Book of Amos阿摩司書

General Information 綜合信息

Amos, a book of the Old Testament, is the third book of the Minor Prophets.阿莫斯納曼,一本書舊約,第三本書是該未成年人的先知。 It takes its name from the prophet Amos who lived c.它的名字從先知阿摩司誰住角 750 BC as a shepherd at Tekoa in the southern kingdom of Judah.公元前750作為一個牧羊人在Tekoa南部猶太王國。 It was to the northern kingdom of Israel, however, that his prophetic message was addressed.這是北部以色列王國,然而,他的預言郵件處理。 Writing during a time of prosperity, when a sharp contrast existed between the luxurious life of the nation's leaders and the oppression of the poor, Amos preached the urgency of social justice and the threat of impending divine judgment.寫作時期的繁榮,當一個鮮明的對比之間存在的豪華生活的國家的領導人和壓迫的窮人,阿莫斯納曼鼓吹的緊迫性,社會正義和迫在眉睫的威脅神聖判決。 The structure of the book falls into nine parts, each dominated by a negative message containing threats of darkness, famine, and destruction.的結構,這本書分為九個部分,每個主導的負面包含威脅的黑暗,飢荒,和破壞。 Amos is the oldest of the prophetic books of the Bible.阿摩司是最古老的預言書的聖經。

George W Coats喬治W科茨

Bibliography 參考書目
JL Mays, Amos, A Commentary (1969).巨浪梅斯阿莫斯納曼,評( 1969年) 。


Book of Amos阿摩司書

Brief Outline簡要概述

  1. Indictment of foreign nations and Judah and Israel (chap 1, 2)起訴書外國國家和猶太和以色列(第一章1 , 2 )
  2. Condemnation of wicked Samaria (chaps 3-5)譴責邪惡薩馬里亞( 3-5章)
  3. Foretelling judgment and promise of restoration and prosperity (chaps 6-9)預示的判斷和承諾,恢復和繁榮( 6-9章)

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A'mos

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Amos: borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets.阿莫斯納曼:承擔;一個負擔,一個12輕微先知。 He was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of Bethlehem.他是一個土生土長的Tekota ,現代Tekua鎮以南12英里處地區的伯利恆。 He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees," RV He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea (Amos 1:1; 7:14, 15; Zech. 14:5), who survived him a few years.他是一個謙虛的人出生,既不是“先知,也不是預言家的兒子” ,而是“一個赫德曼和梳妝台的sycomore樹木, ”房車,他預言在未來的日子的Uzziah ,猶太國王,是當代與以賽亞和何西阿(阿莫斯納曼1:1 ;七時14分, 15 ; Zech 。 14時05 ) ,他是誰存活幾年。 Under Jeroboam II.根據耶羅波安二世。 the kingdom of Israel rose to the zenith of its prosperity; but that was followed by the prevalence of luxury and vice and idolatry.以色列王國上升到了最高境界的繁榮;但是,其次是流行的豪華和副主席和崇拜。 At this period Amos was called from his obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's retributive justice, and to call them to repentance.在此期間,埃默斯被稱為他默默無聞提醒人民的法律,上帝的懲罰性司法,並呼籲他們悔改。

The Book of Amos consists of three parts: (1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of their sins (1:1-2:3).該阿摩司書由三部分組成: ( 1 ) 。周圍的國家都被召到判決,因為他們的罪孽( 1:1-2:3 ) 。 He quotes Joel 3:16.他引用了喬爾3:16 。 (2.)The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel, is described (2:4-6:14). ( 2 。 )的精神狀態的猶太,特別是以色列,描述( 2:4-6:14 ) 。 (3.) In 7:1-9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions. ( 3 。 )都記錄在7:1-9:10 5先知遠見。 (a) The first two (7:1-6) refer to judgments against the guilty people. (一)前兩項( 7:1-6 )是指對判決有罪的人。 (b) The next two (7:7-9; 8:1-3) point out the ripeness of the people for the threatened judgements. ( b )在未來兩年( 7:7-9 ; 8:1-3 )指出,成熟的人的威脅判斷。 7:10-17 consists of a conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. 7:10-17包括會話之間的先知和祭司的貝瑟爾。 (c) The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel (9:1-10); to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom. (三)第五屆介紹推翻和毀滅以色列( 9:1-10 ) ;而添加的承諾恢復英國和其最後輝煌彌賽亞的王國。

The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to natural objects and to agricultural occupations.獨特的風格是在一些典故了自然物體和農業職業。 Other allusions show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child of nature." These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of teeth" [ie, want of bread] (4:6); "The excellency of Jacob" (6:8; 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (7:9); "The house of Isaac" (7:16); "He that createth the wind" (4:13).其他典故查看還阿莫斯納曼是一個學生的法律以及“兒童的性質。 ”這些詞組的特殊對他說: “潔淨的牙齒” [即要麵包] ( 4:6 ) ; “的大人雅各“ ( 6點08分, 8點07分) , ”高的地方以撒“ ( 7時09分) , ”這房子以撒“ ( 7時16分) , ”他說, createth風“ ( 4:13 ) 。 Quoted, Acts 7:42.引述行為7時42分。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Amos埃默斯

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray 來自:主頁聖經研究評論詹姆斯M灰色

It will be seen from the opening verse that Amos, like Hosea, was a prophet sent to Israel, though his home, Tekoa, was in Judah.這將是從開放的阿莫斯納曼詩一樣,何西阿,是一個先知向以色列,但他的家, Tekoa ,是在猶太。 He was contemporary with Hosea for a while, though the latter prophesied longer than he.他是當代與何西阿了一會兒,儘管後者長於他預言。 After the introduction (1:1-3) there follows a series of messages concerning Gentile nations (1:4-2:3), each beginning with the words "For three transgressions . . . and for four, I will not turn away the punishment," an orientalism, meaning that it was not for three or four transgressions merely, but an innumerable number, that the judgments predicted were to fall.在介紹( 1:1-3 )有如下的一系列郵件聯合國關於詹蒂萊( 1:4-2:3 ) ,每個開始改為“三年越軌。 。 。為四個,我不會放棄的處罰, “一個東方的,也就是說它不是三個或四個越軌只,但無數的號碼,該判決的預測是下降。

