and secretary of the prophet Jeremiah. Addressed to the Jews exiled in Babylon, the work was written partly in prose and partly in poetry.這本書的原因是巴魯克,可信賴的朋友和秘書先知耶利米。給流亡在巴比倫的猶太人,是書面的工作,部分在散文和詩歌中的部分。 The prose section (1-3:8) comprises an admission of sin, a promise of deliverance after repentance, and a prayer asking mercy and praising God.散文節( 1-3:8 )包括承認罪惡,承諾解脫後的懺悔,並祈禱要求憐憫和讚頌上帝。 The poetry section (3:9-5:9) consists of verses in praise of wisdom and of God's commandments and of verses urging the exiles to be courageous and comforted.詩節( 3:9-5:9 )由詩句中讚美的智慧和上帝的誡命和經文要求將流亡勇氣和安慰。 Chapter 6, which claims to be a letter of Jeremiah addressed to the exiles in Babylon, is a warning against idolatry. The three parts of the book were probably written at different times.第6章,自稱是字母耶利米給流亡在巴比倫,是一個警告反對偶像崇拜。的三個部分,這本書很可能寫在不同的時間。 Baruch may have been compiled as late as the 1st or 2nd century AD by an Alexandrian editor using original Hebrew manuscripts; it has been preserved in a Greek version.巴魯克可能已被編譯為已故的第一或公元二世紀的亞歷山大編輯器使用原始希伯來手稿;它一直保存在希臘的版本。

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Ba'ruch

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Baruch, blessed.巴魯克祝福。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Baruch巴魯克

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(Hebrew Barûkh, blessed, Benedict; Septuagint Barouch). (希伯來文巴魯赫,祝福,篤;七十Barouch ) 。

The disciple of Jeremiah, and the traditional author of the deuto-canonical book, which bears his name.耶利米的徒弟,和傳統的作者deuto ,規範書,他的名字命名。 He was the son of Nerias (Jeremiah 32:12, 32:16; 36:4, 8, 32; Baruch 1:1), and most probably the brother of Saraias, chief chamberlain to King Sedecias (Jeremiah 32:12; 51:59; Baruch 1:1).他的兒子Nerias (耶利米32:12 , 32:16 ; 36:4 , 8 , 32 ;巴魯克1:1 ) ,和最有可能的弟弟Saraias ,行政張伯倫國王Sedecias (耶利米32:12 ; 51 : 59 ;巴魯克1:1 ) 。 After the temple of Jerusalem had been plundered by Nebuchadnezzar (599 BC), he wrote under the dictation of Jeremiah the oracle of that great prophet, foretelling the return of the Babylonians, and read them at the risk of his life in the hearing of the Jewish people.在耶路撒冷的聖殿被掠奪尼布甲尼撒二世(公元前599 ) ,他寫道:根據聽寫耶利米甲骨文的這一偉大的先知,預示歸還巴比倫人,並宣讀他們的風險,他的生命的聆訊猶太人民。 He wrote also the second and enlarged edition of the prophecies of Jeremiah after the first had been burned by the infuriated king, Joachim (Jer. 36).他寫道第二和擴大版的預言耶利米後,已被燒毀的激怒了國王,約阿希姆( Jer. 36 ) 。 Throughout his life he remained true to the teachings and ideals of the great prophet, although he seems at times to have given way to feelings of despondence, and perhaps even of personal ambition (cf. Jer. 45).在他整個生命,他仍然是真正的教義和理想的偉大先知,儘管他有時似乎已讓位於感情的鬱悶,甚至個人野心(見哲。 45 ) 。 He was with Jeremiah during the last siege of Jerusalem and witnessed the purchase by the prophet of his ancestral estate in Anathoth (Jer. 32).他在耶利米在過去包圍耶路撒冷和目睹了購買的先知,他的祖先遺產Anathoth ( Jer. 32 ) 。 After the fall of the Holy City and the ruin of the Temple (588 BC), Baruch lived probably for some time with Jeremiah at Masphath.陷落後聖城和破壞的寺( 588年) ,巴魯克住了一段時間可能與耶利米在Masphath 。 His enemies accused him of having prompted the prophet to advise the Jews to remain in Juda, instead of going down into Egypt (Jer. 43), where, according to a Hebrew tradition preserved by St. Jerome (In Isaiah 30:6, 7), both died before Nebuchadnezzar invaded that country.他的敵人指控他有提示先知向猶太人留在猶大,而不是下降到埃及( Jer. 43 ) ,在那裡,據希伯來傳統保存聖杰羅姆(在以賽亞30:6 , 7 ) ,這兩個前死亡尼布甲尼撒入侵該國。 This tradition, however, conflicts with the data found in the opening chapter of the Prophecy of Baruch, wherein we are told of Baruch writing his book in Babylonia, reading it publicly in the fifth year after the burning of the Holy City, and apparently being sent to Jerusalem by the Jewish captives with sacred vessels and gifts destined to the sacrificial service in Yahweh's Temple.這一傳統,但是,相衝突的數據中發現開篇巴魯克的預言,其中我們被告知的巴魯克寫他的書在東風,閱讀它的第五次公開一年後焚燒聖城,顯然正發送到耶路撒冷的猶太人俘虜與神聖的船隻和禮品注定要犧牲服務耶和華的聖殿。 It conflicts likewise with various traditions, both Jewish and Christian, which perhaps contains some particles of truth, but which do not allow us to determine the date, pace, or manner of Baruch's death, with anything like probability.它的各種衝突同樣的傳統,這兩個猶太教和基督教,這或許有一些粒子的真相,但不會使我們能夠確定的日期,速度,或製造方式的巴魯克的死刑,什麼樣的概率。

