Apocrypha, Deuterocanonical Books偽經, Deuterocanonical圖書

General Information 一般信息

The Apocrypha are books of the Old Testament included in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Bibles as deuterocanonical (added to the earlier canon), but excluded from the Hebrew Bible and from most Protestant Bibles. It is not certain why the term apocrypha (hidden things) was originally applied to them, but they were considered less authoritative than the other biblical books because of their relatively late origin (c. 300 BC - AD 100). 該偽經的書籍舊約包含在羅馬天主教和東正教聖經作為deuterocanonical (添加到早些時候佳能) ,但排除在希伯來聖經和大多數新教聖經。它不是某些為什麼長期偽經(隱藏的東西)是原先適用於它們,但它們被認為是權威的少聖經以外的其他書籍,因為它們相對較晚起源(約公元前300年-公元100 ) 。 Except for 2 Esdras, which was in Latin, they were part of the Septuagint.除2埃斯德拉斯,這是在拉丁美洲,他們一部分七十。 The other books placed after the Old Testament in the Revised Standard Version are the following: 1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to the Book of Esther, Wisdom, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Baruch and the Letter (Epistle) of Jeremiah, Additions to Daniel (Prayer of Azariah, Song of the Three Hebrew Children, History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon), the Prayer of Manasseh, and 1 and 2 Maccabees.其他書籍放在舊約的修訂標準版本如下: 1和2埃斯德拉斯,托比書,朱迪,增補的以斯帖記,智慧, Sirach ( Ecclesiasticus ) ,巴魯克和文字(書信)耶利米,增補丹尼爾(祈禱的Azariah ,宋三希伯來兒童,歷史的蘇珊娜,比利時和龍) ,瑪的禱告,和第1和第2馬加比。

Roman Catholic Bibles also list 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh as apocryphal.羅馬天主教聖經也清單1和2埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的瑪如未經。 The Greek Orthodox Bible omits 2 Esdras but adds 3 Maccabees and Psalm 151, with 4 Maccabees as an appendix.希臘東正教聖經省略2埃斯德拉斯,但增加了3馬加比和詩篇151 , 4馬加比作為附錄。 The Apocrypha are important sources for Jewish history and religious developments in the 1st and 2d centuries BC.偽經是很重要的來源猶太歷史和宗教發展的第一和2D公元前數百年。

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Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Sherman E Johnson謝爾曼é約翰遜

Bibliography 參考書目
BM Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha (1957); BL Mack.骨髓梅茨格介紹偽經( 1957年) ;基本法馬克。 Wisdom and the Hebrew Epic: Ben Sira's Hymn in Praise of the Fathers (1986); RH Pfeiffer, History of New Testament Times, with an Introduction to the Apocrypha (1949).智慧和希伯來史詩:本特希拉的讚美歌中的父親( 1986年) ;濕度菲佛,歷史新約全書倍,介紹了偽經( 1949年) 。


Apocrypha偽經

General Information 一般信息

Apocrypha (Greek apokryphos,"hidden") is a word coined by the 5th-century biblical scholar Saint Jerome for the biblical books received by the church of his time as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament (see Septuagint), but that were not included in the Hebrew Bible. In the Authorized, or King James, Version, the books are either printed as an appendix or are omitted altogether; they are not considered canonical by Protestants.偽經(希臘apokryphos , “隱藏” )是一個詞造詞的第五世紀的聖經學者聖杰羅姆書籍的聖經教會所收到的時間的一部分,希臘版舊約(見七十) ,但是,不包括在希伯來聖經。核定,或國王詹姆斯,版本,印刷書籍要么作為附錄,或完全忽略他們不被視為典型的新教徒。

The Septuagint was received by the Christian church from Hellenistic Judaism. The books included in the Septuagint that were excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews from their canon were Judith, the Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, and the two books of Maccabees. 在七十受到基督教教堂由希臘猶太教。圖書包括在七十已排除由非希臘猶太人被從他們的佳能朱迪,智慧的所羅門,托比書, Sirach ( Ecclesiasticus ) ,巴魯克,兩書籍的馬加比。 Of these, Judith and Tobit are best described as edifying historical fiction, and Baruch, as an appendage to the Book of Jeremiah, written in the person of Jeremiah's secretary. Wisdom and Sirach are testimonies to the wisdom tradition of Israel otherwise represented in the books of Proverbs, Job, and Ecclesiastes. The books of Maccabees are historical works in the tradition of the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles.這些,朱迪和托比書是最好的形容為啟發歷史小說,和巴魯克,作為附屬物的耶利米書,寫的人耶利米的秘書。智慧和證詞Sirach是傳統的智慧,否則,以色列代表在圖書諺語,工作,傳道書。帳簿馬加比是歷史著作中的傳統書籍的塞繆爾,國王和編年史。 Also generally included with the Apocrypha are the two books of Esdras, additions to the Book of Esther (Esther 10:4-10), the Song of the Three Young Men (Daniel 3:24-90), Susanna (Daniel 13), Bel and the Dragon (Daniel 14), and the Prayer of Manasseh.一般也包括在偽經的兩本書的埃斯德拉斯,增加了以斯帖記(以斯帖10:4-10 ) ,這首歌的三個年輕人(丹尼爾3:24-90 ) ,蘇珊娜(丹尼爾13 ) ,貝爾與龍(丹尼爾14歲) ,和祈禱的瑪。

Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians still follow the Septuagint and include in the canon of the Bible all the Apocrypha, except the two books of Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh. They generally refer to the Protestant Apocrypha as deuterocanonical books, however, and reserve the term Apocrypha for those books entirely outside the biblical canon, which Protestants call the pseudepigrapha. 羅馬天主教和東正教徒仍然按照七十,其中包括在佳能聖經所有偽經,除了兩本書的埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的梅納西索。 他們通常指的是新教的deuterocanonical偽經書,然而,和儲備的任期偽經這些圖書完全超出聖經佳能新教徒致電pseudepigrapha 。

With the growth of a historical perspective in biblical studies during the 19th century, the value of the Apocrypha as historical sources came to be generally recognized.隨著歷史的角度來看聖經學在19世紀,價值的偽經的歷史來源後來被普遍承認。 Derived from the period 300BC to New Testament times, the Apocrypha shed valuable light on the period between the end of the Old Testament narrative and the opening of the New Testament.來自時期300BC以新約全書倍,偽經棚寶貴光之間的時期結束舊約敘述和開放的新約。 They are also important sources of information on the development of belief in immortality, the resurrection, and other questions of eschatology, as well as the increasing impact of Hellenistic ideas on Judaism.他們也很重要的信息來源的發展,相信永生,復活,和其他問題的末世論,以及日益增加的影響,希臘的想法猶太教。

Rev. Bruce Vawter牧師布魯斯Vawter


Apoc'rypha

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Apocrypha; hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found a place in the LXX.偽經;隱藏的,欺騙性的名稱給予某些古籍其中發現了一個發生在LXX 。 and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word.和拉丁語武加大版本的舊約,並附加到所有偉大的翻譯從他們在16世紀,但沒有要求應視為在任何意義上部分靈感詞。

The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (qv), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Tobit, Judith, etc.舊約偽經包括14本書,首席的是書籍的馬加比( qv ) ,帳簿埃斯德拉斯,這本書的智慧,這本書的巴魯克的以斯帖記, Ecclesiasticus ( Sirach ) ,托比書,朱迪等

The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is unworthy of regard as being comparable in importance to the Bible.新約偽經由一個非常廣泛的文獻,其中有明顯的證據的非原產地使徒,是不配方面是比較重要的聖經。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Old Testament Apocrypha舊約的偽經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The word "apocrypha" is from the Greek ta apokrypha, "the hidden things," although there is no strict sense in which these books are hidden.用“偽經”是從希臘大apokrypha , “隱藏的事情, ”雖然沒有嚴格意義上,這些書籍是隱藏的。 Some thirteen books comprise the Apocrypha: I and II Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (which is also entitled the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach), Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Additions to Daniel, the Prayer of Manasses, and I and II Maccabees.一些13的偽經書包括:第一和第二埃斯德拉斯,托比書,朱迪,其餘以斯帖,智慧的所羅門, Ecclesiasticus (這也是題為智慧的耶穌的兒子Sirach ) ,巴魯克的信耶利米的增補丹尼爾, Manasses的禱告,我和二馬加比。 Both the status of these books and the use of the term "apocrypha" have been in confusion since the early days of the church.雙方的地位,這些圖書和使用“偽經”已被混淆,因為在初期教會。 In the restricted sense the word denotes the above-named books in contradistinction to the Pseudepigrapha, or false writings; but in the broader sense the word refers to any extracanonical scripture.在限制意義上的字是指上述書籍對比的Pseudepigrapha ,或偽造的著作,但在更廣泛意義上的字是指任何extracanonical經文。 Sometimes the term takes on a disparaging meaning, especially when used of the "apocryphal" gospels; this is to say they are spurious or heterodoxical.有時長期需要的詆毀的含義,尤其是當使用了“未經證實”福音;這就是說,它們是虛假的或heterodoxical 。 A further difficulty attending the restricted use of the term is that some of the Apocrypha are pseudonymous, whereas some of the Pseudepigrapha are not pseudonymous. RH Charles broke the accepted order by including III Maccabees in the Apocrypha and transferring II Esdras to the Pseudepigrapha.另一項困難出席了限制使用的術語是,一些偽經是匿名的,而一些Pseudepigrapha不是匿名的。生殖健康查爾斯打破了接受命令包括三馬加比在偽經和轉讓二埃斯德拉斯向Pseudepigrapha 。 The acient rabbinic practice was to regard all such writings as "outside books," and his designation was continued by Cyril of Jerusalem, who used Apocrypha in the same sense, ie, scriptures outside the canon. In modern times CC Torrey has revived this signification so that all such books, including the Pseudepigrapha, are called Apocrypha. Therefore to use the term Pseudepigrapha is a concession to an unhappy usage.在古代猶太的做法是,所有這些方面的著作是“外面的書籍, ”和他的稱號是繼續西里爾耶路撒冷,誰使用偽經在同樣的意義,即聖經以外的佳能。在現代連鑄多已恢復這個意義因此,所有這些書籍,包括Pseudepigrapha ,被稱為偽經。因此,使用的術語Pseudepigrapha是一個不愉快的特許權使用。

How did the Apocrypha secure a place in some of our English Bibles? The Jews uniformly denied canonical status to these books, and so they were not found in the Hebrew Bible; but the manuscripts of the LXX include them as an addendum to the canonical OT.怎麼偽經確保在我們的一些英文聖經?猶太人統一規範的地位,否認這些書籍,所以他們沒有發現在希伯來文聖經;但手稿的LXX包括他們的增編,規範催產素。 In the second century AD the first Latin Bibles were translated from the Greek Bible, and so included the Apocrypha.在公元二世紀的第一個拉美聖經翻譯從希臘聖經,因此包括偽經。 Jerome's Vulgate distinguished between the libri ecclesiastici and the libri canonici with the result that the Apocrypha were accorded a secondary status.杰羅姆的武加大區分利布里ecclesiastici和利布里canonici其結果是偽經給予了次要地位。 However, at the Council of Carthage (397), which Augustine attended, it was decided to accept the Apocrypha as suitable for reading despite Jerome's resistance to their inclusion in the Vulgate.然而,在安理會的迦太基( 397 ) ,其中奧古斯丁出席,會議決定接受偽經適合讀儘管杰羅姆的抵抗將其列入武加大。 In 1548 the Council of Trent recognized the Apocrypha, excepting I and II Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, as having unqualified canonical status.在1548年安理會的遄承認偽經,除第一和第二埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的Manasses ,為不合格的典型狀態。 Moreover, anyone who disputed this ecclesiastical decision was anathematized.此外,誰有爭議這教會決定anathematized 。 The Reformers repudiated the Apocrypha as unworthly and contradictory to the doctrines of the uncontroverted canon; however, Luther did admit that they were "profitable and good to read."改革派否認偽經作為unworthly和矛盾的理論無可爭議佳能;然而,路德也承認,他們是“盈利和良好的閱讀。 ” The Coverdale and Geneva Bibles included the Apocrypha but set them apart from the canonical books of the OT. After much debate the British and Foreign Bible Society decided in 1827 to exclude the Apocrypha from its Bibles; soon afterward the American branch concurred, and this action generally set the pattern for English Bibles thereafter.在代爾和日內瓦聖經包括偽經,但它們不同於典型的書籍,催產素。經過反复討論的英國和外國聖經協會決定在1827年以排除偽經從聖經;此後不久,美國分行同意,這一行動一般設置模式英文聖經其後。 Among Protestant communions only the Anglican Church makes much use of the Apocrypha today.在新教聖餐只有聖公會使得很多使用偽經今天。

Many literary genres appear in the Apocrypha: popular narrative, religious history and philosophy, morality stories, poetic and didactic lyrics, wisdom literature, and apocalyptic.許多文學流派出現在偽經:流行敘事,宗教歷史和哲學,道德故事,詩歌和教學歌詞,智慧文學和啟示。 Most of these books were written in Palestine between 300 BC and AD 100, and the language of composition was either Hebrew or Aramaic, and occasionally Greek.這些圖書大部分是在巴勒斯坦之間的書面公元前300年和公元100 ,和語言的組成或者希伯來語或阿拉姆,偶爾希臘。 They generally reflect the Jewish religious viewpoint of late OT times with certain additions which were emphasized.他們普遍反映猶太宗教觀的時代後期催產素與某些增加了強調。 Almsgiving became an expression of good works meritorious to salvation (see Tob. 12:9).救濟成為一個不錯的作品表達的有功救贖(見Tob 。 12點09 ) 。 The Apocrypha, and to a greater extent the Pseudepigrapha, evince an amplified doctrine of the Messiah beyond what the OT reveals.的偽經,並在更大程度上Pseudepigrapha ,表現出一個擴增理論彌賽亞超出了催產素揭示。 Two types of messianic expectation predominate: the heavenly Son of man, taken from Daniel and embellished by Enoch, and the earthly Davidic king described in the Psalms of Solomon.兩種類型的救世主期望佔主導地位:天上人子,採取由丹尼爾和美化的伊諾克,和俗世Davidic王中描述的詩篇所羅門。 The doctrine of resurrection of the body, so seldom mentioned in the OT, is ubiquitous in the Apocrypha and shows an advance over the OT idea of Sheol.學說的復活的身體,所以很少加時賽中所提到的,是無處不在的偽經與表演預先在加時賽想法Sheol 。 The hope for immortality was greatly influenced by Greek thought.不朽的希望是很大影響希臘思想。 Throughout the Aprocrypha is a highly developed angelology which is a natural consequence of the impact of dualism upon Jewish religious thought after the Exile.整個Aprocrypha是一個高度發達的天使這是一個自然結果的影響,經二元猶太宗教思想後,流亡國外。 The NT cites none of the books of the Apocrypha, although there are frequent parallels of thought and language, as in the case of Eph.新台幣引用任何書籍的偽經,雖然也有頻繁的平行的思想和語言,如麻黃鹼。 6:13-17 and Wisd. 6:13-17和Wisd 。 Sol.溶膠。 5:17-20, and Heb. 5:17-20 ,和河北。 11 and Ecclus. 11日和Ecclus 。 44. 44 。 But to admit these parallels is not necessarily to admit dependence by NT authors upon the Apocrypha, and even if a clear case of dependence can be made, it does not follow that the NT author regarded these books as authoritative.但是,接納這些相似之處不一定承認依賴新台幣作者的偽經,即使一個明確的情況下,可依賴,但這並不意味著新台幣作者認為這些書籍是權威性的。

DH Wallace衛生署華萊士

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
RH Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, I; BM Metzger, An Introduction of the Apocrypha; WOE Oesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha; RH Pfeiffer, A History of NT Times with an Introduction of the Apocrypha; EJ Goodspeed, The Story of the Apocrypha; CC Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature; HM Hughes, The Ethics of Jewish Apocryphal Literature; H. Wace, ed., Apocrypha, 2 vols; JH Charlesworth, ed., The OT Pseudepigrapha, Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments.相對濕度查爾斯,偽經和Pseudepigrapha的催產素,我;骨髓梅茨格介紹了偽經; WOE Oesterley ,該圖書的偽經;濕度菲佛,史新台幣時報介紹了偽經;伯克利分校古德斯皮德,故事的偽經;消委會多,在未經文學;陛下休斯,道德操守的猶太未經文學閣下; Wace ,教育署。 ,偽經,第2卷;紅查,教育署。 ,該催產素Pseudepigrapha ,啟示文學和聖經。


Introduction to the Apocrypha介紹偽經

General Information 一般信息

(From the New English Bible) (於新英文聖經)

The term 'Apocrypha', a Greek word meaning 'hidden (things)', was early used in different senses.一詞偽經' ,是希臘字,意思是'隱藏的(事情) ' ,是早期採用不同的感覺。 It was applied to writings which were regarded as so important and precious that they must be hidden from the general public and reserved for the initiates, the inner circle of believers.這是適用於著作被視為非常重要和寶貴的,他們必須隱藏一般公眾和保留發起,在內圈的信徒。 It came to be applied to writings which were hidden not because they were too good but because they were not good enough, because, that is, they were secondary or questionable or heretical.它是適用於著作其中隱藏並非因為他們過於良好,但因為他們還不夠好,因為,這就是他們中學或懷疑或邪教。 A third usage may be traced to Jerome.第三個使用可追溯到杰羅姆。 He was familiar with the Scriptures in their Hebrew as well as their Greek form, and for him apocryphal books were those outside the Hebrew canon, hence the alternative term deutero-canonical.他熟悉聖經的希伯來語以及希臘的形式,並為他未經書籍以外的希伯來語佳能,因此替代任期deutero -典型。

The usage here adopted is based on that of Jerome.這裡使用的基礎上通過的杰羅姆。 The Apocrypha in this translation consists of fifteen books or parts of books.在這的偽經翻譯包括15本書或部分書籍。 They are:它們是:

These works are outside the Palestinian canon; that is, they form no part of the Hebrew Scriptures, although the original language of some of them was Hebrew.這些作品以外的巴勒斯坦佳能,就是形式的任何部分希伯來聖經,雖然原文其中一些是希伯來文。 With the exception, however, of the Second Book of Esdras, they are all in the Greek version of the Old Testament made for the Greek-speaking Jews in Egypt.除了然而,第二卷埃斯德拉斯,它們都是在希臘版舊約為希臘講猶太人在埃及。 As such they were accepted as biblical by the early Church and were quoted as Scripture by many early Christian writers, for their Bible was the Greek Bible.因此他們被接受為聖經的初期教會和被引述聖經許多早期基督教作家,他們的聖經是希臘聖經。

In Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Old Testament these books are dispersed throughout the Old Testament, generally in the places most in accord with their contents.在希臘和拉丁手稿舊約這些書籍分散在整個舊約,一般在地方最符合其內容。 The practice of collecting them into a separate unit, a practice which dates back no farther than AD 1520, explains why certain of the items are but fragments; they are passages not found in the Hebrew Bible, and so have been removed from the books in which they occur in the Greek version. To help the reader over this disunity and lack of context the present translators have resorted to various devices.的做法,加以收集到一個單獨的單位,這種做法可以追溯到公元沒有超出1520年,解釋了為什麼某些項目,但片段;他們段落中找不到希伯來聖經,因此已被刪除從書本中它們發生在希臘的版本。為了幫助讀者在此不團結和缺乏的情況下,本翻譯訴諸各種設備。 We have added the name Daniel to the titles of the stories of Susanna and of Bel and the Snake as a reminder that these tales are to be read with the Book of Daniel.我們已經添加了名稱丹尼爾的標題故事中的蘇珊娜和貝爾和蛇作為一種提醒,這些故事將被讀取的但以理書。 A note we have inserted after the title, The Song of the Three, indicates that this item is to be found in the third chapter of the Greek form of Daniel.我們的說明後插入標題,宋三表明,這個項目可能是在第三章希形式的丹尼爾。 And the six additions to the Book of Esther are so disjointed and unintelligible as they stand in most editions of the Apocrypha that we have provided them with a context by rendering the whole of the Greek version of Esther.和6個增補以斯帖記如此雜亂和不明晰的,因為它們的立場在大多數版本的偽經,我們必須為它們提供了一個背景的渲染整個希臘版本的埃絲特。

The text used in this translation of the Apocrypha is that edited by HB Swete in The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint . In places Swete includes two texts, and we have chosen to translate the Codex Sinaiticus text of Tobit and Theodotion's version of the additions to the Book of Daniel, namely, The Song of the Three, Daniel and Susanna, and Daniel, Bel, and the Snake.文中使用的偽經翻譯的是,編輯的乙肝Swete在舊約中希根據七十 。在地方Swete包括兩個文本,我們選擇了把西奈抄本法典文本托比書和Theodotion的版本增加的但以理書,即宋三,丹尼爾和蘇珊娜,和丹尼爾,比利時,和蛇。 For Ecclesiasticus we have used, in addition to Codex Vaticanus as printed in Swete's edition, the text edited by JHA Hart in Ecclesiasticus: the Greek Text of Codex 248, and constant reference has been made to the various forms of the Hebrew text.我們已經為Ecclesiasticus使用,此外,食品法典Vaticanus在Swete印刷版,文字編輯JHA哈特在Ecclesiasticus :希臘文字法典248 ,並不斷提到了各種形式的希伯來文。 For the Second Book of Esdras, which apart from a few verses is not extant in a Greek form, we have based our translation on the Latin text of RL Bensly's The Fourth Book of Ezra. Throughout we have consulted the variant readings given in critical editions of the Greek, the texts of the versions, and the suggestions of editors and commentators.第二個圖書埃斯德拉斯,其中除了少數詩句不是現存在希臘的形式,我們已經根據我們的翻譯的拉丁文字的北京Bensly的第四以斯拉記。縱觀我們已徵詢變異讀數中給出關鍵版希臘,文字的版本,和建議的編輯和評論員。

Alternative readings cited from Greek manuscripts (referred to as witnesses ) and the evidence of early translations (Vss., that is Versions) are given, as footnotes, only when they are significant either for text or for meaning.替代讀數引自希臘手稿(稱為證人 )和早期的證據翻譯( Vss. ,這是版本) ,給出的腳註,只有當它們是重要的文字或任何意義。 In a few places where the text seems to have suffered in the course of transmission and in its present form is obscure or unintelligible we have made a slight change in the text and marked our rendering of it probable reading, and we have indicated any evidence other than the evidence afforded by the context.在一些地方似乎有文字的過程中遭受的傳播和在其目前形式掩蓋或不懂我們作出了輕微的變化,標誌著我們的文字和渲染它可能讀,我們的任何證據表明其他以上所提供的證據的範圍。 Where an alternative interpretation seemed to deserve serious consideration it has been recorded as a footnote with Or as indicator.凡有另一種解釋似乎值得認真考慮它已被記為一個腳註作為指標。

In order to preserve the verse numbering of the Authorized (King James) Version of 1611 we have, when necessary, added at the foot of the page those passages which are found in the manuscripts on which the Authorized Version ultimately rests but which are absent from the earlier manuscripts now available.為了維護在詩編號授權(國王詹姆斯)版本1611年我們有必要時,再加上腳下的網頁是那些段落中發現手稿上的授權版本,但最終取決於它們不在早先的手稿現已。 We have not sought to achieve consistency in the treatment of proper names any more than did our predecessors.我們還沒有力求在治療中的專有名詞沒有任何超過我們的前輩。 We have continued to use familiar English forms, especially when the reference is to well-known Old Testament characters or places.我們繼續使用熟悉的英文形式,特別是當提到的是眾所周知的舊約人物或地方。 Sometimes as an aid to the correct pronunciation we have had recourse to such expedients as the affixing of an acute accent to the word Sidè or the introduction of a diphthong, as in our Soud for Sud.有時是作為一種輔助手段的正確發音我們不得不採取這種權宜之計的防鼠急性口音的字一方或採用雙元音,如在我們Soud的南方。 In general it may be said that Greek spellings have been Latinized, but the Greek forms of place-names have not been brought into line with the Hebrew.總體而言,可以說,希臘拼法已Latinized ,但希臘形式的地名尚未納入希伯來語。

We have not aimed at consistency in our treatment of weights and measures. We have rendered terms into the nearest English equivalents only when these seemed suitable and natural in the context.我們不是針對我們的一致性治療度量衡。我們提供了條件到最近的英語現金等價物只有當這些似乎合適的和自然的背景。

In the text of the First and Second Books of the Maccabees the dates given it reckoned according to the Greek or Seleucid era. As a help to the reader we added at the foot of the page the nearest dates according to the Christian era.案文中的第一和第二的馬加比圖書的日期賦予它認為根據希臘或塞流西的時代。作為一個幫助我們的讀者說腳下的網頁最近的日期按照公元。

This translation of the Apocrypha shares with other parts of The New English Bible the aim of providing a rendering which will be both faithful to the text translated and genuinely English in idiom.這翻譯的偽經與其他地區的新英文聖經,目的是提供一個渲染這將是既忠實於文字翻譯和真正的英語習語。 The translators have endeavoured to convey the meaning of the original in language which will be the closest natural equivalent.譯員努力傳達的含義,原來在語言這將是最切近的自然同等學歷。 They have tried to avoid free paraphrase on the one hand and, on the other, formal fidelity resulting in a translation which would read like a translation.他們試圖避免自由釋義一方面,另一方面,正規的忠誠導致翻譯其內容像一個翻譯。 It is their hope that by their labours these documents, valuable in themselves and indispensable for the study of the background of the New Testament, have been made more intelligible and more readily accessible.這是他們希望通過自己的辛勤勞動這些文件,在自己寶貴的不可缺少的研究背景新約全書,已變得更加易懂和更容易獲得。

The Place of the Apocrypha地點的偽經

The place of the Apocrypha in the biblical canon has long been the center of controversy.地點的偽經中的聖經佳能一直爭論的中心。

Written between 200 (or somewhat earlier)-50 BC, certain of the books contain doctrines not uniformly accepted at that time by Jews, namely a clear teaching on the resurrection of the body (2 Macc.7.9-12) and angelology (Tob. 12.15), both of which were opposed by the powerful party, the Sadducees (Acts 23.6-8). Questions concerning the Apocrypha raised among Jews were also raised in the same or divergent form in Christian circles, especially by those church writers who were in contact with the Hebrew tradition.之間撰寫的200 (或較早) -50公元前某些書籍包含理論並不一致接受,當時的猶太人,即明確教學的復活的身體( 2 Macc.7.9 - 12 )和天使( Tob. 12月15日) ,兩者都是反對的強大的黨,撒都該人(使徒23.6-8 ) 。有關的問題之間的偽經提出猶太人也提出了相同或不同的形式在基督教界,特別是那些教會作家誰在與希伯來傳統。 Some Christian writers, Augustine among them, put these books on a par with the rest of the Old Testament and quoted them equally.一些基督教作家,奧古斯丁,其中把這些書籍等同於其他舊約和引述他們同樣。 Jerome, who in 390 AD was commissioned to make a new translation of the whole Bible into Latin, studied Hebrew with a rabbi.杰羅姆,誰在公元390委託作出新譯本聖經到整個拉丁美洲,學習希伯來文的拉比。 His avowed purpose was to translate the Old Testament according to the "Hebrew original" ( secundum Hebraicam veritatem ), with the result that he was opposed to translating the Apocrypha because they were not in the Hebrew. In the end, he yielded to the pressure of the bishops and included these writings in the translation which came to be known as the Vulgate and which remained the official translation of the Latin church for many centuries.他宣稱的目的是把舊約按照“希伯來文原” ( 孔型Hebraicam veritatem ) ,因此,他反對把偽經,因為他們沒有在希伯來文。最後,他屈服於壓力主教和包括這些著作的翻譯來到被稱為武加大並保持官方翻譯拉丁美洲教會許多世紀。 Paradoxically, Jerome himself often quoted the Apocrypha without distinguishing them from the books of the Hebrew canon.奇怪的是,他經常引用杰羅姆的偽經不區分他們從書本希伯來佳能。

Following the decrees by the synods of Hippo (393 AD) and Carthage (397 AD), the Apocrypha were uniformly included in the canon of the Latin church.繼法令的主教會議的河馬( 393 AD )和迦太基( 397年) ,是均勻的偽經中包括佳能的拉丁教會。 Nevertheless, questions concerning them continued to be raised right up to the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century.然而,問題仍然是他們的權利提出了安理會的遄達在16世紀。

It had been natural for the leaders of the Reformation in the sixteenth century, with their emphasis on the supremacy and the purity of the Bible, to reject the Apocrypha, especially because an appeal was made for these books by Catholics against some of the basic positions of the Reformation.有人自然的領導人的改革在16世紀,他們的重點放在至高無上和純潔性聖經拒絕偽經,尤其是因為呼籲這些圖書的天主教徒對一些基本立場改革。 In 1546 AD the Council of Trent published a list of books to be received "with equal devotion and reverence," which included the Apocrypha, with the exception of 1 and 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh.在1546年的廣告理事會特倫特出版的書籍清單收到“以同樣的獻身精神和崇敬, ”其中包括偽經,除第1和第2埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的瑪。 In time, the Apocrypha came to be designated by Roman Catholics as "deuterocanonical," in distinction to the "protocanonical" books of the Hebrew canon.在當時,偽經來到指定的羅馬天主教徒為“ deuterocanonical ” ,在區分的“ protocanonical ”書籍的希伯來語佳能。 This special designation is not intended to suggest an inferior status, but simply a reception into the canon later than the protocanonical books.這一個特殊的指定並不打算建議劣勢地位,而只是接收到佳能不遲於protocanonical書籍。 For the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Synod of Jerusalem (1672 AD) affirmed the validity of the longer canon; however, a universally binding conciliar decision has not been made, and hence a diversity of opinion still exists.為東正教,耶路撒冷的主教會議( 1672年)確認的有效性,不再佳能,但具有普遍約束力的conciliar決定尚未作出,因此,各種不同的意見仍然存在。

Today, the question of the canonical status of the Apocrypha is no longer so vehemently argued either in Protestant or Catholic circles.今天,這個問題的典型地位的偽經不再是如此強烈認為無論是在基督教或天主教界。 Scholarly biblical criticism has shown the presence of the same literary forms in both proto- and deuterocanonical writings. One of the results of biblical scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century has been to reduce the controversy, while not completely eliminating it, as witnessed by the inclusion of these books in the present Bible, though in a location and sequence different from those in Bibles published exclusively under Catholic auspices.學術聖經批評表明存在同樣的文學形式在原和deuterocanonical著作。成果之一聖經獎學金第二二十世紀下半葉一直以減少爭議,而不能完全消除,因為目睹在列入這些書籍在本聖經,但在一個位置和順序不同於聖經出版完全根據天主教主持。 Theologians now find themselves comfortable with a much more flexible concept of scriptural inerrancy, and consequently of inspiration, than was possible after the great religious controversies of the sixteenth century and before the era of modern biblical scholarship in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.神學家現在發現自己舒服更靈活概念聖經無誤,因此靈感,而不是有可能在重大的宗教爭議的16世紀之前的時代,現代聖經獎學金在19世紀和20世紀。 The usefulness of a book is less likely to be judged on the basis of its inclusion in, or exclusion from, the canon, but rather by the light it sheds for understanding the rest of the Bible.是有益的書是不太可能判斷的基礎上,將其列入,或排斥,佳能,而是根據它雞舍了解其餘的聖經。 The Apocrypha have something in common with what came before them and with what followed them; they therefore act as a link between the Old and the New Testaments and so help us to understand both.該偽經有不少共同之處與之前他們和他們所遵循;因此,他們作為之間的聯繫和舊新約,從而幫助我們理解這兩個。


Susanna蘇珊娜

General Information 一般信息

The story of Susanna is told in the Book of Susanna in the Apocrypha.蘇珊娜的故事是說,在這本書中的蘇珊娜在偽經。 Falsely accused of adultery by elders who had failed in their attempt to seduce her, and condemned to death, Susanna is rescued by the divinely inspired Daniel, whose clever cross-examination exposes her accusers.誣告通姦長者誰沒有企圖勾引她,被判處死刑,蘇珊娜是獲救的神聖的丹尼爾,他的聰明詰問暴露她的指控。


The Apocrypha, Aristeas, Aristobulus, and the Pseud-epigraphic Writings的偽經, Aristeas ,阿里斯托布魯斯和假, epigraphic寫作

Advanced Information 先進的信息

From Book 1, Chapter 3, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, by Alfred Edersheim從圖書1 ,第3章, 生活和時代的耶穌救世主,由Alfred愛德生

The translation of the Old Testament into Greek may be regarded as the starting-point of Hellenism.翻譯成希臘文舊約可視為起點希臘。 It rendered possible the hope that what in its original form had been confined to the few, might become accessible to the world at large.它可能提供的希望,在其原來的形式已被局限於少數人,可能成為獲得整個世界。 [a Philo, de Vita Mos. [ 1斐羅,日簡歷莫斯。 ed.教育署。 Mangey, ii. Mangey ,二。 p.山口 140.] But much yet remained to be done. 140 。 ]但是,尚未仍有許多工作要做。 If the religion of the Old Testament had been brought near to the Grecian world of thought, the latter had still to be brought near to Judaism. Some intermediate stage must be found; some common ground on which the two might meet; some original kindredness of spirit to which their later divergences might be carried back, and where they might finally be reconciled.如果宗教舊約被帶到附近的希臘世界的思想,後者仍然被帶到附近的猶太教。一些中間階段必須找到一些共同點,這兩個問題可能會滿足一些原始kindredness的精神是其晚年的分歧可能會進行回來,他們可能最終調和。

As the first attempt in this direction, first in order, if not always in time, we mark the so-called Apocryphal literature, most of which was either written in Greek, or is the product of Hellenising Jews.作為第一次嘗試這個方向發展,第一,以,如果並非總是以時日,我們紀念所謂未經證實的文獻,其中大部分是書面的希臘,還是產品的Hellenising猶太人。 [1 All the Apocrypha were originally written in Greek, except 1 Macc., Judith, part of Baruch, probably Tobit, and, of course, the 'Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach.'] [ 1所有的偽經書面原來在希臘,除1 Macc 。朱迪,巴魯克的一部分,可能托比書,當然,在'智慧耶穌的兒子Sirach 。 ' ]

Its general object was twofold.一般對象是雙重的。 First, of course, it was apologetic, intended to fill gaps in Jewish history or thought, but especially to strengthen the Jewish mind against attacks from without, and generally to extol the dignity of Israel.當然,首先是道歉,意在填補空白,猶太人的歷史或思想,特別是加強對襲擊猶太人銘記從沒有,並普遍讚揚以色列的尊嚴。 Thus, more withering sarcasm could scarcely be poured on heathenism than in the apocryphal story of 'Bel and the Dragon,' or in the so-called 'Epistle of Jeremy,' with which the Book of 'Baruch' closes.因此,更多的枯萎諷刺幾乎倒入對異教比未經證實的故事'貝爾與龍,或所謂的'使徒傑里,與該圖書的'巴魯克'關閉。 The same strain, only in more lofty tones, resounds through the Book of the 'Wisdom of Solomon,' [b Comp.同樣的壓力,只有在更崇高的鈴聲,轔通過圖書的'智慧所羅門群島,並[ b比較。 x. xx.] along with the constantly implied contrast between the righteous, or Israel, and sinners, or the heathen.二十。 ]隨著不斷暗示對比正義,或者以色列,罪人,或異教徒。

But the next object was to show that the deeper and purer thinking of heathenism in its highest philosophy supported, nay, in some respects, was identical with, the fundamental teaching of the Old Testament.但是,下一個對象是要表明,更深入和更純的思想異教的最高哲學的支持,不僅如此,在某些方面是相同的,基本的教學舊約。 This, of course, was apologetic of the Old Testament, but it also prepared the way for a reconciliation with Greek philosophy.當然,這是道歉舊約,但也做好了準備和解與希臘哲學。 We notice this especially in the so-called Fourth Book of Maccabees, so long erroneously attributed to Josephus, [1 It is printed in Havercamp's edition of Josephus, vol.我們注意到這一點尤其是在所謂的第四本書的馬加比,只要錯誤地歸因於約瑟夫, [ 1這是印在Havercamp出版的約瑟夫,第二卷。 ii.二。 pp.頁。 497-520. 497-520 。 The best edition is in Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi Vet.最好的版本是在弗里切,利布里Apocryphi獸醫。 Test. (Lips. 1871).] and in the 'Wisdom of Solomon.'測試。 ( Lips. 1871年) 。 ]和智慧的所羅門。