These messages are succeeded by one to Judah (2:4, 5) while the remainder of the book is concerned with Israel.這些郵件的成功的一個猶太( 2點04 , 5 ) ,而其餘的書關注的是以色列。 The messages of Amos are more orderly than Hosea, and admit of homiletic divisions like the following: The first, beginning at chapter 2, verse 6, and concluding with the chapter, contains, (1), an indictment for sin (6-8), aggravated by the divine goodness toward them (9-12); and (2), a declaration of the judgment to follow (13-15).阿摩司的信息更有序比何西阿,承認分歧的homiletic情況如下:第一,開始第2章,詩句6 ,和總結的一章,包含: ( 1 ) ,對起訴書的罪惡( 6月8日) ,加劇了對他們的神聖善良( 9月12日)和( 2 ) ,宣布判決後( 13-15 ) 。 This sin is greed (6), lust (7) and oppression (8).此罪的貪婪( 6人) ,慾望( 7 )和壓迫( 8 ) 。 The marginal references frequently give the meaning of expressions in the prophets.經常提到的邊際給予的含義表達的先知。 Compare Exodus 22:26 with verse 8 for example, and Jeremiah 11:21 with verse 12.比較出埃及記22:26與詩8例如,耶利米11:21與詩12 。

God will press them as a cart full of sheaves presseth the ground (2:13, RV).上帝會按它們作為一個完整的滑輪車presseth地面( 2時13分,右) 。 In other words none shall escape the Assyrian hosts when they come down against them (14-16). The second discourse is limited to the third chapter, and contains, after the introduction, verses 1 and 2, (1), the prophet's justification of his message (3-8); (2) an indictment for sin (9, 10); (3), a declaration of punishment (11-15).換言之,沒有人逃跑亞述東道主下降時,對他們( 14-16 ) 。第二話語限於第三章,並載,推出後,詩句1和2 , ( 1 ) ,先知的理由他的信息( 3月8日) ; ( 2 )對起訴書的罪惡( 9 , 10 ) ; ( 3 ) ,申報的處罰( 11月15日) 。 When God says, "You only have I known," etc., (2), He means what is expressed in Deuteronomy 7:6, Psalm 147:19, 20, and other places.當上帝說, “只要我知道”等, ( 2 ) ,他的意思是表示申命記7時06分,詩篇147:19 , 20 ,和其他地方。 Israel's punishment is proportioned to her privilege.以色列的懲罰比例,以她的特權。 Amos prophesied because he could not do otherwise, is practically the interpretation of verses 3-8.阿莫斯納曼預言,因為他不能這樣做,否則,實際上是解釋經文3-8 。

As two do not walk together except they are agreed, or have made an appointment; as a lion does not roar when it has no prey, etc. so the fact that Amos prophecies is an evidence that Jehovah hath spoken to him (8).兩個不一起走,除非他們同意,或已作出的任命;作為獅子不注重成果的年度報告時,它沒有獵物等,使這一事實阿莫斯納曼預言是一個證據,耶和華上帝給他講( 8 ) 。 Notice the suggestion of the preservation of a faithful remnant in the "two legs" or "piece of an ear" of a sheep taken out of the mouth of the lion (12).通知的建議,維護殘餘的忠實的“兩條腿”或“一塊耳朵”的綿羊帶出口的獅子( 12 ) 。 Messages of this character continue till the seventh chapter when a series of visions begins.郵件有此特點的繼續,直到第七章當了一系列的看法開始。 In the first vision (1-3), Jehovah is withholding the coming judgment at the prophet's intercession, and the same is true of the second (4-6), but not of the rest (7-9; 8:1-3; 9:1-10).第一視覺( 1-3 ) ,耶和華是扣發今後判斷先知的調解,也是如此第二( 4-6 ) ,但沒有其他的( 7月9日; 8:1-3 ; 9:1-10 ) 。 And yet notice the conclusion of the last message growing out of the vision of the Lord beside the altar (9:8, 9).但通知的結論,最後的消息越來越多的設想上帝的祭壇旁邊( 9時零八, 9 ) 。

He will not "utterly destroy."他不會“完全摧毀。 ” He will sift Israel "among all nations" as He has been doing all these centuries, but only the chaff will be destroyed.他將篩選以色列“所有國家之間的” ,因為他一直在做所有這些數百年,但只有好壞將予以銷毀。

This thought is amplified in the epilogue of the book (9:11-15), where the prophet definetely reveals the history of Israel in the latter days: (1) the kingdom is to be restored (11); (2) Israel is to be the head of the nations (12); (3) the land of Palestine is to be greatly increased in fruitfulness (13); (4) the cities are to be rebuilt (14); (5) the blessing is to be perpetual (15). Questions 1.這種思想是擴增的尾聲的書籍( 9:11-15 ) ,在那裡先知definetely揭示了以色列歷史上在後者天: ( 1 )英國是要恢復( 11 ) ; ( 2 )以色列將頭部的聯合國( 12 ) ; ( 3 )巴勒斯坦土地將大大增加在豐產( 13 ) ; ( 4 )城市的重建( 14 ) ; ( 5 )的祝福要永久( 15 ) 。問題1 。 To which kingdom was Amos sent?而英國是阿莫斯納曼發送? 2. 2 。 What "orientalism" is employed by him and what is its meaning?什麼“東方學”是由他僱用的,什麼是它的含義? 3. How do the messages of Amos differ in form from those of Hosea? 3 。如何的信息阿莫斯納曼不同的形式從這些何西阿? 4. 4 。 Name some of the sins of Israel at this time.姓名一些罪孽以色列在這個時候。 5. Have you examined the marginal references? 5 。您是否審查了邊際參考? 6. 6 。 How would you interpret 2:3-8?你會如何解釋2:3-8 ? 7. 7 。 What change in the character of Amos' messages take place at chapter 7?有什麼變化的性質阿莫斯納曼的郵件將在第7章? 8. 8 。 What five promises are given Israel for the latter days?什麼五個許諾給予以色列後者天?