In the Catholic Bible "the Prophecy of Baruch" is made up of six chapters, the last of which bears the special title of an "epistle of Jeremiah", and does not belong to the book proper.在天主教聖經“的預言巴魯克”是由六個章節,其中最後一個負有特殊的標題是“耶利米書信” ,以及不屬於本書正確的。 The Prophecy opens with an historical introduction (1:1-14), stating first (1-2) that the book was written by Baruch at Babylon in the fifth year after Jerusalem had been burned by the Chaldeans, and next (verses 3-14) that it was read in an assembly of King Jechonias and other Babylonian exiles upon whom it produced the most beneficial effects.預言打開歷史簡介( 1:1-14 ) ,其中第一( 1-2 )這本書的作者是巴魯克在巴比倫的第五個年頭後,耶路撒冷被燒毀的迦勒底和明年(詩3 - 14 ) ,這是在大會宣讀國王Jechonias巴比倫流亡者和其他人產生後的最有益的影響。 The first section in the body of the book (1:15; 3:8) contains a twofold confession of the sins which led to the exile (1:15-2:5; 2:6-13), together with a prayer that God may at length forgive His people (2:14; 3:8).第一部分正文中的圖書( 1:15 ; 3時08分) ,載有雙重招供的罪孽導致流亡( 1:15-2:5 ; 2:6-13 ) ,連同祈禱上帝可能會原諒他進行了長時間的人( 2時14分; 3時08分) 。 While the foregoing section has much in common with the Book of Daniel (Dan. 9:4-19), Baruch's second section (3:9; 4:4) closely resembles passages in Job 28, 38.雖然上述區段有很多共同點與但以理書( Dan. 9:4-19 ) ,巴魯克的第二部分( 3時09分; 4點04分)相似通道項目28 , 38 。 It is a beautiful panegyric of that Divine Wisdom which is nowhere found except in the Law given to Israel; only in the guise of the Law has Wisdom appeared on the earth and become accessible to man; let, therefore, Israel prove faithful again to the Law.這是一個美麗的頌詞中說,這是神的智慧沒有發現除了在給以色列法律,只有在法律幌子智慧似乎已在地球上,並成為獲得男子;讓,因此,以色列再次證明忠實的法。 The last section of the Book of Baruch extends from 4:5 to 5:9.最後一節的圖書的巴魯克延伸至4點05分至5時09分。 It is made of up four odes, each beginning with the expression, "Take courage" (4:5, 21, 27, 30), and of a psalm closely connected with the eleventh of the apocryphal Psalms of Solomon (4:36; 5:9).它由四個詩經,每個開始表達, “需要勇氣” (四點05 , 21 , 27 , 30 ) ,和一個詩篇密切相關的第十一屆的未經詩篇所羅門( 4點36 ; 5時09分) 。 Chapter 6 contains as an appendix to the whole book "The Epistle of Jeremiah", sent by that prophet "to them that were to be led away captive into Babylon" by Nebuchadnezzar.第六章載作為附錄全書“的書信耶利米” ,發出的是先知“向他們將被帶離俘虜到巴比倫”由尼布甲尼撒。 Because of their sins they were to be removed to Babylon and to remain there "for a long time, even to seven generations".因為他們的罪孽,他們將被轉移到巴比倫,並保持有“很長一段時間,甚至七代” 。 In that heathen city they would witness the gorgeous worship paid to "gods of gold, and of silver, and of stone, and of wood", but should not conform to it.在這異教徒的城市,他們將看到美麗的崇拜支付給“神的黃金,白銀和石頭,和木材” ,但應不符合它。 All such gods, it is argued in various ways, are powerless and perishable works of man's hands; they can do neither harm nor good; so that they are not gods at all.所有這些神,有人以各種方式,無力和易腐工程人的手中,他們可以做到既不傷害也不好,所以,它們不是神的。