The first postulate here would be the acknowledgment of truth among the Gentiles, which was the outcome of Wisdom, and Wisdom was the revelation of God.第一個假設這裡將是承認事實真相的外邦人,這是智慧的成果和智慧是上帝的啟示。 This seems already implied in so thoroughly Jewish a book as that of Jesus the Son of Sirach. [a Comp.這似乎已經暗示,以便徹底猶太人作為一本書是耶穌的兒子Sirach 。 [一個比較。 for ex.為前戰鬥。 Ecclus. Ecclus 。 xxiv.二十四。 6.] Of course there could be no alliance with Epicureanism, which was at the opposite pole of the Old Testament. 6 。 ]當然,不可能有任何同盟享樂主義,這是在對面極舊約。 But the brilliancy of Plato's speculations would charm, while the stern self-abnegation of Stoicism would prove almost equally attractive.但是,輝煌的柏拉圖的猜測會的魅力,而斯特恩自我克制的Stoicism將證明幾乎同樣的吸引力。 The one would show why they believed, the other why they lived, as they did.一個展示為什麼他們會認為,為什麼他們的其他生活,因為他們做到了。 Thus the theology of the Old Testament would find a rational basis in the ontology of Plato, and its ethics in the moral philosophy of the Stoics.因此,神學舊約會找到一個合理的基礎,在柏拉圖的本體論,它的倫理道德哲學的Stoics 。

Indeed, this is the very line of argument which Josephus follows in the conclusion of his treatise against Apion.事實上,這是非常一致的論點,約瑟夫在如下的結論,他的論文對阿皮翁。 [b ii. [ B二。 39, 40.] This, then, was an unassailable position to take: contempt poured on heathenism as such, [c Comp. 39 , 40 。 ]在這,然後,是立於不敗之地考慮:蔑視倒在異教因此, [中比較。 also Jos. Ag.還聖何塞銀。 Ap.鴨。 ii.二。 34.] and a rational philosophical basis for Judaism. 34 。 ] 和一個合理的哲學基礎猶太教。

They were not deep, only acute thinkers, these Alexandrians, and the result of their speculations was a curious Eclecticism, in which Platonism and Stoicism are found, often heterogeneously, side by side. Thus, without further details, it may be said that the Fourth Book of Maccabees is a Jewish Stoical treatise on the Stoical theme of 'the supremacy of reason', the proposition, stated at the outset, that 'pious reason bears absolute sway over the passions,' being illustrated by the story of the martyrdom of Eleazar, and of the mother and her seven sons. [d Comp.他們不深,只有急性思想家,這些Alexandrians ,結果他們的猜測是一個奇怪的折衷主義,其中柏拉圖和Stoicism被發現,往往不均勻,肩並肩。因此,如果沒有進一步的細節,可以說,第四本書的馬加比是一個猶太人堅忍論堅忍的主題是'至高無上的原因,提出的建議,指出,首先,是'虔誠的原因有絕對支配的激情, '正說明了這一點的故事殉道埃萊亞薩,和母親和她的七個兒子。 [ d比較。 2 Macc. 2 Macc 。 vi.六。 18-vii. 18七。 41.] 41 。 ]

On the other hand, that sublime work, the 'Wisdom of Solomon,' contains Platonic and Stoic elements [2 Ewald (Gesch. d. Volkes Isr., vol. iv. pp. 626-632) has given a glowing sketch of it.另一方面,這一崇高的工作, '智慧所羅門群島, '包含柏拉圖和斯多葛要素[ 2埃瓦爾德( Gesch. 4 Volkes Isr 。 ,第二卷。四。頁。 626-632 )提供了光輝的IT素描。 Ewald rightly says that its Grecian elements have been exaggerated; but Bucher (Lehre vom Logos, pp. 59-62) utterly fails in denying their presence altogether.], chiefly perhaps the latter, the two occurring side by side.埃瓦爾德正確地說,它的希臘因素被誇大了,但布赫爾(教論標誌,頁。 59-62 )完全沒有否認他們的存在了。 ] ,主要是後者,雙方發生並排。 Thus [e Ch.因此, [英總。 vii.七。 22-27.] 'Wisdom,' which is so concretely presented as to be almost hypostatised, [3 Compare especially ix. 22-27 。 ] '智慧' ,這是如此具體作為幾乎hypostatised , [ 3比較特別是九。 1; xviii. 1 ;十八。 14-16, where the idea of passes into that of the. 14日至16日,那裡的想法,通過這個的。

Of course the above remarks are not intended to depreciate the great value of this book, alike in itself, and in its practical teaching, in its clear enunciation of a retribution as awaiting man, and in its important bearing on the New Testament revelation of the.] is first described in the language of Stoicism, [f Vv.當然,上述言論是不打算貶值的巨大價值的這本書,都在自己,並在其實踐教學,在其明確的闡述了報應作為等待的人,在其重要的影響新約全書啟示。 ]首先是語言中所描述的Stoicism ,用[ f密度。 22-24.] and afterwards set forth, in that of Platonism, [g Vv. 22-24 。 ]和之後提出,在這的柏拉圖, [克體積。 25-29.] as 'the breath of the power of God;' as 'a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty;' 'the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness.' 25-29 。 ]為'呼吸的力量上帝'作為'一個純粹的影響產生的榮耀全能; '的亮度永恆的光, unspotted鏡子的力量上帝,圖像他的善良。 Similarly, we have [a In ch.同樣,我們[一個在CH 。 viii.八。 7.] a Stoical enumeration of the four cardinal virtues, temperance, prudence, justice, and fortitude, and close by it the Platonic idea of the soul's pre-existence, [b In vv. 7 。 ]一個堅忍列舉四項基本原則美德,節制,謹慎,公正,和毅力,並關閉了它的柏拉圖思想的靈魂前的存在, [ b在的VV 。 19, 20.] and of earth and matter pressing it down. 19日, 20日。 ]和地球與此事緊迫下來。 [c ix. [中九。 15.] How such views would point in the direction of the need of a perfect revelation from on high, as in the Bible, and of its rational possibility, need scarcely be shown. 15 。 ]如何對這些意見將指向的方向發展的需要,一個完美的啟示高,因為在聖經和其合理的可能性,需要很少出現。

But how did Eastern Judaism bear itself towards this Apocryphal literature? 但如何承擔東部猶太教本身實現這一未經文學? We find it described by a term which seems to correspond to our 'Apocrypha,' as Sepharim Genuzim,' 'hidden books,' ie, either such whose origin was hidden, or, more likely, books withdrawn from common or congregational use. Although they were, of course, carefully distinguished from the canonical Scriptures, as not being sacred, their use was not only allowed, but many of them are quoted in Talmudical writings. 我們認為,所描述的任期似乎符合我們的'偽經,作為Sepharim Genuzim ' , '隱藏的書籍,即,無論其來源是這樣的隱患,或者,更有可能,書籍退出共同或公理使用。雖然他們當然,仔細區別於典型聖經,因為沒有神聖的,其使用不僅是允許的,但有很多是中引用Talmudical著作。 [1 Some Apocryphal books which have not been preserved to us are mentioned in Talmudical writings, among them one, 'The roll of the building of the Temple,' alas, lost to us! [ 1一些未經證實的書籍還沒有保存,我們都提到了Talmudical著作,其中包括1 ,登記冊上的建設,廟, '唉,失去了我們! Comp.壓縮機。 Hamburger, vol.漢堡,第二卷。 ii.二。 pp. 66-70.]頁。 66-70 。 ]

In this respect they are placed on a very different footing from the so-called Sepharim Chitsonim, or 'outside books,' which probably included both the products of a certain class of Jewish Hellenistic literature, and the Siphrey Minim, or writings of the heretics. Against these Rabbinism can scarcely find terms of sufficient violence, even debarring from share in the world to come those who read them.在這方面,它們被放在一個非常不同的立足點從所謂Sepharim Chitsonim ,或'以外的書籍,其中包括可能的產品一定階級的猶太希臘文學和Siphrey微量,或著作的異端。 Rabbinism可以在這些方面幾乎沒有找到足夠的暴力,甚至debarring從份額在世界上是誰來閱讀。 [d Sanh 100.] This, not only because they were used in controversy, but because their secret influence on orthodox Judaism was dreaded. [ d Sanh 100 。 ]在這,不僅是因為他們使用的爭議,而是因為他們的秘密正統猶太教的影響是可怕的。

For similar reasons, later Judaism forbade the use of the Apocrypha in the same manner as that of the Sepharim Chitsonim.出於同樣的原因,後來猶太教禁止使用的偽經,以同樣的方式,在Sepharim Chitsonim 。 But their influence had already made itself felt.但其影響力已作出自己覺得。 The Apocrypha, the more greedily perused, not only for their glorification of Judaism, but that they were, so to speak, doubtful reading, which yet afforded a glimpse into that forbidden Greek world, opened the way for other Hellenistic literature, of which unacknowledged but frequent traces occur in Talmudical writings.的偽經,更貪婪地閱讀,不僅是對他們的頌揚猶太教,但他們,這麼說吧,懷疑閱讀,其中還提供了一個展示的禁止希臘世界,開闢了道路其他希臘文學,其中秘而不宣但頻繁的痕跡出現在Talmudical著作。 [2 Comp. Siegfried, Philo von Alex. [ 2比較。齊格弗里德,斐羅馮阿萊克斯。 pp.頁。 275-299, who, however, perhaps overstates the matter.] 275-299 ,誰,但是,也許誇大了這一問題。 ]

To those who thus sought to weld Grecian thought with Hebrew revelation, two objects would naturally present themselves. They must try to connect their Greek philosophers with the Bible, and they must find beneath the letter of Scripture a deeper meaning, which would accord with philosophic truth.這些誰從而尋求焊接希臘與希伯來思想的啟示,兩個物體自然會介紹自己。他們必須嘗試連接的希臘哲學家的聖經,他們必須找到下面的信聖經更深的意義,這將符合哲學真理。 So far as the text of Scripture was concerned, they had a method ready to hand.迄今為止的案文聖經擔心,他們的方法準備交出。 The Stoic philosophers had busied themselves in finding a deeper allegorical meaning, especially in the writings of Homer.在斯多葛哲學家已經忙著尋找自己更深寓言的意義,特別是在荷馬的著作。

By applying it to mythical stories, or to the popular beliefs, and by tracing the supposed symbolical meaning of names, numbers, &c., it became easy to prove almost anything, or to extract from these philosophical truths ethical principles, and even the later results of natural science.運用它的神話故事,或民間信仰,並通過追踪理應象徵意義的名字,數字,及角, 它成為容易證明幾乎所有的東西,或提取這些哲學真理的倫理原則,甚至後來結果自然科學。 [1 Comp. [ 1比較。 Siegfried, pp.齊格弗里德,頁。 9-16; Hartmann, Enge Verb. 9月16日;哈特曼,恩哥動詞。 d. 4 A. Test.答:試驗。 mit d.麻省理工學院4 N., pp.注,頁。 568-572.] Such a process was peculiarly pleasing to the imagination, and the results alike astounding and satisfactory, since as they could not be proved, so neither could they be disproved. 568-572 。 ]在這樣一個過程是愉快的特有的想像力,結果同樣令人震驚的和令人滿意的,因為他們無法證明,因此也不能予以反駁。 This allegorical method [2 This is to be carefully distinguished from the typical interpretation and from the mystical, the type being prophetic, the mystery spiritually understood.] was the welcome key by which the Hellenists might unlock the hidden treasury of Scripture.這個寓言的方法[ 2 ,這是必須認真有別於典型的解釋,從神秘的類型正在預言,神秘精神的理解。 ]是值得歡迎的關鍵,其中Hellenists可能解開隱藏財政部的聖經。

In point of fact, we find it applied so early as in the 'Wisdom of Solomon.'事實上,我們發現它適用早在'智慧所羅門。 [3 Not to speak of such sounder interpretations as that of the brazen serpent (Wisd. xvi. 6, 7), and of the Fall (ii. 24), or of the view presented of the early history of the chosen race in ch. [ 3更不用說這種健全的解釋是厚顏無恥的蛇( Wisd.十六。 6日, 7日)和秋季(白介素24 ) ,或認為提出的早期歷史所選擇的種族在CH 。 x., we may mention as instances of allegorical interpretation that of the manna (xvi. 26-28), and of the high-priestly dress (xviii. 24), to which, no doubt, others might be added.十,我們可能會提到的事例寓言解釋的甘露( xvi. 26日至28日) ,以及高祭司服裝( xviii. 24 ) ,其中,毫無疑問,其他國家可能會增加。

But I cannot find sufficient evidence of this allegorical method in the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach.但是我無法找到足夠的證據證明這個寓言方法的智慧耶穌的兒子Sirach 。 The reasoning of Hartmann (us, pp. 542-547) seems to me greatly strained.推理哈特曼(我們頁。 542-547 )在我看來大大緊張。 Of the existence of allegorical interpretations in the Synoptic Gospels, or of any connection with Hellenism, such as Hartmann, Siegfried, and Loesner (Obs. ad. NT e Phil. Alex) put into them, I cannot, on examination, discover any evidence.存在的寓言解釋天氣福音,或任何與希臘,如哈特曼,齊格弗里德和Loesner ( Obs.廣告。新台幣é菲爾。亞歷克)投入其中,我不能,對檢查,發現任何證據。 Similarity of expressions, or even of thought, afford no evidence of inward connection.相似性的表現形式,或什至認為,沒有證據能力的外來連接。 Of the Gospel by St. John we shall speak in the sequel.福音聖約翰我們講的續集。 In the Pauline Epistles we find, as might be expected, some allegorical interpretations, chiefly in those to the Corinthians, perhaps owing to the connection of that church with Apollos.在波琳書信我們發現,這種情況是可以預想,一些寓言解釋,主要是在那些給科林蒂安,也許是由於連接的教堂阿波羅。 Comp here 1 Cor.壓縮機這裡1心病。 ix.九。 9; x. 9 ;十 4 (Philo, Quod deter. potiori insid. 31); 2 Cor. 4 (斐羅, Quod遏制。 potiori insid 。 31 ) ; 2心病。 iii.三。 16; Gal. 16 ;半乳糖。 iv.四。 21. Of the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse we cannot here speak.] 21 。在書信的希伯來和啟示,我們不能在這裡發言。 ]

But as yet Hellenism had scarcely left the domain of sober interpretation.但至今很少離開希臘的域清醒解釋。 it is otherwise in the letter of the Pseudo-Aristeas, to which reference has already been made.另在信中偽Aristeas ,提到這些已經取得的。 [4 See p. [ 4見第 25.] Here the wildest symbolism is put into the mouth of the High-Priest Eleazar, to convince Aristeas and his fellow-ambassador that the Mosaic ordinances concerning food had not only a political reason, to keep Israel separate from impious nations, and a sanitary one, but chiefly a mystical meaning. 25 。 ]這裡的荒涼的象徵投入口的高牧師埃萊亞薩,說服Aristeas和他的同胞,駐華大使說,花葉條例關於糧食不僅是一個政治原因,讓以色列單獨從impious聯合國和衛生的,但主要是一種神秘的含義。 The birds allowed for food were all tame and pure, and they fed on corn or vegetable products, the opposite being the case with those forbidden.鳥類允許食品都是馴服和純淨,和他們飼養的玉米和蔬菜產品,相反的情況下與這些被禁止的。

The first lesson which this was intended to teach was, that Israel must be just, and not seek to obtain aught from others by violence; but, so to speak, imitate the habits of those birds which were allowed them.第一個教訓是,這是旨在教導是,以色列必須是公正,而不是爭取奧特他人的暴力行為;但是,這麼說吧,模仿的習慣這些鳥類被允許他們。 The next lesson would be, that each must learn to govern his passions and inclinations.在未來的教訓將是,每個必須學會管理自己情緒和傾向。 Similarly, the direction about cloven hoofs pointed to the need of making separation, that is, between good and evil; and that about chewing the cud to the need of remembering, viz.同樣的,方向偶聲指出,必須使分離,也就是說,善與惡之間的;和有關的cud咀嚼的需要記住的,即。 God and His will.上帝和他的意志。 [1 A similar principle applied to the prohibition of such species as the mouse or the weasel, not only because they destroyed everything, but because they latter, from its mode of conceiving and bearing, symbolized listening to evil tales, and exaggerated, lying, or malicious speech.] [ 1一項類似的原則適用於禁止這些物種的鼠標或黃鼠狼,這不僅是因為他們摧毀了一切,而是因為他們後者,其模式的設想,同時,象徵著邪惡聽故事,並誇大了,撒謊,或惡意的講話。 ]

In such manner, according to Aristeas, did the High Priest go through the catalogue of things forbidden, and of animals to be sacrificed, showing from their 'hidden meaning' the majesty and sanctity of the Law.在這種方式,根據Aristeas ,沒有大祭司通過目錄外禁止和動物犧牲,顯示他們的'隱藏意義'的國王陛下和法律尊嚴。 [2 Of course this method is constantly adopted by Josephus. [ 2當然,這種方法當然是不斷通過約瑟夫。 Comp.壓縮機。 for example, Ant.例如,螞蟻。 iii. 1.三。 1 。 6; 7. 6 ; 7 。 7.] 7 。 ]

This was an important line to take, and it differed in principle from the allegorical method adopted by the Eastern Jews.這是一項重要的行採取,並在原則上有不同的寓意法通過的東歐猶太人。 Not only the Dorshey Reshumoth, [3 Or Dorshey Chamuroth, searchers of difficult passages.不僅Dorshey Reshumoth , [ 3或Dorshey Chamuroth ,查詢困難的通道。 Zunz. Zunz 。 Gottesd. Vortr. Gottesd 。 Vortr 。 p.山口 323. 323 。 note b.] or searches out of the subtleties of Scripture, of their indications, but even the ordinry Haggadist employed, indeed, allegoric interpretations. Thereby Akiba vindicated for the 'Song of Songs' its place in the Canon.注意到灣]或搜查出微妙的經文,他們的跡象,但是,即使是ordinry Haggadist就業,事實上,諷喻的解釋。因此秋葉正確的'宋詩經'其在佳能。 Did not Scripture say: 'One thing spake God, twofold is what I heard,' [a Ps.沒有聖經說: '有一件事spake上帝,有兩個方面是我所聽到, ' [使用PS 。 lxii. lxii 。 11; Sanh. 11 ; Sanh 。 34 a.] and did not this imply a twofold meaning; nay, could not the Torah be explained by many different methods? 34答: ] ,並沒有這意味著雙重意義;不,不可能的律法來解釋許多不同的方法? [4 The seventy languages in which the Law was supposed to have been written below Mount Ebal (Sotah vii. 5). [ 4 70種語言,法律理應已書面低於山Ebal ( Sotah七。 5 ) 。

I cannot help feeling this may in part also refer to the various modes of interpreting Holy Scripture, and that there is an allusion to this Shabb. 88 b, where Ps.我不禁覺得這也許部分還提到各種方式解釋聖經,而且有一個針對此Shabb 。 88 b ,其中聚苯乙烯。 lxviii. lxviii 。 12. 12 。 and Jer.和哲。 xxiii.二十三。 29, are quoted, the latter to show that the word of God is like a hammer that breaks the rock in a thousand pieces. 29日,被引用,後者表明,上帝的話,就像是一把錘子,打破岩石在萬件。 Comp.壓縮機。 Rashi on Gen. xxxiii. Rashi的將軍三十三。 20.] What, for example, was the water which Israel sought in the wilderness, or the bread and raiment which Jacob asked in Bethel, but the Torah and the dignity which it conferred? 20 。 ]什麼,例如,水是以色列試圖在荒野,或麵包和服飾的雅各在伯特利要求,但律法和尊嚴它賦予? But in all these, and innumerable similar instances, the allegorical interpretation was only an application of Scripture for homiletical purposes, not a searching into a rationale beneath, such as that of the Hellenists.但在所有這些,和無數的類似情況下,寓言的解釋只是一個應用聖經的homiletical目的,而不是尋找到的理由之下,如在Hellenists 。

The latter the Rabbis would have utterly repudiated, on their express principle that 'Scripture goes not beyond its plain meaning.'後者的拉比將完全否定,對他們表示原則'聖經不用它無法平原意義。 [5 Perhaps we ought here to point out one of the most important principles of Rabbinism, which has been almost entirely overlooked in modern criticism of the Talmud. [ 5也許我們應該在這裡指出的一個最重要的原則Rabbinism ,已幾乎完全忽視了在現代批評塔爾穆德。 It is this: that any ordinance, not only of the Divine law, but of the Rabbis, even though only given for a particular time or occasion, or for a special reason, remains in full force for all time unless it be expressly recalled (Betsah 5 b).這就是:任何條例,不僅是神聖的法律,但在拉比,即使只考慮某一特定時間或場合,或特殊原因,仍然是完全有效的所有時間,除非它明確回顧( Betsah 5 b )項。 Thus Maimonides (Sepher ha Mitsv.) declares the law to extirpate the Canaanites as continuing in its obligations.因此邁蒙尼德( Sepher公頃Mitsv 。 )宣布消滅的法律迦南繼續在履行其義務。 The inferences as to the perpetual obligation, not only of the ceremonial law, but of sacrifices, will be obvious, and their bearing on the Jewish controversy need not be explained.的推論至於永久義務,不僅是禮儀性的法律,但犧牲,將是明顯的,其影響的猶太爭議不必加以解釋。 Comp.壓縮機。 Chief Rabbi Holdheim.首席拉比Holdheim 。 d. 4 Ceremonial Gesetz in Messasreich, 1845.]禮儀法則在Messasreich , 1845 。 ]

They sternly insisted, that we ought not to search into the ulterior object and rationale of a law, but simply obey it. But it was this very rationale of the Law which the Alexandrians sought to find under its letter. 他們嚴肅地堅持,我們不應該搜索到其不可告人的目的和理由的法律,而只是服從它。但這個理由的法律的Alexandrians努力尋求在其信。 It was in this sense that Aristobulus, a Hellenist Jew of Alexandria, [b About 160 BC] sought to explain Scripture.正是在這個意義上,阿里斯托布魯斯,一個Hellenist猶太人的亞歷山大,並[ b大約有160名卑詩]尋求解釋聖經。 Only a fragment of his work, which seems to have been a Commentary on the Pentateuch, dedicated to King Ptolemy (Philometor), has been preserved to us (by Clement of Alexandria, and by Eusebius [a Praepar. Evang. vii. 14. 1 ; vii. 10. 1-17; xiii. 12.]). According to Clement of Alexandria, his aim was, 'to bring the Peripatetic philosophy out of the law of Moses, and out of the other prophets.'只有一個片段,他的工作,似乎已經發表的一篇評論的摩西五,致力於國王托勒密( Philometor ) ,已被保存,我們(的克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,並通過優西比烏[ 1 Praepar 。 Evang 。七。 14 。 1 ;七。 10 。 1月17日;十三。 12 。 ] ) 。根據克萊門特亞歷山大,他的目標是,使流動哲學走出摩西律法,出於其他先知。

Thus, when we read that God stood, it meant the stable order of the world; that He created the world in six days, the orderly succession of time; the rest of the Sabbath, the preservation of what was created.因此,當我們讀到,站在上帝,這意味著穩定的世界秩序的;認為他創造了世界在6天,有秩序地繼承的時間,其餘的安息日,維護什麼是創建。 And in such manner could the whole system of Aristotle be found in the Bible.在這種方式可以使整個系統的亞里士多德於聖經。 But how was this to be accounted for?但是是怎樣,這是佔了? Of course, the Bible had not learned from Aristotle, but he and all the other philosphers had learned from the Bible.當然,聖經沒有從亞里士多德,但他和所有其他philosphers了聖經的教訓。 Thus, according to Aristobulus, Pythagoras, Plato, and all the other sages had really learned from Moses, and the broken rays found in their writings were united in all their glory in the Torah.因此,根據阿里斯托布魯斯,畢達哥拉斯,柏拉圖,和所有其他聖人真正學到了摩西,並打破射線發現在他們的著作是聯合國在其所有的榮耀在律法。

It was a tempting path on which to enter, and one on which there was no standing still.這是一個誘人的道路上進入,一人是沒有原地踏步。 It only remained to give fixedness to the allegorical method by reducing it to certain principles, or canons of criticism, and to form the heterogeneous mass of Grecian philosophemes and Jewish theologumena into a compact, if not homogeneous system.它不僅仍然給予固的寓言方法,減少它的某些原則,或者大砲的批評,並形成了大規模的異構希臘philosophemes和猶太theologumena到一個小巧的,如果不是均勻的系統。 This was the work of Philo of Alexandria, born about 20 BC It concerns us not here to inquire what were the intermediate links between Aristobulus and Philo.這是工作斐羅亞歷山大出生約20公元前關注我們不要在這裡,詢問是什麼樣的中間環節和斐羅阿里斯托布魯斯之間。 Another and more important point claims our attention.另一個更重要的一點索賠我們的注意。

If ancient Greek philosophy knew the teaching of Moses, where was the historic evidence for it?如果知道古希臘哲學教學中的摩西,在那裡是歷史的證據嗎? If such did not exist, it must somehow be invented.如不存在,它必須有所發明。 Orpheus was a name which had always lent itself to literary fraud, [b As Val.奧菲斯是一個名稱,該名稱一直適於文學欺詐, [ b如山谷。 Kenaer puts it, Daitr. Kenaer所說的那樣, Daitr 。 de Aristob. Jud.日Aristob 。珠德。 p.山口 73.] and so Aristobulus boldly produces (whether of his own or of others' making) a number of spurious citations from Hesiod, Homer, Linus, but especially from Orpheus, all Biblical and Jewish in their cast. 73 。 ]等阿里斯托布魯斯大膽生產(不論是自己或他人的決策)的一些虛假引文赫西奧德,荷馬,萊納斯,但特別是從地獄,所有的聖經和猶太的演員。 Aristobulus was neither the first nor the last to commit such fraud.阿里斯托布魯斯既不是第一次也不是最後一次犯下這種欺詐行為。 The Jewish Sibyl boldly, and, as we shall see, successfully personated the heathen oracles.猶太Sibyl大膽,我們也應看到,成功personated的異教徒神諭。 And this opens, generally, quite a vista of Jewish-Grecia literature.這打開,一般情況下,相當一個Vista的猶太希臘文學。 In the second, and even in the third century before Christ, there were Hellenist historians, such as Eupolemus, Artapanus, Demetrius, and Aristeas; tragic and epic poets, such as Ezekiel, Pseudo-Philo, and Theodotus, who, after the manner of the ancient classical writers, but for their own purposes, described certain periods of Jewish history, or sang of such themes as the Exodus, Jerusalem, or the rape of Dinah.在第二次,甚至在公元前三世紀,有Hellenist歷史學家,如Eupolemus , Artapanus德梅,並Aristeas ;悲劇和史詩的詩人,如厄澤克爾,偽斐羅和Theodotus ,誰,在地古代的經典作家,而是為自己的目的,說明某些時期猶太人的歷史,或生等主題的大量外流,耶路撒冷,或強姦黛娜。

The mention of these spurious quotations naturally leads us to another class of spurious literature, which, although not Hellenistic, has many elements in common with it, and, even when originating with Palestinian Jews is not Palestinian, nor yet has been preserved in its language. We allude to what are known as the Pseudepigraphic, or Pseudonymic Writings, so called because, with one exception, they bear false names of authorship.提及這些虛假報價自然使我們對另一個階級的雜散文學,這雖然不是希臘,有許多共同的要素有了它,和,即使在原產地與巴勒斯坦猶太人不是巴勒斯坦,也沒有一直保存在其語言。 我們提及所謂的Pseudepigraphic ,或Pseudonymic著作,所謂的,因為有一個例外,他們承擔假名的作者。 It is difficult to arrange them otherwise than chronological, and even here the greatest difference of opinions prevails.這是很難安排他們以外的其他時間,甚至在這裡,最大的不同的意見佔上風。

Their general character (with one exception) may be described as anti-heathen, perhaps missionary, but chiefly as Apocalyptic.他們一般性質(有一個例外)可被稱為反異教徒,也許傳教,但主要是啟示。 They are attempts at taking up the key-note struck in the prophecies of Daniel; rather, we should say, to lift the veil only partially raised by him, and to point, alike as concerned Israel, and the kingdoms of the world, to the past, the present, and the future, in the light of the Kingship of the Messiah.他們是企圖採取行動的關鍵,說明襲擊的預言丹尼爾;相反,我們應該說,取消面紗只是部分提出了他,並指出,不論是有關以色列和演義的世界,過去,現在和未來,根據國王的救世主。 Here, if anywhere, we might expect to find traces of New Testament teaching; and yet, side by side with frequent similarity of form, the greatest difference, we had almost said contrast, in spirit, prevails.在這裡,如果任何地方,我們可以期望找到痕跡新約全書教學;然而,並肩頻繁相似的形式,最大的差異,我們不得不說,幾乎相反,在精神,普遍存在。

Many of these works must have perished.許多這些工程必須喪生。 In one of the latest of them [a 4 Esdras xiv.在最近的一次,其中[ 4埃斯德拉斯十四。 44, 46.] they are put down at seventy, probably a round number, having reference to the supposed number of the nations of the earth, or to every possible mode of interpreting Scripture. 44 , 46 。 ] 他們放下在70 ,可能是一個整數,在參考假定一些國家的地球,或以各種可能的方式解釋聖經。 They are described as intended for 'the wise among the people,' probably those whom St. Paul, in the Christian sense, designates as 'knowing the time' [b Rom.他們被稱為打算'的明智的人,那些人可能聖保祿,在基督教意義上,指定為'知道時間,並[ b光盤。 xiii.十三。 11.] [1 The of St. Paul seems here used in exactly the same sense as in later Hebrew. 11 。 ] [ 1聖保羅似乎正是在這裡用同樣的意義在以後的希伯來文。 The LXX. render it so in five passages (Ezr. v. 3; Dan. iv. 33; vi. 10; vii. 22, 25).] of the Advent of the Messiah.該LXX 。使其以便在五個段落( Ezr.訴3 ;丹。四。 33 ;六。 10 ;七。 22日, 25日) 。 ]的到來彌賽亞。 Viewed in this light, they embody the ardent aspirations and the inmost hopes [2 Of course, it suits Jewish writers, like Dr. Jost, to deprecate the value of the Pseudepigrapha.從這個角度看,它們所體現的強烈願望和內心深處的希望[ 2當然,它很適合猶太作家,如博士喬斯特,以藐視的價值Pseudepigrapha 。

Their ardour of expectancy ill agrees with the modern theories, which would eliminate, if possible, the Messianic hope from ancient Judaism.] of those who longed for the 'consolation of Israel,' as they understood it.他們熱情的預期虐待同意現代理論,這將消除,如果可能的話,希望從古代彌賽亞猶太教。 ]這些誰渴望的'安慰,以色列,因為他們的理解。 Nor should we judge their personations of authorship according to our Western ideas.我們也不應判斷其personations作者根據我們的西方思潮。 [3 Comp. [ 3比較。 Dillmann in Herzog's Real-Encykl. Dillmann在赫爾佐格的實時Encykl 。 vol.第一卷。 xii.十二。 p.山口 301.] Pseudonymic writings were common in that age, and a Jew might perhaps plead that, even in the Old Testament, books had been headed by names which confessedly were not those of their authors (such as Samuel, Ruth, Esther). 301 。 ] Pseudonymic著作共同在這個年齡段,和一個猶太人也許認罪,即使在舊約,書籍已經由名稱不明白那些作者(如塞繆爾,露絲,以斯帖) 。 If those inspired poets who sang in the spirit, and echoed the strains, of Asaph, adopted that designation, and the sons of Korah preferred to be known by that title, might not they, who could no longer claim the authority of inspiration seek attention for their utterances by adopting the names of those in whose spirit they professed to write?如果這些激勵誰唱詩人的精神,並重申了菌株,對Asaph ,通過這一指定,和兒子Korah寧願被稱為該標題,可能沒有他們,誰不能再索賠管理局尋求靈感注意他們的話語,通過的人的姓名,他們在其精神聲稱寫?