Amos埃默斯

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

I. NAME一,名稱

The third among the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament is called, in the Hebrew Text, "'Ams."第三個是小先知舊約稱為,在希伯來文的文字, “醫療輔助隊總監。 ” The spelling of his name is different from that of the name of Isaias's father, Amoç; whence Christian tradition has, for the most part, rightly distinguished between the two.拼寫他的名字是不同的名稱,伊薩亞的父親, Amoç ;何處基督教傳統,在大多數情況下,正確區分這兩個。 The prophet's name, Amos, has been variously explained, and its exact meaning is still a matter of conjecture.先知的名字,阿莫斯納曼,已不同程度的解釋,其確切含義仍然是一個問題的猜想。

II.二。 LIFE AND TIMES生命與時代

According to the heading of his book (i,1) Amos was a herdsman of Thecua, a village in the Southern Kingdom, twelve miles south of Jerusalem.根據他的書的標題(一, 1 )阿莫斯納曼是一個牧民的Thecua村南英國,一十二英里在耶路撒冷以南。 Besides this humble avocation, he is also spoken of in vii, 14, as a simple dresser of sycamore-trees.除了這一謙卑興趣,他還談到了在七, 14日,作為一個簡單的德雷瑟的西克莫樹。 Hence, as far as we know, there is no sufficient ground for the view of most Jewish interpreters that Amos was a wealthy man.因此,據我們所知,也沒有足夠的理由認為,大多數猶太人口譯的阿莫斯納曼就是個有錢人。 Thecua was apparently a shepherd's town, and it was while following his flock in the wilderness of Juda, that, in the reigns of Ozias and Jeroboam, God called him for a special mission: "Go, prophesy to My people Israel" (vii, 15). Thecua顯然是一個牧羊人的小鎮,它是在遵循他的羊群在曠野的猶大,認為,在統治Ozias和耶羅波安,上帝稱他為一個特殊的使命: “去吧,預言以色列對我國人民” (第七章, 15 ) 。 In the eyes of the humble shepherd this must have appeared a most difficult mission.的眼中,這個不起眼的牧羊人必須有出現了最困難的任務。 At the time when the call came to him, he was "not a prophet, nor the son of a prophet" (vii, 14), which implies that he had not yet entered upon the prophetical office, and even that he had not attended the schools wherein young men in training for a prophet's career bore the name of "the sons of a prophet". Other reasons might well cause Amos to fear to accept the divine mission.時呼籲向他,他“不是一個先知,也不是預言家的兒子” (第七章,第14條) ,這意味著他還沒有進入辦公室後,預言,甚至說,他沒有出席學校,其中男青年在培訓先知的職業膛“的名義的兒子先知” 。其他原因可能導致阿莫斯納曼害怕接受神聖使命。 He, a Southerner, was bidden to go to the Northern Kingdom, Israel, and carry to its people and its leaders a message of judgment to which, from their historical circumstances, they were particularly ill-prepared to listen.他是南方人,是bidden去北方英國,以色列,並履行其人民及其領導人的信息判斷,這從他們的歷史條件下,他們特別虐待願意傾聽。 Its ruler, Jeroboam II (c. 781-741 BC), had rapidly conquered Syria, Moab, and Ammon, and thereby extended his dominions from the source of the Orontes on the north to the Dead Sea on the south.它的統治者,耶羅波安二世(約公元前781-741 ) ,已經迅速征服了敘利亞,莫阿布,和阿蒙,從而延長其領地從源頭上的歐潤特斯北部死海的南面。 The whole northern empire of Solomon thus practically restored had enjoyed a long period of peace and security marked by a wonderful revival of artistic and commercial development.整個北部帝國所羅門因此,實際上得到了恢復了長期的和平與安全的特點是美妙復興藝術和商業的發展。 Samaria, its capital, had been adorned with splendid and substantial buildings; riches had been accumulated in abundance; comfort and luxury had reached their highest standard; so that the Northern Kingdom had attained a material prosperity unprecedented since the disruption of the empire of Solomon.撒瑪利亞,其資本,已裝飾著華麗和大量建築物;財富已經積累的豐富;舒適和豪華已達到的最高標準;使北聯合王國已達到了前所未有的物質繁榮,因為破壞了帝國的所羅門。 Outwardly, religion was also in a most flourishing condition.從表面上看,宗教是在最繁榮的條件。 The sacrificial worship of the God of Israel was carried on with great pomp and general faithfulness, and the long enjoyment of national prosperity was popularly regarded as an undoubted token of the Lord's favour towards His people.祭祀崇拜上帝對以色列進行的非常隆重和一般的忠誠,長期享受國家的繁榮是普遍視為是無可置疑的象徵上帝贊成對他的人民。 It is true that public morals had gradually been infected by the vices which continued success and plenty too often bring in their train. Social corruption and the oppression of the poor and helpless were very prevalent.誠然,公共道德已逐漸感染了罪惡的持續成功和大量往往使他們的列車。社會腐敗和壓迫的窮人和無助的非常普遍。 But these and similar marks of public degeneracy could be readily excused on the plea that they were the necessary accompaniments of a high degree of Oriental civilization.但是,這些和類似的商標公共簡並可以隨時請求原諒的,他們必要的伴奏高度的東方文明。 Again, religion was debased in various ways.再次,宗教是庸俗的各種方式。 Many among the Israelites were satisfied with the mere offering of the sacrificial victims, regardless of the inward dispositions required for their worthy presentation to a thrice-holy God.不少以色列人感到滿意,只是提供的犧牲品,不管抵港處置所需的值得介紹了三次,神聖的上帝。 Others availed themselves of the throngs which attended the sacred festivals to indulge in immoderate enjoyment and tumultuous revelry.其他利用出席了成群的神聖節日沉迷於過度的享受和動盪的狂歡。 Others again, carried away by the freer association with heathen peoples which resulted from conquest or from commercial intercourse, even went so far as to fuse with the Lord's worship that of pagan deities.還有一些人,帶走的自由與不信教的人民所產生的征服或商業往來,甚至融合與上帝的信仰異教神。 Owing to men's natural tendency to be satisfied with the mechanical performance of religious duties, and owing more particularly to the great proneness of the Hebrews of old to adopt the sensual rites of foreign cults, so long as they did not give up the worship of their own God, these irregularities in matters of religion did not appear objectionable to the Israelites, all the more so because the Lord did not punish them for their conduct.由於男子的自然傾向是滿意的力學性能的宗教義務,由於特別是向偉大的傾向性的希伯來舊通過感官儀式的外國邪教,只要他們不放棄他們的信仰自己的上帝,這些違規行為在宗教事務似乎沒有反感的猶太人,更是因為上帝不懲罰它們的行為。 Yet it was to that most prosperous people, thoroughly convinced that God was well-pleased with them, that Amos was sent to deliver a stern rebuke for all their misdeeds, and to announce in God's name their forthcoming ruin and captivity (vii, 17).然而,它是最繁榮的人,徹底相信,上帝良好高興他們,埃默斯被送往提供了嚴厲訓斥他們的所有罪行,並宣布在上帝的名義即將毀滅和圈養(七17 ) 。