It is certain that this sixth chapter of Baruch is truly distinct from the rest of the work.可以肯定的是,這第六章巴魯克是真正有別於其他地方的工作。 Not only its special title, "The Epistle of Jeremiah", but also its style and contents clearly prove that it is a writing wholly independent of the Prophecy of Baruch.不僅其特殊的標題, “耶利米的書信” ,而且其風格和內容清楚地證明,它是一個完全獨立的書面的預言巴魯克。 Again, while some Greek manuscripts that have Baruch have not the "Epistle", others, among the best, have it separate from the Book of Baruch and immediately before the Lamentations of Jeremiah.再次,雖然一些希臘手稿已經巴魯克沒有了“書信” ,其他人,其中最好的,它獨立於圖書的巴魯克和前夕耶利米哀歌耶利米。 The fact that the sixth chapter of Baruch bears the title, "The Epistle of Jeremiah", has been, and is still in the eyes of many, a decisive reason for holding the time-honoured view that the great prophet is its author.事實上,第六章巴魯克的標題說: “使徒耶利米” ,一直是,而且仍然是在許多人看來,一個決定性的原因,經過時間考驗的觀點,即偉大先知是作者。 It is also urged that the vivid and accurate description of the splendid, but infamous, worship of the Babylonian gods in Baruch, vi, makes for the traditional authorship, since Jer. 13:5, 6, probably speaks of the twofold journey of Jeremiah to the Euphrates. Finally it is affirmed that a certain number of Hebraisms can be traced back to a Hebrew original point in the same direction.它還敦促生動,準確地描述了輝煌,但臭名昭著,崇拜巴比倫神在巴魯克,六,使得傳統的著作權,因為哲。 13時05分, 6 ,可能談到的雙重旅程耶利米到幼發拉底河。最後,確認了一些Hebraisms可以追溯到希伯來原來指向同一方向。 Over against this traditional view, most contemporary critics argue that the Greek style of Baruch, vi, proves that it was originally written not in Hebrew, but in Greek, and that consequently Jeremiah is not the author of the Epistle ascribed to him.在對這種傳統的觀點,最現代的批評者認為,希臘風格的巴魯克,六,證明它最初是沒有希伯來文,但在希臘,因此耶利米不是作者的書信歸咎於他。 For this and for other reasons suggested by the study of the contents of Baruch, vi, they think that St. Jerome was decidedly correct when he called this writing pseudepigraphos, that is, inscribed with a false name.對於這一點,並由於其他原因所建議的研究內容巴魯克,六,他們認為聖杰羅姆是果斷正確的,他要求編寫本pseudepigraphos ,這就是刻有假名。 However this may be, an important study of the Canon of Holy Writ proves that, despite the assertions of Protestants to the contrary, Baruch 6 has always been recognized by the Church as an inspired work.然而,這可能是一個重要的研究佳能的聖經證明,儘管新教徒的說法與此相反,巴魯克6一直是公認的教會作為一個啟發工作。

With regard to the original language of the Book of Baruch proper (chaps. 1-5), a variety of opinions prevail among contemporary scholars.關於原文書的巴魯克適當(第1-5 ) ,各種各樣的意見佔上風之間當代學者。 Naturally enough, those who simply abide by the title which ascribes the Book to Baruch, admit that the whole work was originally written in Hebrew.當然不夠,這些誰只要遵守標題重視本書巴魯克,承認,整個工作最初是希伯來文。 On the contrary, most of those who question or reject the correctness of that title think that this writing was totally, or at least partially, composed in Greek.相反,大多數人的問題或拒絕誰是正確的,該標題認為,這完全是書面形式,或至少部分組成,在希臘。 It is indeed true that the Greek literary features of the various sections do not point back with equal force to a Hebrew original.的確,希臘文學的特點各款不點回來同等效力到希伯來語原始。 Yet, it can hardly be doubted that the whole of Baruch proper in its extant Greek form looks like a translation.然而,就很難懷疑整個巴魯克適當在其現存的希臘形式看起來像翻譯。 The linguistic evidence is also confirmed by the following considerations:語言的證據也證實了下列因素:

It is highly probable that Theodotion (end of the second century of our era) translated the Book of Baruch from a Hebrew original.它極有可能Theodotion (結束的第二個世紀我們時代的)翻譯此書的巴魯克從希伯來語原始。

There are some marginal notes of the Syro-Hexaplar text stating that a few words in the Greek "are not found in the Hebrew".有一些旁注的Syro - Hexaplar文字說明了幾句話,在希臘“沒有找到在希伯來文” 。