The most interesting as well as the oldest of these books are those known as the Book of Enoch, the Sibylline Oracles, the Paler of Solomon, and the Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis. Only the briefest notice of them can here find a place. 最有趣的以及最古老的這些書籍是那些被稱為圖書的伊諾克的Sibylline甲骨文,所羅門的蒼白,和書Jubilees ,或很少成因。只有了這一通知,他們可以在這裡找到位置。 [1 For a brief review of the 'Pseudepigraphic Writings,' see Appendix I.] [ 1簡要回顧了' Pseudepigraphic著作, '見附錄一]

The Book of Enoch, the oldest parts of which date a century and a half before Christ, comes to us from Palestine. 伊諾克的書,最古老的部分是迄今為止在一個半世紀公元前,給我們留下巴勒斯坦。 It professes to be a vision vouchsafed to that Patriarch, and tells of the fall of the Angels and its consequences, and of what he saw and heard in his rapt journeys through heaven and earth.它聲稱是一個遠景vouchsafed這一主教,並告訴秋季天使及其後果,以及所見所聞在他全神貫注的旅程通過天地。 Of deepest, though often sad, interest, is what it says of the Kingdom of Heaven, of the advent of Messiah and His Kingdom, and of the last things.最深的,但往往令人痛心,利息,是它所說的天國,對彌賽亞的到來和他的王國,並在過去的事情。

On the other hand, the Sibylline Oracles, of which the oldest portions date from about 160 BC, come to us from Egypt.另一方面,在Sibylline甲骨文,其中最古老的部分日期的約160名卑詩,來找我們從埃及。 It is to the latter only that we here refer.這是後者,我們這裡只提及。 Their most interesting parts are also the most characteristics.最有趣的部分也是最特點。 In them the ancient heathen myths of the first ages of man are welded together with Old Testament notices, while the heathen Theogony is recast in a Jewish mould. Thus Noah becomes Uranos, Shem Saturn, Ham Titan, and Japheth Japetus.在這些古老的異教徒神話第一歲的男子被焊接在一起舊約告示,而異教徒的神統記是改寫猶太模具。 因此諾亞成為Uranos ,閃土星,咸土衛六,並Japheth Japetus 。

Similarly, we have fragments of ancient heathen oracles, so to speak, recast in a Jewish edition.同樣,我們古代異教徒片段神諭,這麼說吧,改寫猶太版。 The strangest circumstance is, that the utterances of this Judaising and Jewish Sibyl seem to have passed as the oracles of the ancient Erythraean, which had predicted the fall of Troy, and as those of the Sibyl of Cumae, which, in the infancy of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus had deposited in the Capitol.奇怪的情況是,該言論的Judaising和猶太Sibyl似乎已經過去了作為神諭古代Erythraean ,它曾預測秋季特洛伊,作為那些Sibyl的Cumae ,這在嬰兒期的羅馬,塔克文Superbus交存了在國會山。

The collection of eighteen hymns known as the Psalter of Solomon dates from more than half a century before our era. No doubt the original was Hebrew, though they breathe a somewhat Hellenistic spirit.收集18讚美詩稱為Psalter所羅門日期從半個多世紀以來,在我們的時代。毫無疑問,原來是希伯來語,儘管他們呼吸有點希臘精神。 They express ardent Messianic aspirations, and a firm faith in the Resurrection, and in eternal rewards and punishments.他們表示熱烈的彌賽亞的願望,並堅定信念的復活,在永恆的獎懲。

Different in character from the preceding works is The Book of Jubilees, so called from its chronological arrangement into 'Jubilee-periods', or 'Little Genesis.'不同性質的從上述作品的書Jubilees ,所謂從時間安排到'銀禧週期'或'小成因。 It is chiefly a kind of legendary supplement to the Book of Genesis, intended to explain some of its historic difficulties, and to fill up its historic lacunae.它主要是一種傳奇的補充創世記,為了說明它的一些歷史的困難,並填補了歷史空白。 It was probably written about the time of Christ, and this gives it a special interest, by a Palestinian, and in Hebrew, or rather Aramaean.這可能是寫的時間是耶穌,這給了它一個特殊的興趣,由巴勒斯坦,並在希伯來文,或者更確切地說Aramaean 。 But, like the rest of the Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphic literature which comes from Palestine, or was originally written in Hebrew, we possess it no longer in that language, but only in translation.但是,像其他地方的未經證實和Pseudepigraphic文學來自巴勒斯坦,或原先書面希伯來文,我們擁有它不再以該語言,但只有在翻譯。

If from this brief review of Hellenist and Pseudepigraphic literature we turn to take a retrospect, we can scarcely fail to perceive, on the one hand, the development of the old, and on the other the preparation for the new, in other words, the grand expectancy awakened, and the grand preparation made. One step only remained to complete what Hellenism had already begun.如果從這個簡要回顧Hellenist和Pseudepigraphic文學,我們又採取回過頭來看,我們可以幾乎無法察覺,一方面,發展的歷史,對其他籌備工作的新的,換句話說,大覺醒的預期,並準備作出大。一個步驟仍然只完成什麼希臘已經開始。 That completion came through one who, although himself untouched by the Gospel, perhaps more than any other prepared alike his co-religionists the Jews, and his countrymen the Greeks, for the new teaching, which, indeed, was presented by many of its early advocates in the forms which they had learned from him.這完成了通過一個誰,但他無動於衷的福音,或許比任何其他準備都同事教友的猶太人,他的同胞的希臘人,為新的教學,而事實上,提出了許多早期倡導者的形式,他們的教訓他。 That man was Philo the Jew, of Alexandria.這名男子被斐羅的猶太人,亞歷山大。


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者愛德生提到許多參考資料在他的作品。 As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list. All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.作為一個書目資源,我們創建了一個單獨的愛德生參考清單。所有的方括號內的提法表明,頁碼的著作中引用。


Apocrypha偽經

Advanced Catholic Information 先進的天主教信息

(Both Old and New Testaments) (這兩個新舊約)

The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them.本條的適用範圍所採取的這些成分的信奉已書面要么聖經人士或男子在親密關係。 Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently.這種已知工程的牧人書的使徒巴爾納巴斯的十二使徒遺訓(教學)的十二門徒,並使徒規和憲法,但以前未經真正屬於教父文學,被認為是獨立的。 It has been deemed better to classify the Biblical apocrypha according to their origin, instead of following the misleading division of the apocrypha of the Old and New Testaments. Broadly speaking, the apocrypha of Jewish origin are coextensive with what are styled of the Old Testament, and those of Christian origin with the apocrypha of the New Testament.它已被認為是更好地進行分類聖經偽經根據其原產地,而不是下面的誤導司偽經的舊約和新約。一般來說,偽經的猶太血統的共存是什麼風格與舊約,和基督教的起源偽經的新約。 The subject will be treated as follows:這個問題將被視為如下:

Name and Notion姓名和理念

Etymologically, the derivation of Apocrypha is very simple, being from the Greek apokryphos , hidden, and corresponding to the neuter plural of the adjective. Etymologically ,得出的偽經是非常簡單的,是從希臘apokryphos ,隱藏,和相應的中性複數的形容詞。 The use of the singular, "Apocryphon", is both legitimate and convenient, when referring to a single work. When we would attempt to seize the literary sense attaching to the word, the task is not so easy.利用奇異, “ Apocryphon ” ,是既合法又方便,當提到一個單一的工作。當我們將試圖抓住文學意義上的附加詞,這個任務是不那麼容易。 It has been employed in various ways by early patristic writers, who have sometimes entirely lost sight of the etymology.它已被用來以各種方式的早期教父作家,誰有時完全忽視詞源。 Thus it has the connotation "uncanonical" with some of them.因此,它的內涵“ uncanonical ”與其中的一些。 St. Jerome evidently applied the term to all quasi-scriptural books which in his estimation lay outside the canon of the Bible, and the Protestant Reformers, following Jerome's catalogue of Old Testament Scriptures -- one which was at once erroneous and singular among the Fathers of the Church -- applied the title Apocrypha to the excess of the Catholic canon of the Old Testament over that of the Jews.聖杰羅姆一詞顯然適用於所有準聖經書籍在他的估計屬於佳能的聖經和新教改革者以下杰羅姆的目錄舊約聖經-一這是一次錯誤的和奇異的父親教會-適用標題偽經的超過天主教佳能舊約超過猶太人。 Naturally, Catholics refuse to admit such a denomination, and we employ "deuterocanonical" to designate this literature, which non-Catholics conventionally and improperly know as the "Apocrypha".當然,天主教徒拒絕承認這樣一個單位,我們採用“ deuterocanonical ”指定本文獻,其中非天主教徒的傳統和不當知道的“偽經” 。 (See CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.) (見佳能舊約。 )

The original and proper sense of the term apocryphal as applied to the pretended sacred books was early obscured.原始的和適當的意義上的未經適用於假裝神聖的書籍是早期模糊。 But a clue to it may be recognized in the so-called Fourth Book of Esdras, which relates that Estrus (Era) by divine inspiration composed ninety-four books.但是,線索可能承認在所謂的第四本書的埃斯德拉斯,其中涉及的發情(時代)的神聖的靈感組成94本書。 Of these, twenty-four were restorations of the sacred literature of the Israelites which had perished in the Captivity; they were to be published openly, but the remaining were to be guarded in secret for the exclusive use of the wise (cf. Dan., ix, 4, 9, where the prophet is bidden to shut up and seal an inspired book until an appointed time).其中, 2004年被修復的神聖文學的以色列人已經死亡的圈養;它們還沒有發表公開的,但其餘被守衛的秘密專用智者(參見丹。 ,九, 4 , 9 ,那裡的先知是bidden關閉和密封的啟發書,直到指定的時間) 。 Accordingly it may be accepted as highly probable that in its original meaning an apocryphal writing had no unfavorable import, but simply denoted a composition which claimed a sacred origin, and was supposed to have been hidden for generations, either absolutely, awaiting the due time of its revelation, or relatively, inasmuch as knowledge of it was confined to a limited esoteric circle.因此它可能被接納為極有可能在其原來的含義了未經書面沒有不利於進口,而僅僅是指組成聲稱一項神聖的起源,並假定已經隱藏的後代,無論是絕對,等待適當的時間它的啟示,或相對的,因為它的知識僅限於有限的深奧循環。 However, the name Apocrypha soon came to have an unfavourable signification which it still retains, comporting both want of genuineness and canonicity. These are the negative aspects of the modern application of the name; on its positive side it is properly employed only of a well defined class of literature, putting forth scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, and which originated in part among the Hebrews during the two centuries preceding Christ and for a space after, and in part among Christians, both orthodox and heterodox, in the early centuries of our era.然而,偽經的名字很快來到了不利的意義它仍然保留, comporting都希望和正規的真實性。這些消極方面,現代應用的名稱;其積極的一面是唯一正確的就業良好定義類的文學,之後提出聖經或準聖經偽裝,和起源於部分之間的希伯來書在兩個世紀前基督和空間後,和基督教徒之間的部分,既正統,在早期世紀的我們的時代。

I. APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN一,偽經的猶太血統

Ancient literature, especially in the Orient, used methods much more free and elastic than those permitted by our modern and Occidental culture.古代文學,尤其是在東方,使用方法更為自由和彈性比所允許的現代化和西方文化。 Pseudographic composition was in vogue among the Jews in the two centuries before Christ and for some time later. The attribution of a great name of the distant past to a book by its real author, who thus effaced his own personality, was, in some cases at least, a mere literary fiction which deceived no one except the ignorant. Pseudographic組成盛行的猶太人在公元前二世紀,並在一段時間以後。歸於一個偉大名字遙遠的過去,以一本書的真正作者,誰從而抹去了自己的個性,是在某些情況下至少,僅僅文學小說的欺騙,但沒有人知道。 This holds good for the so-called "Wisdom of Solomon", written in Greek and belonging to the Church's sacred canon.這個擁有良好的所謂的“所羅門的智慧” ,寫的希臘和屬於教會的神聖佳能。 In other cases, where the assumed name did not stand as a symbol of a type of a certain kind of literature, the intention was not without a degree of at least objective literary dishonesty.在其他情況下,如果沒有假名立場的象徵一種某種文學,其意圖並非沒有一定的目標,至少文學不誠實。

(1) Jewish Apocalypses ( 1 )猶太人的啟示

The most important and valuable of the extant Jewish apocrypha are those which have a large apocalyptic element; that is, which profess to contain visions and revelations of the unseen world and the Messianic future.最重要和最有價值的現存猶太偽經是那些有很大的啟示因素,也就是說,它信奉含有理想和啟示看不見的世界和未來的救世主。 Jewish apocalyptic literature is a theme which deserves and has increasingly received the attention of all interested in the development of the religious thought of Israel, that body of concepts and tendencies in which are fixed the roots of the great doctrinal principles of Christianity itself, just as its Divine Founder took His temporal generation from the stock of orthodox Judaism.猶太啟示文學是一個主題,並已得到越來越多的關注收到的所有有關的發展,宗教思想的以色列,該機構的概念和趨勢,這是固定的根源,偉大的理論原則基督教本身,就像其創辦了他神聖的時間產生的存量正統猶太教。 The Jewish apocalypses furnish the completing links in the progress of Jewish theology and fill what would otherwise be a gap, though a small one, between the advanced stage marked by the deuterocanonical books and its full maturity in the time of Our Lord; a maturity so relatively perfect that Jesus could suppose as existing in the popular consciousness, without teaching de novo , the doctrines of future retribution, the resurrection of the body, and the existence, nature, and office of angels.猶太人提供啟示完成環節的進展情況猶太神學和填補否則差距,雖然很小,晚期之間的顯著的書籍和deuterocanonical充分成熟的時候我們的上帝;成熟,以便比較完善的,耶穌可以假設現有的全民意識,沒有教學從頭 ,理論未來報復,復活的身體,存在,性質,和辦公室的天使。 Jewish apocalyptic writing is an attempt to supply the place of prophecy, which had been dead for centuries, and it has its roots in the sacred oracles of Israel.猶太世界末日寫作是企圖供應地的預言,這已死去百年的時間,以及它的根源在神聖的神諭以色列。 Hebrew prophecy on its human side had its springs, its occasions, and immediate objects in the present; the prophets were inspired men who found matter for comfort as well as rebuke and warning in the actual conditions of Israel's theocratic life.希伯來預言其人力方面的泉水,其場合,並立即物體本;先知受到啟發男子誰發現的問題,以及舒適的指責和警告的實際情況,以色列的神的生活。 But when ages had elapsed, and the glowing Messianic promises of the prophets had not been realized; when the Jewish people had chafed, not through two or three, but many generations, under the bitter yoke of foreign masters or the constantly repeated pressure of heathen states, reflecting and fervent spirits, finding no hope in the actual order of things, looked away from earth and fixed their vision on another and ideal world where God's justice would reign unthwarted, to the everlasting glory of Israel both as a nation and in its faithful individuals, and unto the utter destruction and endless torment of the Gentile oppressors and the unrighteous. But when ages had elapsed, and the glowing Messianic promises of the prophets had not been realized; when the Jewish people had chafed, not through two or three, but many generations, under the bitter yoke of foreign masters or the constantly repeated pressure of heathen國家,反映和熱切的精神,尋求沒有希望在實際的事,看起來離地球和固定他們的遠見和理想在另一個世界裡,上帝的正義統治unthwarted ,向永恆的榮耀以色列作為一個國家和在其忠實的人,和你們的完全破壞和無休止的折磨的詹蒂萊壓迫者和不義。 Apocalyptic literature was both a message of comfort and an effort to solve the problems of the sufferings of the just and the apparent hopelessness of a fulfilment of the prophecies of Israel's sovereignty on earth.啟示文學既是一個信息的舒適和努力解決的問題,痛苦的公正和明顯絕望了實現的預言以色列的主權在地球上。 But the inevitable consequence of the apocalyptic distrust of everything present was its assumption of the guise of the remote and classic past; in other words, its pseudonymous character.但不可避免的後果是災難性的一切本不信任是其擔任的幌子遠程和經典過去,換句話說,它的匿名性質。 Naturally basing itself upon the Pentateuch and the Prophets, it clothed itself fictitiously with the authority of a patriarch or prophet who was made to reveal the transcendent future.當然立足的五經和先知,這衣服本身fictitiously同管理局的主教或先知誰是揭示超越未來。 But in their effort to adjust this future to the history that lay within their ken the apocalyptic writers unfolded also a philosophy of the origin and progress of mundane things.但是,在他們的努力來調整這個未來的歷史,奠定其縣展開了世界末日作家也有哲學的起源和進展情況的世俗的東西。 A wider view of world-politics and a comprehensive cosmological speculation are among the distinctive traits of Jewish apocalyptic.更廣泛地認為世界政治和全面的猜測是宇宙的獨特性狀的猶太世界末日。 The Book of Daniel is the one book of the Old Testament to which the non-inspired apocalypses bear the closest affinity, and it evidently furnished ideas to several of the latter.該但以理書是一本書舊約該非靈感啟示承擔最接近的親和力,它顯然提供思想的幾個後者。 An apocalyptic element existing in the prophets, in Zacharias (i-vi), in Tobias (Tobias, xiii), can be traced back to the visions of Ezechiel which form the prototype of apocalyptic; all this had its influence upon the new literature.現有的啟示元素的先知,在撒迦利亞(一至六) ,在托拜厄斯(托比亞斯,十三) ,可以追溯到的願景Ezechiel構成原型世界末日;所有這一切都影響了它的新的文學。 Messianism of course plays an important part in apocalyptic eschatology and the idea of the Messias in certain books received a very high development.彌賽亞當然中發揮了重要作用世界末日的末世論和思想的弭賽亞在某些書籍收到了非常高的發展。 But even when it is transcendent and mystic it is intensely, almost fanatically, national, and surrounded by fanciful and often extravagant accessories.但即使它是至高無上的和神秘的是激烈的,幾乎狂熱,國家和包圍幻想,往往奢侈配件。 It lacks the universal outlook of some of the prophets, especially the Deutero-Isaias, and is far from having a uniform and consistent physiognomy.它缺乏普遍前景的一些先知,特別是Deutero ,伊薩亞,是遠遠沒有一個統一的和一致的面相。 Sometimes the Messianic realm is placed upon the transfigured earth, centering in a new Jerusalem; in other works it is lifted into the Heavens; in some books the Messias is wanting or is apparently merely human, while the Parables of Henoch with their pre-existent Messias mark the highest point of development of the Messianic concept to be found in the whole range of Hebrew literature.有時彌賽亞境界是放在變形地球,圍繞在新的耶路撒冷,在其他工程是提升到老天爺;在一些書籍的弭賽亞是想或顯然只是人類,而寓言的過敏與前存在弭賽亞商標的最高點彌賽亞發展的概念中可以找到的一系列希伯萊文學。

(a) The Book of Henoch (Ethiopic) (一)圖書的過敏(埃塞俄比亞)

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到單獨的天主教百科全書文章根據這一標題。

(b) Assumption of Moses (二)假設的摩西

Origen, "De Principiis", III, ii, 1, names the Assumption of Moses -- Analepsis Mouseos -- as the book cited by the Epistle of Jude, 9, where there is an allusion to a dispute between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses.奧利“者Principiis ” ,三,二, 1 ,名稱升天摩西- Analepsis Mouseos -因為這本書引用的使徒裘德, 9 ,那裡是一個針對邁克爾之間的爭端和撒旦的機構摩西。 Aside from a few other brief references in patristic literature, nothing more was known of this apocryphon until the Latin manuscript containing a long portion of it was discovered by Ceriani in the Ambrosian Library, at Milan, and published by him in 1861.除了其他一些簡短提到教父文學,只不過被稱為本apocryphon到拉丁美洲手稿長期一部分被發現的安布羅西安聖Ceriani圖書館,在米蘭,並出版了他於1861年。 Its identity with the ancient work is established by a quotation from the latter in the Acts of the Nicene Council.其身份與古老的工作,建立了引自後者的行為尼西亞理事會。 The book purports to be a series of predictions delivered in written form to the safe-keeping of Josue (Joshua) by Moses when the latter, in view of his approaching death, appointed Josue as his successor. The ostensible purpose of these deliverances is to confirm the Mosaic laws and the admonitions in Deuteronomy.這本書看來是一連串的預測以書面形式提供的安全保管的若蘇埃(約書亞)由摩西當後者,鑑於他接近死亡,任命若蘇埃作為他的繼任者。表面目的是要這些deliverances確認花葉法律和告誡在申命記。 The entire history of Israel is outlined.整個歷史上,以色列概述。 In a vehement and glowing style the book delineates under its prophetic guise the impiety of Israel's Hasmonean rulers and Sadducean priests.在激烈的風格和光輝的書描述先知幌子下的impiety以色列Hasmonean統治者和Sadducean牧師。 The historical allusions come down to the reign of an insolent monarch who is plainly Herod the Great, and a powerful ruler who shall come from the West and subjugate the people -- a reference to the punitive expedition of Quintilius Varus, 4 BC But the Messias will intervene and execute Divine wrath upon the enemies of the nation, and a cataclysm of nature, which is depicted with truly apocalyptic sublimity, will forerun the beginning of the new era.歷史典故歸結為統治的傲慢的君主誰顯然是希律王大,和一個強大的統治者誰應來自西方和征服的人-的參考討伐的Quintilius翻, 4公元前但弭賽亞干預和執行神聖憤怒的敵人的國家,一個災難的性質,這是真正的世界末日的描述與崇高,將forerun開始的新時代。 Strangely there is no mention of a resurrection or a judgment of individuals.奇怪的是沒有提到復活或判決的個人。 The book then returns to the doings of Moses and Josue.這本書然後再返回所作所為的摩西和若蘇埃。 The manuscript breaks off abruptly at chapter xii, and the portion cited by Jude must have belonged to the lost conclusion.這份手稿休息,突然關閉在第十二章,和部分引用裘德必須屬於失去結論。 This apocalypse has with solid reasons been assigned to the early years after Herod's death, between 4 BC and AD 10.這啟示了堅實原因被分配到的最初幾年後希律王死後, 4年之間和AD 10 。 It is evident that neither of Herod's sons, Philip and Antipas, had yet reigned thirty-four years, since the writer, hazarding a prediction that proved false, says that the sons should enjoy shorter reigns than their father.很明顯,既不希律的兒子,菲利普和安提帕,尚未在位三十四年,因為作家, hazarding預測證明不實的,兒子說,較短的時期應享有比他們的父親。 Thus the latest possible date of composition is fixed at AD 30.因此,最新的可能的日期是固定的組成在公元30 。 The author was a Jew, and in all likelihood a Palestinian one.作者是一個猶太人,以及在所有巴勒斯坦人的可能性之一。 He belonged neither to the Pharisees of the type of Christ's epoch, nor to the Sadducees, since he excoriates both alike.他屬於既不法利類型的基督的時代,也不向撒都該人,因為他excoriates都一樣的。 He must have been either a Zealot, that is an ultra-Nationalist and Messianist, or a fervid Essene.他一定是不是Zealot ,這是一個極端民族主義和Messianist ,或激越厄色尼。 He wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic.他在希伯來文或阿拉姆語。 The Latin text is translated from a Greek version.拉丁文字翻譯從希臘版本。

(c) Book of the Secrets of Henoch (Slavonic Henoch) (三)圖書的秘密過敏(斯拉夫過敏)

In 1892 attention was called to Slavonic manuscripts which on examination proved to contain another Henoch book differing entirely from the Ethiopic compilation.於1892年提請注意斯拉夫手稿其中考試證明包含另一個完全不同的過敏性圖書從埃塞俄比亞彙編。 "The Book of the Secrets of Henoch" contains passages which satisfy allusions of Origen to which there is nothing corresponding in the Ethiopic Henoch. “這本書的秘密過敏”包含通道滿足典故的奧利而沒有任何相應的衣索比亞過敏。 The same may be said about citations in the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs". Internal evidence shows that the new Henoch was composed by an Alexandrian Jew about the beginning of our Era, and in Greek.同樣可以說,引文中的“約十二始祖” 。內部證據表明,新的過敏組成的亞歷山大猶太人對我們時代的開始,並在希臘。 The work is sharply marked off from the older book by the absence of a Messias and the want of reference to a resurrection of the dead.這項工作是急劇標誌著從舊的書沒有一個弭賽亞和希望的提及,死人復活。 It mingles many bizarre details concerning the celestial realm, the angels, and stars, with advanced ideas on man's destiny, moral excellence, and the punishment of sin.它混合在一起很多奇怪的天體細節境界,天使,和星級,擁有先進的思想對人類的命運,道德追求卓越,並懲罰罪惡。 The patriarch is taken up through the seven heavens to the very throne of the Eternal.老人家是採取通過7天的非常王位的永恆。 Some of the details throw interesting light on various obscure allusions in the Bible, such as the superimposed heavens, the presence of evil powers "in heavenly places", Ezechiel's strange creatures full of eyes.一些細節扔掉的各種有趣的光掩蓋聖經中的典故,如疊加天空,在場的邪惡力量“在天上” , Ezechiel奇怪的動物充滿了眼睛。

(d) Fourth Book of Esdras ( d )第四書埃斯德拉斯

The personage serving as the screen of the real author of this book is Esdras (Ezra), the priest-scribe and leader among the Israelites who returned from Babylonia, to Jerusalem.人物作為畫面的真實作者的這本書是埃斯德拉斯(以斯拉) ,神父,文士和領導人之間的猶太人誰回來東風,耶路撒冷。 The fact that two canonical books are associated with his name, together with a genuine literary power, a profoundly religious spirit pervading Fourth Esdras, and some Messianic points of contact with the Gospels combined to win for it an acceptance among Christians unequalled by any other apocryphon.事實上,兩個典型的書籍都與他的名字,連同一個真正的文學力量,深刻的宗教精神普遍第四埃斯德拉斯,一些彌賽亞聯繫點相結合的福音為它贏得了無可比擬的基督徒接受的任何其他apocryphon 。 Both Greek and Latin Fathers cite it as prophetical, while some, as Ambrose, were ardent admirers of it. Jerome alone is positively unfavourable.希臘和拉丁教父引用它作為前兆的,而有些,如劉漢銓,被熱心的崇拜者了。杰羅姆僅僅是積極不利。 Notwithstanding this widespread reverence for it in early times, it is a remarkable fact that the book never got a foothold in the canon or liturgy of the Church.儘管有這種普遍的敬畏它的早期,它是一個了不起的事實,即這本書從來沒有立足於佳能或禮儀的教會。 Nevertheless, all through the Middle Ages it maintained an intermediate position between canonical and merely human compositions, and even after the Council of Trent, together with Third Esdras, was placed in the appendix to the official edition of the Vulgate.然而,所有通過中古保持中間立場的典型,只是人的成分,甚至在安理會的遄,連同第三埃斯德拉斯,被安放在附錄正式版的武加大。 Besides the original Greek text, which has not survived, the book has appeared in Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.除了原來的希臘文,這不活了下來,這本書出現在拉丁美洲,敘利亞,亞美尼亞,埃塞俄比亞和阿拉伯語版本。 The first and last two chapters of the Latin translation do not exist in the Oriental ones and have been added by a Christian hand.第一次和最後兩章的拉丁美洲翻譯並不存在於東方的,並已加入了基督教手。 And yet there need be no hesitation in relegating the Fourth Book of Esdras to the ranks of the apocrypha.然而,有需要時毫不猶豫地降級的第四本書的埃斯德拉斯到隊伍的偽經。 Not to insist on the allusion to the Book of Daniel in xii, 11, the date given in the first version (iii, 1) is erroneous, and the whole tenor and character of the work places it in the age of apocalyptic literature.不堅持指的是但以理書在12日, 11日,中日的第一個版本(三, 1 )是錯誤的,和整個基調和特點的工作場所中的年齡啟示文學。 The dominant critical dating assigns it to a Jew writing in the reign of Domitian, AD 81-96.佔主導地位的關鍵年分配到一個猶太人書面在位多米提安,公元81-96 。 Certainly it was composed some time before AD 218, since it is expressly quoted by Clement of Alexandria.當然這是前一段時間組成公元218 ,因為它是明確援引克萊門特亞歷山大。 The original text, iii-xiv, is of one piece and the work of a single author.原始文字,三至十四,這是一件和工作的一個單一的作者。 The motive of the book is the problem lying heavily upon Jewish patriots after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.的動機,這本書是低窪的問題很大程度上取決於猶太愛國者後銷毀耶路撒冷提圖斯。 The outlook was most dark and the national life seemed utterly extinguished.前景最黑暗和國家生活似乎完全撲滅。 In consequence, a sad and anxious spirit pervades the work, and the writer, using the guise of Esdras lamenting over the ruin of the first city and temple, insistently seeks to penetrate the reasons of God's apparent abandonment of His people and the non-fulfilment of His promises. The author would learn the future of his nation.因此,令人痛心和焦慮的精神貫穿工作,作家,使用的幌子埃斯德拉斯悲嘆的廢墟的第一座城市和寺廟,堅持要求進入的原因,上帝顯然放棄他的人民和不履行對自己的諾言。筆者了解未來的民族。 His interest is centered in the latter; the universalism of the book is attenuated. The apocalypse is composed of seven visions.他的興趣集中於後者;的普遍性的這本書是衰減。組成的啟示七個願景。 The Messianism of Fourth Esdras suffers from the discouragement of the era and is influenced by the changed conditions produced by the advent of Christianity.在彌賽亞的第四埃斯德拉斯患有勸阻時代是受條件的變化所產生的到來基督教。 Its Messias is mortal, and his reign merely one of happiness upon earth.其弭賽亞是致命的,和他的統治只是幸福取決於地球。 Likewise the eschatology labours with two conflicting elements: the redemption of all Israel and the small number of the elect.同樣的末世論勞動與衝突的兩個要素:贖回所有以色列和少量的選舉。 All mankind sinned with Adam.全人類的罪與亞當。 The Fourth Book of Esdras is sometimes called by non-Catholics Second Esdras, as they apply the Hebrew form, Ezra, to the canonical books.第四書埃斯德拉斯有時被稱為非天主教徒第二埃斯德拉斯,因為它們適用於希伯來文的形式,以斯拉,以規範的書籍。

(e) Apocalypse of Baruch (五)巴魯克的啟示

For a long time a Latin fragment, chapters lxxviii-lxxxvii, of this pseudograph had been known.很長一段時間的拉丁片段,章節lxxviii - lxxxvii ,這一pseudograph已知道。 In 1866 a complete Syriac text was discovered by Monsignor Ceriani, whose researches in the Ambrosian Library of Milan have so enriched the field of ancient literature. The Syriac is a translation from the Greek; the original was written in Hebrew.在1866年一個完整的敘利亞文文字發現閣下Ceriani ,其研究的安布羅西安聖圖書館有這麼豐富米蘭領域的古代文學。敘利亞是一個翻譯從希臘;原來是希伯來文寫的。 There is a close relation between this apocalypse and that of Fourth Esdras, but critics are divided over the question, which has influenced the other.有很密切的關係,這種啟示和第四埃斯德拉斯,但批評人士分歧的問題,這影響了其他。 The probabilities favour the hypothesis that the Baruch apocryphon is an imitation of that of Esdras and therefore later.概率的假設,即贊成的巴魯克apocryphon是一個模仿的埃斯德拉斯,因此以後。 The approximate dates assigned to it range between AD 50 and 117.目的大概日期分配給它的範圍在公元50和117 。 The "Apocalypse of Baruch" is a somewhat artificial production, without the originality and force of Fourth Esdras.在“啟示錄巴魯克”是一個有點人為的生產,沒有創意和力量第四埃斯德拉斯。 It deals in part with the same problems, viz., the sufferings of the theocratic people, and their ultimate triumph over their oppressors.它涉及的部分以同樣的問題,即。 ,痛苦的神人,並最終戰勝他們的壓迫者。 When certain passages are freed from evident Christian interpolations, its Messianism in general is earthly, but in the latter part of the book the Messias's realm tends unmistakably towards a more spiritual conception.當某些段落是擺脫明顯基督教插值,它一般是彌賽亞在人間,但在後一部分預訂弭賽亞的境界往往無誤地走向一個更精神的概念。 As in Fourth Esdras, sin is traced to the disobedience of Adam.正如在第四埃斯德拉斯,黃大仙是追溯到不服從亞當。 Greater importance is attached to the law than in the related composition, and the points of contact with the New Testament are more striking. The author was a Pharisee, but one who, while adopting a distinctly Jewish view, was probably acquainted with the Christian Scriptures and freely laid them under contribution.更重要的是重視法律的有關比組成,和聯絡點的新約是更加突出。作者是法利賽人,而是一個誰,同時採取獨特的猶太人認為,可能是熟悉基督教聖經和自由奠定它們的貢獻。 Some recent students of the "Apocalypse of Baruch" have seen in it a composite work, but the majority of critics hold with better reason to its unity.最近的一些學生的“啟示錄巴魯克”看到在它的綜合工作,但大多數人有更好的批評理由的團結。 The book is lengthy.這本書是漫長的。 It speaks in the person of Baruch, the secretary of Jeremias.它講的人巴魯克,秘書長的赫雷米亞斯。 It opens with a palpable error of chronology.它會打開一個明顯錯誤的年表。 Baruch announces the doom of the city and temple of Jerusalem of the Babylonian epoch.巴魯克宣布末日的城市和耶路撒冷神廟的巴比倫時代。 However, not the Chaldeans, but angels, will bring about the destruction.然而,並非迦勒,但天使,將帶來的破壞。 Another and pre-existent Holy City is reserved by God, since the world cannot exist without a Jerusalem. The artificiality and tediousness of the apocalypse are redeemed by a singular breadth of view and elevation of doctrine, with the limitation noted.另一位前存在聖城保留上帝,因為世界上不存在沒有耶路撒冷。的矯揉造作和tediousness的啟示是贖回了一個獨特的廣度的觀點和海拔的學說,指出的限制。

(f) The Apocalypse of Abraham ( f )在亞伯拉罕啟示

The Apocalypse of Abraham has recently been translated from Slavonic into German.啟示亞伯拉罕最近從斯拉夫被翻譯成德語。 It relates the circumstances of Abraham's conversions and the visions thereupon accorded him.它涉及的情況,亞伯拉罕的轉換和遠見隨即給予他。 His guide in the a celestial realms is Jael, an angel distinct from God, but possessing divine powers in certain regards.他指導的一個天體境界是Jael ,天使有別於上帝,但擁有的神聖權力,在某些方面。 The work has affinities with Fourth Esdras and the "Apocalypse of Baruch".這項工作親和力與第四埃斯德拉斯和“啟示巴魯克” 。 The origin of evil is explained by man's free will.邪惡的起源解釋是人的自由意志。 The Elect, or Messias, will gather the dispersed tribes, but God alone will punish the enemies of Israel.選民,或弭賽亞,將收集分散的部落,但只有上帝會懲罰以色列的敵人。 Particularism and the transcendence of the last cosmic stage are the notes of this apocalypse.特殊和超越宇宙的最後階段是注意到這一啟示。 Its data, however, are so vague that it is impossible to fix the time of its composition.它的數據,但是,如此模糊的,這是不可能解決的時間其組成。

(g) The Apocalypse of Daniel ( g )在丹尼爾的啟示

The Apocalypse of Daniel is the work of a Persian Jew of the twelfth century, and is unique in foretelling two Messiases: one, the son of Joseph (Christ), whose career ends in his failure and death; the other the son of David, who will liberate Israel and reign on earth gloriously.啟示丹尼爾是工作的波斯猶太人的12世紀,而且是獨一無二的預告兩個Messiases :第一,約瑟夫的兒子(耶穌) ,他的職業生涯結束在他的失敗和死亡,其他的兒子大衛,誰將會統治解放以色列和地球上的光榮。

(2) Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ( 2 )傳奇偽經的猶太血統

(a) Book of Jubilees or Little Genesis (一)書Jubilees或很少成因

Epiphanius, Jerome, and others quote a work under the title "The Jubilees" or "The Little Genesis".埃皮法尼烏斯,杰羅姆和其他引用的標題下工作“的Jubilees ”或“小創世記” 。 St. Jerome testifies that the original was in Hebrew.聖杰羅姆證明,原來是希伯來文。 It is cited by Byzantine authors down to the twelfth century.這是作者引用的拜占庭下降到12世紀。 After that we hear no more of it until it was found in an Ethiopic manuscript in the last century.之後,我們沒有聽到更多的它,直到它被發現在埃塞俄比亞的手稿在上個世紀。 A considerable Latin fragment has also been recovered.相當拉丁美洲片段也被追回。 The Book of the Jubilees is the narrative of Genesis amplified and embellished by a Jew of the Pharisee period.之書Jubilees是敘述性的成因擴增和美化的一個猶太人的法利賽人時期。 It professes to be a revelation given to Moses by the "Angel of the Face".它聲稱是一個啟示給摩西的“天使的臉” 。 There is a very systematic chronology according to the years, weeks of years, and jubilees.有一個很系統的年表根據這些年來,幾個星期來,和jubilees 。 A patriarchal origin is ascribed to the great Jewish feasts.父系血統原因是偉大的猶太節日。 The angelology is highly developed, but the writer disbelieved in the resurrection of the body.的天使是高度發達的,但作家disbelieved中復活的身體。 The observance of the Law is insisted on.遵守法律是堅持。 It is hard to fix either the date or the religious circle in which the work arose. Jerusalem and the Temple still stood, and the Book of Henoch is quoted.這是很難解決任何日期或宗教界的工作中產生的。耶路撒冷和聖殿仍然有效,與圖書的過敏引用。 As for the lowest date, the book is employed by the Jewish portion of the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs".至於最低迄今為止,這本書是受僱於猶太部分“全書的12個始祖” 。 Estimates vary between 135 BC and AD 60.估計之間公元前135和AD 60 。 Among the lost Jewish apocrypha, the one worthy of special notice here is;在失去了猶太人的偽經,一個值得特別注意的是;

(b) The Book of Jannes and Mambres (二)圖書Jannes和Mambres

II Timothy, iii, 8, applies these names to the Egyptian magicians who reproduced some of the wonders wrought by Moses.二霍震霆,三,八,適用於這些名字埃及魔術師誰轉載一些奇觀造成摩西。 The names are not found in the Old Testament.這些名字中找不到舊約。 Origen remarks that St. Paul does not quote "from public writings but from a sacred book which is called Jannes and Mambres".奧利言論聖保羅不回复“從公共著作,而是一項神聖的書,被稱為Jannes和Mambres ” 。 The names were known to Pliny, and figure in the Talmudic traditions.名稱已知普林尼和數字在塔木德傳統。 Recently R. James in the "Journal of Theological Studies", 1901, II, 572-577, claims to have found a fragment of this lost apocryphon in Latin and Old English versions.最近河詹姆斯在“神學研究雜誌” , 1901年,二, 572-577 ,聲稱他們已經找到一種片段這一損失apocryphon在拉丁美洲和舊英文版本。

(c) Third Book of Esdras (三)第三卷埃斯德拉斯

This is also styled by non-Catholics the First Book of Esdras, since they give to the first canonical Esdrine writing the Hebrew form Ezra.這也稱為非天主教徒的第一本書的埃斯德拉斯,因為他們給第一典型的希伯來語Esdrine書面形式以斯拉。 Third Esdras is one of the three uncanonical books appended to the official edition of the Vulgate.第三埃斯德拉斯是三個uncanonical書所附的正式版本的武加大。 It exists in two of the oldest codices of the Septuagint, viz., Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, where it precedes the canonical Esdras.它存在於兩個最古老的codices的譯本,即。 , Vaticanus和頸,它之前的典型埃斯德拉斯。 The same is true of manuscripts of the Old Latin and other versions.也是如此手稿舊拉丁美洲和其他的版本。 Third Esdras enjoyed exceptional favour in the early ages of the Church, being quoted as Scripture with implicit faith by the leading Greek and Latin Fathers (See Cornely, Introductio Generalis, I, 201).第三埃斯德拉斯享有特殊贊成在早期的教會,被引述聖經信仰與隱的領先希臘和拉丁教父(見Cornely ,引一般,我, 201 ) 。 St. Jerome, however, the great minimizer of sacred literature, rejected it as apocryphal, and thenceforward its standing was impaired.聖杰羅姆,但是,偉大的極小的神聖文學,拒絕它未經和thenceforward及其常委會受損。 The book in fact is made up for the most part of materials taken from the inspired books of Paralipomenon, Esdras, and Nehemias, put together, however, in great chronological confusion.這本書其實是在彌補了大部分的材料取自靈感的書籍Paralipomenon ,埃斯德拉斯和Nehemias ,集中在一起,但是,在偉大的順序混亂。 We must suppose that it was subsequent to the above Scriptures, since it was evidently composed in Greek and by an Alexandrian Jew.我們必須假設,這是以後的上述聖經,因為它顯然是在希臘和組成由亞歷山大猶太人。 The only original part of the work is chapters iii-v, 6.只有原來的部分章節的工作是III - V族, 6 。 This recounts a contest between three young Hebrews of the bodyguard of King Darius, each striving to formulate the wisest saying.這敘述競賽三個年輕的保鏢希伯來國王大流士,每個努力制定明智說。 The victory is awarded to Zorobabel (Zerubbabel), who defends Truth as the strongest force, and the audience shouts: "Great is Truth and powerful above all things!"這場勝利是頒發給Zorobabel ( Zerubbabel ) ,誰捍衛真理的最強的力量,觀眾高喊: “偉大的是真相和強大的最重要的東西! ” ( Magna est veritas et proevalebit. ) The date of composition is not ascertainable except within very wide limits.麥格納預測船級社等proevalebit 。 )組成的日期並不確定,除非在非常廣泛的限制。 These are on one side c.這是一方角 300 BC, the latest time assigned to Paralipomenon-Esdras-Nehemias, and on the other, c.公元前300年,最新的時間分配給Paralipomenon -埃斯德拉斯- Nehemias ,另一方面角 AD 100, the era of Josephus, who employed Third Esdras.公元100 ,約瑟夫的時代,誰僱用第三埃斯德拉斯。 There is greater likelihood that the composition took place before our Era.有更大的可能性,組成發生在我們這個時代。