Amos's mission to Israel was but a temporary one.阿莫斯納曼訪問以色列,而是暫時的。 It extended apparently from two years before to a few years after an earthquake, the exact date of which is unknown (i, 1).延長顯然由前兩年幾年後,地震的確切日期是未知(一, 1 ) 。 It met with strong opposition, especially on the part of Amasias, the chief priest of the royal sanctuary in Bethel (vii, 10-13).它會見了強烈的反對,特別是Amasias ,首席神父皇家庇護貝瑟爾(七, 10月13日) 。 How it came to an end is not known; for only late and untrustworthy legends tell of Amos's martyrdom under the ill-treatment of Amasias and his son.如何結束目前尚不清楚;只晚,不可信傳說講述阿莫斯納曼的殉道的虐待Amasias和他的兒子。 It is more probable that, in compliance with Amasias's threatening order (vii, 12), the prophet withdrew to Juda, where at leisure he arranged his oracles in their well-planned disposition.這是更可能的是,在遵守Amasias的威脅命令(七12 ) ,先知撤回猶大,在休閒時,他安排他的神諭在他們精心策劃的處置。

III.三。 ANALYSIS OF PROPHETICAL WRITING分析預言寫作

The book of Amos falls naturally into three parts.這本書的阿莫斯納曼屬於自然分為三部分。 The first opens with a general title to the work, giving the author's name and the general date of his ministry (i, 1), and a text or motto in four poetical lines (i, 2), describing under a fine image the Lord's power over Palestine.首先打開一個總標題的工作,使作者的名字和日期,他一般部(一, 1 ) ,和文字或座右銘在四個詩行(一, 2 ) ,說明下的良好形象的上帝巴勒斯坦權力。 This part comprises the first two chapters, and is made up of a series of oracles against Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Juda, and, finally, Israel.這部分包括前兩章,並取得了一系列的神諭對大馬士革,加沙,提爾以東,阿蒙,莫阿布,猶大,最後,以色列。 Each oracle begins with the same numerical formula: "For three crimes of Damascus [or Gaza, or Tyre, etc., as the case may be], and for four, I will not revoke the doom"; it next sets forth the chief indictment; and finally pronounces the penalty.每個甲骨文開始以同樣的數值公式為: “對三項罪行大馬士革[或加沙地帶,或輪胎等,視情況而定] ,和4 ,我也不會撤銷的末日” ,它闡明了明年的主要起訴書;並最終宣布的處罰。 The heathen nations are doomed not because of their ignorance of the true God, but because of their breaches of the elementary and unwritten laws of natural humanity and good faith.聯合國的異教徒都注定不是因為他們不了解真正的天主,而是因為他們違反了小學和不成文法律的自然人類和誠意。 As regards Juda and Israel, they will share the same doom because, although they were especially cared for by the Lord who drew them out of Egypt, conquered for them the land of Chanaan, and gave them prophets and Nazarites, yet they have committed the same crimes as their pagan neighbours. Israel is rebuked more at length than Juda, and its utter destruction is vividly described.至於猶大和以色列,它們將共享相同的末日,因為儘管他們被特別照顧的主誰提請他們離開埃及,他們征服的土地Chanaan ,並給他們先知和Nazarites ,但他們已承諾的同樣的罪行作為異教鄰國。以色列指責更長度超過猶大,其完全銷毀生動地描述。

The second part (chaps. iii-vi) consists of a series of addresses which expand the indictment and the sentence against Israel set forth in ii, 6-16.第二部分(第一章三至六)包括一系列地址,擴大了起訴書,並針對以色列的判決中規定二, 6月16日。 Amos's indictment bears (1) on the social disorders prevalent among the upper classes; (2) on the heartless luxury and self-indulgence of the wealthy ladies of Samaria; (3) on the too great confidence of the Israelites at large in their mere external discharge of religious duties which can in no way secure them against the approaching doom.阿莫斯納曼的起訴書熊( 1 )對社會疾病流行的上層階級之間; ( 2 )對狠心的豪華和自我放縱的富裕夫人撒馬利亞; ( 3 )關於太大信心,以色列人在其僅僅大外部履行宗教義務而絕不能保證他們對即將到來的厄運。 The sentence itself assumes the form of a dirge over the captivity which awaits the unrepenting transgressors, and the complete surrender of the country to the foreign enemy.句子本身承擔的形式,哀樂在囚禁的等待unrepenting違法,而且完全交出該國的外國敵人。

The third section of the book (chaps. vii-ix, 8b.), apart from the historical account of Amasias's opposition to Amos (vii, 10-17), and from a discourse (viii, 4-14) similar in tone and import to the addresses contained in the second part of the prophecy, is wholly made up of visions of judgment against Israel. In the first two visions--the one of devouring locusts, and the other of consuming fire--the foretold destruction is stayed by divine interposition; but in the third vision, that of a plumb-line, the destruction is permitted to become complete.第三節一書(第一章第七至第九,第8B 。 ) ,除了從歷史到Amasias反對埃默斯(七, 10月17日) ,從話語(八, 4月14日)類似的基調和進口的地址載於第二部分的預言,完全是由遠見的判斷對以色列。在前兩個願景-吞食之一蝗災,和其他的消費火-毀滅的預言是留神干預,但在第三個遠景,是一個垂線,破壞獲准成為完成。 The fourth vision, like the foregoing, is symbolical; a basket of summer fruit points to the speedy decay of Israel; while in the fifth and last the prophet beholds the Lord standing beside the altar and threatening the Northern Kingdom with a chastisement from which there is no escape.第四遠見,像上述情況,是象徵;一籃子夏季水果點迅速衰變以色列;而在第五和最後的先知beholds主站在旁邊的祭壇,並威脅到英國北部的責罰而有沒有逃脫。 The book concludes with God's solemn promise of the glorious restoration of the House of David, and of the wonderful prosperity of the purified nation (ix, 8c-15).這本書的結論與上帝的莊嚴承諾的光榮恢復眾議院大衛,和美好的繁榮純化國家(九, 8c - 15 ) 。