Baruch 1:14 says that the book was meant to be read publicly in the Temple; hence it must have been composed in Hebrew for that purpose.巴魯克1時14分說這本書的目的是在讀公開廟,因此它必須組成以希伯來語用於這一目的。

Besides this unity as regards its original language, Baruch presents a certain unity in point of subject-matter, so that most of those who maintain that the whole work was primitively written in Hebrew admit also its unity of composition.除了這種團結至於其原有的語言,巴魯克提出了某些統一的標的物,因此,大多數人誰維護,整個工作是希伯來文寫的一開始也承認它的統一的組成。 There are, however, in the Book of Baruch many traces of the compilatory process whereby its various parts were apparently brought together. The difference in literary form between 1-3:8, on the one hand and 3:9-5, is very great indeed, and, taken together with the abrupt manner in which the panegyric on Wisdom is introduced at 3:9, suggests a difference with respect to origin.然而,在這本書中的巴魯克許多痕跡compilatory過程,其各個部分,顯然聚集。之所以有不同的文學形式之間1-3:8 ,一方面和3:9-5 ,是非常偉大的確,和,加上突然以何種方式頌的智慧介紹了3點09 ,顯示了他不同方面的原產地。 The two confessions of the sins which led to the exile in 1:15; 3:8, are put side by side without any natural transition.這兩個招供的罪孽導致流亡1:15 ; 3點08分,是把並肩沒有任何自然的過渡。 The literary differences between 3:9-4:4, and 4:5-5:9, are considerable, and the beginning of the third section at 4:5, is no less abrupt than that of the second at 3:9.文學之間的差別3:9-4:4 ,並4:5-5:9 ,是相當大,並開始第三部分在4點05 ,也同樣是突然比在3時09分第二。 Again, the historical introduction seems to have been composed as a preface to only 1:15-2:5.再次,歷史簡介似乎已經組成的前言只有1:15-2:5 。 In view of these and other such facts, contemporary critics generally think that the work is the outcome of a compilatory process, and that its unity is due to the final editor, who put together the various documents which obviously bore upon the exile.鑑於這些以及其他類似的事實,當代批評家普遍認為,工作的結果, compilatory進程,而且它的統一是由於最後的編輯,誰把各種文件顯然膛後流亡國外。 Such a literary method of composition does not necessarily conflict with the traditional authorship of the Book of Baruch.這樣一種文學的方法組成不一定衝突與傳統著作權的圖書的巴魯克。 Many of the sacred writers of the Bible were compilers, and Baruch may, and, according to the Catholic scholars who admit the compilatory character of the work inscribed to him, must, be numbered among them.許多神聖作家聖經被編譯器和巴魯克可能,而且,根據天主教學者誰承認compilatory性格者的工作給他,必須將它們之間的編號。 The grounds of Catholics for this view are chiefly three:理由是天主教徒的這種觀點主要是三個:

The book is ascribed to Baruch by its title;這本書是屬於巴魯克其名稱;

it has always been regarded as Baruch's work by tradition;它一向被視為巴魯克工作的傳統;

its contents present nothing than would be later than Baruch's time, or that should be regarded as foreign to the style and manner of that faithful disciple and secretary of Jeremiah.其內容本沒有什麼比將不遲於巴魯克的時間,或者應被視為外國的風格和方式的忠實門徒和秘書長耶利米。

Over against this view, non-Catholics argue:在對這種觀點認為,非天主教徒認為:

That its ultimate basis is simply the title of the book;其最終的基礎僅僅是圖書的書名;

that this title itself is not in harmony with the historical and literary contents of the work; and這一名稱本身並不和諧的歷史和文學內容的工作;和

that those contents, when impartially examined, point to a much later compiler than Baruch; in fact some of them go so far as to ascribe the composition of the book to a writer living after AD 70.這些內容,公正地進行審查時,指向一個更晚編譯比巴魯克;事實上,其中一些甚至歸咎於組成的書,一個作家的生活後,公元70 。