(d) Third Book of Machabees (四)第三卷Machabees

Third Book of Machabees is the title given to a short narrative which is found in the Alexandrine codex of the Septuagint version and various private manuscripts.第三本書的標題Machabees是考慮到簡短說明這是發現亞歷山大抄本的七十版本和各種私人手稿。 It gives an account of an attempted desecration of the Temple at Jerusalem by the Egyptian king, Ptolemy IV (Philopator) after his victory over Antiochus the Great at Raphia, 217 BC, and the miraculous frustration of his endeavour to wreak vengeance upon the Egyptian Jews through a massacre with elephants.它敘述了一個企圖褻瀆聖殿在耶路撒冷的埃及國王托勒密四( Philopator )後,他戰勝安提阿哥大在Raphia , 217年,並奇蹟般的沮喪,他努力造成復仇後,埃及的猶太人通過大屠殺大象。 This apocryphon abounds in absurdities and psychological impossibilities, and is a very weak piece of fiction written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew, and probably designed to encourage its countrymen in the midst of persecutions.這apocryphon比比皆是的謬論和心理不可能,而且是一個非常薄弱的一塊寫的小說希臘的亞歷山大猶太人,也許旨在鼓勵其同胞處於迫害。 It rests on no ascertainable historical fact, but apparently is an extravagant and varying version of the occurrence related by Josephus, "Against Apion", 1I, 5.它依賴於歷史事實沒有查明,但顯然是一種奢侈和不同版本的發生有關的約瑟夫, “反對阿皮翁” , 1I , 5 。 The date cannot be determined.日期無法確定。 Since the book shows acquaintance with the Greek additions to Daniel, it cannot be earlier than the first century BC, and could scarcely have found such favour among Christians if composed later than the first century after Christ.由於這本書顯示熟人同希補充丹尼爾,但不能早於公元前一世紀,幾乎都可以發現這種贊成基督徒中間如果組成不遲於一世紀後,基督。 The Syrian Church was the first to give it a friendly reception, presumably on the strength of its mention in the Apostolic Constitutions.敘利亞教堂是第一個給它一個友好的接待,大概的力量中提到它使徒憲法。 Later, Third Machabees was admitted into the canon of the Greek Church, but seems never to have been known to the Latins.後來,第三Machabees被接納為佳能希臘教會,但似乎從來沒有已知的拉丁人。

(3) Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ( 3 )未經詩篇和祈禱

(a) Psalms of Solomon (一)詩篇所羅門

This is a collection of eighteen psalms composed in Hebrew, and, as is commonly agreed, by a Pharisee of Palestine, about the time of Pompey's capture of Jerusalem, 63 BC The collection makes no pretensions to authorship by Solomon, and therefore is not, strictly speaking, apocryphal.這是一個收集18詩篇組成希伯來文,並正在共同商定,由法利賽人巴勒斯坦,有關時間的龐貝奪取耶路撒冷, 63公元前收集沒有偽裝,以作者的所羅門群島,因此不是,嚴格地說,未經證實。 The name of the wise king became associated with it later and doubtless was the means of preserving it.的名稱英明國王成為與此相關的無疑是後來的手段維護它。 The spirit of these psalms is one of great moral earnestness and righteousness, but it is the righteousness of the Pharisees, consisting in the observance of the legal traditions and ceremonial law.的精神,這些詩篇是一個偉大的道德認真和正義,但它是正義的法利賽人,包括在遵守法律傳統和禮儀性的法律。 The Hasmonean dynasty and the Sadducees are denounced.該Hasmonean王朝和撒都該人的譴責。 A Messianic deliverer is looked for, but he is to be merely human.救世主遞送是尋找,但他只是人類。 He will reign by holiness and justice, and not by the sword.他將統治的神聖和正義,而不是用劍。 Free will and the resurrection are taught.自由意志和復活授課。 The Psalms of Solomon are of value in illustrating the religious views and attitudes of the Pharisees in the age of Our Lord.所羅門的詩篇中的價值是說明宗教觀點和態度的法利賽人的年齡在我們的上帝。 The manuscripts of the Septuagint contain at the end of the canonical Psalter a short psalm (cli), which, however, is "outside the number", ie of the Psalms.手稿的七十載結束時的典型Psalter短詩篇(氣候) ,其中,然而,是“以外的數字” ,即在詩篇。 Its title reads: "This psalm was written by David himself in addition to the number, when he had fought with Goliath."其標題寫道: “這寫的詩篇是大衛除了自己的號碼,當他與巨人戰鬥。 ” It is based on various passages in the Old Testament, and there is no evidence that it was ever written in Hebrew.它是根據不同的段落舊約,並沒有證據表明這是寫在希伯來文。

(b) Prayer of Manasses (Manasseh) (二)祈禱的Manasses (瑪)

A beautiful Penitential prayer put in the mouth of Manasses, King of Juda, who carried idolatrous abominations so far.美麗的Penitential祈禱放入口Manasses國王猶大,誰進行盲目崇拜的惡劣迄今。 The composition is based on II Paralipomenon, xxxiii, 11-13, which states that Manasses was carried captive to Babylon and there repented; while the same source (18) refers to his prayer as recorded in certain chronicles which are lost.的組成是基於二Paralipomenon ,三十三, 11月13日,其中指出Manasses進行圈養,以巴比倫和有悔改;而同一來源( 18 )指的是他的祈禱中記錄某些編年史這都將丟失。 Learned opinion differs as to whether the prayer which has come down to us was written in Hebrew or Greek.吸取不同的意見,是否祈禱已下降到我們寫在希伯來文或希臘。 Several ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint contain it as an appendix to the Psalter.幾個古代手稿的七十載它作為附錄Psalter 。 It is also incorporated in the ancient so-called Apostolic Constitutions.它也納入古代所謂使徒憲法。 In editions of the Vulgate antedating the Council of Trent it was placed after the books of Paralipomenon.在版本的武加大提前理事會特倫特它放在書後的Paralipomenon 。 The Clementine Vulgate relegated it to the appendix, where it is still to be found in reprints of the standard text.降級的克萊門汀武加大它的附錄,它仍然是中可以找到重印的標準文本。 The prayer breathes a Christian spirit, and it is not entirely certain that it is really of Jewish origin.呼吸禱告基督教精神,它並不完全肯定,這是真正的猶太血統。

(4) Jewish Philosophy ( 4 )猶太哲學

(a) Fourth Book of Machabees (一)第四本書的Machabees

This is a short philosophical treatise on the supremacy of pious reason, that is reason regulated by divine law, which for the author is the Mosaic Law.這是一個短期的哲學論至高無上的虔誠的原因,這就是原因受神法,其中的作者是摩西律法。 In setting up reason as the master of human passion, the author was distinctly influenced by Stoic philosophy. >From it also he derived his four cardinal virtues: prudence, righteousness (or justice), fortitude, temperance; phronesis, dikaiosyne, andreia, sophrosyne , and it was through Fourth Machabees that this category was appropriated by early Christian ascetical writers.設立的原因是人類的主人的熱情,作者明顯影響斯多葛哲學。 “者也,他得出了四樞德:謹慎,正義(或公正) ,堅韌,戒酒; phronesis , dikaiosyne , andreia , sophrosyne ,它是通過第四次Machabees ,這一類是核撥的早期基督教ascetical作家。 The second part of the book exhibits the sufferings of Eleazar and the seven Machabean brothers as examples of the dominion of pious reason.第二部分的書展的痛苦埃萊亞薩和7 Machabean兄弟作為例子的統治虔誠原因。 The aim of the Hellenistic Jewish author was to inculcate devotion to the Law.的目的,作者是希臘猶太人灌輸忠誠於法律。 He is unknown.他不明。 The work was erroneously ascribed to Josephus by Eusebius and others.這項工作是錯誤地歸因於約瑟夫的優西比烏等。 It appears to have been produced before the fall of Jerusalem, but its date is a matter of conjecture.這似乎已經製作垮台前耶路撒冷,但它的日期是一個猜想。

II.二。 APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN WITH CHRISTIAN ACCRETIONS偽經的猶太血統與基督教ACCRETIONS

(a) Sibylline Oracles (一) Sibylline甲骨文

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到單獨的天主教百科全書文章根據這一標題。

(b) Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. (二)約十二始祖。

This is an extensive pseudograph, consisting of;這是一個廣泛的pseudograph組成;
  1. narrations in which each of the twelve sons of Jacob relates his life, embellished by Midrashic expansions of the Biblical data述中,每一個12兒子雅各布涉及他的生活,美化了Midrashic擴充聖經數據
  2. exhortations by each patriarch to the practice of virtues, or the shunning of vices illustrated in his life囑託,每個主教的做法美德,或迴避的惡習說明他的生命
  3. apocalyptic portions concerning the future of the twelve tribes, and the Messianic times關於世界末日的部分未來的12部落,以及彌賽亞時代

The body of the work is undoubtedly Judaic, but there are many interpolations of an unmistakably Christian origin, presenting in their ensemble a fairly full Christology, but one suspected of Docetism.該機構的工作無疑是猶太教,但也有許多插一個無誤基督教起源,提出在其集合了相當充分的基督,而是一個被懷疑Docetism 。 Recent students of the Testaments assign with much probability the Jewish groundwork to the Hasmonean period, within the limits 135-63 BC Portions which extol the tribes of Levi and Juda are interpreted as an apology for the Hasmonean pontiff-kings.最近學生約指派概率非常猶太工作期間的Hasmonean的限度內,這部分公元前135-63讚美部落列維和猶大被解釋為一個道歉的Hasmonean教宗國王。 The remaining ten tribes are supposed to be yet in existence, and are urged to be faithful to the representatives of the priestly and royal power.其餘10部落被認為是尚未存在,並敦促它們忠實的代表,司鐸和皇家權力。 In this defence of the Machabean dynasty, and by a writer with Pharisaic tendencies, probably a priest, the Testaments are unique in Jewish literature.在此捍衛Machabean末年,以及作家與Pharisaic傾向,可能是一個牧師的聖經是獨一無二的猶太文學。 True, there are passages in which the sacerdotal caste and the ruling tribes are unsparingly denounced, but these are evidently later insertions. The eschatology is rather advanced.誠然,有通道,其中sacerdotal種姓和部落的裁決是毫無保留地譴責,但這些顯然後插入。的末世論是相當先進的。 The Messias is to spring from the tribe of Levi (elsewhere, however, from Juda); he is to be the eternal High-Priest -- a unique feature of the book -- as well as the civil ruler of the nation.弭賽亞是在春天的部落列維(其他地方,然而,從猶大) ;他是永恆的高級牧師-一個獨特的功能,這本書-以及民間統治者的民族。 During his reign sin will gradually cease.在他的統治罪惡將逐漸停止。 The gates of paradise are to be opened and the Israelites and converted Gentiles will dwell there and eat of the tree of life. The Messianic kingdom is therefore to be an eternal one on earth, therein agreeing with the Ethiopic Henoch.天堂的大門將被打開,猶太人和外邦人將轉為有住,吃的生命樹。王國的救世主,因此是一個永恆的一個地球上,其中同意埃塞俄比亞過敏。 The Testaments exist complete in Greek, Armenian, Latin, and Slavonic versions.在聖經中存在完整的希臘,亞美尼亞,拉丁和斯拉夫語的版本。 Aramaic and Syriac fragments are preserved.阿拉姆語和敘利亞文片段保存。

(c) The Ascension of Isaias ( c )在阿森松島的伊薩亞

The Ascension of Isaias consists of two parts:阿森松的伊薩亞由兩部分組成:
  1. The Martyrdom of Isaias, in which it is told that the prophet was sawn in two by the order of the wicked King Manasses.殉難伊薩亞,其中說,先知被鋸成兩個命令的邪惡國王Manasses 。
  2. The Ascension proper.阿森松適當。

This purports to be the description by Isaias of a vision in which he was rapt up through the seven heavens to the presence of the Trinity, and beheld the descent of the Son, "the Beloved", on His mission of redemption.這看來是描述了一個遠景伊薩亞斯在他全神貫注透過7天的存在三位一體,並看見了血統的兒子, “可愛的” ,他的使命贖回。 He changes his form in passing through the inferior celestial circles.他改變計劃的形式下通過天文界。 The prophet then sees the glorified Beloved reascending.先知然後把榮耀寵兒reascending 。 The Martyrdom is a Jewish work, saving some rather large interpolations.犧牲是一個猶太人的工作,從而節省了一些相當大的插值。 The rest is by Christian hands or perhaps a single writer, who united his apocalypse with the Martyrdom.其餘是由Christian雙手或者一個作家,他的啟示誰聯合國的殉難。 There are tokens that the Christian element is a product of Gnosticism, and that our work is the same with that much in favour among several heretical sects under the name of the "Anabaticon", or "Ascension of Isaias".有令牌,基督教的因素是產品的諾斯替主義,和我們的工作也是如此,許多有利於在一些邪教的名義下的“ Anabaticon ”或“升天的伊薩亞” 。 The Jewish portion is thought to have appeared in the first century of our era; the remainder, in the middle of the second.猶太部分被認為已經出現在二十一世紀我們時代的,其餘的,在中東的第二次。 Justin, Tertullian, and Origen seem to have been acquainted with the Martyrdom; Sts.賈斯汀,良,和奧利似乎已經熟悉殉難;街。 Jerome and Epiphanius are the earliest witnesses for the Ascension proper. The apocryphon exists in Greek, Ethiopic, and Slavonic manuscripts.杰羅姆和埃皮法尼烏斯是最早的證人的阿森松適當。 apocryphon中存在的希臘,埃塞俄比亞和斯拉夫手稿。

(d) Minor Jewish-Christian Apocrypha (四)小猶太基督教偽經

Space will permit only an enumeration of unimportant specimens of apocryphal literature, extant in whole or part, and consisting of空間將只允許列舉不重要標本未經文學,現存的全部或部分,並組成

Probably with this second class are to be included the "Testaments of Job" and "Zacharias", the "Adam Books", the "Book of Creation", the "Story of Aphikia" (the wife of Jesus Sirach). These works as a rule appeared in the East, and in many cases show Gnostic tendencies.或許這第二類是被列入了“聖經就業”和“撒迦利亞”的“亞當圖書”中, “圖書的創作” , “故事的Aphikia ” (耶穌的妻子Sirach ) 。這些作品規則出現在東方,而且在許多情況下查看諾斯底傾向。 Further information about some of them will be found at the end of articles on the above personages.進一步了解其中一些人會被發現在文章結尾上述人士。

III.三。 APOCRYPHA OF CHRISTIAN ORIGIN偽經基督教起源

The term Christian here is used in a comprehensive sense and embraces works produced both by Catholics and heretics; the latter are chiefly members of the various branches or schools of Gnosticism, which flourished in the second and third centuries. 基督教一詞用在這裡是一個全面的常識和擁護作品都天主教徒和異教徒;後者主要是成員的各部門或學校的諾斯替主義,其中蓬勃發展,第二和第三世紀。 The Christian apocryphal writings in general imitate the books of the New Testament and therefore, with a few exceptions, fall under the description of Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses.基督教未經著作一般模仿書籍的新約,因此,除了少數例外,屬於描述福音,行為,書信和啟示。

(1) APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS ( 1 )未經福音

The term apocryphal in connection with special Gospels must be understood as bearing no more unfavourable an import than "uncanonical".任期未經與特別福音必須被理解為沒有更多的不利影響的進口比“ uncanonical ” 。 This applies to the Gospel of the Hebrews and in a less degree to that of the Egyptians, which in the main seem to have been either embodiments of primitive tradition, or a mere recasting of canonical Gospels with a few variations and amplifications.這適用於福音的猶太人,並在不到的程度,在埃及,而這主要似乎已經不是體現原始的傳統,或僅僅是重新塑造典型福音有一些變化和擴增。 It is true, all the extant specimens of the apocryphal Gospels take the inspired evangelical documents as their starting-point.這是事實,所有的現存標本的未經福音採取激勵福音文件作為其出發點。 But the genuine Gospels are silent about long stretches of the life of Our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph.但是,真正的福音是沉默長時間的生活我們的上帝,聖母和聖約瑟夫。 Frequently they give but a tantalizing glimpse of some episode on which we would fain be more fully informed.經常給他們,但看到一些誘人的事件上,我們會欣然更充分了解。 This reserve of the Evangelists did not satisfy the pardonable curiosity of many Christians eager for details, and the severe and dignified simplicity of their narrative left unappeased imaginations seeking the sensational and the marvellous.這一準備金的福音不符合情有可原的好奇心,許多基督徒渴望的細節,以及嚴重的和有尊嚴的簡單的說明左unappeased想像力尋求轟動和神奇。 When, therefore, enterprising spirits responded to this natural craving by pretended Gospels full of romantic fables and fantastic and striking details, their fabrications were eagerly read and largely accepted as true by common folk who were devoid of any critical faculty and who were predisposed to believe what so luxuriously fed their pious curiosity.當因此,進取的精神響應了這一自然渴求的假裝福音寓言充滿浪漫和幻想,驚人的細節,他們都急切地捏造閱讀並基本上接受真正的共同民歌誰是沒有任何重要的教師,誰是傾向於相信是什麼使他們的虔誠的豪華美聯儲好奇心。 Both Catholics and Gnostics were concerned in writing these fictions.天主教徒和Gnostics都擔心這些小說以書面形式。 The former had no other motive than that of a pious fraud, being sometimes moved by a real though misguided zeal, as witness the author of the Pseudo-Matthew: Amor Christi est cui satisfecimus. But the heretical apocryphists, while gratifying curiosity, composed spurious Gospels in order to trace backward their beliefs and peculiarities to Christ Himself.前者沒有其他動機比一個虔誠的欺詐,有時感動了一個真正的熱情,但誤導,作為證人的作者偽馬修: 傑阿穆爾基督市盈率崔satisfecimus 。但是,邪教apocryphists ,而可喜的好奇心,組成雜散福音以便追查落後他們的信仰和特殊性,以耶穌。 The Church and the Fathers were hostile even towards the narratives of orthodox authorship.在教會,在父親被敵對甚至對東正教的說明作者。 It was not until the Middle Ages, when their true origin was forgotten even by most of the learned, that these apocryphal stories began to enter largely into sacred legends, such as the "Aurea Sacra", into miracle plays, Christian art, and poetry.直到中世紀時,其真正的來源是被遺忘甚至大多數的經驗教訓,這些未經證實的故事開始進入基本上納入神聖傳說,如“金葉薩克拉” ,到奇蹟發揮,基督教藝術和詩歌。 A comparison of the least extravagant of these productions with the real Gospels reveals the chasm separating them.比較最奢侈的這些作品的真正福音揭示了它們之間的鴻溝。 Though worthless historically, the apocryphal Gospels help us to better understand the religious conditions of the second and third centuries, and they are also of no little value as early witnesses of the canonicity of the writings of the four Evangelists. The quasi-evangelistic compositions concerning Christ which make no pretensions to be Gospels will be treated elsewhere.雖然毫無價值的歷史上,未經福音幫助我們更好地理解宗教狀況的第二次和第三次幾百年來,他們也沒有什麼價值,早證人正規的著作四個福音。的準福音成分有關基督使任何偽裝的福音書將被視為其他地方。 They are all of orthodox origin.他們都是東正教來源。 (See AGRAPHA.) (見AGRAPHA 。 )

.

(a) Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin (一)未經福音天主教起源

The Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James 雅可比的Protoevangelium ,或嬰幼兒的福音詹姆斯
or Protoevangelium of James 或Protoevangelium詹姆斯

It purports to have been written by "James the brother of the Lord", ie the Apostle James the Less.看來已撰寫的“詹姆斯的弟弟上帝” ,即宗徒詹姆斯以較低者為準。 It is based on the canonical Gospels which it expands with legendary and imaginative elements, which are sometimes puerile or fantastic.這是典型的基礎上擴大福音它與傳說中的和富有想像力的因素,有時幼稚或太棒了。 The birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin are described in the first eleven chapters and these are the source of various traditions current among the faithful.出生,教育和婚姻的聖母所描述的前11章和這些來源的各種傳統電流之間的忠誠。 They are of value in indicating the veneration paid to Mary at a very early age.他們中的價值,說明崇拜支付給瑪麗在非常早的年齡。 For instance it is the "Protoevangelium" which first tells that Mary was the miraculous offspring of Joachim and Anna, previously childless; that when three years old the child was taken to the Temple and dedicated to its service, in fulfilment of her parents' vow.例如,它是“ Protoevangelium ”首先告訴瑪麗是奇蹟般的後代約阿希姆和Anna ,以前沒有孩子的; ,當3歲的孩子被帶到寺和專門的服務,在履行她的父母發誓。 When Mary was twelve Joseph is chosen by the high-priest as her spouse in obedience to a miraculous sign -- a dove coming out of his rod and resting on his head.當瑪麗12約瑟夫是選擇高神父作為她的配偶在服從奇蹟的跡象-鴿子走出他的桿和休息要他的人頭。 The nativity is embellished in an unrestrained manner. Critics find that the "Protoevangelium" is a composite into which two or three documents enter.美化的誕生是在毫無節制的方式進行。批評者認為, “ Protoevangelium ”是一個綜合成兩個或三個文件輸入。 It was known to Origen under the name of the "Book of James".這是眾所周知的奧利的名義下的“圖書詹姆斯” 。 There are signs in St. Justin's works that he was acquainted with it, or at least with a parallel tradition. The work, therefore, has been ascribed to the second century. Portions of it show a familiarity with Jewish customs, and critics have surmised that the groundwork was composed by a Jewish-Christian.有跡象顯示,在聖上的作品,他是熟悉它,或者至少有一個平行的傳統。這項工作,因此,已被賦予了第二個世紀。部分它顯示熟悉猶太人的習俗,和評論家們推測該工作組成的一個猶太基督教。 The "Protoevangelium" exists in ancient Greek and Syriac recensions.該“ Protoevangelium ”存在於古希臘和敘利亞recensions 。 There are also Armenian and Latin translations.還有亞美尼亞和拉丁美洲翻譯。

Gospel of St. Matthew 聖馬太福音

This is a Latin composition of the fourth or fifth century.這是一個拉丁美洲組成的第四或第五世紀。 It pretends to have been written by St. Matthew and translated by St. Jerome.它假裝已經寫的聖馬太和翻譯的聖杰羅姆。 Pseudo-Matthew is in large part parallel to the "Protoevangelium Jacobi", being based on the latter or its sources. It differs in some particulars always in the direction of the more marvellous.偽馬修在很大程度上是平行於“ Protoevangelium可比” ,是基於後者或其來源。它不同於總是在一些細節的方向更加了不起。 Some of its data have replaced in popular belief parallel ones of the older pseudograph.它的一些數據已經取代平行的民間信仰中的老pseudograph 。 Such is the age of fourteen in which Mary was betrothed to Joseph.這是十四歲的瑪麗約瑟夫訂婚。 A narrative of the flight into Egypt is adorned with poetic wonders.敘述飛行進入埃及裝飾與詩意奇觀。 The dragons, lions, and other wild beasts of the desert adore the infant Jesus.龍,獅子,和其他野獸沙漠崇拜嬰兒耶穌。 At His word the palm-trees bow their heads that the Holy Family may pluck their fruit.在他的詞的棕櫚樹低頭,羅馬家庭可以採摘的水果。 The idols of Egypt are shattered when the Divine Child enters the land.埃及的偶像是打破時,兒童進入神聖的土地。 The "Gospel of the Nativity of Mary" is a recast of the Pseudo-Matthew, but reaches only to the birth of Jesus.在“福音的耶穌瑪麗”是一個重新的偽馬修,但只達到耶穌的誕生。 It is extant in a Latin manuscript of the tenth century.這是現存的手稿在拉丁美洲的10世紀。

Arabic Gospel of the Infancy 阿拉伯福音的嬰兒

The Arabic is a translation of a lost Syriac original.阿拉伯文翻譯是一個失去敘利亞文原始。 The work is a compilation and refers expressly to the "Book of Joseph Caiphas, the High-Priest", the "Gospel of the Infancy", and the "Perfect Gospel".這項工作是一個彙編和明確提到的“書約瑟夫Caiphas ,高級牧師” ,在“福音的嬰兒”和“完美的福音” 。 Some of its stories are derived from the Thomas Gospel, and others from a recension of the apocryphal Matthew. However there are miracles, said to have occurred in Egypt, not found related in any other Gospel, spurious or genuine, among them the healings of leprosy through the water in which Jesus had been washed, and the cures effected through the garments He had worn. These have become familiar in pious legend.它的一些故事來源於托馬斯福音,和其他人從recension的未經馬修。然而有奇蹟,據說發生在埃及,沒有發現相關的任何其他福音,虛假或真實的,其中包括healings的麻風病通過水在耶穌被沖走,而治愈通過他的衣服穿。這些熟悉的虔誠的傳奇。 So also has the episode of the robbers Titus and Dumachus, into whose hands the Holy Family fell.所以也有首發的強盜提圖斯和Dumachus ,到誰的手中神聖家庭下跌。 Titus bribes Dumachus not to molest them; the Infant foretells that thirty years thence the thieves will be crucified with Him, Titus on His right and Dumachus on His left and that the former will accompany Him into paradise.提圖斯賄賂Dumachus不要騷擾他們的嬰兒預示這三十年再小偷將被釘在十字架上他,對他的提多書權利和Dumachus ,左和前將陪同他進入天堂。 The apocryphon abounds in allusions to characters in the real Gospels.該apocryphon比比皆是的暗示中的字符真正福音。 Lipsius opines that the work as we have it is a Catholic retouching of a Gnostic compilation. Lipsius認為,這項工作我們是一個天主教修飾的諾斯底彙編。 It is impossible to ascertain its date, but it was probably composed before the Mohammedan era.這是不可能的,以確定其日期,但它可能是由前穆罕默德時代。 It is very popular with the Syrian Nestorians.這是非常受歡迎的同敘利亞Nestorians 。 An originally Arabic "History of Joseph the Carpenter" is published in Tischendorf's collection of apocrypha.原來阿拉伯文“歷史的約瑟夫木匠”是發表在提申多夫的收集偽經。 It describes St. Joseph's death, related by Our Lord to His disciples.它描述聖約瑟夫死後,有關我們的上帝,以他的弟子。 It is a tasteless and bombastic effort, and seems to date from about the fourth century.這是一個無味和嘐努力,似乎日期從4世紀。

Gospel of Gamaliel 福音加馬利亞

Dr. A. Baumstark in the Revue Biblique (April, 1906, 253 sqq.), has given this name to a collection of Coptic fragments of a homogeneous character, which were supposed by another Coptic scholar, Reveillout, to form a portion of the "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles" (qv inf. ).博士Baumstark在評論Biblique ( 4月, 1906年, 253 sqq 。 ) ,給了這個名字,以收集了科普特片段均勻性質,這是假定的另一科普特學者, Reveillout ,形成了部分“福音十二門徒” ( qv 干擾素 These fragments have been referred to a single Gospel also by Lacau, in "Fragments d'apocryphes coptes de la bibliothèque nationale" (Cairo, 1904).這些碎片已經提到一個福音也Lacau ,在“片段德apocryphes coptes德拉薩國家圖書館” (開羅, 1904年) 。 The narrative is in close dependence on St. John's Gospel.敘事是密切依賴於聖約翰福音。 The author did not pose seriously as an evangelist, since he explicitly quotes from the fourth canonical Gospel.作者並不構成嚴重的傳播者,因為他明確報價從第四典型福音。 He places the relation in the mouth of Gamaliel of Acts, v, 34.他地方的關係,在口加馬利亞的行為,五, 34 。 Baumstark assigns it to the fifth century. The writer was evidently influenced by the "Acta Pilati". Baumstark分配給第五世紀。作者顯然是受“獸類皮拉蒂” 。

The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis 該Transitus Mariæ或福音Joannis

The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis, which is written in the name of St. John the Apostle, and describes the death of Mary, enjoyed a wide popularity, as is attested by the various recensions in different languages which exist.該Transitus Mariæ或福音Joannis ,這是書面的名義,聖約翰使徒,並描述了死亡的瑪麗,享有廣泛的知名度,這是證明了在各種不同的語言recensions存在。 The Greek has the superscription: "The Account of St. John the Theologian of the Falling Asleep of the Holy Mother of God".希臘有superscription : “帳戶聖約翰神學的入睡的羅馬天主之母” 。 One of the Latin versions is prefaced by a spurious letter of Melito, Bishop of Sardis, explaining that the object of the work was to counteract a heretical composition of the same title and subject.其中一個版本是拉丁美洲序虛假信美利托,主教撒狄,他解釋說,該對象的工作是要抵制邪教組成同一標題和主題。 There is a basis of truth in this statement as our apocryphon betrays tokens of being a Gnostic writing worked over in an orthodox interest.有根據的真理在這個聲明作為我們apocryphon背叛令牌是一個諾斯底書面工作超過了東正教的興趣。 A "Transitus Mariæ" is numbered among the apocrypha by the official list of the "Decretum of Gelasius" of the fifth or sixth century.一個“ Transitus Mariæ ”的編號是偽經的正式名單的“教令的格拉西”的第五或第六世紀。 It is problematic, however, whether this is to be identified with our recast Transitus or not.這是個大問題,但是,這是否是確定我們改寫Transitus或沒有。 Critics assign the latter to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century.批評轉讓後者的結尾開始第四或第五世紀。 The relation of the Transitus to the tradition of Mary's Assumption has not yet been adequately examined.關係的Transitus傳統的瑪麗擔任了尚未得到充分研究。 However, there is warrant for saying that while the tradition existed substantially in portions of the Church at an early period, and thus prepared the way for the acceptance of mythical amplifications, still its later form and details were considerably influenced by the Transitus and kindred writings.但是,令說,雖然傳統中存在著大量的部分教會在早期階段,因此做好了準備,為接受的神話擴增,仍然是其後來的形式和細節相當影響的Transitus和同類著作。 Certainly the homilies of St. John Damascene, "In Dormitionem Mariæ", reveal evidence of this influence, eg the second homily, xii, xiii, xiv.當然,講道詞聖約翰達瑪森, “在Dormitionem Mariæ ” ,顯示這方面的證據的影響,如第二次講道,十二,十三,十四。 Going further back, the "Encomium" of Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem, in the seventh century (PG, LXXXVI, 3311), and the Pseudo-Dionysius of the fifth (De divinis nominibus, iii), probably suppose an acquaintance with apocryphal narratives of the Death and Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.越走越回的“ Encomium ”的白蝦,主教在耶路撒冷,在第七世紀公司( PG , LXXXVI , 3311 ) ,以及偽狄奧尼修斯第五(者divinis nominibus ,三) ,可能與假設一個熟人未經說明死亡和升天聖母。 These narratives have a common groundwork, though varying considerably in minor circumstances.這說明有一個共同的基礎,但不同的情況相當輕微。 The Apostles are preternaturally transported from different quarters of the globe to the Virgin's deathbed, those who had died being resuscitated for the purpose.使徒是preternaturally運輸從不同季度的全球的美屬維爾京臨終,這些誰已經死亡正在復甦的目的。 The "Departure" takes place at Jerusalem, though the Greek version places Mary first at Bethlehem.的“離境”發生在耶路撒冷,但希臘版本地方瑪麗第一次在伯利恆。 A Jew who ventures to touch the sacred body instantly loses both hands, which are restored through the mediation of the Apostles.一個猶太人誰合資觸摸神聖機構立即失去雙手,這是恢復通過調解的使徒。 Christ accompanied by a train of angels comes down to receive His mother's soul.基督伴隨著列車的天使歸結為得到他母親的靈魂。 The Apostles bear the body to Gethsemani and deposit it in a tomb, whence it is taken up alive to Heaven.使徒承擔的機構和存款Gethsemani它的一個墳墓中,何處是採取活著上天堂。 (See ASSUMPTION; MARY.) (見假定;瑪麗。 )

(b) Judaistic and Heretical Gospels (二) Judaistic和邪教福音

Gospel according to the Hebrews 福音據希伯來

Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, and St. Epiphanius speak of a "Gospel according to the Hebrews" which was the sole one in use among the Palestinian Judeo-Christians, otherwise known as the Nazarenes.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,俄利根,優西比烏,和聖埃皮法尼烏斯談論“福音據希伯來”這是唯一一個在使用中的巴勒斯坦猶太教和基督教,否則被稱為Nazarenes 。 Jerome translated it from the Aramaic into Greek.它由杰羅姆翻譯成希臘文的阿拉姆語。 It was evidently very ancient, and several of the above mentioned writers associate it with St. Matthew's Gospel, which it seems to have replaced in the Jewish-Christian community at an early date. The relation between the Gospel according to the Hebrews and our canonical Matthew Gospel is a matter of controversy.這顯然是非常古老的,有幾個上述作家聯想到聖馬太福音,它似乎已經取代猶太基督教社會早日實現。之間的關係福音據希伯來和我們的典型馬太福音是一個有爭議的問題。 The surviving fragments prove that there were close literal resemblances.倖存的片段證明有密切的字面相似之處。 Harnack asserts that the Hebrew Gospel was entirely independent, the tradition it contained being parallel to that of Matthew.哈納克說,希伯來福音是完全獨立的,它包含了傳統的平行的馬修。 Zahn, while excluding any dependence on our Greek canonical Matthew, maintains one on the primitive Matthew, according to which its general contents were derived from the latter.贊恩,同時不排除任何依賴於我們的希臘典型馬修,保持一個關於原始馬修,根據其一般內容來自後者。 This Gospel seems to have been read as canonical in some non-Palestinian churches; the Fathers who are acquainted with it refer to it with a certain amount of respect.這福音似乎已經改為典型在一些非巴勒斯坦人的教堂;教父誰熟悉它是指用一定數額的尊重。 Twenty-four fragments have been preserved by ecclesiastical writers. 24個片段已被保存了教會作家。 These indicate that it had a number of sections in common with the Synoptics, but also various narratives and sayings of Jesus, not found in the canonical Gospels.這些表明,它已經有若干款的共同與Synoptics ,而且各種說明和諺語的耶穌,沒有發現典型福音。 The surviving specimens lack the simplicity and dignity of the inspired writings; some even savour of the grotesque.倖存的標本缺乏的簡便性和尊嚴的啟發著作;有些甚至品味的荒唐。 We are warranted in saying that while this extra-canonical material probably has as its starting-point primitive tradition, it has been disfigured in the interests of a Judaizing Church.我們有理由說,雖然這課外典型材料可能作為其出發點原始的傳統,它一直毀容的利益的猶太化的教會。 (See AGRAPHA.) (見AGRAPHA 。 )