IV.四。 LITERARY FEATURES OF THE BOOK文學特徵的書籍

It is universally admitted at the present day that these contents are set forth in a style of "high literary merit".人們普遍承認,在當今,這些內容是規定在一個風格的“高的文學價值。 ” This literary excellence might, indeed, at first sight appear in strange contrast with Amos's obscure birth and humble shepherd life.這文學卓越可能,事實上,乍一看似乎很奇怪的對比阿莫斯納曼的模糊出生卑微的牧羊人的生活。 A closer study, however, of the prophet's writing and of the actual circumstances of its composition does away with that apparent contrast. Before Amos's time the Hebrew language had gradually passed through several stages of development, and had been cultivated by several able writers.密切研究,然而,先知的寫作和實際情況,其組成擺脫這種明顯的反差。在埃默斯的時間希伯來語已經逐步通過幾個階段的發展,並已培育的幾個能夠作家。 Again, it is not to be supposed that the prophecies of Amos were delivered exactly as they are recorded.再次,它是不能假設的預言阿莫斯納曼作了原樣記錄。 Throughout the book the topics are treated poetically, and many of its literary features are best accounted for by admitting that the prophet spared no time and labour to invest his oral utterances with their present elaborate form.整個書的主題是治療詩意,和它的許多功能是最好的文學作品佔了承認先知不遺餘力地時間和勞力投入的口頭話語與當前擬訂形式。 Finally, to associate inferior culture with the simplicity and relative poverty of pastoral life would be to mistake totally the conditions of Eastern society, ancient and modern.最後,準下文化的簡便和相對貧困的田園生活將是完全錯誤的條件東歐社會,古代和現代。 For among the Hebrews of old, as among the Arabs of the present day, the sum of book-learning was necessarily small, and proficiency in knowledge and oratory was chiefly dependent not on a professional education, but on a shrewd observation of men and things, a memory retentive of traditional lore, and the faculty of original thought.希伯來書為中老,屬於阿拉伯人至今,本書的總和學習不一定是小,和能力的知識和演講主要是依賴而不是專業教育,但對精明的觀察男人和事物,記憶體固位的傳統知識,以及教師的原始思想。

V. AUTHORSHIP AND DATE五,作者身份和日期

Apart from a few recent critics, all scholars maintain the correctness of the traditional view which refers the book of Amos to the Judean prophet of that name.除了幾個最近的批評,所有的學者保持正確的傳統觀點是指這本書的阿莫斯納曼向猶太先知的名字。 They rightly think that the judgments, sermons, and visions which make up that sacred writing centre in a great message of doom to Israel.他們認為,正確的判斷,講道,和遠見,使這一神聖的寫作中心的一個偉大的信息末日到以色列。 The contents read like a solemn denunciation of the incurable wickedness of the Northern Kingdom, like a direct prediction of its impending ruin.閱讀的內容像一個莊嚴的譴責不治之症邪惡北方英國,像一個直接預測其即將破產。 The same scholars regard likewise the general style of the book, with its poetical form and striking simplicity, abruptness, etc., as proof that the work is a literary unit, the various parts of which should be traced back to one and the same mind, to the one and holy prophet, whose name and period of activity are given in the title to the prophecy, and whose authorship is repeatedly affirmed in the body of the book (cf. vii, 1, 2, 4, 5, 8; viii, 1, 2; ix, 1, etc.).同樣的學者同樣的一般樣式的書籍,其詩歌的形式和驚人的簡單,唐突等,以證明這項工作是一個文學單位,各部分應追溯到同一銘記,一個和神聖先知,他的名字和活動期間給出的標題預言,其作者是一再申明正文中的這本書(見第七章, 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 8 ;八, 1 , 2 ;九, 1 ,等等) 。

To confirm the traditional view of Jews and Christians in regard to authorship and date, the two following facts have also been brought forth:確認的傳統觀點的猶太人和基督徒在關於作者和日期,這兩個下面的事實也已提出了:

first, as was to be expected from a shepherd like Amos, the author of the prophecy uses throughout imagery drawn mainly from rural life (the wagon loaded with sheaves, the young lion in its den growling over its prey, the net springing up and entrapping the bird, the remnants of the sheep recovered by the shepherd out of the lion's mouth, cattle-driving, etc.);首先,正如預料的一樣從一個牧羊人阿摩司,作者使用的預言整個圖像主要來自農村生活(該車裝有滑輪,年輕的獅子在其2007咆哮的獵物,淨興起和包埋鳥,殘餘羊收回的牧羊人出虎穴,牛駕駛等) ;

in the second place, there is a close agreement between the state of the Northern Kingdom under Jeroboam II, as described by Amos, and that of the same Kingdom as it is made known to us in the fourth book of Kings and the prophecy of Osee which is commonly ascribed to the same (the eighth) century BC第二,存在著密切的國家之間的協議,北聯合王國根據耶羅波安二世所描述的阿莫斯納曼,並同英國,因為它是我們知道的第四本書的國王和預言Osee這些通常是屬於相同的(第八)世紀公元前

It is true that Amos's authorship of numerous passages, and notably of ix, 8c-15, has been and is still seriously questioned by some leading critics.誠然,阿莫斯納曼的作者的許多段落,特別是在九, 8c - 15 ,已經並且仍然嚴重質疑的一些領導的批評。 But in regard to most, if not indeed to all such passages, it may be confidently affirmed that the arguments against the authorship are not strictly conclusive. Besides, even though the later origin of all these passages should be conceded, the traditional view of the authorship and date of the book as a whole would not be materially impaired.但是,對於大部分,如果不是確實一切有關段落,可以滿懷信心地申明,對作者的論點是沒有嚴格定論。此外,即使後來起源所有這些段落應該承認,傳統的看法,作者和日期的書作為一個整體將不會產生重大影響。