Catholics easily disprove this last date for the Book of Baruch; but they do not so easily dispose of the serious difficulties that have been raised against their own ascription of the whole work to Baruch.天主教徒容易反駁這一最後日期為圖書的巴魯克;但他們不那麼容易處理的嚴重困難,提出了對自己的歸屬全體工作巴魯克。 Their answers are considered sufficient by Catholic scholars generally.他們的回答被認為是足夠的天主教學者普遍。 Should anyone, however, judge them inadequate, and therefore consider the Book of Baruch as the work of a later editor, the inspired character of the book would still remain, provided this later editor himself be regarded as inspired in his work of compilation.如果任何人,但是,判斷不夠,因此,考慮到圖書的巴魯克的工作以後編輯,激勵性質的書將仍然存在,提供了這方面的編輯自己後來被視為激發他的工作的彙編。 That the Book of Baruch is "a sacred and canonical" writing has been defined by the Council of Trent; that it has just as much right to be held "inspired of God" as any other book of Holy Writ can readily be shown by a close study of the Canon of the Bible.這本書的巴魯克是“一個神聖和規範”書面確定了安理會的遄; ,它一樣有權舉行“上帝的靈感”的任何其他書聖令狀可以很容易地顯示出了仔細研究了佳能的聖經。 Its Latin rendering in our Vulgate goes back to the old Latin version anterior to St. Jerome, and is tolerably literal from the Greek text.其拉美渲染的武加大追溯到舊拉丁美洲版本前聖杰羅姆,是相當字面從希臘文字。

Publication information Written by Frances E. Gigot.出版信息作者弗朗西斯大腸桿菌吉戈特。 Transcribed by Janet Grayson. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.轉錄的珍妮格雷森。天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Book of Baruch書巴魯克

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Contents.目錄。

Origin.原籍國。

Date and Authorship.日期和作者。

Date of First Part.日期的第一部分。

Date of Second Part.日期的第二部分。

Canonicity.正規。

Contents.目錄。

One of the Apocryphal or so-called deuterocanonic books of the Old Testament.一個未經證實或所謂的deuterocanonic書籍舊約。 It consists of two parts.它由兩部分組成。 The first (i. 1-iii. 8) is in the form of a prose letter with a historical introduction.第一次(一1至三。 8 )的形式,散文信的歷史簡介。 Baruch, the secretary of Jeremiah, having written a book, reads it before King Jehoiachin and the exiles in Babylon.巴魯克,秘書長耶利米,在寫了一本書,內容是前國王Jehoiachin和流亡在巴比倫。 The people weep, fast, and pray.哭泣的人,快速,並祈禱。 Then they make a collection of money, which they send to Jerusalem to be used for the Temple service, with an injunction to pray for the life of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and that of Belshazzar, his son, so that the people may dwell in peace under the shadow of these princes (i. 1-14).然後他們收集了錢,他們將前往耶路撒冷,用於寺服務,禁制令,祈求生命的尼布甲尼撒,巴比倫國王,而Belshazzar ,他的兒子,因此,人們可能詳談在和平的陰影下這些王子(一1月14日) 。 A letter follows, which is presumably the one written by Baruch, although not expressly mentioned as such.如下的一封信,這大概是一個寫的巴魯克,雖然沒有明確提到這樣。 This letter (i. 15-iii. 8) is a confession of national sin, a recognition of the justness of the nation's punishment, and a prayer for mercy.這封信(一15三。 8 )是一個國家黃大仙招供,承認是正義的國家的懲罰,祈禱求饒。

The second part of the book (iii. 9-v. 9), which differs greatly in form and tone from the first, consists of two poems, the first of which (iii. 9-iv. 4) is an exhortation to Israel to learn wisdom, which is described as the source of all happiness, and as "the book of the commandments of God."第二部分的圖書( iii. 9五。 9 ) ,其中有很大的不同的形式和語調從第一次,包括兩首詩,其中第一個( iii. 9四。 4 )是一種告誡以色列學習的智慧,這是形容為源的所有的幸福,因為“這本書的誡命的上帝。 ” The second poem (iv. 5-v. 9) is a picture of the suffering of Israel, and an exhortation to Jerusalem to take heart and await hopefully the salvation of God, Jerusalem being here represented as a desolate widow mourning over the distress of her children.第二首詩( iv. 5五。 9 )是一個圖片的苦難以色列,並告誡耶路撒冷採取心臟和等待希望拯救上帝,耶路撒冷在這裡派荒涼的遺孀悲痛的困境她的孩子。

Origin.原籍國。

That the first part of the book was originally written in Hebrew is probable, both from the Hebraic character of the diction and from the fact that certain errors in the Greek are explicable as misunderstandings of Hebrew words; thus "manna" (i. 10) is a misreading of "cereal offering" (); "dead" (iii. 4) is error for "men" (); "to pay the penalty" (iii. 8), for "dismay" (perhaps , or -read ); and the enigmatical river "Sud" (i. 4) is possibly an erroneous writing of "Kebar" ( for )的第一部分原書籍書面希伯來文是可能的,無論從希伯來性質的詞,從事實中的某些錯誤的解釋為希臘的誤解希伯來字;因此, “甘露” (一10 )是一種誤讀“穀物產品” ( ) ; “死亡” ( iii. 4 )是錯誤的“男人” ( ) ; “支付罰款” ( iii. 8 ) ,為“不安” (或許,或閱讀) ;和陰陽怪氣河“南方” (島4 )可能是一個錯誤的書面“ Kebar ” (為)