Gospel According to the Egyptians 福音埃及人

It is by this title that Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius describe an uncanonical work, which evidently was circulated in Egypt.正是通過這一標題克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,奧利,西波呂和埃皮法尼烏斯描述uncanonical的工作,這顯然是在埃及分發。 All agree that it was employed by heretical sects -- for the most part Gnostics.大家都同意,這是受僱於邪教-大部分是Gnostics 。 The scanty citations which have been preserved in the Fathers indicate a tendency towards the Encratite condemnation of marriage, and a pantheistic Gnosticism.引用的稀少一直保存在父親表明趨勢Encratite譴責婚姻,和一個pantheistic諾斯替主義。 The Gospel according to the Egyptians did not replace the canonical records in the Alexandrian Church, as Harnack would have us believe, but it seems to have enjoyed a certain popularity in the country districts among the Coptic natives.福音的埃及人並沒有取代規範記錄中的亞歷山大教會,作為哈爾納克想讓我們相信的,但它似乎已享有一定知名度的地區在該國之間的科普特本地人。 It could scarcely have been composed later than the middle of the second century and it is not at all impossible that it retouched some primitive material not represented in the canonical Gospels.它幾乎已經組成最遲在中東的第二個世紀,這不是在所有不可能,它retouched一些原始材料沒有派代表參加典型福音。

Gospel of St. Peter 聖彼得福音

The existence of an apocryphal composition bearing this name in Christian antiquity had long been known by references to it in certain early patristic writers who intimate that it originated or was current among Christians of Docetic views.是否存在未經組成銘記這名基督教古代早就知道提到它在某些早期教父作家誰親密,它是目前的起源或基督教徒之間的Docetic意見。 Much additional light has been thrown on this document by the discovery of a long fragment of it at Akhmîn in Upper Egypt, in the winter of 1886-87, by the French Archæological Mission.許多額外的光線已經發出關於這個文件,發現了一個長期的片段在Akhmîn在上埃及,在1886年至1887年冬季,由法國考古團。 It is in Greek and written on a parchment codex at a date somewhere between the sixth and ninth century.這是在希臘和寫在羊皮紙法典的日期之間的第六屆和第九屆世紀。 The fragment narrates part of the Passion, the Burial, and Resurrection.片段敘述部分激情,埋葬和復活。 It betrays a dependence, in some instances literal, on the four inspired Gospels, and is therefore a valuable additional testimony to their early acceptance.它暴露了依賴,在某些情況下字面,就四個靈感福音,並因此增加了寶貴的證詞早日接受。 While the apocryphon has many points of contact with the genuine Gospels, it diverges curiously from them in details, and bears evidence of having treated them with much freedom.雖然apocryphon有許多接觸點與真正的福音,它偏離他們好奇的細節,並有證據證明他們的待遇非常自由。 No marked heretical notes are found in the recovered fragment, but there are passages which are easily susceptible of a heterodox meaning.沒有明顯的邪教筆記被發現在回收片段,但也有段落是容易的非正統意義。 One of the few extra-canonical passages which may contain an authentic tradition is that which describes Christ as placed in mockery upon a throne by His tormentors.為數不多的課外典型的段落中可能包含真正的傳統是,描述基督放置在嘲弄一個王位由他的苦惱。 Pseudo-Peter is intermediate in character between the genuine Evangels and the purely legendary apocrypha.偽彼得是中間的性質之間的真正的純粹Evangels和傳奇偽經。 Its composition must be assigned to the first quarter or the middle of the second century of the Christian era.其組成必須分配給第一季度或中期的第二個世紀的公元。 C. Schmidt thinks he has found traces of what is perhaps a second Gospel of Peter in some ancient papyri (Schmidt, Sitzungsberichte der königlichen preuss. Akademie zu Berlin, 1895; cf. Bardenhewer, Geschichte, I, 397, 399).角施密特認為他已經發現了可能是第二個福音彼得在一些古老的紙莎草紙(施密特Sitzungsberichte之königlichen普羅伊斯。科學院柏林, 1895年;比照。 Bardenhewer ,歷史,我, 397 , 399 ) 。

Gospel of St. Philip 聖菲利普福音

Only one or two quotations remain of the Gospel of St. Philip mentioned by Epiphanius and Leontius of Byzantium; but these are enough to prove its Gnostic colouring.只有一種或兩種報價仍然福音聖菲利普提到的埃皮法尼烏斯和Leontius的拜占庭;但這些足以證明其諾斯底著色。

Gospel of St. Thomas 聖托馬斯福音

There are two Greek and two Latin redactions of it, differing much from one another.有兩個和兩個拉丁美洲希臘刪節的它,更從一個不同的另一種。 A Syriac translation is also found.翻譯的敘利亞也發現。 A Gospel of Thomas was known to many Fathers.阿福音托馬斯是眾所周知的許多父親。 The earliest to mention it is St. Hippolytus (155-235), who informs us that it was in use among the Naasenes, a sect of Syrian Gnostics, and cites a sentence which does not appear in our extant text.最早提到它是聖西波呂( 155-235 ) ,誰告訴我們,這是在使用中Naasenes ,一個教派的敘利亞Gnostics ,並列舉了一句沒有出現在我們現有的文字。 Origen relegates it to the heretical writings.奧利意義的它的邪教著作。 St. Cyril of Jerusalem says it was employed by the Manichæans; Eusebius rejects it as heretical and spurious.聖西里爾耶路撒冷說,這是受僱於Manichæans ;優西比烏拒絕它視為異端和雜散。 It is clear that the original Pseudo-Thomas was of heterodox origin, and that it dates from the second century; the citations of Hippolytus establish that it was palpably Gnostic in tenor.很顯然,原來的偽托馬斯是非正統來源,而且它的日期從第二世紀;引文的西波呂設立,這是明顯諾斯底的男高音。 But in the extant Thomas Gospel there is no formal or manifest Gnosticism.但是,在現存的托馬斯福音沒有正式的或明顯的諾斯替主義。 The prototype was evidently expurgated by a Catholic hand, who, however, did not succeed in eradicating all traces of its original taint.原型顯然expurgated由天主教另一方面,誰,但是,並沒有成功地消除一切痕跡的原始污點。 The apocryphon in all its present forms extravagantly magnifies the Divine aspect of the boy Jesus. In bold contrast to the Infancy narrative of St. Luke, where the Divinity is almost effaced, the author makes the Child a miracle-worker and intellectual prodigy, and in harmony with Docetism, leaves scarcely more than the appearance of humanity in Him.在所有的apocryphon其目前形式歷放大神聖方面的男孩耶穌。粗體對比的是嬰幼兒說明聖盧克,那裡的神幾乎抹去,作者提出一個奇蹟兒童工作者和智力天才,和在和諧與Docetism ,樹葉幾乎超過人類的出現他。 This pseudo-Gospel is unique among the apocrypha, inasmuch as it describes a part of the hidden life of Our Lord between the ages of five and twelve.這偽福音是獨特的偽經,因為它描述了部分隱藏的生活我們的主年齡介於5和12 。 But there is much that is fantastic and offensive in the pictures of the exploits of the boy Jesus.但仍然有很多這是荒唐的和進攻性的圖片,它講述的是耶穌的男孩。 His youthful miracles are worked at times out of mere childish fancy, as when He formed clay pigeons, and at a clap of His hands they flew away as living birds; sometimes, from beneficence; but again from a kind of harsh retribution.他年輕的奇蹟是超時工作,只是幼稚的幻想,因為當他形成粘土鴿子,並在拍的他的手,他們飛走了鳥類的生活,有時,從行善;但再次從一種嚴厲的懲罰。

Gospel of St. Bartholomew 福音的聖巴塞洛繆

The so-called Decretum of Gelasius classes the Gospel of St. Bartholomew among the apocrypha.所謂教令的格拉西班的福音聖巴塞洛繆的偽經。 The earliest allusion to it is in St.最早指的是在聖 Jerome's works.杰羅姆的作品。 Recently scholars have brought to light fragments of it in old Coptic manuscripts.最近學者揭示片段在舊科普特手稿。 One of these Orientalists, Baumstark, would place its composition in the first part of the fourth century.其中Orientalists , Baumstark ,其組成將發生在第一部分的第四個世紀。 A Gospel of Matthias is mentioned by Origen and Eusebius among the heretical literature along with the Peter and Thomas Gospels.福音馬蒂亞斯提到了奧利和優西比烏的邪教文學與彼得和托馬斯福音。 Hippolytus states that the Basilidean Gnostics appealed to a "secret discourse" communicated to them by the Apostle Matthias who had received instruction privately from the Lord. Clement of Alexandria, who was credulous concerning apocryphal literature, quotes with respect several times the "Tradition of Matthias".西波呂指出, Basilidean Gnostics呼籲“秘密話語”傳達給他們的使徒馬蒂亞斯誰收到指示私人從主。克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,誰是輕信未經有關文獻,報價方面多次的“傳統的馬蒂亞斯“ 。

Gospel of the Twelve Apostles 福音十二門徒

A Gospel of the Twelve Apostles was known to Origen (third century).阿福音十二門徒是眾所周知的奧利( 3世紀) 。 Other patristic notices give rise to some uncertainty whether the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles of antiquity was really distinct from that of the Hebrews.其他教父告示帶來一些不確定性是否福音十二門徒的古代真的不同於希伯來書。 The greater probabilities oppose their identity.更大的概率反對他們的身份。 Recently the claim has been made by M. Reveillout, a Coptic scholar, that the lost Gospel has been in a considerable measure recovered in several Coptic fragments, all of which, he asserts, belong to the same document.最近聲稱已經取得了由M. Reveillout ,一個科普特學者認為,失去了福音已在相當程度恢復在幾個科普特碎片,所有這些,他聲稱,屬於同一個文件。 But this position has been successfully combated by Dr. Baumstark in the in the "Revue Biblique" (April, 1906, 245 sqq.), who will allow at most a probability that certain brief sections appertain to a Gospel of the Twelve Apostles, written originally in Greek and current among Gnostic Ebionites as early as the second century.但是,這一立場已成功地打擊博士Baumstark在在“雜誌Biblique ” ( 4月, 1906年, 245 sqq 。 ) ,誰能夠在大多數的概率的某些簡短的章節屬於一個福音十二門徒,書面最初在希臘和當前之間諾斯底以便尼派,早在二世紀。 There exists a late and entirely orthodox Syriac "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles", published by J. Rendel Harris (Cambridge, 1900).存在晚,完全東正教敘利亞文“福音的十二門徒” ,出版的J.宏道哈里斯(劍橋, 1900年) 。

Other Gospels 其他福音

It is enough to note the existence of other pseudo-Gospels, of which very little is known beside the names.這足以說明存在其他一些偽福音,其中很少是眾所周知的名字旁邊。 There was a Gospel of St. Andrew, probably identical with the Gnostic "Acts of Andrew" (qv, inf.); a Gospel of Barnabas, a Gospel of Thaddeus, a Gospel of Eve, and even one of Judas Iscariot, the last in use among the Gnostic sect of Cainites, and which glorified the traitor.有一個福音聖安德魯,可能相同的諾斯底行為“安德魯” ( qv ,干擾素。 ) ; 1 巴拿巴福音,一個福音撒迪厄斯,一個福音前夕,甚至之一猶大,最後使用中的諾斯底教派Cainites ,並美化叛徒。

(2) PILATE LITERATURE AND OTHER APOCRYPHA CONCERNING CHRIST ( 2 ) PILATE文獻和其他偽經關於基督教

While Christianity was struggling against the forces of Roman paganism, there was a natural tendency to dwell upon the part which a representative of the Roman Empire played in the supreme events of Our Lord's life, and to shape the testimony of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea, even at the cost of exaggeration and amplification, into a weapon of apologetic defence, making that official bear witness to the miracles, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ.雖然基督教的鬥爭力量的羅馬異教,有一種自然傾向,談的部分代表,參加了羅馬帝國最高法院事件我們的主的生命,並形成了本丟彼拉多的證詞,檢察官朱迪亞,甚至不惜誇張和放大,成為一個武器道歉辯護,使官方見證奇蹟,受難和復活的基督。 Hence arose a considerable apocryphal Pilate literature, of which the Gospel of Gamaliel really forms a part, and like this latter apocryphon, it is characterized by exaggerating Pilate's weak defence of Jesus into strong sympathy and practical belief in His divinity.因此產生了相當未經彼拉多文學,其中的福音加馬利亞真的形式的一部分,並像這樣後者apocryphon ,它的特點是誇張彼拉多的薄弱捍衛耶穌到強烈的同情和實際的信念在他的神性。

Report of Pilate to the Emperor. 報告彼拉多皇帝。

In the apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul there is embodied a letter purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius.在未經行為的彼得和保羅有體現的信看來已被送往由本丟彼拉多皇帝克勞迪烏斯。 This briefly relates the fatuous crime of the Jews in persecuting the Holy One promised to them by their God; enumerates His miracles and states that the Jews accused Jesus of being a magician.這短暫的昏庸涉及犯罪的猶太人的迫害羅馬一個承諾給他們的上帝;列舉了他的奇蹟,並指出,被告的猶太人的耶穌是一個魔術師。 Pilate at the time believing this, delivered Him to them. After the Resurrection the soldiers whom the governor had placed at the tomb were bribed by the leaders to be silent, but nevertheless divulged the fact.彼拉多的時候相信這一點,他向他們提供。復活之後的士兵其中總督放置在墓穴被收買的領導人保持沉默,但洩露的事實。 The missive concludes with a warning against the mendacity of the Jews.該missive最後警告的謊言猶太人。 This composition is clearly apocryphal though unexpectedly brief and restrained.這顯然是未經證實的組成雖然意外簡短和克制。 It is natural, to attempt to trace a resemblance between this pseudograph and certain references of ecclesiastical writers to Acta or Gesta of Pilate. Tertullian (Apologia, xxi) after giving a sketch of the miracles and Passion of Christ, subjoins: "All these things Pilate . . . announced to Tiberius Cæsar."這是很自然,試圖追踪1相似之處這一pseudograph和某些提法的教會作家獸類或蓋斯塔的彼拉多。良(辯解, XXI )號決議後,使素描的奇蹟和耶穌受難記, subjoins : “所有這些事情彼拉多。 。 。宣布厄斯愷撒“ 。 A comparison between this pericope and the Pseudo-Pilate report reveals a literary dependence between them, though the critics differ as to the priority of these documents.比較這pericope和偽彼拉多報告揭示了它們之間的文學依賴,但批評者有所不同的優先權這些文件。 In chapters 35, 38, and 48 of Justin's Apologia , that Father appeals confidently as a proof of the miracles and Passion of Jesus to "Acts" or records of Pontius Pilate existing in the imperial archives.章35 , 38 ,和48賈斯汀的辯解 ,神父呼籲滿懷信心作為證據的奇蹟和耶穌受難的“行為”或記錄,在本丟彼拉多現有帝國檔案。 While it is possible that St. Justin may have heard of such a report, and even probable that the procurator transmitted some account of the events at Jerusalem to Rome, it is on the other hand admissible that Justin's assertion was based on nothing more than hypothesis.雖然它有可能是聖賈斯汀可能聽說過這樣的報告,甚至可能是檢察轉交一些帳戶的事件在耶路撒冷羅馬,這是另一方面受理的賈斯汀的論斷是基於只不過假說。 This is the opinion of the majority of the experts.這是多數的意見的專家。 During the persecutions under Maximin in the fourth century spurious anti-Christian Acts of Pilate were composed in Syria, as we learn from Eusebius.在迫害下的極大極小在四世紀雜散反基督教行為彼拉多是由在敘利亞,我們學習優西比烏。 It is probable that the pseudographic letter was forged as an offset to these.很可能是偽造的pseudographic信當作抵消這些。

Acta Pilati (Gospel of Nicodemus) 獸類皮拉蒂(福音尼科迪默斯)

See the separate Catholic Encyclopedia article under this title.看到單獨的天主教百科全書文章根據這一標題。

The Minor Pilate Apocrypha 小彼拉多偽經

The minor Pilate apocrypha, the Anaphora Pilati , or "Relation of Pilate", is frequently found appended to the texts of the Acta.彼拉多偽經該未成年人的照應皮拉蒂 ,或“關係彼拉多” ,常常是附載的案文獸類。 It presupposes the latter work, and could not have been composed before the middle of the fifth century.它的前提是後者的工作,無法組成中前5世紀。 It is found in manuscripts combined with the Paradoseis or "Giving up of Pilate", which represents the oldest form of the legend dealing with Pilate's subsequent life.它是發現手稿結合Paradoseis或“放棄彼拉多” ,它代表的是最古老的傳說處理彼拉多後來的生活。 A still later fabrication is found in the Latin Epistola Pilati ad Tiberium. There exists a puerile correspondence consisting of a pretended Letter of Herod to Pilate and Letter of Pilate to Herod. They are found in Greek and Syriac in a manuscript of the sixth or seventh century.一個仍然被發現後製造的拉丁美洲書信集皮拉蒂廣告泰伯利亞。還存在一種幼稚的通信組成的信希律假裝向彼拉多和文字彼拉多對希律王。它們存在於希臘和敘利亞的手稿第六或第七世紀。 These pseudographs may be as old as the fifth century.這些pseudographs可能是一樣古老5世紀。

The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea 敘事約瑟夫Arimathea

The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea -- furnishing imaginary details of the two thieves crucified with Christ, and the begging of the body from Pilate -- seems to have enjoyed popularity in the Middle Ages in the Byzantine East, judging from the number of Greek manuscripts which remain.敘事約瑟夫Arimathea -提供虛細節兩個小偷與基督同釘十字架,和乞討的身體從彼拉多-似乎已享有聲望在中世紀的拜占庭東,從一些希臘手稿這依然存在。 The oldest of those published belongs to the twelfth century.歷史最悠久的出版屬於12世紀。 The relation is appended to some Latin texts of the Acta Pilati, under the title "Historia Josephi".關係附加到一些拉美文本獸類皮拉蒂,標題下的“歷史Josephi ” 。 It may be read in English in Walker's and the Ante-Nicene Fathers' collection of the apocrypha.這可能是閱讀英文沃克和前廳尼西亞父親收集的偽經。

The Legend of Abgar 傳說Abgar

The oldest form of the Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa, is found in Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, I, xiii), who vouches that he himself translated it from the Syriac documents in the archives of Edessa, the metropolis of Eastern Syria.最古老的形式,偽對應的耶穌和Abgar國王埃德薩,是在優西比烏(史Ecclesiastica ,我,十三) ,誰vouches ,他本人翻譯它從敘利亞的歸檔文件埃德薩的大都市東歐敘利亞。 The two letters are accompanied by an introduction which probably is an excerpt from the same source. According to this, Abgar V, Toparch or King of Edessa, suffering from an incurable disease, and having heard the fame of Christ's miracles sends a courier to Jerusalem, bearing a letter to Jesus, in which he declared Him to be a god, or the son of a god, and invites Him to Edessa, justifying the request partly by his desire to be cured, partly by his wish to offer to Jesus an asylum against the malignant Jews.兩封信的同時,介紹了這可能是一個摘錄來自同一來源。根據這一點, Abgar五, Toparch或國王埃德薩,患有不治之症,並聽取了名利基督的奇蹟發出了一個快遞到耶路撒冷,同時信耶穌,他在其中宣布他是一個神,或者神的兒子,並請他在埃德薩,理由要求部分由他渴望治愈,部分由他希望提供耶穌的對惡性庇護猶太人。 Our Lord replied as follows:我們的主答复如下:

Blessed are you because you have believed in Me without seeing Me.祝福你,因為你已經相信我,看我。 For it is written that those who have seen Me, will not believe Me; and that those who have not seen Me will believe and love Me.因為它是誰寫的,那些看到我,不相信我,這些誰沒有看到我會認為,和愛我。 But as to your prayer that I come to you, it is necessary that I fulfil here all that for which I have been sent, and that after I have fulfilled it, that I be taken up to Him who has sent Me.但是,正如你祈禱,我到你們這裡來,有必要履行在這裡,我的一切,對此我已發送,這之後,我已經完成它,我將採取向他誰派我。 But after my taking up I shall send you one of My disciples, who will heal your pains, and keep life for you and yours.但在我的考慮,我應把你是我的弟子,誰將會治愈你的痛苦,並保持生活的你和你。

Accordingly, after the Ascension, "Judas Thomas" an Apostle, despatches to Edessa Thaddeus, one of the seventy Disciples, who cures the King of his disease, and preaches Christ to the assembled people.因此,在阿森松島, “猶大托馬斯”的使徒, despatches向埃德薩撒迪厄斯,其中70弟子,誰治愈他的病國王,並宣揚基督的組裝人。 This, adds Eusebius, happened in the year 340, ie of the Seleucid era; corresponding to AD 28-29.這增加了優西比烏,發生在340年,即在塞流西時代;相應的反傾銷28-29 。 The pleasing story is repeated with variations in later sources.令人高興的故事的重複與變化以後來源。 The "Teaching of Addai", a Syrian apocryphon (qv infra ), reproduces the correspondence with additions.在“教學Addai ” ,敘利亞apocryphon ( qv 紅外線 ) ,抄錄信函增加。

The authenticity of the alleged letter of Christ has always been strongly suspected when not absolutely denied.真實性的指控信基督一直強烈懷疑時,不是絕對否認。 As early as the sixth century the Gelasian Decretum brands this correspondence as spurious.早在公元6世紀的Gelasian教令品牌這一信件作為虛假。 Its legendary environment and the fact that the Church at large did not hand down the pretended epistle from Our Lord as a sacred document is conclusive against it.其傳奇性的環境和這樣一個事實,即在大型教會沒有手了假裝書信從我們的主為一個神聖的文件是決定性的打擊。 As for the letter of Abgar, its genuineness was formerly favoured by many skilled in this literature, but since the discovery of the "Teaching of Addai", published in 1876, the presumption against the authentic character of Abgar's epistle, owing to the close resemblance of a portion to passages in the Gospels, has become an established certainty. Lipsius, a high authority, is of the opinion that the Abgar correspondence goes back to the reign of the first Christian ruler of Edessa, Abgar IX (179-216), and that it was elicited by a desire to force a link uniting that epoch with the time of Christ.至於信中Abgar ,其真實性原來贊成許多熟練的在這文學,但自從發現了“教學Addai ” ,發表於1876年,該推定的真實性質Abgar的書信,由於緊密的相似性一個部分段落福音,已成為一個既定的確定性。 Lipsius ,高權威,是認為Abgar信件可追溯到統治的第一次基督教統治者埃德薩, Abgar第九章( 179-216 ) ,而且它引起的願望部隊的聯繫與團結的時代的時候基督。

Letter of Lentulus 信Lentulus

A brief letter professing to be from Lentulus, or Publius Lentulus, as in some manuscripts, "President of the People of Jerusalem", addressed to "the Roman Senate and People", describes Our Lord's personal appearance.簡短的信自稱來自Lentulus ,或普布利Lentulus ,因為在一些手稿, “總統人民的耶路撒冷” ,給“羅馬參議院和人民” ,說明我們上帝親自出庭。 It is evidently spurious, both the office and name of the president of Jerusalem being grossly unhistorical.這顯然是虛假的,無論是辦公室和總統的名義耶路撒冷被粗暴unhistorical 。 No ancient writer alludes to this production, which is found only in Latin manuscripts.古代作家沒有提到這種生產,這不僅在拉丁美洲發現的手稿。 It has been conjectured that it may have been composed in order to authenticate a pretended portrait of Jesus, during the Middle Ages.據推測,它可能已被組成,以驗證假裝耶穌的畫像,在中世紀。 An English version is given in Cowper's Apocryphal Gospels and Other Doeuments Relating to Christ (New York, 6th ed., 1897).英文版是在考珀的未經福音和其他Doeuments關於基督 (紐約,第6版。 , 1897 ) 。

(3) APOCRYPHAL ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ( 3 )未經行為使徒

The motive which first prompted the fabrication of spurious Acts of the Apostles was, in general, to give Apostolic support to heretical systems, especially those of the many sects which are comprised under the term Gnosticism.的動機首先提示製造虛假使徒行傳是,一般來說,給使徒支持邪教系統,特別是其中許多教派組成的長期諾斯替主義。 The darkness in which the New Testament leaves the missionary careers, and the ends of the greater number of the Apostles, and the meagre details handed down by ecclesiastical tradition, left an inviting field for the exercise of inventive imaginations, and offered an apt means for the insidious propagation of heresy.黑暗中,新約全書離開傳教事業,並結束了更多的使徒,和微薄的詳細資料流傳下來的宗教傳統,留下了邀請外地的行使創造性的想像力,並提供了一個恰當的手段陰險傳播異端。 The Jewish-Christian Church, which early developed un-Catholic tendencies in the form of Ebionitism, seems first to have produced apocryphal histories of the Apostles, though of these we have very few remains outside the material in the voluminous Pseudo-Clement.猶太基督教會,及早制定聯合國天主教傾向的形式, Ebionitism ,似乎首先產生未經歷史使徒,但這些我們仍然很少以外的材料的大量偽克萊門特。 The Gnostic Acts of Peter, Andrew, John, Thomas, and perhaps Matthew, date from the early portion of the third century or perhaps a little earlier.行為的諾斯底彼得,安德魯,約翰,托馬斯,也許馬修,日期從早期的部分三世紀或早一點。 They abound in extravagant and highly coloured marvels, and were interspersed by long pretended discourses of the Apostles which served as vehicles for the Gnostic predications.他們很多在奢侈和高度彩色奇蹟,並穿插長期假裝話語的使徒,作為車輛的諾斯底predications 。 Though the pastors of the Church and the learned repudiated these as patently heretical writings, they appealed to the fancy and satisfied the curiosity of the common people.雖然牧師的教會和教訓否定這些作為顯然邪教著作,他們呼籲喜歡和滿意的好奇心,普通百姓。 Not only were they utilized by Manichæans in the East and Priscillianists in the West, but they found favour with many unenlightened Catholics.他們不僅利用Manichæans在東亞和Priscillianists在西方,但他們發現有許多無知的贊成天主教徒。 Since it was impossible to suppress their circulation entirely, they were rendered comparatively harmless by orthodox editing which expunged the palpable errors, especially in the discourses, leaving the miracle element to stand in its riotous exuberance.因為不可能完全制止他們的流通,他們作出了相對無害的東正教編輯刪除其中的明顯錯誤,特別是在論述,使奇蹟元站在其繽紛繁榮。 Hence most of the Gnostic Acts have come down to us with more or less of a Catholic purification, which, however, was in many cases so superficial as to leave unmistakable traces of their heterodox origin.因此大多數的諾斯底的行為歸結為我們提供了或多或少的天主教淨化,然而,在許多情況下是如此膚淺的,以休假無誤的痕跡,他們的非正統來源。 The originally Gnostic apocryphal Acts were gathered into collections which bore the name of the periodoi (Circuits) or praxeis (Acts) of the Apostles, and to which was attached the name of a Leucius Charinus, who may have formed the compilation.原來諾斯底未經行為聚集到收藏承擔的名稱periodoi (集成電路)或praxeis (行為)的門徒,並是重視的名稱Leucius Charinus ,誰可能已經形成了彙編。 The Gnostic Acts were of various authorship.諾斯底行為的各種著作。 Another collection was formed in the Frankish Church in the sixth century, probably by a monk.另一個集合形成於法蘭克人教會在公元6世紀,可能是一名僧人。 In this the Catholic Acts have been preserved; it is by no means uniform in its various manuscript representatives. By a misunderstanding, the authorship of the whole, under the title "Historia Certaminis Apostolorum", was ascribed to an Abdias, said to have been the first Bishop of Babylon and a disciple of the Apostles.在這天主教行為被保留;絕不是統一在其各種手稿代表。通過一種誤解,作者的全體,題目是“歷史Certaminis宗徒” ,是歸因於一個Abdias ,說已經第一主教巴比倫和弟子的使徒。 The nucleus of this collection was formed by the Latin Passiones, or Martyrdoms, of those Apostles who had been neglected by the Gnostic Acts, viz., the two Jameses, Philip (Matthew?), Bartholomew, Simon, and Jude.在此收集的核心是由拉丁美洲Passiones ,或Martyrdoms ,這些使徒誰忽視了行為的諾斯底,即。兩個Jameses ,菲利普(馬修? ) ,巴爾多,西蒙,和裘德。 The literature grew by accretions from heretical sources and eventually took in all the Apostles, including St. Paul.文獻增長accretions從邪教來源,並最終在所有使徒,包括聖保羅。 The motive of these non-heretical apocrypha was primarily to gratify the pious curiosity of the faithful regarding the Apostolic founders of the Church; sometimes local interests instigated their composition.的動機,這些非邪教偽經,主要是為了滿足好奇心的虔誠的信徒就使徒教會的創始人,有時局部利益唆使其組成。 After the model of the Gnostic Acts, which were of Oriental derivation, they abound in prodigies, and like those again, they take as their starting-point the traditional dispersion of the Twelve from Jerusalem.在模型的諾斯底行為,這是東方推導,他們中很多天才,像那些再次,他們需要他們的出發點傳統分散的12個來自耶路撒冷。 Regarding the historical value of these apocryphal narratives, it requires the most careful criticism to extricate from the mass of fable and legend any grains of historical truth.關於歷史價值,這些未經證實的敘述,它需要得到最認真的批評,以擺脫大量的寓言和神話任何穀物的歷史真相。 Even respecting the fields of the Apostolic missions, they are self-contradictory or confused. In general their details are scientifically worthless, unless confirmed by independent authorities, which rarely happens.即使尊重領域使徒任務,他們是自我矛盾或困惑。一般來說他們的詳細資料是科學毫無價值,除非證實了獨立當局,而很少發生。 Much of their apocryphal matter was taken up by the offices of the Apostles in the Latin breviaries and lectionaries, composed in the seventh and eighth centuries at an extremely uncritical period.很多未經證實此事採取行動辦公室的使徒在拉丁美洲breviaries和lectionaries組成,在第七和第八世紀在一個極其盲目時期。

(a) Gnostic Acts of the Apostles (一)諾斯底使徒行傳

Acts of St. Peter 行為的聖彼得

There exist a Greek and a Latin Martyrdom of Peter, the latter attributed to Pope Linus, which from patristic citations are recognized as the conclusion of an ancient Greek narrative entitled "Acts, or Circuits of St. Peter".存在希臘和拉丁殉難的彼得,後者由於教皇利努斯,從教父引用被公認為是締結一項古希臘敘事題為“行為,或電路的聖彼得” 。 Another manuscript, bearing the name "Actus Petri cum Simone", contains a superior translation with several passages from the original narrative preceding the Martyrdom.另一個時間,同時命名為“犯罪的Petri暨西蒙娜” ,包含了卓越的翻譯與幾個通道從原來的敘事前殉難。 The work betrays certain tokens of Gnosticism, although it has been purged of its grossest features by a Catholic reviser. It describes the triumph of St. Peter over Simon Magus at Rome, and the Apostle's subsequent crucifixion.背叛某些工作的紀念品諾斯替主義,儘管它已經清除了嚴重的功能由一個天主教審校。它描述了勝利的聖彼得的西蒙空氣在羅馬,和宗徒隨後受難。 These Acts as we have them are of high antiquity, though it is impossible to always discern whether patristic writers are quoting from them or an earlier tradition.這些行為,我們是高古物,但不可能總是分辨是否教父作者引用或較早的傳統。 Undoubtedly Commodian (c. 250) employed our extant Acts of Peter.毫無疑問Commodian (角250 )我國現存的就業行為彼得。

Acts of St. John 聖約翰行為

The heretical character imputed to these by certain Fathers is fully confirmed by extant fragments, which show a gross Docetism, and an unbridled phantasy.邪教性質歸罪於這些某些父親是完全證實了現存的片段,顯示嚴重Docetism ,並肆無忌憚幻想。 Doubtless the author intermingled valuable Ephesian traditions with his fables.毫無疑問,作者混雜寶貴以弗所傳統與他的寓言。 There are reasons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the Acts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the second century, under the name of a disciple of St. John, called Leucius.有原因的重量方面的工作已被組成,連同行為的聖彼得大教堂,並可能是聖安德魯,由一個人,在下半年的第二個世紀,根據名稱門徒聖約翰,所謂Leucius 。 Clement of Alexandria was acquainted with the pseudograph.克萊門特亞歷山大是熟悉pseudograph 。 The Johannine Acts of the Pseudo-Prochorus (compare the canonical Acts, vi, 5) are a Catholic working-over of Gnostic material.該Johannine行為的偽Prochorus (比較典型行為,六, 5 )是一個天主教的工作超過了諾斯底材料。

Acts of St. Andrew 聖安德魯行為

Pseudographic Acts of St. Andrew are noted by several early ecclesiastical writers, as in circulation among Gnostic and Manichæan sects. Pseudographic行為的聖安德魯指出的是一些早期教會的作家,因為在流通中和摩尼教諾斯底教派。 The original form has perished except in a few patristic quotations.原始形式的滅亡除少數教父報價。 But we possess three individual Acts under different names, which prove to be orthodox recensions of an original comprehensive Gnostic whole.但是,我們三個人行為擁有不同的名字,這被證明是東正教recensions原始全面諾斯底整體。 These are:這些國家是:
  1. "The Acts of Andrew and Matthias" (or Matthew as given by some authorities) “安德魯的行為和馬蒂亞斯” (或馬修給出一些當局)
  2. "Acts of Peter and Andrew" (the original language of the above is Greek)行為“彼得和安德魯” (原文上述是希臘)
  3. "The Martyrdom of the Apostle Andrew" has come down in both Greek and Latin recensions. “殉難宗徒安德魯”已經在這兩個希臘文和拉丁文recensions 。 The Latin text is the original one, and cannot be earlier than the fifth century.拉丁文字是原始的,不能早於15世紀。 It purports to be a relation of the heroic death of St. Andrew by eyewitnesses who are "presbyters and deacons of the Church of Achaia".看來是一個關係,壯烈犧牲的聖安德魯目擊者誰是“ presbyters和執事的教會亞該亞” 。 It has enjoyed credit among historians in the past, but no reliance can be placed on its data.據歷史學家之間享有信貸在過去的,但不能依賴也可以放在其數據。

(See APOSTOLIC CHURCHES; ANDREW, ST., APOSTLE.) (見APOSTOLIC教堂;黃宏,意。 ,使徒。 )

The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew 這些行為和殉難的聖馬太

The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew are in literary dependence on the Acts of St. Andrew (qv, supra ), and hence the reading "Matthew" may be an error for "Matthias", since evidently the companion of Peter and Andrew is intended.這些行為和殉難聖馬修是在文學依賴行為的聖安德魯( qv , ) ,因此,閱讀“馬修”可能是一個錯誤的“馬蒂亞斯” ,因為很顯然,對同伴的彼得和安德魯是意。 The work exists in Greek and a later Latin.工作中存在希臘和稍後拉丁美洲。 There is also a Coptic-Ethiopic martyrdom legend of St. Matthew.還有一個科普特,埃塞俄比亞傳奇殉道聖馬太。 (See MATTHEW, ST., APOSTLE; APOSTOLIC CHURCHES). (見馬太,意法半導體。 ,使徒; APOSTOLIC基督教協進會) 。

Acts of St. Thomas 行為的聖托馬斯

No Apostolic apocryphon has reached us in a completeness equal to that of the Thomas Acts.沒有使徒apocryphon已達到我們的完整性相當於托馬斯行為。 They are found in Greek, Syriac, and Ethiopic recensions.它們存在於希臘,敘利亞和埃塞俄比亞recensions 。 Their Gnostic traits pierce through the Catholic re-touching; in fact, the contents show a conscious purpose to exalt the dualistic doctrine of abstention from conjugal intercourse.他們的諾斯底性狀皮爾斯通過天主教潤飾,事實上,展示的內容有意識的目的是發揚理論棄權二元從夫妻性交。 Scholars are much inclined to attribute the original to a Syrian origin and an author who was an adherent of Bardesanes. The signs point strongly to the third century as the era.學者們更傾向於屬性原為原產地和敘利亞的作者是誰貼的Bardesanes 。強烈的跡象顯示,到第三世紀的時代。 The translation of the remains of St. Thomas to Edessa in 232 may have furnished the inspiration for the composition.翻譯仍然聖托馬斯向埃德薩可能在232家具的靈感組成。 The Acts relate the prodigies performed by the Apostle in India, and end with his martyrdom there.這些行為涉及的天才所完成的使徒在印度,並結束與他的殉難的。 They are interspersed with some remarkable hymns; some of real literary beauty but with strong Gnostic colouring. Recent researches have revealed elements of truth in the historical setting of the narrative.他們穿插了一些顯著的讚美詩;一些真正的文學之美,但與強大的諾斯底著色。最近的研究顯示,內容真實的歷史背景的說明。 The Acts of St. Thomas are mentioned by Epiphanius and Augustine as in use in different heretical circles. St.行為的聖托馬斯都提到埃皮法尼烏斯和奧古斯丁在使用不同的邪教圈子。街 Ephrem of Syria refers to apocryphal Thomas Acts as in circulation among the Bardesanites (see THOMAS, ST., APOSTLE).埃弗朗敘利亞指未經托馬斯擔任流通之間的Bardesanites (見托馬斯,意法半導體。 ,使徒) 。