VI.六。 RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS OF AMOS宗教教義的AMOS

Two facts contribute to give to the religious doctrine of Amos a special importance.兩個事實貢獻給宗教教義阿莫斯納曼一個特別重要的意義。 On the one hand, his prophecies are wellnigh universally regarded as authentic, and on the other, his work is probably the earliest prophetical writing which has come down to us.一方面,他的預言是wellnigh普遍認為是真實的,另一方面,他的工作可能是最早預言寫了下來給我們。 So that the book of Amos furnishes us with most valuable information concerning the beliefs of the eighth century BC, and in fact, concerning those of some time before, since, in delivering the Divine message to his contemporaries, the prophet always takes for granted that they are already familiar with the truths to which he appeals.因此,這本書的阿莫斯納曼提供給我們最寶貴的資料的信仰公元前八世紀,而事實上,對這些之前的一段時間,因為在提供的信息,他的神聖的同時代人,先知總是想當然地認為他們已經熟悉了的真理,以他的上訴。 Amos teaches a most pure monotheism.阿莫斯納曼教一個最純粹的一神教。 Throughout his book there is not so much as a reference to other deities than the God of Israel.在他的書沒有多少作為參考其他神明比以色列的上帝。 He often speaks of "the Lord of Hosts", meaning thereby that God has untold forces and powers at His command; in other words, that He is omnipotent.他經常說的是“上帝的主機” ,這意味著從而上帝無窮的力量和權力,在他的指揮下,換句話說,他是萬能的。 His descriptions of the Divine attributes show that according to his mind God is the Creator and Ruler of all things in heaven and on earth; He governs the nations at large, as well as the heavenly bodies and the elements of nature; He is a personal and righteous God who punishes the crimes of all men, whether they belong to the heathen nations or to the chosen people.他描述的神聖屬性表明,據他心裡上帝是造物主和統治者的一切事物在天上,地下;他管轄的各在逃,以及天體的內容和性質;他是一個個人和正義的上帝誰懲罰犯罪的所有男人,他們是否屬於異教徒國家或人民的選擇。 The prophet repeatedly inveighs against the false notions which his contemporaries had of God's relation to Israel.先知一再inveighs對虛假概念,他同時代的上帝的有關以色列。 He does not deny that the Lord is their God in a special manner.他不否認,他們的上帝上帝是在一個特殊的方式進行。 But he argues that His benefits to them in the past, instead of being a reason for them to indulge with security in sins hateful to God's holiness, really increase their guilt and must make them fear a severer penalty.但他辯稱,他的好處,他們在過去的,而不是理由,他們沉溺於與安全的罪孽可恨天主的神聖,真正提高他們有罪,必須使他們擔心嚴厲的處罰。 He does not deny that sacrifices should be offered to the Divine Majesty; but he most emphatically declares that the mere outward offering of them is not pleasing to God and cannot placate His anger.他不否認這一點犧牲,應當向陛下的神,但他最強烈聲明,僅僅向外提供他們不是神所喜悅的,並不能安撫他的憤怒。 On the day of the Lord, that is on the day of retribution, Israelites who shall be found guilty of the same crimes as the heathen nations will be held to account for them severely.在主日,也就是當天的報復,以色列人誰應判定犯有同樣罪行的異教徒聯合國將追究他們嚴重。 It is true that Amos argues in a concrete manner with his contemporaries, and that consequently he does not formulate abstract principles. Nevertheless, his book is replete with truths which can never become superfluous or obsolete.誠然,阿莫斯納曼認為在一個具體的方式與他的同時代人,因此他並不抽象的原則制定。儘管如此,他的書中充斥著真理都絕不能成為多餘或過時。

Finally, whatever view may be taken of the authorship of the concluding portion of the book of Amos (vii, 8c.-15), the Messianic bearing of the passage will be readily admitted by all who believe in the existence of the supernatural.最後,無論認為可採取的作者的結論部分阿摩司書(七, 8c. - 15 ) ,軸承的彌賽亞通過將隨時接納所有誰相信存在超自然。 It may also be added that this Messianic prophecy is worded in a manner that offers no insuperable objection to the traditional view which regards Amos as its author.還可以補充說,這彌賽亞的預言是措詞的方式,並沒有不可逾越的反對傳統的觀點認為阿莫斯納曼其提出者。

Publication information Written by FE Gigot.出版信息書面鐵吉戈特。 Transcribed by Thomas J. Bress. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.轉錄由托馬斯J Bress 。天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat , 1907年3月1號。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

For reference to Introductions to the Old Testament, see Bibliography to AGGEUS; recent Commentaries on Amos by TROCHON (1886); KNABENBAUER (1886); ORELLI (Eng. tr., 1893); FILLION (1896); DRIVER (1898); SMITH (1896); MITCHELL (2nd ed., 1900); NOWACK (2nd ed., 1903); MARTI (1903); HORTON (1904).借鑒介紹舊約,見參考書目,以AGGEUS ;最近評阿莫斯納曼的TROCHON ( 1886年) ; KNABENBAUER ( 1886年) ; ORELLI ( Eng.文。 , 1893年) ;菲利安( 1896年) ;司機( 1898年) ;史密斯( 1896年) ;米切爾(第二版。 , 1900 ) ; NOWACK (第二版。 , 1903 ) ; MARTI ( 1903年) ; HORTON ( 1904年) 。