Date and Authorship.日期和作者。

The book properly begins (after the superscription, i. 1, 2) with i. 15.這本書妥善開始( superscription後,一1 , 2 )與一15 。 The confession and prayer seem to consist of two parts; namely, i.供詞和祈禱似乎由兩部分組成,即一 15-ii. 15二。 5 and ii. 5和二。 6-35; and these are possibly (as Marshall holds) two separate productions, the first being the confession of the Palestinian remnant, the second that of the exiles. 6-35 ;和這些都是有可能(如馬歇爾持有)兩個獨立的製作,第一個是招供巴勒斯坦殘留,第二是流亡者。 Still, "them" (ii. 4, 5), which appears to refer to the exiles, may be a scribal slip; and it seems more probable that the letter is a juxtaposition of two forms of confession.儘管如此, “他們” (白介素4 , 5 ) ,這似乎指的是流亡者,可能是一個scribal滑,它似乎更可能的,該信是一個並列的兩種形式的懺悔。 Very few scholars now hold that the book was composed by Jeremiah's secretary, as its relation to the books of Jeremiah and Daniel precludes such an origin.現在很少有學者認為,這本書組成的耶利米的秘書,因為其涉及到的書籍耶利米和Daniel排除這樣的原產地。 The remarkable verbal agreement between the confession (i. 15-iii. 8) and Dan.最顯著的口頭協議之間的自白(一15三。 8 )和丹。 ix is most naturally explained by the supposition that Baruch borrows from Daniel; the hypothesis that Daniel borrows from Baruch or that both draw from earlier material being less satisfactory.九是最自然解釋假定巴魯克借用丹尼爾;的假設丹尼爾借用巴魯克或雙方從早先材料不太令人滿意。 Here, however, a difficulty is encountered.在這裡,然而,困難是困難。 In ii.在二。 26 the Temple is said to be in ruins-a statement which accords with two periods only, those of the Chaldean and the Roman conquests. 26聖殿據說是一片廢墟,聲明符合兩個時期只,是加爾丁和羅馬征服。 As the former period is out of the question, certain scholars, such as Kneucker, for example, assign this part of the book to a time later than the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.正如前期間是不可能的,某些學者,如Kneucker例如,分配這部分圖書的時間不遲於破壞耶路撒冷的提圖斯。 It is difficult, however, to reconcile with such a date the view of the dead given in ii.這是困難的,但是,和解與這樣一個日期的看法,給出了二死。 17, where it is said that those whose spirits have been taken from their bodies will not ascribe honor and righteousness to the Lord. 17 ,如果有人說,那些精神已經採取了從他們的屍體將不會賦予的榮譽和正義的上帝。 This statement is in accordance with the Old-Hebrew conception of the life in Sheol, which can scarcely have been current after the year 70 of the common era.這項聲明是根據老希伯來語概念中的生活Sheol ,可目前幾乎已經70年後的共同的時代。 Hence, in the text as it stands, there are discordant data; but if (as Kneucker holds) ii.因此,在文字,因為它主張,有不協調的數據;但是,如果(如Kneucker持有)二。 26a is to be rejected as an interpolation, there is no reason why the confession and prayer should not be assigned to the Maccabean time. 26A條是被拒絕作為插值,沒有任何理由的懺悔和祈禱不應該被分配到Maccabean時間。