Acts of St. Bartholomew 行為的聖巴塞洛繆

We possess a Greek Martrydom, dating in its present form from the fifth or sixth century; also a Latin "Passio Bartholomæi". Both are tainted with Nestorianism, and seem to have come from a single Bartholomew legend.我們擁有一個希臘Martrydom以來,以其目前的形式從第五或第六世紀;也是拉丁美洲“ Passio Bartholomæi ” 。兩者都含有景教,而且似乎都來自一個單一的巴塞洛繆傳奇。 The Greek text recounts the marvels by which the Apostle overthrew idolatry and converted a king and his subjects in "India".希臘文字敘述了奇蹟其中使徒推翻偶像崇拜與轉換國王和他的臣民在“印度” 。 The whole is a legendary tissue.整個是一個傳奇色彩的組織。 (See BARTHOLOMEW, ST., APOSTLE). (見BARTHOLOMEW ,意。 ,使徒) 。

(b) Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (二)天主教未經使徒行傳

Acts of Sts. 行為街。 Peter and Paul 彼得和保羅

These are to be distinguished from the Gnostic Acts of Peter and the orthodox Acts of Paul.這是有別於行為的諾斯底彼得和東正教行為保羅。 The manuscripts which represent the legend fall into two groups:手稿代表傳說分為兩大類:

Lipsius regards the journey section as a ninth-century addition; Bardenhewer will have it to belong to the original document. Lipsius關於旅程節作為第九世紀此外; Bardenhewer將屬於它的原始文件。 This section begins with Paul's departure from the island of Mileto, and is evidently based on the canonical narrative in Acts.本節開始的保羅離開島嶼的Mileto ,並顯然是基於行為規範的說明。 The Jews have been aroused by the news of Paul's intended visit, and induce Nero to forbid it.猶太人已經引起了記者的保羅打算訪問,並誘導尼祿禁止它。 Nevertheless the Apostle secretly enters Italy; his companion is mistaken for himself at Puteoli and beheaded.然而使徒秘密進入意大利;他的同伴誤以為自己是在Puteoli並斬首。 In retribution that city is swallowed up by the sea.在報復的城市是花了大海。 Peter receives Paul at Rome with Joy.彼得保羅在羅馬獲得與喜悅。 The preaching of the Apostles converts multitudes and even the Empress.在鼓吹的使徒轉換眾多,甚至皇后。 Simon Magus traduces the Christian teachers, and there is a test of strength in miracles between that magician and the Apostles, which takes place in the presence of Nero, Simon essays a flight to heaven but falls in the Via Sacra and is dashed to pieces.西蒙空氣traduces基督教教師,並有測試中創造奇蹟的力量之間的魔術師和使徒,這是發生在存在尼祿,西蒙撰飛往天堂,但屬於於VIA薩克拉和破滅成碎片。 Nevertheless, Nero is bent on the destruction of Peter and Paul.然而,尼祿執意破壞彼得和保羅。 The latter is beheaded on the Ostian Way, and Peter is crucified at his request head downward.後者是被斬首的Ostian方式和彼得是釘在十字架上,邀請他頭部向下。 Before his death he relates to the people the "Quo Vadis?"他去世之前,他涉及到人的“現狀Vadis ? ” story.的故事。 Three men from the East carry off the Apostles' bodies but are overtaken.三名男子從東進行了使徒的屍體,但超越。 St. Peter is buried at "The place called the Vatican", and Paul on the Ostian Way.聖彼得被安葬在“地呼籲梵蒂岡” ,和保羅的Ostian路。 These Acts are the chief source for details of the martyrdom of the two great Apostles.這些行為的主要來源的詳細情況,犧牲了兩個偉大的使徒。 They are also noteworthy as emphasizing the close concord between the Apostolic founders of the Roman Church.他們也值得注意,因為強調密切和諧創始人之間的使徒的羅馬教會。 The date (AD 55) of composition is involved in obscurity.日期(公元55 )的組成涉及默默無聞。 Lipsius finds traces of our Acts as early as Hippolytus (c. 235), but it is not clear that the Fathers adduced employed any written source for their references to the victory over Simon Magus and the work of the Apostles at Rome. Lipsius認為我們的行為痕跡儘早西波呂(約235 ) ,但目前尚不清楚的父親受僱於任何書面證據來源,他們提到戰勝西蒙空氣和工作的宗徒在羅馬。 Lipsius assigns the kernel of the Martyrdom to the second century; Bardenhewer refers the whole to the first half of the third. Lipsius指定內核的殉難的第二個世紀; Bardenhewer指整個上半年的三分之一。 The Acts of Peter and Paul undoubtedly embody some genuine traditions.行為的彼得和保羅無疑體現了一些真正的傳統。 (See PETER, ST., APOSTLE; PAUL, ST., APOSTLE; SIMON MAGUS). (見Peter ,意。 ,使徒保羅,聖。 ,使徒;西蒙MAGUS ) 。

Acts of St. Paul 聖保祿行為

Origen and Eusebius expressly name the praxeis Paulou ; Tertullian speaks of writings falsely attributed to Paul: " Quod si Pauli perperam inscripta legunt. "奧利和優西比烏明確名稱praxeis Paulou ;良談到寫作錯誤歸因於保羅: “ Quod市聖保利perperam inscripta legunt 。 He is cautioning his readers against the tale of Thecla preaching and baptizing herself.他告誡他的讀者對故事Thecla鼓吹和洗禮自己。 Hitherto it was supposed that he referred to the "Acts of Paul and Thecla".迄今為止,這是假定他提到了“行為的保羅和Thecla ” 。 The "Acta Pauli", presumed to be a distinct composition, were deemed to have perished; but recently (1899) a Coptic papyrus manuscript, torn to shreds, was found in Egypt, and proves to contain approximately complete the identical Acts of Paul alluded to by a few ecclesiastical writers.該“獸類聖保利” ,推定為一個獨特的組成,被認為已經死亡,但最近( 1899年)的科普特莎草紙手稿,撕成碎片,發現了埃及,並證明含有大約完成相同的行為保羅提到對少數教會作家。 This find has established the fact that the long-known Acts of Paul and Thecla and the apocryphal correspondence of St. Paul with the Corinthian Church, as well as the Martyrdom of St.這一發現建立這樣一個事實,即長期已知行為保羅和Thecla和未經信件聖保祿教堂的科林斯,以及殉難聖 Paul, are really only excerpts from the original Pauline Acts. The newly-discovered document contains material hitherto unknown as well as the above-noted sections, long extant.保羅,真的是只有摘錄從原來的波利娜行為。新發現的文件中包含的材料未知,以及上述各款,長期現存。 It begins with a pretended flight of St. Paul from Antioch of Pisidia, and ends with his martyrdom at Rome.它一開始就假裝飛行聖保祿從安提阿的彼西底的安提阿,並結束與他的殉道於羅馬。 The narrative rests on data in the canonical books of the New Testament, but it abounds in marvels and personages unhinted at there, and it disfigures traits of some of those actually mentioned in the Sacred Writings.說明取決於數據的規範書籍的新約,但它有許多的奇蹟和人士unhinted在那兒,而且毀損性狀的一些實際中所提到的聖書。 The Acts of Paul, therefore, adds nothing trustworthy to our knowledge of the Apostle of the Gentiles.保羅的行為,因此,沒有什麼值得信賴的,以增加我們的知識宗徒的外邦人。 Fortunately the above-cited passage of Tertullian (De Baptismo, xvii) informs us of its authorship and aim.幸運的是,上述通過良(者Baptismo ,十七)告訴我們它的作者和目標。 The African writer observes that the pseudo-history was the work of a priest of Asia Minor, who on the discovery of the fraud, was deposed from an ecclesiastical charge, and confessed that he forged the book out of love for St. Paul.非洲作家指出,偽歷史的工作是一名牧師的小亞細亞,誰對發現的欺詐行為,被廢黜從教會負責,並供認,他偽造了這本書的愛聖保祿。 Experts ascribe its composition to the second century.專家們賦予其組成的第二個世紀。 It was already known when Tertullian wrote, and during the first centuries enjoyed a considerable popularity, both East and West.這是已知當良寫道,並在第一世紀享有相當受歡迎,無論東方和西方。 In fact Eusebius classes it among the antilegomena, or works having locally quasi-canonical authority.事實上,優西比烏班級之間的antilegomena ,或工程有當地準規範的權威。

Acts of Paul and Thecla 行為的保羅和Thecla

The early detachment of these as well as the Martyrdom from the Acts of St. Paul may be accounted for by ecclesiastical use as festal lections.早日脫離這些以及殉難的行為聖保祿可能佔了教會用作節日lections 。 Despite Tertullian's remark regarding this pseudograph, it enjoyed an immense and persistent popularity through the patristic period and the Middle Ages.儘管德爾圖良的話就這一pseudograph ,它得到了巨大的和持續的普及,通過教父時期和中世紀。 This favour is to be explained mainly by the romantic and spirited flavour of the narrative.這有利於解釋是主要的浪漫和活潑色彩的敘事。 Exceptional among the apocryphists, the author kept a curb upon his fertile imagination, and his production is distinguished by its simplicity, clearness, and vigour.特殊的apocryphists ,作者保持了遏制他的肥沃的想像力,和他的生產,就是以簡單,清晰,和活力。 It deals with the adventures of Thecla, a young woman of Iconium, who upon being converted by St. Paul's preaching, left her bridegroom and lived a life of virginity and missionary activity, becoming a companion of St. Paul, and preaching the Gospel.它涉及的冒險Thecla ,一名年輕女子的Iconium ,誰後,被轉換的聖保祿說教,離開了她和新郎居住生活的貞操和傳教活動,成為一個配套的聖保羅,和宣揚福音。 She is persecuted, but miraculously escapes from the fire and the savage beasts of the arena.她是迫害,但奇蹟般地逃離了火災和野蠻的野獸的舞台。 The relief into which abstention from the marriage-bed is brought in these Acts makes it difficult to escape from the conclusion that they have been coloured by Encratite ideas. Nevertheless the thesis of Lipsius, supported by Corssen, that a Gnostic Grundschrift underlies our present document, is not accepted by Harnack, Zahn, Bardenhewer, and others.救濟到該票棄權的婚姻床是使這些行動使人們難以擺脫的結論是,他們已經色彩Encratite想法。然而,論文Lipsius支持下, Corssen ,一個諾斯底Grundschrift是我們本文件,不接受哈爾納克,贊恩, Bardenhewer等。 The apocryphon follows the New Testament data of St. Paul's missions very loosely and is full of unhistorical characters and events.該apocryphon如下的新約全書數據聖保羅任務非常鬆散和充滿unhistorical人物和事件。 For instance, the writer introduces a journey of the Apostles, to which there is nothing analogous in the Sacred Books.例如,作者介紹了旅程的使徒,其中沒有任何類似的聖書。 However, there are grains of historical material in the Thecla story.然而,有糧的歷史材料中的Thecla故事。 A Christian virgin of that name may well have been converted by St. Paul at Iconium, and suffered persecution.阿基督教聖母這個名字很可能已經轉換了聖保祿在Iconium ,並受到迫害。 Gutschmid has discovered that a certain Queen Tryphena was an historical personage (Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, X, 1864). Gutschmid發現,女王Tryphena一定是一個歷史人物( Rheinisches博物館f黵語文學,第十, 1864年) 。 (See THECLA.) (見THECLA 。 )

Acts of St. Philip 行為聖菲利普

The extant Greek fragments supply us with all but five (10-14) of the fifteen Acts composing the work.現存希臘片段提供給我們所有,但五( 10月14日)的15行為組成的工作。 Of these 1-7 are a farrago of various legends, each, it would seem, with an independent history; 8-14 is a unit, which forms a parasitic growth on the ancient but somewhat confused traditions of the missionary activity of an Apostle Philip in Hierapolis of Phrygia.這些1月7日是一個farrago各種傳說,每一個,看來,與一個獨立的歷史; 8月14日是一個單位,這形成了一個寄生的增長,但有點困惑,古代傳統的傳教活動的使徒菲利浦在希拉波利斯的Phrygia 。 Zahn's view, that this document is the work of an ill-informed Catholic monk of the fourth century, is a satisfactory hypothesis.贊恩認為,這一文件的工作是一個不了解情況天主教僧侶4世紀,是一個令人滿意的假說。 The largest fragment was first published by Batiffol in "Analecta Bollandiana", IX (Paris, 1890).最大的片段是首次出版的Batiffol在“ Analecta Bollandiana ” ,第九章(巴黎, 1890年) 。 A Coptic "Acts of Philip" is also to be noted.的科普特行為“菲利浦”還應當指出。 (See PHILIP, ST., APOSTLE.) (見飛利浦,意法半導體。 ,使徒。 )

There are Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Armenian histories of the missions and death of St. James the Greater, the son of Zebedee. Lipsius assigns the Latin to about the third century.有拉丁文,科普特人,衣索比亞,和亞美尼亞的歷史任務和死亡的聖詹姆斯大的兒子號Zebedee 。 Lipsius分配到拉美的第三個世紀。 Coptic and Armenian Acts and Martyrdom of St. James the Less depend mostly on the Hegesippus tradition, preserved by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xxii).科普特和亞美尼亞的行為和殉難的聖雅各福群欠主要依賴於Hegesippus傳統,保存了優西比烏( Hist. Eccl 。 ,四, 22 ) 。

Acts of St. Matthew 聖馬太行為

The Apostolic Acts of the Pseudo-Abdias contain a Latin "Passio Sancti Matthæi", which preserves an Abyssinian legend of St. Matthew, later than the Coptic Martyrdom noticed in connection with the Gnostic Acts of that saint.使徒的行為偽Abdias包含拉丁美洲“ Passio聖Matthæi ” ,其中保存了阿比西尼亞傳說聖馬太,不遲於科普特殉難注意到與諾斯底行為,聖。 The correct historical setting indicates that the recension was the work of an Abyssinian of the sixth century, who wished to date the establishment of the Abyssinian Church (fourth century) back to the Apostolic times. However, the kernel of the narrative is drawn from older sources. The Abdias Passio places St. Matthew's martyrdom in Abyssinia.正確的歷史背景表明, recension是工作的阿比西尼亞第六世紀,誰願意日期建立阿比西尼亞教堂( 4世紀)回到使徒倍。然而,內核的敘述是從舊來源。 Passio地方的Abdias聖馬太殉難在阿比西尼亞。 (See MATTHEW, ST., APOSTLE.) (見馬太,意法半導體。 ,使徒。 )

Teaching of Addai (Thaddeus) 教學Addai (撒迪厄斯)

In 1876 an ancient Syriac document, entitled "The Teaching of Addai, the Apostle", was published for the first time.在1876年的古代敘利亞的文件,題為“教學Addai ,使徒” ,是首次公佈。 It proved to closely parallel the Abgar material derived by Eusebius from the Edessa archives, and indeed purports to have been entrusted to those archives by its author, who gives his name as Labubna, the son of Senaak.事實證明,密切平行的Abgar材料得出的優西比烏從埃德薩檔案,實際上看來是委託給這些檔案的作者,誰給他的名字作為Labubna的兒子Senaak 。 It is full of legendary but interesting material describing the relations between Jesus and King Abgar of Edessa.這是充滿了傳奇色彩,但有趣的材料之間的關係描述耶穌和國王Abgar的埃德薩。 Thaddeus,or Addai, one of the seventy disciples, is sent, after the Resurrection, in compliance with Christ's promise, to Abgar, heals the ruler and Christianizes Edessa with the most prompt and brilliant success.撒迪厄斯,或Addai ,其中70門徒,傳送,復活之後,在遵守基督的承諾,以Abgar ,醫治統治者和Christianizes埃德薩最迅速和輝煌。 Notable is the story of the painting of Jesus made at the instance of Abgar's envoy to the former.值得注意的是這個故事的繪畫耶穌上所作的實例Abgar駐前。 Since the narrative of a Gaulish pilgrim who visited Edessa about 390 contains no allusion to such a picture, we may reasonably conclude that the Teaching of Addai is of later origin.由於說明了法國人的朝聖者前往埃德薩誰約390不包含任何針對這樣的圖片,我們可以合理地得出結論,教學中的Addai是稍後來源。 Critics accept the period between 399-430.接受批評期間399-430 。 The Thaddeus legend has many ramifications and has undergone a number of variations.該撒迪厄斯傳說有許多影響,並已經歷了若干變化。 There is a Greek "Acts of Thaddeus", which identifies Addai with Thaddeus or Lebbæus, one of the Twelve.有希臘行為“撒迪厄斯” ,其中確定Addai與撒迪厄斯或Lebbæus ,其中有12個。 (See ABGAR; EDESSA). (見ABGAR ; EDESSA ) 。

Acts of Simon and Jude 行為的西蒙和裘德

A Latin Passio, which Lipsius attributes to the fourth or fifth century, narrates the miracles, conversions, and martyrdoms of these Apostles.拉丁美洲Passio ,這Lipsius屬性第四或第五世紀,敘述了奇蹟,轉換和martyrdoms這些使徒。 It is found in the Abdias collection.它被發現在該Abdias收集。 The scene is Persia and Babylonia.現場是波斯和巴比倫。 It has been recognized that the historical setting of these Acts agrees remarkably with what is known of the conditions in the Parthian empire in the first century after Christ.人們認識到,歷史背景同意這些行為明顯與所謂的條件,在帕提亞帝國的第一個世紀後,基督。

The Acts of St. Barnabas 行為的聖巴納巴斯

The Acts of St. Barnabas appear to have been composed toward the end of the fifth century by a Cypriot.行為的聖巴納巴斯似乎已組成年底第五世紀的塞人。 They are ascribed to St. Mark the Evangelist, and are historically worthless.他們是屬於聖馬克的傳播者,是歷史上毫無價值。 They are extant in the original Greek and in a Latin version.他們是在現存的原始希臘和拉丁的版本。 The narrative is based upon the mutual relations and activities of Barnabas, Mark, and Paul, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.說明是根據相互關係和活動的巴拿巴,馬克,保羅,作為記錄在使徒行傳。

Gesta Matthiæ 妊娠Matthiæ

This is the latest of the pseudo-Acts, having been composed by a monk of Trèves, in the twelfth century, as a prelude to an account of the translation of the sacred relic, and the body of St. Matthias to that city, and their subsequent rediscoveries.這是最新的偽行為,已組成由一名僧人的特雷韋斯,在12世紀,作為一個前奏帳戶翻譯的神聖遺跡,以及身體的聖馬蒂亞斯這個城市,隨後將其rediscoveries 。 It pretends to have derived the history of the Apostle's career from a Hebrew manuscript.它假裝獲得了歷史上的使徒的職業生涯從希伯來手稿。 (See MATTHIAS, ST., APOSTLE.) (見MATTHIAS ,意。 ,使徒。 )

(c) Quasi-Apostolic Acts (三)準使徒行為

It must suffice to mention "Acts of St. Mark", of Alexandrian origin, and written in the fourth or fifth century; "Acts of St. Luke", Coptic, not earlier than end of fourth; "Acts of St. Timothy", composed by an Ephesian after 425; "Acts of St. Titus", of Cretan origin, between 400-700; "Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena", connected with the legends about St. Paul and St. Andrew.它必須足夠提及行為“聖馬克” ,原產地的亞歷山大,並寫在第四或第五世紀; “行為的聖盧克” ,科普特人,不早於4月底, “使徒聖提摩太”組成,後由以弗所425 ;行為“聖提圖斯” ,原產地的克里特島人之間, 400-700 ;行為“ Xanthippe和Polyxena ” ,與傳說聖保羅和聖安德魯。

(4) APOCRYPHAL DOCTRINAL WORKS ( 4 )未經證實的理論工程

Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Testamentum多米尼Nostri耶穌

It was known that a Syriac work of this name existed, and an extract was published in 1856.據了解,工作的敘利亞這個名字存在,摘錄刊登在1856年。 In 1899 Monsignor Rahmani, Patriarch of the United Syrians, published from a late manuscript the Syriac text, a Latin introduction and translation.在1899年蒙席赫馬尼,牧聯合國敘利亞人,出版時間從晚敘利亞文字,拉美引進和翻譯。 The work is in two books.這項工作是在兩本書。 It begins with an apocalypse of the approaching day of Antichrist alleged to have been uttered by Our Lord after His Resurrection. Between this and the body of the work there is a very loose connection, as the main portion represents Christ as enacting, even to small details, laws for the governance and ritual of the Church. The writer places on Our Lord's lips descriptions of liturgical observances prevalent in his own and earlier periods.它始於一個啟示接近一天的敵指稱已說出了我們的主,他的復活。之間和機構的工作有一個非常鬆散的方面,作為主要的部分是基督頒布,甚至小詳細信息,法律,管理和祭祀的教會。作家的地方我們的主的嘴唇描述禮儀紀念活動中普遍存在自己和更早時期。 There are evident points of contact between the Testament and the ancient ecclesiastico-liturgical Canones Hippolyti, Apostolic Constitutions, and Apostolic Canons.有明顯的接觸點之間的聖經與古代ecclesiastico -禮儀Canones Hippolyti ,使徒憲法和使徒規。 Monsignor Rahmani assigns the Testament to the second century, and places the above works in the relation of dependence on it.蒙席赫馬尼分配證明了第二個世紀,並把上述工程的關係,依賴於它。 But critics unanimously refuse to accord a high antiquity to the Testament, dating it in the fourth or fifth century, and inverting the dependence mentioned.但評論家一致拒絕高度古代的遺囑,約會在第四或第五世紀,反轉的依賴提及。 On the ground that there is no indication of an acquaintance with the book outside the Orient, and that Arabic and Coptic recensions of it are known, Dr. A.理由是,沒有跡象表明熟人的書以外的東方,而阿拉伯文和科普特recensions它是眾所周知,博士 Baumstark regards the work as a compilation originating in Monophysite circles, and current in the national Churches of that sect in Syria and Egypt. Baumstark關於工作作為彙編原產於Monophysite界,以及目前在全國基督教協進會的這一節在敘利亞和埃及。 The apocalyptic opening has been found in a Latin manuscript of the eighth century, and published by MR James, "Apocrypha Anecdota" (Cambridge, 1893).一角的開放已發現在拉丁美洲手稿第八世紀,和出版的田北俊, “偽經Anecdota ” (劍橋, 1893年) 。

The Preaching of Peter or Kerygma Petri. 彼得的講道或Kerygma的Petri 。

Clement of Alexandria repeatedly quotes from a kerygma Petrou , concerning whose credibility he obviously has no doubt.克萊門特亞歷山大一再報價從kerygma彼得魯 ,關於其信譽,他顯然已經毫無疑問。 On the other hand, Eusebius classes it as apocryphal.另一方面,優西比烏班為未經。 A certain "Doctrine of Peter", mentioned by a later writer, was probably identical with the "Preaching".一定程度的“學說的彼得” ,提到了後來的作家,也許是相同的“鼓吹” 。 From the scanty remains of this work we can form but a very imperfect idea of it.仍然從微薄的這項工作,但我們可以形成一個非常完美的想法的。 It spoke in St.它以聖 Peter's name and represented him above all as a teacher of the Gentiles.彼得的名字和他最重要的代表是一名教師的外邦人。 The doctrinal parts occur in a framework of an account of the missionary journeys.理論部分發生在一個框架內的一個帳戶的傳教行程。 The pseudograph was probably suggested by the text, II Peter, i, 5.該pseudograph可能是所建議的文本,二彼得,我5 。 A work which was so well accredited in the days of Clement of Alexandria (c. 140-215), and which was known to the "Gnostic Heracleon" (c. 160-170), must have come from almost Apostolic antiquity.一項工作是非常認可的天克萊門特亞歷山大(約140-215 ) ,以及這是眾所周知的“諾斯底Heracleon ” (角160-170 ) ,必須有來自近使徒文物。 Scholars favour the first quarter of the second century.學者贊成第一季度的第二個世紀。 The fragments which remain betray no signs of heterodox origin.碎片仍然背叛沒有跡象非正統來源。 There is a Syriac "Preaching of Simon Peter in the City of Rome."有敘利亞文“宣揚西門彼得在羅馬城。 ”

Two Ways or Judicium Petri 兩種方式或Judicium的Petri

This is a moralizing treatise ascribed to St. Peter, and prefixed to the Didache.這是一個道德論文歸因於聖彼得大教堂,並前綴的十二使徒遺訓。 It is of Jewish-Christian origin, and probably was based on the so-called "Epistle of Barnabas".這是猶太人和基督徒出身,而且可能是基於所謂的“使徒巴爾納巴斯” 。

Preaching of Paul 宣揚保羅

The only witness to this work is the treatise "De Rebaptismo" in the pseudo-Cyprian writings.唯一的證人是對這項工作的論文“者Rebaptismo ”中的偽塞浦路斯著作。 According to this it represented Christ as confessing personal sins, and forced by His mother to receive baptism.根據這一點,代表基督為個人的罪孽懺悔,並強迫他的母親接受洗禮。

(5) APOCRYPHAL EPISTLES ( 5 )未經書信

Pseudo-Epistles of the Blessed Virgin 偽書信的聖母

These are all composed in Latin and at late dates.這些都是由拉丁美洲和晚的日期。

Pseudo-Epistle of St. Peter to St. James the Less 偽使徒聖彼得到聖詹姆斯的減

The Pseudo-Clementine homilies contain as a preface two letters, the first of which purports to be from Peter to James the Less, beseeching him to keep his (Peter's) preaching secret.偽克萊門汀講道詞包含作為前言的兩封信,其中第一個看來是由彼得詹姆斯如此,懇求他始終(彼得)鼓吹的秘密。 (See CLEMENTINE PSEUDO-WRITINGS.) (見CLEMENTINE偽著作。 )

Pseudo-Epistles of St. Paul; Correspondence with the Corinthians 偽書信聖保羅;函授與科林蒂安

The ancient Syrian (Edessene) Church revered as canonical a Third Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, which is accompanied by a letter from the pastors of that Church, to which it is an answer. But about the beginning of the fifth century the Syrian Church fell under the influence of the Greek, and in consequence the spurious letter gradually lost its canonical status.古代敘利亞( Edessene )教會被尊為典範第三使徒聖保羅的科林蒂安斯,這是伴隨著信牧師說,教會,它是一個答案。但是,關於開始的第五世紀敘利亞教會下跌的影響下,希臘和後果的虛假信逐漸失去了其典型的地位。 It was taken up by the neighbouring Armenians and for centuries has formed a part of the Armenian New Testament.這是採取行動的鄰國亞美尼亞,幾個世紀以來,已形成了部分亞美尼亞新約全書。 Latin and Greek writers are completely silent about this pseudograph, although Greek and Latin copies have been found.拉丁文和希臘作家是完全沉默,這pseudograph ,儘管希臘和拉丁的副本已被發現。 It was obviously suggested by the lost genuine Pauline letter referred to in I Cor.顯然這是建議的失去真正的波利娜信中提到我心病。 v, 9; vii, 1.五, 9 ;第七章, 1 。 It was composed by a Catholic presbyter about l60-170, and is a disguised attack on some of the leading errors of Gnosticism.這是組成一個天主教牧師約l60 - 170 ,是一種變相的攻擊的一些主要錯誤諾斯替主義。 This correspondence long had an independent circulation, but recently it has been proved that the document was incorporated into the Acts of St. Paul (qv).此對應長期以來有一個獨立的流通,但最近已經證明,該文件已被納入行為的聖保羅( qv ) 。

Pseudo-epistle to the Laodiceans 偽書信向Laodiceans

In the genuine Epistle to the Colossians, Paul, after instructing them to send their Epistle to Laodicea, adds: "read that which is from the Laodiceans".在真正的使徒的歌羅西書,保羅後,指示他們送書信,以老底嘉,補充說: “讀到這是從Laodiceans ” 。 This most probably regards a circular letter, the canonical "Ephesians"; but it has been held to be a lost letter to the Laodicean Christians.這方面最有可能通函,規範“以弗所書” ,但它已被認為是丟失的信Laodicean基督徒。 The apocryphal epistle is a transparent attempt to supply this supposed lost sacred document. It consists of twenty short lines and is mainly made of matter taken from Philippians and other Epistles, and pieced together without sequence or logical aim.在未經證實的書信是一種透明的企圖供應商失去了這個神聖的文件。它由20短期線,是主要的問題來自腓利和其他書信,並拼湊沒有序列或邏輯的目標。 Our apocryphon exists only in Latin and translations from the Latin, though it gives signs of a Greek original.我們apocryphon只存在於拉丁美洲和翻譯從拉丁美洲,雖然它給跡象希臘原始。 It can hardly be the pseudo-Laodicean letter said by the Muratorian Fragment to have been invented by the heresiarch Marcion. Despite its insipid and suspicious character, this compilation was frequently copied in the Middle Ages, and enjoyed a certain degree of respect, although St. Jerome had written of it: ab omnibus exploditur. (See LAODICEA.) The Muratorian Fragmentist mentions together with a spurious epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans, one to the Alexandrians, which was forged under the auspices of Marcion. We have no other certain knowledge of this apocryphon.它幾乎不能偽Laodicean的信中說穆拉多利片段已經發明了heresiarch馬吉安。儘管平淡和可疑特徵,這本彙編經常複製在中世紀,並得到了一定程度的尊重,雖然聖。杰羅姆曾寫信它: 抗體綜合exploditur 。 (見LAODICEA 。 )穆拉多利Fragmentist提到的一起假使徒保羅的Laodiceans ,一到Alexandrians ,這是偽造的主持下,馬吉安。我們沒有其他某些了解這個apocryphon 。

Pseudo-Correspondence of St. Paul and Seneca 偽函授聖保羅和塞涅卡

This consists of eight pretended letters from the Stoic philosopher Seneca, and six replies from St. Paul.這包括8假裝來信斯多葛哲學家塞涅卡,六個答复聖保羅。 They are identical with a correspondence alluded to by Jerome (de Viris Illustr., xii), who without passing judgment on their value, notes that they are read by many.他們是相同的信件中提到的杰羅姆(日Viris Illustr 。 ,十二) ,誰不作出判斷它們的價值,指出,他們閱讀了許多。 These letters, therefore, could not have been composed after the second half of the fourth century. They are based on the early traditions of Seneca's leanings towards Christianity and the contemporary residence at Rome of Paul and the philosopher.這些信件,因此,無法組成後,下半年的第四世紀。他們是基於傳統的早期塞尼卡傾向對基督教與當代居住在羅馬的保羅和哲學家。 We will merely note the existence of a spurious Letter of St. John, the Apostle, to a dropsical man, healing his disease, in the Acts of St. John by the pseudo-Prochorus; one of St. James, the Bishop of Jerusalem, to Quadratus, in Armenian (Vetter, Litterarische Rundschau, 1896).我們將僅僅注意到存在一個虛假的信聖約翰,使徒,在臌人,醫治他的疾病,在行為的聖約翰的偽Prochorus ;之一聖詹姆斯耶路撒冷主教,以方在亞美尼亞( Vetter , Litterarische評論報, 1896年) 。

(6) CHRISTIAN APOCRYPHAL APOCALYPSES ( 6 )克里斯蒂未經啟示

Apocalypse of the Testamentum DN Jesu Christi. 啟示Testamentum的DN基督耶穌。

(See the section on the Testamentum above.) (見節Testamentum以上。 )

The Apocalypse of Mary 瑪麗的啟示

The Apocalypse of Mary is of medieval origin, and is probably merely the outcome of an extravagant devotion.啟示瑪麗是中世紀來源,並很可能的結果只是一個奢侈的獻身精神。 It describes the Blessed Mother's descent to Limbo, and exists in Greek manuscripts.它描述了聖母的後裔,英,法和存在於希臘手稿。 It has been printed in the Tischendorf collection (Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti).它已被印在提申多夫收集(法典Apocryphus格諾維Testamenti ) 。

Apocalypses of St. Peter 聖彼得啟示

The Muratorian Fragment, written at Rome in the latter part of the second century, names the apocalypses of John and Peter side by side as the only ones received in the Church, remarking that some do not acknowledge the latter.該穆拉多利片段,書面在羅馬的後一部分的第二個世紀,名稱的啟示約翰和彼得並排作為唯一收到的教會,議論,一些不承認後者。 There is abundant evidence that the Petrine apocalypse was believed authentic in many quarters of the early Church, and enjoyed in a certain measure canonical authority. Clement of Alexandria always credulous with regard to apocrypha even honoured it with a commentary; Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., VI, xiv, 1), places it almost on an equality with the antilegomena or better class of disputed writings; Jerome rejects it flatly. Notwithstanding this, as late as the middle of the fifth century it was publicly read in some churches of Palestine.有大量證據表明,伯多祿的啟示,相信在許多真實四分之三的初期教會,並得到了一定程度的規範權威。克萊門特亞歷山大總是輕信關於偽經甚至榮幸與評論;歐西比烏斯( Hist. Eccl 。 ,六,十四, 1 ) ,地方幾乎在平等,以更好地級antilegomena或有爭議的著作;傑爾姆它斷然拒絕。儘管如此,遲中東第五世紀有人公開閱讀一些教堂的巴勒斯坦。 The few citations of patristic writers were unable to convey an idea of its contents, but fortunately a considerable fragment of this ancient document was discovered at Akhmîn, Egypt, together with the pseudo-Petrine Gospel in the language of the original, viz., Greek.少數教父引用的作家無法傳達一個想法,它的內容,但幸運的相當片段這個古老文件被發現在Akhmîn ,埃及,同偽伯多祿福音的語文原始,即。希臘。 A quotation of Clement of Alexandria from the recovered parts enables us to identify the manuscript with certainty as a portion of the apocalypse of antiquity.報價的克萊門特亞歷山大從收回部分使我們能夠確定手稿與確定性的部分文物的啟示。 The passage relates to a vision granted by Christ to the Twelve on a mountain, exhibiting the glory of two departing brethren, the splendour of heaven, and a gruesome picture of hell. The language has a Jewish-Christian savour.通過與所授予的設想基督十二的山區,參展的榮耀離開兩個兄弟的輝煌天上,一個可怕的圖片地獄。語言有一個猶太基督教體驗。 The apocryphon is attributed by critics to the first quarter of the second century and is therefore one of the earliest specimens of non-canonical literature.該apocryphon是因為被批評到第一季度的第二個世紀,因此最早標本非正規文學。 There exist under the names Apocalypse of St. Peter, Apocalypse of St. Peter through Clement, Liber Clementis, various Arabic and Ethiopic recensions of an apocalypse which has nothing in common with the ancient Greek one.存在的名字下的啟示聖彼得,聖彼得的啟示通過克萊門特,書Clementis ,各種阿拉伯語和埃塞俄比亞recensions的啟示已經沒有任何共同之處與古希臘的一個。

The Apocalypse of St. Paul 啟示聖保祿

A prefatory notice pretends that this work was found in a marble case under the house of Paul at Tarsus, in the reign of King Theodosius (AD 379-395), and upon intelligence conveyed by an angel.阿前言通知假裝這項工作中發現的大理石下的眾議院保羅在塔爾蘇斯,在國王統治時期狄奧(公元379-395 ) ,並根據情報轉達了一個天使。 This indicates the date of the apocalypse's fabrication.這顯示的日期啟示的捏造。 It purports to reveal the secrets seen by the Apostle in his transport to the third heaven, alluded to in II Cor., xii, 2, and was composed in Greek.看來揭示了秘密被宗徒在他的第三個運輸天堂中提到二心病。 ,十二, 2 ,是由希臘。 From this Pauline apocalypse must be distinguished a Gnostic work entitled the "Ascension of Paul", referred to by St. Epiphanius, but of which no remains have survived.從這個波利娜啟示必須區分一諾斯底工作題為“阿森松保羅” ,所提到的聖埃皮法尼烏斯,但其中沒有仍然活了下來。 There is a spurious "Apocalypse of John", of comparatively late origin.有一種虛假的“約翰啟示錄” ,原產地的比較晚。

Regarding the so-called Apocalypse of St. Bartholomew see Gospel of St. Bartholomew.關於所謂的啟示聖巴塞洛繆福音聖巴塞洛繆。