Book of Amos阿摩司書

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

This Biblical book, one of the twelve so-called "Minor Prophets," opens with the announcement of God's intention to punish evildoers (i. 2).這聖經書,其中12所謂的“小先知, ”打開宣布上帝的打算懲罰惡人(一2 ) 。 Damascus (i. 3-5), Gaza (i. 6-9), Tyre (i. 9, 10), Edom (i. 11, 12), Ammon (i. 13-15), Moab (ii. 1-3), and Judah are taken up in turn until Israel (ii. 6) is reached.大馬士革(一3-5 ) ,加沙(一6-9 ) ,輪胎(一9日, 10日) ,埃多姆(一11日, 12日) ,阿蒙(一13-15 ) ,莫阿布(白介素1 -3 ) ,和猶太採取行動反過來,直至以色列(白介素6 )達成。 The prophet is vehement because the crimes of the people have been committed in the face of the fact that God redeemed His people from Egypt (ii. 10), destroyed the Amorites (ii. 9), and sent prophets (ii. 11) whom, however, Israel would not allow to prophesy (ii. 12).先知是激烈的,因為犯罪的人在面對這樣一個事實,即上帝贖回他的人民從埃及(白介素10 ) ,摧毀了阿莫里特(白介素9 ) ,並派出先知(白介素11 )人但是,以色列不會允許預言(白介素12 ) 。 In the third and fourth chapters the prophet addresses himself directly to the kingdom of Israel.在第三和第四章先知地址本人直接向以色列王國。 The nations are summoned to the mountains of Samaria to witness the wrongs there practised (iii. 9).聯合國是在傳喚到山區薩馬利亞見證有錯誤的做法( iii. 9 ) 。 The punishment that is impending will be so severe that only few will escape (iii. 12). Because of the women of Samaria, who were cruel to the poor and the needy (iv. 1), prosperity will cease (iv. 2), and not even sacrifice will avail (iv. 4, 5).在即將到來的懲罰,將是十分嚴重,只有很少人會逃跑( iii. 12 ) 。由於婦女撒瑪利亞,誰是殘酷的,以窮人和需要幫助( iv. 1 ) ,繁榮將停止( iv. 2 ) ,而不是不惜犧牲將利用( iv. 4 , 5 ) 。 God had tried to teach Israel by affliction; but neither famine, drought, blasting of the crops, attacks of insects, pestilence, defeat in war (iv. 6-10), nor even treatment like that of Sodom could induce Israel to repent.上帝曾試圖教以色列的痛苦,但也飢荒,乾旱,爆破的作物,昆蟲襲擊,瘟疫,戰爭中的失敗( iv. 6月10日) ,甚至也不待遇一樣,所多瑪可誘導以色列悔改。 Complete destruction, therefore, is foretold (v. 1-3).徹底破壞,因此,預言(五1-3 ) 。

In vain does the prophet admonish Israel to seek the Lord, not Beth-el (v. 4-6).徒勞的不先知告誡以色列尋求上帝,而不是貝絲,薩爾瓦多(五4-6 ) 。 Samaria persists in being wicked and unjust (v. 7, 8).薩馬利亞堅持被邪惡的和不公正的(五,七,八) 。 Once more the prophet calls upon Israel to repent (v. 14); and, as before, Israel fails to do so.再次呼籲以色列先知懺悔(五14 ) ;和以前一樣,以色列不這樣做。 Besides injustice and irreligion, Israel indulges in luxurious and riotous living (vi. 1-6).除了不公正和無神論,以色列indulges在豪華和繽紛生活( vi. 1-6 ) 。 This, too, is a factor which inevitably leads to captivity (vi. 7). With chap.這也是一個因素,不可避免地導致囚禁( vi. 7 ) 。隨著第三章。 vii.七。 begins a series of visions, which continues to chap. ix.開始了一系列的設想,它繼續第三章。九。 6. 6 。 A plague of grasshoppers (vii. 1-3) and a fire (vii. 4-6) are followed by a third plague; and the plumb-line is set up against the city and against the family of Jeroboam (vii. 7-9).瘟疫蝗蟲( vii. 1-3 )和消防( vii. 4月6日)之後的第三次鼠疫;和垂線是建立對城市和對家庭的耶羅波安( vii. 7 - 9 ) 。 The prophet's audacity brings upon him the hostility of the reigning house; and he is ordered to confine his prophetical activity to the land of his birth, Judah.先知的勇氣使他的敵意衛冕房子,他下令他的預言限於活動的土地,他的出生,猶太。 Amos disclaims being a prophet, or the son of a prophet, and reiterates the certainty of coming misfortune (vii. 10-17).阿莫斯納曼聲明是一個先知,或的兒子先知,並重申未來的確定性不幸( vii. 10月17日) 。 The last vision, representing God Himself standing at the altar and announcing the terrible catastrophe (ix. 1-6), emphasizes the hopelessness of escape from divine vengeance.在過去的設想,代表上帝站在祭壇,並宣布了可怕的災難( ix. 1-6 ) ,強調擺脫絕望的神聖復仇。 The book ends (ix. 7-15) in words of comfort.這本書結束( ix. 7月15日)在口頭上的安慰。 The remnant shall return and in the future the land will yield abundantly (13-15).殘餘應回歸和今後的土地將產生十分( 13-15 ) 。 For critical view of the Book of Amos, see Amos.關鍵鑑於阿摩司書,見阿莫斯納曼。 GBL Groupe Bruxelles Lambert的

Gerson B. Levi格爾松灣列維

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。


Amos埃默斯

Jewish Perspective Information 猶太透視信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章標題:

Home and Occupation.主頁和佔領。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

First to Write down Prophecy.首先寫下的預言。

Repentance and Forgiveness.懺悔和寬恕。

Personality of Amos.人格阿莫斯納曼。

Superscription of the Book. Superscription的圖書。

The Present Form of the Book.目前的形式圖書。

Editorial and Later Additions.編輯和後來補充。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