Date of First Part.日期的第一部分。

The historical introduction is confused, and does not readily attach itself to the body of the confession; indeed, it appears to have been an afterthought.歷史介紹混淆,不容易附上自己的身體的供詞;事實上,它似乎是事後的想法。 The singular historical statements (such as that King Zedekiah made silver vessels), as well as the injunction to pray for Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar, all indicate a late period, and strongly suggest dependence on the Book of Daniel.奇異的歷史報表(如國王Zedekiah取得銀牌船隻) ,以及禁制令祈禱尼布甲尼撒和Belshazzar ,所有表明後期,並強烈建議依賴但以理書。 It is impossible, however, to say how early the view arose that Belshazzar was a son of Nebuchadnezzar.這是不可能的,但是可以說,早期的看法如何產生的Belshazzar是一個兒子尼布甲尼撒。 Some recent writers see in the names of the two Babylonian princes an allusion to Vespasian and Titus, which is a plausible assumption if ii.最近的一些作家中看到的名字,這兩個巴比倫王子暗指維斯帕先和提圖斯,這是一個合理的假設,如果二。 26a be retained. 26A條予以保留。 The date given in i.中給出的日期一 2, the "fifth year," is obscure; it may mean the fifth year after the fall of Jerusalem (BC 581), or, more probably, may be taken from Ezekiel, whose epoch is the fifth year of Jehoiachin's captivity (BC 592). 2 , “第五個年頭, ”是模糊的;這可能意味著第五年陷落後耶路撒冷(公元前581 ) ,或更可能,可採取由厄澤克爾,其時代是第五年Jehoiachin的囚禁(公元前592 ) 。 But there is no reason for supposing (as, for example, from Jer. xxix. and li.) that Baruch was ever in Babylon. Though there are difficulties in any hypothesis, it seems probable, upon the whole, that the first part of Baruch is composed of two confessions, which aneditor in the Maccabean time combined, prefixing the statement about Baruch.但也沒有任何理由的假設(例如,從哲。二十九。李。 )表示,巴魯克是以往任何時候都在巴比倫。儘管有困難,在任何假設,但似乎有可能,在整體而言,第一部分巴魯克組成兩個口供,這aneditor在Maccabean時間的總和,前綴的聲明巴魯克。

Date of Second Part.日期的第二部分。

The obvious imitation of Job and Ecclus.最明顯的模仿就業和Ecclus 。 (Sirach) in the second part of the book (see Job xxviii.; Ecclus. (Sirach) xxiv.) makes it impossible to assign this piece to a time earlier than the second century BC; and the conditions seem to accord with the early Maccabean period. ( Sirach )在第二部分的書籍(見項目二十八。 ; Ecclus 。 ( Sirach )二十四。 )就不可能轉讓這塊的時間早於公元前二世紀;和條件似乎符合早期Maccabean時期。 Kneucker, Marshall, and several other recent critics, however, place its composition after the capture of Jerusalem by Titus, holding that the "strange nation" of iv. Kneucker ,馬歇爾和其他一些最近的批評,但是,它的組成發生後,捕捉對耶路撒冷的提圖斯,認為“奇怪的民族”的四。 3 ("give not thine honor . . . to a strange nation") refers to the Christians, and relates to a time when the antagonism between Judaism and Christianity had become pronounced. 3 ( “不給你的榮譽。 。 。到一個奇怪的民族” )指的是基督信徒,並涉及到的時候,對立,猶太教和基督教已成為突出。 While this is possible, the expression may also be understood to allude to the antagonism between Judaism and Hellenism in the second century BC The verse iii.雖然這是可能的,也可能表達被理解為提及的對立猶太教和希臘在公元前二世紀詩三。 37 ("afterward did he [or it] show himself [or itself] upon earth and converse with men"), which was much quoted by early Christian writers, interrupts the connection and is undoubtedly a Christian interpolation. 37 ( “後,他[或]查看自己[或本身]交談後,地球和與男子” ) ,這是很多早期基督教引述作家,中斷連接,無疑是一個基督教插值。

The second poem (iv. 5-v. 9) belongs to the same general period as the first.第二首詩( iv. 5五。 9 )屬於同一時期的第一。 It is divided into a number of strophes, each beginning with the words "Be of good cheer."它分為若干strophes ,每個開始改為“具備良好的歡呼。 ” The people, scattered and afflicted, are exhorted to trust in God; and Jerusalem, mourning over her children, is urged to take courage.人民,分散和折磨,都敦促對上帝的信仰;和耶路撒冷,莫寧在她的孩子,是敦促採取的勇氣。 The picture accords either with the late Maccabean period or with the time soon after the Roman capture of Jerusalem.圖片協定要么與已故Maccabean期間或時間後不久,羅馬捕獲耶路撒冷。 The resemblance between iv.的相似之處四。 36-v. 36五。 9 and Psalms of Solomon, xi. 9日和詩篇所羅門,十一。 is striking.是驚人的。 Whichever may have been the borrower, the two probably belong to the same period; and the Psalms of Solomon were composed not far from 48 BC兩者可能是借款人,這兩個可能屬於同一時期;和詩篇組成所羅門離48年