IV.四。 THE APOCRYPHA AND THE CHURCH的偽經教會

At a very early period orthodox writers and, presumably, ecclesiastical authorities found it necessary to distinguish between the genuine inspired books and a multitude of spurious rivals -- a fact which is a very important element in the formation of the Christian canon.在一個非常初期的作家和東正教,大概,教會當局認為有必要區分真正的靈感書籍和大量的雜散競爭對手-事實上這是一個非常重要的因素形成的基督教教會。 Thus as early as about AD 170, the author of the descriptive Latin catalogue known as the "Muratorian Fragment" mentioned certain works as fictitious or contested.因此,早在大約公元170 ,作者的描述拉丁美洲目錄稱為“穆拉多利片段”提到的某些作品虛構的或有爭議的。 At the same time St. Irenæus called attention to the great mass of heretical pseudographic writings ( inenarrabilis multitudo apocryphorum et perperam scripturarum, Adv., Hær., I, xx). Undoubtedly it was the large use in heretical circles, especially the Gnostic sects, made of this insinuating literature which first called forth the animadversions of the official guardians of doctrinal purity.與此同時聖Irenæus呼籲關注廣大邪教pseudographic著作( inenarrabilis multitudo apocryphorum等perperam scripturarum ,腺病毒。 , Hær 。 ,我二十) 。毫無疑問,這是大量使用的邪教各界,特別是諾斯替教派,這暗示了文獻首次提出了批判所謂的官方監護人理論的純潔性。 Even in the East, already the home of pseudographic literature, Origen (d. 254) exhibits caution regarding the books outside the canon (Comment. in Matth., serm. 28).即使是在東方,已經是家裡的pseudographic文學,俄利根( 4 254 )展品告誡有關書籍以外的佳能( Comment.在Matth 。 ,劑。 28 ) 。 St. Athanasius in 387 found it necessary to warn his flock by a pastoral epistle against Jewish and heretical apocrypha (PG, XXVI, 1438). Another Greek Father, Epiphanius (312-403) in "Hæreses", 26, could complain that copies of Gnostic apocrypha were current in thousands.聖亞他那修在387發現有必要提醒他的羊群的牧場書信對猶太人和邪教偽經公司( PG ,二十六, 1438年) 。另一名希臘父,埃皮法尼烏斯( 312-403 )在“ Hæreses ” , 26歲,可抱怨的副本諾斯底偽經的人目前在數千人。 Yet it must be confessed that the early Fathers, and the Church, during the first three centuries, were more indulgent towards Jewish pseudographs circulating under venerable Old Testament names.然而,必須承認,早期教父,和教會,在最初的三個世紀,更加放縱對猶太人pseudographs下可敬循環舊約全書中的名字。 The Book of Henoch and the Assumption of Moses had been cited by the canonical Epistle of Jude.書過敏和承擔的摩西已經提到的典型使徒裘德。 Many Fathers admitted the inspiration of Fourth Esdras.許多父親承認的啟示第四埃斯德拉斯。 Not to mention the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of St. Paul (at least in the Thecla portion) and the Apocalypse of St. Peter were highly revered at this and later periods.更不用說牧人書的行為聖保羅(至少在Thecla部分)和聖彼得的啟示高度尊敬和後來在這個時期。 Yet, withal, no apocryphal work found official recognition in the Western Church.然而, withal ,沒有發現未經正式承認工作中的西方教會。 In 447 Pope Leo the Great wrote pointedly against the pseudo-apostolic writings, "which contained the germ of so many errors . . . they should not only be forbidden but completely suppressed and burned" (Epist. xv, 15).在447教皇利奧大寫尖銳地反對偽使徒的著作“ ,其中載有胚芽這麼多的錯誤。 。 。他們不僅應該被禁止,但完全抑制並焚燒” ( Epist.十五15 ) 。 The so-called Decretum de recipiendis et non recipiendis libris" is attributed to Pope Gelasius (495), but in reality is a compilation dating from the beginning of the sixth century, and containing collections made earlier than Gelasius. It is an official document, the first of the kind we possess, and contained a list of 39 works besides those ascribed to Leucius, "disciple of the devil", all of which it condemns as apocryphal. From this catalogue it is evident that in the Latin Church by this time, apocrypha in general, including those of Catholic origin, had fallen under the ecclesiastical ban, always, however, with a preoccupation against the danger of heterodoxy. The Synod of Braga, in Spain, held in the year 563, anathematizes any one "who reads, approves, or defends the injurious fictions set in circulation by heretics". Although in the Middle Ages these condemnations were forgotten and many of the pseudographic writings enjoyed a high degree of favour among both clerics and the laity, still we find superior minds, such as Alcuin, St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, pointing out their want of authority. An echo of the ancient condemnations occurs in the work De Festis BMV of Benedict XIV, declaring certain popular apocrypha to be impure sources of tradition. (See CANON OF SACRED SCRIPTURE.)所謂教令日recipiendis等非recipiendis藏書“ ,是因為教皇格拉西( 495 ) ,但實際上是一個彙編自年初六世紀,並載有收藏早些時候所作比格拉西。這是一份正式文件,第一次的那種,我們擁有,並載有39個作品名單,除了這些原因Leucius , “弟子魔鬼” ,所有這些譴責為未經證實。從這個目錄很明顯,在拉丁美洲教會的這個時候,偽經一般,其中包括天主教出身,下降教會禁令下,一如既往,但是,關注的危險異端。布拉加的主教會議,在西班牙,在今年舉行的563個, anathematizes任何一個“誰內容,核准,或捍衛小說集損害流通中的異端“ 。雖然在中世紀這些譴責被遺忘了,許多pseudographic著作享有高度的支持,都教士和俗人,我們仍然找到上級精神,如阿爾昆,聖伯納德,多瑪斯,指出他們想要的權威。迴聲古代譴責發生在工作者Festis BMV篤十四,宣布某些流行的偽經是不純來源的傳統。 (見佳能聖經。 )

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES are extensive, and are in a separate listing in the Catholic Encyclopedia.書目說明是廣泛的,並在一個單獨的列表中的天主教百科全書。

George J. Reid喬治學者里德

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I 天主教百科全書,第一卷

NOTE: This extensive article from the Catholic Encyclopedia contains numerous external references to other articles.注意:此廣泛文章從天主教百科全書載有許多外部參照其他條款。 Those references all are directed toward other articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia. Nevertheless, the BELIEVE web-site contains separate presentations on the majority of those subjects.這些提法是針對所有其他條款中的天主教百科全書。儘管如此,相信網站包含單獨介紹的大多數人科目。


Apocrypha偽經

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

§ I. §一

§ II. §二。 Apocryphal Books among the Jews.未經猶太人之間的圖書。

§ III. §三。 Lists of Apocrypha; Classification.名單的偽經;分類。

§ IV. §四。 Historical Apocrypha.歷史偽經。

§ V. Historical Pseudepigrapha. §五,歷史Pseudepigrapha 。

§ VI. §六。 Books of the Antediluvians.圖書的Antediluvians 。

§ VII. §七。 Testaments.聖經。

§ VIII. §八。 Relating to Joseph, Isaiah, and Baruch.有關約瑟夫,以賽亞書,和巴魯克。

§ IX. §九。 Lost Books.失落的圖書。

§ X. Prophetical Apocrypha. §十預言偽經。

§ XI. §十一。 Apocalypses.啟示。

§ XII. §十二。 Lyrical Apocrypha.抒情偽經。

§ XIII. §十三。 Didactic Apocrypha.培訓偽經。

§ XIV. § 14 。 Apocrypha in the Talmud.偽經在塔爾穆德。

§ I. §一

The most general definition of Apocrypha is, Writings having some pretension to the character of sacred scripture, or received as such by certain sects, but excluded from the canon (see Canon). The history of the earlier usage of the word is obscure.最一般的定義,偽經是,創作了一些修飾的特點聖經,或收到這樣的某些教派,但排除在佳能(見佳能) 。歷史較早使用的詞是掩蓋。 It is probable that the adjective ἀπόκρυφος "hidden away, kept secret," as applied to books, was first used of writings which were kept from the public by their possessors because they contained a mysterious or esoteric wisdom too profound or too sacred to be communicated to any but the initiated.這是可能的形容詞ἀπόκρυφος “藏起來,保密” ,適用於圖書,首次使用的著作是不斷從公共他們,因為他們擁有一種神秘載或深奧的智慧太深刻或過於神聖的通報任何但啟動。 Thus a Leyden magical papyrus bears the title, Μωϋσήως ἱερἁ βίβλος ἀπόκρυφος ἐπικαλουμήν ὀγδόη ἢ ἁγία, "The Secret Sacred Book of Moses, Entitled the Eighth or the Holy Book" (Dietrich, "Abraxas," 169).因此,一個神奇的紙莎草雷登的標題, Μωϋσήως ἱερἁ βίβλος ἀπόκρυφος ἐπικαλουμήν ὀγδόη ἢ ἁγία , “聖書的秘密摩西,題為第八屆或聖書” (迪特里希, “ Abraxas , ” 169號) 。 Pherecydes of Syros is said to have learned his wisdom from τἁ φοινίκων ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία, "The Secret Books of the Phenicians" (Suidas, sv φερκύδης). Pherecydes的Syros據說,教訓他的智慧來自τἁ φοινίκων ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία , “秘密書Phenicians ” ( Suidas ,西沃特φερκύδης ) 。 In the early centuries of our era many religious and philosophical sects had such scriptures; thus the followers of the Gnostic Prodicus boasted the possession of secret books (ἀποκρύφους) of Zoroaster (Clemens Alexandrinus, "Stromata," i. 15 [357 Potter]).早在幾個世紀的我們這個時代的許多宗教和哲學派別有這樣的經文,因此信徒的諾斯底普羅狄克斯吹噓擁有秘密書籍( ἀποκρύφους )的Zoroaster (克萊門斯頸, “ Stromata , ”一15 [ 357哈利波特] ) 。 IV Esdras is avowedly such a work: Ezra is bidden to write all the things which he has seen in a book and lay it up in a hidden place, and to teach the contents to the wise among his people, whose intelligence he knows to be sufficient to receive and preserve these secrets (xii. 36 et seq.).四埃斯德拉斯是公然這樣的工作:以斯拉是bidden寫的東西,他看到一本書,並奠定了它在一個隱藏的地方,教的內容之間的明智的人,他們的情報,他知道要足夠的接收和維護這些機密( xii. 36起。 ) 。 (see Dan. xii. 4, 9; Enoch, i. 2, cviii. 1; Assumptio Mosis, x. 1 et seq.) In another passage such writings are expressly distinguished from the twenty-four canonical books; the latter are to be published that they may be read by the worthy and unworthy alike; the former (seventy in number) are to be preserved and transmitted to the wise, because they contain a profounder teaching (xiv. 44-47). (見丹。十二。 4日, 9日;伊諾克島2 , cviii 。 1 ; Assumptio Mosis ,十, 1起。 )在另一個通道等著作明確區別於2004年典型的書籍,後者是出版,它們可以被讀取的值得和不值得都;前( 70人)將被保留,並轉交了明智的,因為它們包含profounder教學( xiv. 44-47段) 。 In this sense Gregory of Nyssa quotes words of John in the Apocalypse as ἐν ἀποκρύφοις ("Oratio in Suam Ordinationem," iii. 549, ed. Migne; compare Epiphanius, "Adversus Hæreses," li. 3).從這個意義上講格雷戈里的果樹引號的話約翰啟示錄中的ἐν ἀποκρύφοις ( “ Oratio在Suam Ordinationem , ”三。 549 ,教育署。米涅;比較埃皮法尼烏斯“ Adversus Hæreses , ”李。 3 ) 。 The book contains revelations not to be comprehended by the masses, nor rashly published among them.這本書包含揭露不理解的群眾,也沒有貿然公佈其中。

Inasmuch, however, as this kind of literature flourished most among heretical sects, and as many of the writings themselves were falsely attributed to the famous men of ancient times, the word "Apocrypha" acquired in ecclesiastical use an unfavorable connotation; the private scriptures treasured by the sects were repudiated by the Church as heretical and often spurious.因為,但是,由於這種文學蓬勃發展最為邪教,並盡可能多的著作本身是錯誤歸因於著名的男人的遠古時代,用“偽經”中獲得教會使用不利內涵;私營經文珍惜由教派被否定教會視為異端,往往雜散。 Lists were made of the books which the Church received as sacred scripture and of those which it rejected; the former were "canonical" (see Canon); to the latter the name "Apocrypha" was given.列出了本書的教會收到聖經和那些拒絕;前者是“規範” (見佳能) ;後者的名稱是“偽經”是。 The canon of the Church included the books which are contained in the Greek Bible but not in the Hebrew (see the list below, § III.); hence the term "Apocrypha" was not applied to these books, but to such writings as Enoch, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, etc. (see below, § III.). Jerome alone applies the word to all books which are not found in the Jewish canon (see "Prologus Galeatus").佳能教會包括書籍,載於希臘聖經但在希伯來文(見下面的列表中,第三。 ) ;因此,術語“偽經”並非適用於這些書籍,但這些著作作為伊諾克的約十二始祖,等等(見下文,第三。 ) 。傑爾姆一詞僅適用於所有的書籍都沒有發現在猶太佳能(見“ Prologus Galeatus ” ) 。 At the Reformation, Protestants adopted the Jewish canon, and designated by the name "Apocrypha" the books of the Latin and Greek Bibles which they thus rejected; while the Catholic Church in the Council of Trent formally declared these books canonical, and continued to use the word "Apocrypha" for the class of writings to which it had generally been appropriated in the ancient Church; for the latter, Protestants introduced the name "Pseudepigrapha."在改革,新教徒通過猶太佳能,和指定的名稱為“偽經”的書籍的拉丁和希臘聖經,他們因此拒絕;而天主教會在安理會的遄達正式宣布這些書籍典型,並繼續使用用“偽經” ,以一流的著作,它一般被批古教堂;對於後者,新教徒介紹了名為“ Pseudepigrapha 。 ”

§ II. §二。 Apocryphal Books among the Jews.未經猶太人之間的圖書。

Judaism also had sects which possessed esoteric or recondite scriptures, such as the Essenes (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 7), and the Therapeutæ (Philo, "De Vita Contemplativa," ed. Mangey, ii. 475).猶太教也有教派擁有深奧或深奧的經文,如愛色尼(約瑟夫, “北京”二。 8 ,第7條) ,和Therapeutæ (斐羅“者簡歷Contemplativa ”版。 Mangey ,二。 475 ) 。 Their occurrence among these particular sects is explicitly attested, but doubtless there were others.發生這些特定教派之間的明確證實,但毫無疑問,還有其他。 Indeed, many of the books which the Church branded as apocryphal were of Jewish (sometimes heretical Jewish) origin.事實上,許多書籍,教會被命名為未經猶太人(有時邪教猶太人)原產地。 The Jewish authorities, therefore, were constrained to form a canon, that is, a list of sacred scriptures; and in some cases to specify particular writings claiming this character which were rejected and forbidden.以色列當局,因此受到制約,形成佳能,就是一份神聖的經文;在某些情況下,可以指定特定的著作,聲稱這個字被否決和被禁止的。 The former-so the distinction is expressed in a ceremonial rule (Yad. iii. 5; Tosef., Yad. ii. 13)-make the hands which touch them unclean-; the latter do not (see Canon).前如此的區別主要體現在一個象徵性的規則( Yad.三。 5 ; Tosef 。 ,亞德瓦。二。 13 ) ,使雙手觸摸他們不潔- ;後者不(見佳能) 。 Another term used in the discussion of certain books is , properly "to lay up, store away for safe-keeping," also "withdraw from use."另一個長期的討論中使用的某些書籍是,適當“奠定了,商店以外的安全保管, ”還“退出使用。 ” Thus, Shab.因此,沙巴。 30b, "The sages intended to withdraw Ecclesiastes"; "they also intended to withdraw Proverbs"; ib. 30B條, “聖賢打算撤回傳道書” , “他們還打算撤回諺語” ;國際文憑。 13b, "Hananiah b. Hezekiah prevented Ezekiel from being withdrawn"; Sanh. 13B條, “ Hananiah灣Hezekiah阻止厄澤克爾被撤銷” ; Sanh 。 100b (Codex Carlsruhe), "although our masters withdrewthis book" (Sirach), etc. It has frequently been asserted that the idea and the name of the Greek "Apocrypha" were derived from this Hebrew terminology. 100B蛋白(法典Carlsruhe ) , “雖然我們的大師withdrewthis書” ( Sirach )等,人們經常說,思想和的名字,希臘“偽經”是從這個希伯來語術語。 (See Zahn, "Gesch. des Neutestamentlichen Kanons," i. 1, 123 et seq.; Schürer, in "Protestantische Realencyclopädie," 3d ed., i. 623, and many others; compare Hamburger,"Realencyklopädie," ii. 68, n. 4.) "Apocrypha" (ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία) is, it is said, a literal translation of , "concealed, hidden books." (見贊恩, “ Gesch 。沙漠Neutestamentlichen Kanons , ”一, 1 , 123起。 ; Schürer ,在“新教Realencyclopädie ”的3D版。島623 ,和其他許多;比較漢堡, “ Realencyklopädie , ”二。 68 ,注4 ) 。 “偽經” ( ἀπόκρυφα βιβλία ) ,它是說,從字面翻譯, “隱蔽的,隱藏的書籍。 ” Closer examination shows, however, that the alleged identity of phraseology is a mistake.更仔細的審查表明,然而,據稱身份用語是一個錯誤。 Talmudic literature knows nothing of a class of -neither this phrase nor an equivalent occurs -not even in "Ab. RN" i.塔木德文學一無所知的一類,既沒有這句話,也不是一個相當於發生,即使是在“抗體。護士”一 1, though the error appears to have originated in the words used there. 1 ,儘管錯誤似乎起源於用字存在。 Nor is the usage identical: does not mean "conceal" (ἀποκρύπτειν translates not , but and its synonyms), but "store away"; it is used only of things intrinsically precious or sacred.也不是使用相同的:並不意味著“掩蓋” ( ἀποκρύπτειν翻譯,而是和其別名) ,但“遠離” ,它是僅用於貴重的東西或神聖本質。 As applied to books, it is used only of books which are, after all, included in the Jewish canon, never of the kind of literature to which the Church Fathers give the name "Apocrypha"; these are rather (Yer. Sanh. x. 1, 28a), or .適用於書籍,它是僅用於書籍的,畢竟,包括在猶太佳能,從來沒有的那種文學的父親教會提供的名稱是“偽經” ;這些都是相當( Yer. Sanh 。 x 。 1 , 28A款) ,或。 The only exception is a reference to Sirach.唯一的例外是提及Sirach 。 The Book of (magical) Cures which Hezekiah put away (Pes. iv. 9) was doubtless attributed to Solomon.書(魔法)的治療而Hezekiah拋棄( Pes.四。 9 )無疑是由於所羅門。 This being the state of the facts, it is doubtful whether there is any connection between the use of and that of ἀπόκρυφος.這是該國的事實,令人懷疑是否有任何聯繫的使用和ἀπόκρυφος 。

§ III. §三。 Lists of Apocrypha; Classification.名單的偽經;分類。

The following is a brief descriptive catalogue of writings which have been at some time or in some quarters regarded as sacred scripture, but are not included in the Jewish (and Protestant) canon.以下是一個簡短的描述性著作目錄已在一段時間或在某些季度視為聖經,但不包括在以色列(和新教)佳能。 For more particular information about these works, and for the literature, the reader is referred to the special articles on the books severally.欲了解更多信息,尤其是這些作品,並為文學,請讀者提到了特別條款書籍個別。

First, then, there are the books which are commonly found in the Greek and Latin Bibles, but are not included in the Hebrew canon, and are hence rejected by Protestants; to these, as has already been said, Protestants give the name "Apocrypha" specifically.首先,然後,還有書籍是常見的希臘文和拉丁文聖經,但不包括在希伯來語佳能,並因此拒絕了新教徒;這些,已經說過,新教徒的名字“偽經“具體。 These are (following the order and with the titles of the English translation): I Esdras; II Esdras; Tobit; Judith; The Rest of the Chapters of the Book of Esther; Wisdom of Solomon; Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah; Song of the Three Holy Children; History of Susanna; Destruction of Bel and the Dragon; Prayer of Manasses; I Maccabees; II Maccabees.這些都是(以下順序和名稱的英文翻譯) :我埃斯德拉斯;二埃斯德拉斯;托比書;朱迪,其餘各章的以斯帖記;智慧所羅門;智慧耶穌的兒子Sirach ,或Ecclesiasticus ;巴魯克,與使徒耶利米;宋三神聖兒童;歷史蘇珊娜;銷毀貝爾與龍;祈禱的Manasses我馬加比;二馬加比。 These, with the exception of I, II (III, IV) Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses, are canonical in the Roman Church. Secondly, books which were pronounced apocryphal by the ancient Church.這些,除一,二(三,四)埃斯德拉斯和祈禱的Manasses ,是典型的羅馬教會。其次,這是明顯的書籍未經證實的古教堂。 Of these we possess several catalogues, the most important of which are the Stichometry of Nicephorus; the Athanasian Synopsis; and an anonymous list extant in several manuscripts, first edited by Montfaucon (see Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 262 et seq.); further a passage in the "Apostolical Constitutions" (vi. 16), and the socalled Decree of Pope Gelasius ("Corpus Juris Canonici," iii. Distinctio 15).這些我們擁有幾個目錄,其中最重要的是Stichometry的Nicephorus ;的Athanasian概要;和一個匿名名單中現存的一些手稿,首次編輯蒙福(見Schürer , “ Gesch 。 ”三維版。 ,三。 262起。 ) ;進一步一段中的“使徒的憲法” ( vi. 16 ) ,和所謂的法令教宗格拉西( “大全Canonici , ”三。 Distinctio 15 ) 。 References in the Fathers add some titles, and various Oriental versions give us a knowledge of other writings of the same kind.中提到父親購買一些書籍,以及各種東方版本給我們一個了解其他著作的同類。 A considerable part of this literature has been preserved, and fresh discoveries almost every year prove how extensive and how popular it once was.有相當一部分文學已被保存,和新鮮的發現幾乎每年都證明如何廣泛和受歡迎程度如何?它曾經是。

A satisfactory classification of these writings is hardly possible; probably the most convenient scheme is to group them under the chief types of Biblical literature to which they are severally related-viz.:一個令人滿意的分類,這些著作幾乎不可能;可能是最方便的辦法是將他們的首席類型的聖經文學它們是各自相關的河。 :

1. Historical, including history proper, story books, and haggadic narrative. 1 。歷史,包括歷史適當,故事書,並haggadic說明。

2. Prophetic, including apocalypses. 2 。預言,包括啟示。

3. Lyric; psalms. 3 。抒情;詩篇。

4. Didactic; proverbs and other forms of "wisdom." The assignment of a book to one or another of these divisions must often be understood as only a potiori; a writing which is chiefly narrative may contain prophecy or apocalypse; one which is primarily prophetic may exhibit in parts affinity to the didactic literature. 4 。培訓;諺語和其他形式的“智慧。 ”轉讓一本書,以一種或另一種必須對這些部門往往被理解為只是一個potiori ;書面其中主要是說明可能含有預言或啟示;其中主要是預言可能會在部分親和力的教學文學。

§ IV. §四。 Historical Apocrypha.歷史偽經。

1. First Maccabees. 1 。第一馬加比。 A history of the rising of the Jews under the leadership of Mattathias and his sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and of the progress of the struggle down to the death of Simon, covering thus the period from 175-135 BC The book was written in Hebrew, but is extant only in Greek and in translations made from the Greek.史的興起猶太人的領導下, Mattathias和他的兒子對安提阿哥伊皮法尼斯,以及所取得的進展鬥爭下跌的死亡西蒙,涵蓋從而間的175-135公元前這本書是寫在希伯來文,但現存的只有在希臘和翻譯從希臘。

2. Second Maccabees. 2 。第二馬加比。 Professedly an abridgment of a larger work in five books by Jason of Cyrene.表面上的縮短工作中更大的五本書由Jason的昔蘭尼。 It begins with the antecedents of the conflict with Syria, and closes with the recovery of Jerusalem by Judas after his victory over Nicanor.它始於先例衝突與敘利亞,並關閉與恢復對耶路撒冷的猶大,他戰勝了巴拉圭。 The work was written in Greek, and is much inferior in historical value to I Macc.這項工作是寫在希臘,是許多低劣的歷史價值,我Macc 。 Prefixed to the book are two letters addressed to the Jews in Egypt on the observance of the Feast of Dedication ().前綴的書兩封信給猶太人在埃及關於慶祝節日的奉獻( ) 。

3. First Esdras. 3 。第一埃斯德拉斯。 In the Latin Bible, Third Esdras.在拉丁美洲聖經第三埃斯德拉斯。 A fragment of the oldest Greek version (used by Josephus) of Chronicles (including Ezra and Nehemiah), containing I Chron.片段的最古老的希臘版(使用的約瑟夫)的編年史(包括以斯拉和尼希米記) ,其中載有本人專欄。 xxxv.-Neh. xxxv. - Neh 。 viii.八。 13, in a different, and in part more original, order than the Hebrew text and with one considerable addition, the story of the pages of King Darius (iii. 1-v. 6). 13 ,在一個不同的,更原始的部分,以便於希伯來文和與一個相當此外,故事的網頁國王大流士( iii. 1五。 6 ) 。 The book is printed in an appendix to the official editions of the Vulgate (after the New Testament), but is not recognized by the Roman Church as canonical.這本書的附錄中印的官方版本的武加大(後新約全書) ,但不承認羅馬教會的典型。

4. Additions to Daniel. 4 。添置丹尼爾。

a. The story of Susanna and the elders, prefixed to the book, illustrating Daniel's discernment in judgment.答:這個故事的蘇珊娜和老人,為這本書的開頭,說明丹尼爾的識別判斷。

b. The destruction of Bel and the Dragon, appended after ch.灣銷毀貝爾與龍,附後總。 xii., showing how Daniel proved to Cyrus that the Babylonian gods were no gods.十二。 ,顯示如何證明丹尼爾賽勒斯的巴比倫神,沒有神。

c. The Song of the three Jewish Youths in the fiery furnace, inserted in Dan. c.在宋的三個猶太青年在火熱爐,插入丹。 iii.三。 between verses 23 and 24. These additions are found in both Greek translations of Daniel (Septuagint and Theodotion); for the original language and for the Hebrew and Aramaic versions of the stories, see Daniel.之間的詩句23日和24日。這些新發現的希臘譯本丹尼爾(七十和Theodotion ) ;的原始語言和希伯來文和阿拉姆語版本的故事,見丹尼爾。

5. Additions to Esther. 5 。增添埃絲特。 In the Greek Bible, enlargement on motives suggested by the original story:在希臘聖經擴大的動機提出的原始故事:

a. The dream of Mordecai and his discovery of the conspiracy, prefixed to the book; the interpretation follows x.答:的夢想莫迪凱和他發現的陰謀,前綴的圖書;解釋如下十 3; 3 ;

b. Edict for the destruction of the Jews, after iii.灣法令摧毀猶太人,後三。 13; 13 ;

c., d. Prayers of Mordecai and Esther,after iv.角, 4祈禱莫迪凱和Esther ,後四。 17; 17 ;

e. Esther's reception by the king, taking the place of v. 1 in the Hebrew;體育以斯帖的酒會由國王,取代訴1在希伯來文;

f. Edict permitting the Jews to defend themselves, after viii.荷蘭盾法令允許猶太人為自己辯護,經過八。 12. 12 。 In the Vulgate these additions are detached from their connection and brought together in an appendix to the book, with a note remarking that they are not found in the Hebrew.在武加大這些增加是脫離連接和聚集的附錄這本書,其中附有一份說明,議論,他們沒有發現在希伯來文。

6. Prayer of Manasses. 6 。祈禱的Manasses 。 Purports to be the words of the prayer spoken of in II Chron.看來是的話,祈禱談到在二專欄。 xxxiii.三十三。 18 et seq.; probably designed to stand in that place. 18起。 ;可能旨在站在那個地方。 In many manuscripts of the Greek Bible it is found among the pieces appended to the Psalms; in the Vulgate it is printed after the New Testament with III and IV Esd., and like them is not canonical.在許多手稿希臘聖經中發現它是件附在詩篇;在拉丁文聖經是印刷後的新約與第三和第四可持續發展教育。 ,和他們一樣不規範。

7. Judith. 7 。朱迪。 Story of the deliverance of the city of Bethulia by a beautiful widow, who by a ruse deceives and kills Holophernes, the commander of the besieging army.故事解脫市Bethulia了一個美麗的寡婦,誰的詭計欺騙和殺害Holophernes ,指揮官的軍隊包圍。 The book was written in Hebrew, but is preserved only in Greek or translations from the Greek; an Aramaic Targum was known to Jerome.這本書是希伯來文寫的,但只有保存在希臘或翻譯從希臘;一個阿拉姆根是眾所周知的杰羅姆。

8. Tobit. 8 。托比書。 The scene of this tale, with its attractive pictures of Jewish piety and its interesting glimpses of popular superstitions, is laid in the East (Nineveh, Ecbatana); the hero is an Israelite of the tribe of Naphtali, who was carried away in the deportation by Shalmaneser ("Enemessar").現場的這個故事,其吸引力的圖片猶太虔誠及其有趣一瞥流行迷信,是埋在東方(尼納瓦,埃克巴塔那) ;的主人公是一個以色列人的部落拿弗,誰被抬在驅逐出境由撒縵( “ Enemessar ” ) 。 The story is related in some way to that of AḦiḳar.這個故事是有關在某種程度上是AḦiḳar 。

9. Third Maccabees. 9 。第三馬加比。 (See Maccabees, Books of.) A story of the persecution of the Egyptian Jews by Ptolemy Philopator after the defeat of Antiochus at Raphia in 217 BC; their steadfastness in their religion, and the miraculous deliverance God wrought for them. The book, which may be regarded as an Alexandrian counterpart of Esther, is found in manuscripts of the Septuagint, but is not canonical in any branch of the Christian Church. (見馬加比,書籍的。 )的故事迫害猶太人的埃及托勒密Philopator戰敗後在Raphia安提阿哥在公元前217 ;的堅定性,他們的宗教,並奇蹟般的拯救上帝對他們造成的。該書可被視為一個亞歷山大對應以斯帖,手稿中發現的譯本,但不規範的任何一間分行的基督教會。

§ V. Historical Pseudepigrapha. §五,歷史Pseudepigrapha 。

The books named above are all found in the Greek and Latin Bibles and in the Apocrypha of the Protestant versions.上述的書籍都發現了希臘文和拉丁文聖經和在偽經新教版本。 We proceed now to other writings of the same general class, commonly called "Pseudepigrapha."我們現在進行的其他著作同一般類,通常稱為“ Pseudepigrapha 。 ”

10. The Book of Jubilees, called also Leptogenesis ("The Little Genesis"), probably , in distinction, not from the canonical Genesis, but from a larger Midrash, a . 10 。 Jubilees書,要求也Leptogenesis ( “小創世記” ) ,也許在區分,而不是從典型成因,但是,從更大的米德拉士的。 It contains a haggadic treatment of the history of the Patriarchs as well as of the history of Israel in Egypt, ending with the institution of the Passover, based on Gen. and Ex.它包含一個haggadic治療史上的始祖以及以色列歷史上的埃及,終止與該機構的逾越節的基礎上,將軍和前。 i.-xii.一至十二。 It is a free reproduction of the Biblical narrative, with extensive additions of an edifying character, exhortations, predictions, and the like.這是一項免費複製的聖經敘事,具有廣泛的補充性質的啟發,規勸,預測等。 It gets the name "Book of Jubilees" from the elaborate chronology, in which every event is minutely reckoned out in months, days, and years of the Jubilee period.它被命名為“周易Jubilees ”的精細年表中的一切活動是仔細計算了幾個月,天,年大慶期間。 The whole is in the form of a revelation made through an angel to Moses on Mt.全體形式的啟示通過一個天使摩西山。 Sinai, from which some writers were led to call the book the "Apocalypse of Moses."西奈半島,而有些作者是導致致電預訂“摩西的啟示。 ” (See Apocalypse, § V. 10.) It was written in Hebrew, probably in the first century BC, but is now extant only in Ethiopic and in fragments of an old Latin translation, both made from an intermediate Greek version. Brief mention may be made here of several similar works containing Haggadah of early Hebrew history. (見啟示, §五, 10 。 )這是希伯來文寫的,大概在公元前一世紀,但現在只有在衣索比亞現存和碎片的舊拉丁美洲翻譯,無論從中間希臘版本。簡要提及可能在這裡的幾個類似的作品含有哈加達早期希伯來歷史。

a. "Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum," attributed to Philo.答: “書Antiquitatum Biblicarum , ”歸因於斐羅。 This was first published, with some other works of Philo, at Basel in 1527 (see Cohn, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." 1898, x. 277 et seq.; Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 541 et seq., additional literature).這是首次出版,與其他一些作品斐羅,在1527年在巴塞爾(見科恩,在“猶太人。夸脫。修訂” 1898年,十, 277起。 ; Schürer “ Gesch 。 ”三維版。 ,三。 541起。 ,其他文獻) 。 Extends from Adam to the death of Saul, with omissions and additions-genealogical, legendary, and rhetorical-speeches, prophecies, prayers, etc. The patriarchal age is despatched very briefly; the Exodus, on the contrary, and the stories of the Judges, are much expanded.涵蓋了從亞當的死亡掃羅與遺漏和補充,家譜,傳奇,與修辭,演講,預言,祈禱等重男輕女的時代是非常簡單寄發;外流,相反,和故事中的法官,大大擴大了。 The author deals more freely with the Biblical narrative than Jubilees, and departs from it much more widely.作者處理更加自由的聖經敘事比Jubilees ,並背離更加廣泛。 The work is preserved in a Latin translation made from Greek; but it is highly probable that the original language was Hebrew, and that it was written at a time not very remote from the common era.這項工作是保存在拉美翻譯來自希臘,但它極有可能的原文是希伯來文,認為這是寫的時間不是很偏遠的共同的時代。 Considerable portions of it are incorporated-under the name of Philo-in the Hebrew book, of which Gaster has published a translation under the title "Chronicles of Jerahmeel" (see Gaster, lc, Introduction, pp. xxx. et seq., and below, d).相當部分是被納入下的名稱,哲學在希伯來文圖書,其中法莫替丁翻譯出版了一本標題下的“納尼亞Jerahmeel ” (見法莫替丁,立法會,導言,頁。三十。起。 ,和下面, d )項。

b. Later works which may be compared with this of Philo are the , and the , on which see the respective articles.灣後來的作品可以與此相比的斐羅是,和上,見各自的文章。

c. To a different type of legendary history belongs the Hebrew Yosippon (qv). c.如果要到不同類型的傳奇歷史上屬於希伯萊Yosippon ( qv ) 。

d. The "Chronicles of Jerahmeel," translated by Gaster from a unique manuscript in the Bodleian (1899), are professedly compiled from various sources; they contain large portions excerpted from the Greek Bible, Philo (see above), and "Yosippon," as well as writings like the Pirḳe de R. Eliezer, etc. d.在“納尼亞Jerahmeel , ”翻譯的法莫替丁從一個獨特的手稿在伯德雷恩( 1899 ) ,是表面彙編從各種來源;它們包含大部分摘自希臘聖經斐羅(見上文) ,和“ Yosippon , “以及著作,如Pirḳe日河埃利澤等

e. Any complete study of this material must include also the cognate Hellenistic writings, such as the fragments of Eupolemus and Artapanus (see Freudenthal, "Hellenistische Studien") and the legends of the same kind in Josephus.大腸桿菌任何完整的研究,這種材料必須也包括同源希臘著作,如碎片Eupolemus和Artapanus (見弗賴登塔爾“ Hellenistische Studien ” )和傳說中的同類約瑟夫。