Canonicity.正規。

The Book of Baruch was never accepted as canonical by the Palestinian Jews (Baba Batra 14b).巴魯克的書從來沒有接受正規的巴勒斯坦猶太人(巴巴加納巴特拉14B條) 。 According to the "Apostolical Constitutions," it was read in public worship on the tenth day of the month Gorpiaios (probably Ab).根據“使徒憲法, ”這是閱讀公眾崇拜十一個月的第一天起Gorpiaios (可能抗體) 。 This statement, however, can hardly be considered authoritative; and even if it be correct, it can refer only to the usage of some group of Hellenistic Jews.這一聲明,但是,不能視為權威;和即使它是正確的,它可以只提及使用某些集團的希臘猶太人。 If, as is probable, the first part of the book was written in Hebrew, its exclusion from the Palestinian canon must have been owing to its supposed lack of prophetic authority.如果,這是可能的,第一部分的書是希伯來文撰寫的,其排除在巴勒斯坦佳能一定是由於其理應缺乏先知權威。 It was, however, accepted by the Alexandrian Jews as a work of edification; and through the medium of the Septuagint it passed into the hands of the Christians, among whom it speedily became popular, being often quoted by Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, and many others as a work of Jeremiah and as sacred Scripture.然而,接受了亞歷山大的猶太人作為工作的熏陶;並通過媒介七十通過手中的基督徒,其中它迅速成為熱門,被經常引用的那哥拉,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,並許多其他的工作耶利米和聖經。 In a number of early Christian canonical lists the work was included in Jeremiah, and together with the other Apocryphal books was pronounced canonical (deuterocanonical) by the Council of Trent (1545-63).在一些典型的早期基督教的工作清單中包括耶利米,並與其他未經本書被宣布規範( deuterocanonical )理事會的遄達( 1545年至1563年) 。 Its canonicity, however, is not accepted by the Protestant churches. Besides its value as a mirror of the time, the book, though devoid of new ideas, contains many liturgical and poetical passages of great beauty and power.其正規,但不接受基督教。除了其價值為鏡子的時候,這本書,但缺乏新的思想,包含了許多禮儀和詩意的段落非常美麗和力量。

The Epistle of Jeremiah is usually printed as an appendix to the Book of Baruch and marked as ch.耶利米的書信通常是印刷作為附錄書巴魯克和標示為總。 vi.六。 of that book.這本書。 It is, however, an independent work (see Jeremiah, Epistle of).然而,一個獨立的工作(見耶利米,書信) 。

Crawford Howell Toy克勞福德霍威爾玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

The Greek text is given in Swete's Septuagint.希臘文是在Swete的譯本。 For an account of the Greek MSS., see Swete and Gifford; for the other ancient versions (Latin, Syriac, Coptic, etc.) see Kneucker and Schürer.帳戶希臘衛星。見Swete和吉福德;其他古老的版本(拉丁文,敘利亞,埃及等) ,見Kneucker和Schürer 。 There are modern Hebrew translations by Fränkel, 1830; Plessner, 1833; Kneucker, 1879.有現代希伯來語翻譯的Fränkel , 1830年;普勒斯納, 1833年; Kneucker , 1879年。 The best general discussion of the book is that of Kneucker, Das Buch Baruch, 1879; the largest list of citations by early Christian writers is in Reusch, Erklärung des Buches Baruch, 1853. Other authorities are: Fritzsche, in Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen, 1851; Hitzig, in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift, 1860; Hilgenfeld, ib.最好的一般性討論,這本書是Kneucker ,達斯圖書巴魯克, 1879年;最大的名單援引早期基督教作家是在Reusch , Erklärung萬Buches巴魯克, 1853年。其他當局是:弗里切,在Exegetisches手冊楚蘭旦Apokryphen , 1851 ;希齊格在Hilgenfeld的雜誌, 1860 ; Hilgenfeld ,國際文憑。 1879-1880; Ewald, Gesch. 1879年至1880年;埃瓦爾德, Gesch 。 des Volkes Israel, 1864; idem, Propheten, 1868; Bissell, Apocrypha, in the Lange series, 1880; Gifford, in Speaker's Commentary, 1888; Reuss, Gesch.萬國Volkes以色列, 1864年;同上, Propheten , 1868年;比斯爾,偽經,在蘭格系列, 1880年;吉福德,在議長的評注, 1888年; Reuss , Gesch 。 der Heiligen Schriften des Alten Testamentes, 1890; Schürer, Hist.萬聖之著作老Testamentes , 1890年; Schürer ,組織胺。 Jewish People, 1891; Ryle, in Smith's Dict.猶太人民, 1891年;賴爾,在史密斯的快譯通。 of the Bible, 1893; Marshall, in Hasting's Dict.聖經, 1893年,馬歇爾在哈斯丁的快譯通。 of the Bible, 1898; Bevan, in Cheyne's Encycl.聖經, 1898年,貝文,在陳的Encycl 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 1899; Introductions of Eichhorn, Welte, and others. 1899年,引進的艾希霍恩,答等。 For other works attributed to Baruch see Charles, Apocal.其他工程歸咎於巴魯克見查爾斯Apocal 。 of Baruch, 1896, and article Apocrypha, in Encycl.的巴魯克, 1896年,第偽經,在Encycl 。 Bibl.T.


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