§ VI. §六。 Books of the Antediluvians.圖書的Antediluvians 。

The Book of Jubilees makes repeated mention of books containing the wisdom of the antediluvians (eg, Enoch, iv. 17 et seq.; Noah, x. 12 et seq.) which were in the possession of Abraham and his descendants; also of books in which was preserved the family law of the Patriarchs (compare xli. 28) or their prophecies (xxxii. 24 et seq., xlv. 16).書Jubilees一再提到的書籍包含的智慧antediluvians (例如,伊諾克,四。 17起。 ;挪亞,十, 12起。 )這是在擁有亞伯拉罕和他的後代;還圖書這是在保存家庭法始祖(比較四十一。 28 )或他們的預言( xxxii. 24起。 ,第四十五。 16 ) 。 These are all in the literal sense "apocryphal," that is, esoteric, scriptures.這些都是在字面意義“未經證實” ,也就是深奧,經文。 A considerable number of writings of this sort have been preserved or are known to us from ancient lists and references; others contain entertaining or edifying embellishments of the Biblical narratives about these heroes.有相當多的著作這類保存或已是眾所周知,我們從古老的名單和參考資料;其他含有娛樂或啟發裝飾的聖經說明這些英雄。 Those which are primarily prophetic or apocalyptic are enumerated elsewhere (x., xi.); the following are chiefly haggadic:這些主要是世界末日的預言或列舉其他(十,十一。 ) ;下列主要是haggadic :

11. Life of Adam and Eve. 11 。生命的亞當和夏娃。 This is essentially a Jewish work, preserved-in varying recensions-in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, and Armenian.這基本上是一個猶太人的工作,保存在不同recensions在希臘語,拉丁語,斯拉夫語,和亞美尼亞。 It resembles the Testament literature (see below) in being chiefly occupied with the end of Adam's life and the burial of Adam and Eve.它類似於聖經文學(見下文)在被佔領的主要月底亞當的生命和埋葬亞當和夏娃。 According to an introductory note in the manuscripts, the story was revealed to Moses, whence the inappropriate title "Apocalypse of Moses."據介紹性說明的手稿,這個故事發現摩西,因而不恰當的標題是“摩西的啟示。 ” On the apocryphal Adam books see Adam, Book of.對未經看到亞當亞當書籍,書。

Other apocryphal books bearing the name of Adam are: The Book of Adam and Eve, or the Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan, extant in Arabic and Ethiopic; and The Testament of Adam, in Syriac and Arabic.其他未經書籍軸承亞當的名稱是:圖書的亞當和夏娃,或衝突的亞當和夏娃的撒旦,現存在阿拉伯語和埃塞俄比亞;和亞當的遺囑,在敘利亞和阿拉伯語。 Both these are Christian offshoots of the Adam romance. Apocalypses of Adam are mentioned by Epiphanius; the Gelasian Decree names a book on the Daughters of Adam, and one called the Penitence of Adam.這兩項是基督教分支的亞當浪漫。啟示亞當都提到埃皮法尼烏斯;該法令名稱Gelasian一本書的女兒亞當,和一個稱為亞當懺悔。

Seven Books of Seth are said by Epiphanius ("Adversus Hæreses," xxxix. 5; compare xxvi. 8; also Hippolytus, "Refutatio," v. 22; see also Josephus, "Ant." i. 2, § 3) to have been among the scriptures of the Gnostic sect of Sethians.On the apocryphal books of Enoch see Apocalypse, § V., and Enoch, Books of.七本書的塞思是說的埃皮法尼烏斯( “ Adversus Hæreses , ”三十九。 5 ;比較二十六。 8 ;還西波呂, “ Refutatio , ”五22 ;又見約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。島2 ,第3 )一直是聖經的諾斯底教派的未經證實的Sethians.On帳簿伊諾克見啟示, §五,和伊諾克,書籍的。

The Samaritan author, a fragment of whose writing has been preserved by Eusebius ("Præp. Ev." ix. 17) under the name of Eupolemus, speaks of revelations by angels to Methuselah, which had been preserved to his time.撒瑪利亞作者,一個片段,其書面形式已保存的優西比烏( “ Præp 。電動車。 ”九。 17 )的名義下Eupolemus ,談到揭露的天使,瑪土撒拉,這是他的保留時間。 A Book of Lamech is named in one of our lists of Apocrypha.書拉麥名為在我們的名單偽經。

Books of Noah are mentioned in Jubilees (x. 12, xxi. 10).諾亞圖書中提到的Jubilees (十12 , 21 。 10 ) 。 Fragments of an Apocalypse of Noah are incorporated in different places in Enoch (which see).碎片的啟示諾亞被納入不同的地方在伊諾克(其中見) 。 A book bearing the name of Noria, the wife of Noah, was current among certain Gnostics (Epiphanius, "Adv. Hæreses," xxvi. 1).一本書的名字軸承諾里亞,諾亞的妻子,是當前某些Gnostics (埃皮法尼烏斯, “腺病毒。 Hæreses ”二十六。 1 ) 。 Shem transmits the books of his father, Noah (Jubilees, x. 14); other writings are ascribed to him by late authors.閃傳送書籍,他的父親,諾亞( Jubilees ,十, 14 ) ;其他著作都歸咎於他的已故作家。 Ham was the author of a prophecy cited by Isidore, the son of Basilides (Clemens Alexandrinus, "Stromata," vi. 6); according to others he was the inventor of magic (identified with Zoroaster; Clementine, "Recognitiones," iv. 27).火腿是作者的預言提到的伊西多爾的兒子,巴西里德(克萊門斯頸, “ Stromata , ”六。 6 ) ;根據他對他人的發明者魔術(確定Zoroaster ;克萊門汀“ , Recognitiones , ”四。 27 ) 。

§ VII. §七。 Testaments.聖經。

A special class of apocryphal literature is made up of the so-called "Testaments" of prominent figures in Bible history.一類特殊未經文學是由所謂的“聖經”的著名人士在聖經歷史。 Suggested, doubtless, by such passages as the Blessing of Jacob (Gen. xlix.), the Blessing of Moses (Deut. xxxiii.), the parting speeches of Moses (Deut. iv., xxix. et seq.) and Joshua (Josh. xxiii., xxiv.), etc., the Testaments narrate the close of the hero's life, sometimes with a retrospect of his history, last counsels and admonitions to his children, and disclosures of the future.建議的那樣,毫無疑問,這種通道的祝福雅各布(將軍xlix 。 )的祝福摩西( Deut.三十三。 ) ,在臨別演說摩西( Deut.四。 ,第29屆。起。 )和約書亞(喬希。二十三。 ,二十四。 )等,講述了聖經結束英雄的生活,有時還回顧他的歷史,去年律師和他告誡兒童,並披露了未來。 These elements are present in varying proportions, but the general type is well marked.這些因素都存在於不同的比例,但總的類型以及標記。

12. Testament of Abraham. 12 。全書亞伯拉罕。 Edited in Greek (two recensions) by MR James, "Texts and Studies," ii.編輯希臘( 2 recensions )由塗謹申議員, “文本和研究, ”二。 2; in Rumanian by Gaster, in "Proc. of Society of Biblical Archeology," 1887, ix. 2 ,在羅馬尼亞的法莫替丁,在“過程。學會聖經考古, ” 1887年,九。 195 et seq.; see also Kohler, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." 195起。又見科勒,在“猶太人。夸脫。牧師” 1895, vii. 1895年,七。 581 et seq. 581起。 (See Abraham, Testament of, called also Apocalypse of Abraham). (見亞伯拉罕的遺囑,要求也啟示亞伯拉罕) 。 Narrative of the end of Abraham's life; his refusal to follow Michael, who is sent to him; his long negotiations with the Angel of Death.敘事的結束亞伯拉罕的生活;他拒絕後續邁克爾,誰是送給他,他的長期談判的死亡天使。 At his request, Michael shows him, while still in the body, this world and all its doings, and conducts him to the gate of heaven.在他的要求,邁克爾表明他,同時仍然在人體內,這個世界和所有做法,並進行他的閶。 The book is thus mainly Haggadah, with a little apocalypse in the middle. The Slavonic Apocalypse of Abraham (ed. by Bonwetsch, "Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und Kirche," 1897), translated from the Greek, gives the story of Abraham's conversion; the second part enlarges on the vision of Abraham in Gen. xv.這本書主要哈加達因此,只要稍微在中東的啟示。斯拉夫啟示的亞伯拉罕(編按Bonwetsch , “ Studien楚史神學與教會” , 1897年) ,翻譯從希臘,使故事亞伯拉罕的轉換;第二部分擴大的設想,在亞伯拉罕將軍十五。

13. Testaments of Isaac and Jacob. 13 。聖經以撒和雅各。 Preserved in Arabic and Ethiopic. They are upon the same pattern as the Testament of Abraham; each includes an apocalypse in which the punishment of the wicked and the abode of the blessed are exhibited.保存在阿拉伯語和埃塞俄比亞。他們的同樣方式證明了亞伯拉罕;每個包括一個啟示,其中懲治邪惡和居留權的有福了展出。 The moral exhortation which properly belongs to the type is lacking in the Testament of Abraham, but is found in the other two.道義勸告這屬於正常的類型是缺乏全書亞伯拉罕,但發現在其他兩個。

14. Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 14 。約十二始祖。 The parting admonitions of the twelve sons of Jacob to their children.在臨別的12告誡兒子雅各布對自己的孩子。 Each warns against certain particular sins and commends the contrary virtues, illustrating and enforcing the moral by the example or experience of the speaker. Thus, Gad warns against hatred, Issachar shows the beauty of simple-mindedness, Joseph teaches the lesson of chastity.每一個警告,對某些特定的罪孽,並讚揚相反美德,說明和實施道德的榜樣和經驗的發言。因此,蓋德警告不要仇恨,薩迦顯示美麗的簡單意識,約瑟夫教導的教訓貞操。 In some (eg, in the Testament of Joseph) the legendary narrative of the patriarch's life fills a larger space, in others (eg, Benjamin) direct ethical teaching predominates.在某些(例如,在全書的約瑟夫)的傳奇敘事的主教的生活填補了更大的空間,在其他(如本傑明)直接道德教學為主。

The eschatological element is also present in varying proportions-predictions of the falling away in the last days and the evils that will prevail; the judgment of God on the speaker's posterity for their sins (eg, Levi, xiv. et seq.; Judah, xviii. 22 et seq.; Zebulun, ix.); and the succeeding Messianic age (Levi, xviii.; Judah, xxiv. et seq.; Simeon, vi.; Zebulun, ix. et seq.).在末世的因素是還存在於不同的比例,預測的下降以外,在過去幾天與邪惡將佔上風;的判斷上帝對發言者的後代對他們的罪孽(如列維,十四。起。 ;猶太,十八。 22起。 ; Zebulun ,九。 ) ;和成功彌賽亞年齡(列維,十八。 ;猶太,二十四。起。 ;西梅昂,六。 ; Zebulun ,九。起。 ) 。 A true apocalypse is found in the Test.一個真正的啟示被發現在該試驗。 of Levi, ii.對列維二。 et seq.起。 (see Apocalypse). (見啟示) 。 This eschatological element is professedly derived from a book written by Enoch (eg, Levi, x., xiv., xvi.; Judah, viii.; Simeon, v., etc.).這末世的因素是表面來自一本書撰寫的伊諾克(例如,列維,十,十四。 ,十六。 ;猶太,八。 ;西梅昂,五等) 。 The work is substantially Jewish; the Christian interpolations, though numerous, are not very extensive, and in general are easily recognizable.這項工作是大量猶太人;基督教插值,雖然很多,不是很廣泛,一般容易識別。

A Hebrew Testament of Naphtali has been published by Gaster ("Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archeology," December, 1893; February, 1894; see also "Chron. of Jerahmeel," pp. 87 et seq.), and is regarded by the editor and by Resch ("Studien und Kritiken," 1899, pp. 206 et seq.) as the original of which the Greek Testament is a Christian recension.希伯來聖經的拿弗他已經出版了法莫替丁( “程序學會聖經考古學” , 12月, 1893年; 2月, 1894年;又見“專欄。的Jerahmeel ”頁。 87起。 ) ,並被認為是由編輯器和雷( “ Studien與Kritiken , ” 1899年,頁。 206起。 )作為原始的希臘聖經是基督教recension 。

15. Testament of Job. 15 。全書的工作。 When the end of his life is at hand, Job narrates to his children the history of his trials, beginning with the cause of Satan's animosity toward him.當年底,他的生命是在另一方面,就業敘述他的孩子,他的歷史的審判,首先是事業的撒旦的敵意他。 After parting admonitions (45), he divides his possessions among his sons, and gives to his three daughters girdles of wonderful properties(46 et seq.).在臨別告誡( 45歲) ,他將他的財產中,他的兩個兒子,並給他的三個女兒腰帶的美妙性質( 46起。 ) 。 The book is a Haggadah of the story of Job, exaggerating his wealth and power, his good works, and his calamities, through all of which he maintains unshaken his confidence in God.這本書是一個哈加達的故事就業,誇大他的財富和權力,他的優秀作品,他的災難,通過所有這些,他保持著不可動搖的信心,他的上帝。 There are no long arguments, as in the poem; the friends do not appear as defenders of God's justice-the problem of theodicy is not mooted-they try Job with questions (see 36 et seq.).沒有長期的論點,因為在這首詩的朋友們似乎並不為捍衛上帝的正義問題theodicy沒有提出,他們嘗試的工作問題(見36頁起。 ) 。 Elihu is inspired by Satan, and is not forgiven with the others.伊萊休的靈感來自撒旦,而不是寬恕的人。 See Kohler, in "Semitic Studies in Memory of Alexander Kohut," pp.看到科勒,在“反猶研究亞歷山大科胡特的記憶, ”頁。 264-338 and 611, 612, and James, in "Apocrypha Anecdota," ii. 264-338和611 , 612 ,和詹姆斯,在“偽經Anecdota , ”二。 104 et seq.). 104頁起。 ) 。

16. Testament of Moses. 16 。證明了摩西。 The patristic lists of Apocrypha contain, in close proximity, the Testament of Moses and the Assumption of Moses. It is probable that the two were internally connected, and that the former has been preserved in our Assumption of Moses, the extant part of which is really a Testament-a prophetic-apocalyptic discourse of Moses to Joshua.教父名單偽經載,接近,是全書的摩西並承擔摩西。這是可能的,這兩人是內部連接,而且前一直保存在我們的設想摩西,現存的一部分,這是真正證明一個預言,世界末日論摩西約書亞。 See below, § x.見下文§十 2. 2 。

17. Testament of Solomon. 17 。證明了所羅門。 Last words of Solomon, closing with a confession of the sins of his old age under the influence of the Jebusite, Shulamite.最後一句話所羅門,關閉了懺悔的罪過晚年的影響下的Jebusite , Shulamite 。 It is in the main a magical book in narrative form, telling how Solomon got the magic seal; by it learned the names and powers of the demons and the names of the angels by whom they are constrained, and put them to his service in building the Temple; besides other wonderful things which he accomplished through his power over the demons.這是主要的神奇書敘述的形式,講了如何所羅門魔術密封;由它的經驗教訓的姓名和權力的魔鬼和天使的名字是誰,他們受到限制,並將其建設服務聖殿;除了其他美好的事物,他通過自己的權力的惡魔。 (See Fleck, "Wissenschaftliche Reise," ii. 3, 111 et seq.) A translation into English by Conybeare was given in "Jewish Quart. Rev." (見斑點, “ Wissenschaftliche旅行, ”二。 3 , 111頁起。 )翻譯成英文的科尼比爾是在“猶太人夸脫。牧師” 1899, xi. 1899年,十一。 1-45. 1-45 。

The Gelasian Decree names also a "ContradictioSalomonis," which may have described his contest in wisdom with Hiram, a frequent theme of later writers.該法令名稱Gelasian也是一個“ ContradictioSalomonis , ”這可能說明他的競賽中的智慧與西貢,經常主題後作家。

A Testament of Hezekiah is cited by Cedrenus; but the passage quoted is found in the Ascension of Isaiah.證明的Hezekiah是引用Cedrenus ;但通過引用被發現在該阿森松以賽亞。

§ VIII. §八。 Relating to Joseph, Isaiah, and Baruch.有關約瑟夫,以賽亞書,和巴魯克。

Other Apocrypha are the following:其他偽經如下:

18. Story of Aseneth. 18 。故事Aseneth 。 A romantic tale, narrating how Aseneth, the beautiful daughter of Potiphar, priest of On, became the wife of Joseph; how the king's son, who had desired her for himself, tried to destroy Joseph, and how he was foiled.一個浪漫的故事,講述如何Aseneth ,美麗的女兒Potiphar ,牧師在成為妻子約瑟夫;如何國王的兒子,誰曾期望她為自己,試圖摧毀約瑟夫,以及他如何被挫敗。 The romance exists in various languages and recensions.浪漫存在於各種語言和recensions 。 The Greek text was published by Batiffol, Paris, 1889.希臘文出版了Batiffol ,巴黎, 1889年。

A Prayer of Joseph is named in the anonymous list of Apocrypha, and is quoted by Origen and Procopius.祈禱名為約瑟夫在無名氏名單偽經,並引用奧利和普羅科匹厄斯。 In these fragments Jacob is the speaker.在這些片段雅各布是一位發言者。

19. Ascension of Isaiah, or Vision of Isaiah. 19 。阿森松以賽亞,或視野以賽亞。 Origen speaks of a Jewish apocryphal work describing the death of Isaiah.奧利說,猶太人未經工作描述死亡以賽亞。 Such a martyrium is preserved in the Ethiopic Ascension of Isaiah, the first part of which tells how Manasseh, at the instigation of a Samaritan, had Isaiah sawn asunder.這種martyrium是保存在埃塞俄比亞阿森松以賽亞的第一部分講述如何梅納西索,在其唆使的撒馬利亞人,已以賽亞鋸成四分五裂。 The second part, the Ascension of Isaiah to heaven in the 20th year of Hezekiah, and what he saw and heard there, is Christian, though perhaps based on a Jewish vision. Extensive Christian interpolations occur in the first part also.第二部分中,阿森松以賽亞天堂在20年Hezekiah ,以及他所看到和聽到的存在,是基督教,但也許是基於一個猶太遠見。廣泛基督教插值出現在第一部分中也。 A fragment of the Greek text is reproduced in Grenfell and Hunt, "The Amherst Papyri," London, 1900.一個碎片希臘文字轉載於格倫費爾和亨特說: “阿默斯特紙莎草紙, ”倫敦, 1900年。

20. The Rest of the Words of Baruch, or Paralipomena of Jeremiah. (Ceriani, "Monumenta," v. 1, 9 et seq.; J. Rendel Harris, "Rest of the Words of Baruch," 1889; Dillmann, "Chrestomathia Æthiopica," pp. 1 et seq.; Greek and Ethiopic.) Narrates what befell Baruch and Abimelech (Ebed-melech) at the fall of Jerusalem. 20 。其餘的話巴魯克,或Paralipomena耶利米。 ( Ceriani , “華裔” ,五, 1 , 9起。 ;學者宏道哈里斯, “休息的話巴魯克, ” 1889年; Dillmann “ Chrestomathia Æthiopica , “頁。 1起。 ;希臘和埃塞俄比亞。 )敘述什麼降臨巴魯克和Abimelech ( Ebed - melech )在秋季耶路撒冷。 Sixty-six years after, they sent a letter by an eagle to Jeremiah in Babylon. 66年後,他們發了一封信,拿下了一隻老鷹,以耶利米在巴比倫。 He leads a company of Jews back from Babylonia; only those who are willing to put away their Babylonian wives are allowed to cross the Jordan; the others eventually become the founders of Samaria. Jeremiah is spirited away.他領導的公司的猶太人從巴比倫;只有那些誰願意放棄他們的巴比倫妻子不准過境進入約旦;最終成為別人的創始人薩馬利亞。耶利米是千與千尋。 After three days, returning to the body, he prophesies the coming of Christ and is stoned to death by his countrymen.三天後,回到身體,他的到來prophesies基督,是用石頭打死他的同胞。

§ IX. §九。 Lost Books.失落的圖書。

Other haggadic works named in the Gelasian Decree are: the Book of Og, the Giant, "whom the heretics pretend to have fought with a dragon after the flood"; perhaps the same as the Manichean Γιγάτειος βίβλος.其他haggadic工程中點名的Gelasian法令是:圖書的146/03 ,巨人, “他們的異端假裝作戰的龍後,洪水” ;也許是一樣的摩尼教Γιγάτειος βίβλος 。 (Photius, "Cod." 85), or τῶν Γιγάντων; The Penitence of Jannes and Jambres. ( Photius , “鱈魚。 ” 85 ) ,或τῶν Γιγάντων的懺悔的Jannes和Jambres 。 (See Iselin, in "Zeitschrift für Wissensch. Theologie," 1894, pp. 321 et seq.) Both of these may well have been ultimately of Jewish origin. (見Iselin ,在“雜誌Wissensch 。神學, ” 1894年,頁。 321起。 )這兩家很可能是最終的猶太血統。

§ X. Prophetical Apocrypha. §十預言偽經。

1. Baruch. 1 。巴魯克。 Purporting to be written by Baruch, son of Neriah, the disciple of Jeremiah, after the deportation to Babylon.看來是書面的巴魯克的兒子Neriah ,耶利米的徒弟,在驅逐到巴比倫。 The book is not original, drawing its motives chiefly from Jeremiah and Isaiah xl.這本書是不是原來的,提請其動機主要來自耶利米和以賽亞儀。 et seq.; affinity to the Wisdom literature is also marked in some passages, especially in ch.起。 ;親和力的智慧文學也標誌著在一些段落,特別是在CH 。 iii. The Epistle of Jeremiah to the captives in Babylon, which is appended to Baruch, and counts as the sixth chapter of that book, is a keen satire on idolatry.三。耶利米的使徒的俘虜在巴比倫,這是附在巴魯克,並計為第六章的那本書,是一個非常諷刺的崇拜。

2. Assumption of Moses. 2 。升天摩西。 See above, Testament of Moses (§ VII. 16).見上文,舊約的摩西( §七。 16 ) 。 What now remains of this work, in an old Latin version, is prophetic in character, consisting of predictions delivered by Moses to Joshua when he had installed him as his successor.什麼現在這項工作,在拉丁美洲的老版本,是預言性質的,包括預測交付摩西約書亞當他安裝他作為他的繼任者。 Moses foretells in brief outline the history of the people to the end of the kingdom of Judah; then, more fully, the succeeding times down to the successors of Herod the Great, and the Messianic age which ensues.摩西在簡述預示人民歷史的結束猶太王國,然後更充分,在成功倍下降到接班人的大希律王和救世主的時代,隨之。 It is probable that the lost sequel contained the Assumption of Moses, in which occurred the conflict-referred to in Jude 9-between Michael and Satan for the possession of Moses' body.很可能失去續集載升天摩西,在發生的衝突中提到裘德9邁克爾和撒旦之間的擁有摩西機構。

3. Eldad and Medad. 3 。伊利達和Medad 。 Under this name an apocryphal book is mentioned in our lists, and quoted twice in the "Shepherd of Hermas" (ii. 34).根據本書的名字是一個未經證實提到在我們的名單,並引述兩次“牧人書” (白介素34 ) 。 It contained the prophecy of the two elders named in Num.它載的預言兩個老人中點名序號。 xi.十一。 26. § XI. 26 。 §十一。 Apocalypses.啟示。

Most of the prophetical Apocrypha are apocalyptic in form.大多數是世界末日的預言偽經的形式。 To this class belong: Enoch, The Secrets of Enoch, IV Esd., the Apocalypses of Baruch (Greek and Syriac), Apocalypse of Zephaniah, Apocalypse of Elijah, and others (see Apocalypse, and the special articles). Apocalyptic elements have been noted above in the Assumption of Moses, the Ascension of Isaiah, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and others.屬於這一類:伊諾克,伊諾克的秘密,四可持續發展教育。 ,巴魯克的啟示(希臘和敘利亞) ,啟示Zephaniah ,啟示利亞,和其他(見啟示,特別條款) 。啟示內容已如上所述承擔摩西,在阿森松島的以賽亞的約十二始祖,等等。

§ XII. §十二。 Lyrical Apocrypha.抒情偽經。

1. Psalm cli., in the Greek Bible; attributed to David, "when he had fought in single combat with Goliath." 1 。詩篇氣候。 ,在希臘聖經;歸功於大衛, “當他打單打擊與戈利亞特。 ”

2. Psalms of Solomon. 2 。詩篇所羅門。 Eighteen in number; included in some manuscripts of the Greek Bible, but noted in the catalogues as disputed or apocryphal. 18在數;包括在一些手稿希臘聖經,但指出在目錄有爭議或未經證實。 Though ascribed to Solomon in the titles, there is no internal evidence that the author, or authors, designed them to be so attributed.雖然屬於所羅門的標題,也沒有內部的證據表明,作者,或作者,設計他們如此歸因。 They were written in Hebrew-though preserved only in Greek-in Palestine about the middle of the first century BC, and give most important testimony to the inner character of the religious belief of the time and to the vitality of the Messianic hope, as well as to the strength of party or sectarian animosity. The five Odes of Solomon in "Pistis Sophia" are of Christian (Gnostic) origin.他們是希伯來文寫的,但只有保存在希臘和巴勒斯坦關於中東的公元前一世紀,最重要的,並證明了內在性質的宗教信仰的時間和活力彌賽亞希望,以及以黨的力量或宗派仇恨。五個詩經所羅門在“ Pistis蘇菲”是基督教(諾斯底)原產地。

3. Five apocryphal psalms in Syriac, edited by Wright ("Proceedings of Society of Biblical Archeology," 1887, ix. 257-266). 3 。五未經詩篇在敘利亞,編輯賴特( “程序學會聖經考古, ” 1887年,九。 257-266 ) 。 The first is Ps.首先是聚苯乙烯。 cli. cli參數。 (supra, § 1); it is followed by (2) a prayer of Hezekiah; (3) a prayer when the people obtain leave from Cyrus to return; and (4, 5) a prayer of David during his conflict with the lion and the wolf, and thanksgiving after his victory. § XIII. (同上,第1 ) ;其次是( 2 )祈禱的Hezekiah ; ( 3 )祈禱當人們獲取離開賽勒斯返回;和( 4 , 5 )祈禱的大衛在衝突與獅子與狼,與感恩節之後,他的勝利。 §十三。 Didactic Apocrypha.培訓偽經。

1. The Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach (in the Latin Bible entitled Ecclesiasticus). 1 。耶穌的智慧的兒子Sirach (聖經中的拉丁美洲題為Ecclesiasticus ) 。 Proverbs and aphorisms for men's guidance in various stations and circumstances; a counterpart to the Proverbs of Solomon.諺語警句男子各站的指導和情況;對應的諺語所羅門。 The author was a native of Jerusalem, and wrote in Hebrew; his work was translated into Greek by his grandson soon after 132 BC The Syriac translation was also made from the Hebrew, and recently considerable parts of the Hebrew text itself have been recovered.作者是一個土生土長的耶路撒冷,希伯來文中寫道,他的工作是翻譯成希臘由他的孫子後不久,公元前132敘利亞翻譯也發了言從希伯來文,並在最近相當部分的希伯來文本身已被追回。 The book is included in the Christian Bible-Greek, Latin, Syriac, etc.-but was excluded from the Jewish Canon (Tosef., Yad. ii. 13 et seq.).這本書已被列入基督教聖經,希臘文,拉丁文,敘利亞等,但被排除在猶太佳能( Tosef. ,亞德瓦。二。 13起。 ) 。 Many quotations in Jewish literature prove, however, its continued popularity.許多報價在猶太文學證明,但是,它的繼續流行。

2. Wisdom of Solomon, Σοφία Σολομῶνος. 2 。智慧所羅門群島, Σοφία Σολομῶνος 。 Written in Greek, probably in Alexandria; a representative ofHellenistic "Wisdom."希臘文寫的,可能在亞歷山大;代表ofHellenistic “的智慧。 ” Solomon, addressing the rulers of the earth, exhorts them to seek wisdom, and warns them of the wickedness and folly of idolatry.所羅門群島,解決地球的統治者,激勵他們尋求智慧,並警告說,他們的邪惡和愚蠢的盲目崇拜。 Noteworthy is the warm defense of the immortality of the soul, in which the influence of Greek philosophical ideas is manifest, as, indeed, it is throughout the book.值得注意的是,溫暖的國防的不朽的靈魂,其中的影響,希臘哲學思想的體現,因為,事實上,這是整個圖書。

3. Fourth Maccabees. 3 。第四馬加比。 The title is a misnomer; and the attribution of the work to Flavius Josephus is equally erroneous.的標題是用詞不當;和歸屬的工作弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫同樣是錯誤的。 The true title is Περὶ αὐτοκράτορος λογισμοῦ, "On the Autonomy of Reason."真正的冠軍是Περὶ αὐτοκράτορος λογισμοῦ “的自主性的理由。 ” It is an anonymous discourse on the supremacy of religious intelligence over the feelings.這是一個匿名的話語霸權的宗教情報的感情。 This supremacy is proved, among other things, by examples of constancy in persecution, especially by the fortitude of Eleazar and the seven brothers (II Macc. vi. 18, vii. 41).這至高無上證明,除其他外,通過實例的恆常的迫害,特別是堅毅的埃萊亞薩和七個兄弟(二Macc 。六。 18日,七。 41 ) 。 The work was written in Greek; it is found in some manuscripts of the Septuagint, but is not canonical.這項工作是寫在希臘,它是發現在一些手稿的譯本,但不規範。

§ XIV. § 14 。 Apocrypha in the Talmud.偽經在塔爾穆德。

There are no Jewish catalogues of Apocrypha corresponding to the Christian lists cited above; but we know that the canonicity of certain writings was disputed in the first and second centuries, and that others were expressly and authoritatively declared not to be sacred scripture, while some are more vehemently interdicted-to read them is to incur perdition.沒有猶太目錄偽經相應的基督教上述名單,但我們知道,正規的某些有爭議的著作是在第一屆和第二屆百年的時間,以及其他被明確和權威性宣布不聖經,而有些則更強烈停職,閱讀他們是承擔滅亡。 The controversies about Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon will be discussed in the article Canon, where also the proposed "withdrawal" of Proverbs, Ezekiel, and some other books will be considered.有關的爭議傳道書和雅歌將文章中所討論的佳能,在那裡還提出“撤回”的諺語,厄澤克爾,和其他一些書籍將會考慮。 Here it is sufficient to say that the school of Shammai favored excluding Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon from the list of inspired scriptures, but the final decision included them in the canon.在這裡充分的理由認為,學校的青睞排除沙麥傳道書和雅歌清單中的靈感經文,但最終決定列入他們的佳能。

Sirach, on the other hand, was excluded, apparently as a recent work by a known author; and a general rule was added that no books more modern than Sirach were sacred scripture. Sirach ,另一方面,被排除在外,顯然是最近的工作由一個著名作家和一個一般規則是說,沒有比書更現代Sirach是聖經。

The same decision excluded the Gospels and other heretical (Christian) scriptures (Tosef., Yad. ii. 13).在同一決定排除了福音和其他邪教(基督教)聖經( Tosef. ,亞德瓦。二。 13 ) 。 These books, therefore, stand in the relation of Apocrypha to the Jewish canon. In Mishnah Sanh.這些書籍,因此,站在關係的偽經猶太佳能。在米示拿Sanh 。 x. 1, R. Akiba adds to the catalogue of those Israelites who have no part in the world to come, "the man who reads in the extraneous books" (), that is, books outside the canon of holy scripture, just as ἔξω, extra, are used by Christian writers (Zahn, "Gesch. des Neutestamentlichen Kanons," i. 1, 126 et seq.). Among these are included the "books of the heretics" (), ie, as in Tosef., Yad. 1 ,河秋葉目錄增加了這些猶太人誰沒有參加世界來, “誰該名男子的內容無關的書籍” ( ) ,也就是書本以外的佳能的聖經,就像ἔξω ,額外的,所使用的基督教作家(贊恩, “ Gesch 。沙漠Neutestamentlichen Kanons , ”一, 1 , 126頁起。 ) 。其中有包括“書籍的異端” ( ) ,即在Tosef 。 ,亞德瓦。 quoted above, the Christians (Bab. Sanh. 100b).上面引述的基督教徒( Bab. Sanh 。 100B蛋白) 。 Sirach is also named in both Talmuds, but the text in the Jerusalem Talmud (Sanh. 28a) is obviously corrupt. Sirach也是在這兩個Talmuds命名,但中的文字耶路撒冷猶太法典( Sanh. 28A款)顯然是腐敗。

Further, the writings of Ben La'anah () fall under the same condemnation (Yer. Sanh. lc); the Midrash on Ecclesiastes xii.此外,本La'anah著作( )屬於同一譴責( Yer. Sanh 。立法會) ;上的米德拉士傳道書十二。 12 (Eccl. R.) couples the writings of Ben Tigla () with those of Sirach, as bringing mischief into the house of him who owns them. What these books were is much disputed (see the respective articles). 12 ( Eccl.河)夫婦的著作本Tigla ( )與Sirach ,為使惡作劇到他的房子誰擁有它們。什麼這些書籍是非常有爭議的(見各自的文章) 。 Another title which has given rise to much discussion is or (sifre ha-meram or ha-merom), early and often emended by conjecture to (Homeros; so Hai Gaon, and others).另一個頭銜已引起很多討論或( sifre河meram或河的Merom ) ,早期,往往emended的猜想至( Homeros ;所以海Gaon ,和其他) 。 See Homer in Talmud.見荷馬在塔爾穆德。 The books of "Be Abidan," about which there is a question in Shab.的書“成為Abidan , ”關於這方面是一個問題的Shab 。 116a, are also obscure. 116a ,也掩蓋。

Crawford Howell Toy George F. Moore克勞福德霍威爾玩具喬治樓摩爾

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography:參考書目:

Texts: The Apocrypha (in the Protestant sense) are found in editions of the Greek Bible; see especially Swete, The Old Testament in Greek, 2d ed.; separately, Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Grœci, 1871.文本:在偽經(在新教意義)是在希臘版聖經;見特別是Swete ,舊約中希臘,二維版。 ;另外,弗里切,利布里Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Grœci , 1871年。 Of the Pseudepigrapha no comprehensive corpus exists; some of the books are included in the editions of Swete and Fritzsche, above;在沒有全面的人身Pseudepigrapha存在;一些圖書被列入版本Swete和弗里切,以上;

and in Hilgenfeld, Messias Judœorum, 1869.並在Hilgenfeld ,弭賽亞Judœorum , 1869年。 See also Fabricius, Codex Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti, 2 vols., 2d ed., Hamburg, 1722, 1723, which is not replaced by any more recent work.另見蟬,法典Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti ,第2卷。 ,二維版。 ,漢堡, 1722年, 1723年,這並不取代任何最近的工作。 For editions (and translations) of most of these writings the literature of the respective articles must be consulted.對於版(和翻譯)的大部分這些著作文獻各自的物品時,必須進行協商。 Translations: The Authorized Version may best be used in the edition of CJ Ball, Variorum Apocrypha, which contains a useful apparatus of various readings and renderings;翻譯:該授權版本可能最好的版本中使用的CJ球,集注偽經,其中包含了有益的各種儀器的讀數和透視圖;

the Revised Version, Apocrypha, 1895; Churton, Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, 1884; a revised translation is given also in Bissell's Commentary (see below).的修訂版,偽經, 1895年;丘頓, Uncanonical和未經聖經, 1884年;修訂翻譯也給出比斯爾的評注(見下文) 。 Of the highest value is the German translation, with introductions and notes, in Kautzsch, Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments, 2 vols., 1899.最高值是德語翻譯,並介紹和說明,在Kautzsch ,模具Apokryphen和Pseudepigraphen萬老聖經, 2卷。 , 1899 。 Commentaries: Fritzsche and Grimm, Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apokryphen des Alten Bundes, 6 vols., 1851-60; Wace (and others), Apocrypha, 2 vols., 1888 (Speaker's Bible); Bissell, The Apocrypha of the Old Testament, 1890 (Lange series). The most important recent work on this whole literature is Schürer's Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes, 3d ed., vol.評:弗里切和格林, Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手冊祖鄧老的Bundes Apokryphen萬, 6卷。 , 1851至60年; Wace (及其他) ,偽經,第2卷。 , 1888年(議長的聖經) ;比斯爾的偽經舊約, 1890年(蘭格系列) 。最近最重要的工作,整個文學Schürer的史Jüdischen Volkes ,三維版。 ,第二卷。 iii.三。 (Eng. tr. of 2d ed.: Jew. People in the Time of Jesus Christ), where also very full references to the literature will be found.TGFM ( Eng.文。二維版。 :猶太人。人民在耶穌基督的時間) ,在那裡也很充分參考文獻將found.TGFM


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