Home and Occupation.主頁和佔領。

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

Jewish prophet of the eighth century BC; date of birth and death unknown.猶太先知公元前八世紀,出生日期和死亡不明。 Among the minor prophets there is none whose personality is so familiar as that of Amos.在未成年人先知也沒有他們的個性是如此熟悉的阿莫斯納曼。 His name occurs not only in the superscription of the book, but several times (vii. 8, 10 et seq., 14; viii. 2) in the body of it.他的名字不僅出現在superscription這本書,但幾次( vii. 8日, 10日起。 , 14 ;八。 2 )在人體內的。 His home was in Tekoa in Judah, five miles to the south of Bethlehem.他的家是在猶太Tekoa ,五英里以南的伯利恆。 The original title of his book was merely "The Words of Amos of Tekoa"; the rest, "who was among the herdsmen," is a later addition emphasizing the fact gleaned from vii.原名只是他的書“的話阿莫斯納曼的Tekoa ” ,其餘的, “誰是牧民, ”是後來的事實除了強調收集到七。 14, that Amos had been a herdsman before he became a prophet. From the margin this notice appears to have intruded itself into the text. 14日,即阿莫斯納曼了牧民前他成為先知。從利潤率這一通知似乎已經侵入到自己的文字。 The attempt has been made to discover a northern Tekoa for his home, but there is no need for that.在已試圖發現北部Tekoa他回家,但沒有必要的。 That Amos was from Judah is the simplest interpretation of vii.這是從猶太阿莫斯納曼是最簡單的解釋七。 13. 13 。 Amos himself tells us what his profession was: he was a herdsman and one who tended sycamore-figs (vii. 14).阿莫斯本人告訴我們他的職業是:他是一個牧人和一個誰往往西克莫,無花果( vii. 14 ) 。 At Tekoa sycamores are not grown, but Amos could very well have been the proprietor of a sycamore-grove at some distance from Tekoa, in the Shefelah, the hill country leading down to Philistia, where there were sycamoretreesin "abundance" (I Kings, x. 27).在Tekoa sycamores沒有增長,但是阿莫斯納曼很可能已經成為所有人的西克莫-格羅夫在一定距離Tekoa ,在Shefelah ,山上國家領導到非利士,那裡有sycamoretreesin “豐富” (我的國王,十, 27 ) 。 He makes this statement of his occupation to Amaziah, the chief priest of Bethel, who, startled by the ominous utterances of Amos, advises him to make his escape to Judah and there to earn his livelihood by his profession of prophet.他讓他的這一聲明佔領Amaziah ,首席牧師貝瑟爾,誰,受驚的不祥的言論阿莫斯納曼,建議他讓他逃到猶太和賺取他的生活,他的職業先知。 Amos denies both premises involved in this rebuke.阿莫斯納曼都否認參與了這一處所指責。 He does not need to take fees for his prophecies, because he is well-to-do, and he is no prophet either by profession or extraction, but was called by God from behind his flock by special summons.他並不需要費他的預言,因為他是小康,他沒有先知由專業或提取,但被稱為上帝從後面他的羊群特別傳票。 Amos' attitude marks a turning-point in the development of Old Testament prophecy.埃默斯的態度標誌著一個轉折點的發展,舊約的預言。 It is not mere chance that Hosea, Isaiah (ch. vi.), Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and almost all of the prophets who are more than unknown personages to whom a few prophetical speeches are ascribed, give first of all the story of their special calling.這不是偶然的何西阿,以賽亞(章六。 ) ,耶利米,以西結書,幾乎所有的先知誰多個不明人士向誰幾個預言講話是認定,給予首先故事的特殊要求。

First to Write down Prophecy.首先寫下的預言。

All of them thereby seek to protest against the suspicion that they are professional prophets, because the latter discredited themselves by flattering national vanities and ignoring the misdeeds of prominent men.所有這些,從而尋求抗議懷疑,他們是專業的先知,因為後者敗壞自己的恭維國家梳妝台和無視劣跡突出的男子。 But Amos marks an epoch in Old Testament prophecy also in another respect.但是阿莫斯納曼標誌著一個時代在舊約的預言也從另一個方面。 He is the first of the prophets to write down the messages he has received.他是第一個先知寫下他的郵件已收到。 It is easy to understand the reason for this innovation.我們很容易理解的原因,這一創新。 He feels himself called to preach in Beth-el, where there was a royal sanctuary (vii. 13), and there to announce the fall of the reigning dynasty and of the northern kingdom.他覺得自己宣揚的所謂貝絲,薩爾瓦多,那裡是一個皇家聖殿( vii. 13 ) ,並宣布秋季王朝的統治和英國北部。 But he is denounced by the head priest Amaziah to King Jeroboam II.但他譴責頭部神父Amaziah國王耶羅波安二。 (vii. 10 et seq.), and is advised to leave the kingdom (verses 12 et seq.). ( vii. 10起。 ) ,並告知不要在英國(詩句12起。 ) 。 Though nothing more is learned than the answer he gave Amaziah (verses 14 et seq.), there is no reason to doubt that he was actually forced to leave the northern kingdom and to return to his native country.雖然沒有更多的了解比回答他Amaziah (詩句14起。 ) ,沒有理由懷疑他實際上是被迫離開英國北部並有權返回他的祖國。 Being thus prevented from bringing his message to an end, and from reaching the ear of those to whom he was sent, he had recourse to writing.正因此無法把他的訊息結束,進入耳朵的那些人,他被送往,他求助於寫作。 If they could not hear his messages, they could read them, and if his contemporaries refused to do so, following generations might still profit by them.如果他們無法聽到他的消息,他們可以閱讀,如果他的同時代人拒絕這樣做,下面的後代仍可能由它們的利潤。 No earlier instance of a literary prophet is known, nor is it likely that there was any; but the example he gave was followed by others in an almost unbroken succession.沒有更早的實例文學被稱為先知,也不是可能有任何;但例如他隨後在其他幾乎完整的繼承。 It is true, it can not be proved that Hosea knew the book of Amos, though there is no reason to doubt that he was acquainted with the latter's work and experiences.這是事實,但不能證明何西阿知道這本書的阿莫斯納曼,但沒有理由懷疑,他熟悉後者的工作和經驗。 It is quite certain, on the other hand, that Isaiah knew his book, for he follows and even imitates him in his early speeches (compare Amos, v. 21-24, iv. 6 et seq., v. 18 with Isa. i. 11-15; Amos, iv. 7 et seq. with Isa., etc., ix. 7 et seq., ii. 12).這是相當肯定,另一方面,這以賽亞知道他的書,因為他如下甚至模仿他早期的講話(比較阿莫斯納曼,五, 21日至24日,四。 6起。河谷18伊薩。一, 11月15日;阿莫斯納曼,四。 7起。使用ISA 。等九。 7起。 ,二。 12 ) 。 Cheyne concludes with great probability that Amos wrote the record of his prophetical work at Jerusalem, after his expulsion from the northern kingdom, and that he committed it to a circle of faithful followers of YHWH residing there.陳最後偉大的概率阿莫斯納曼寫的記錄工作,他預言在耶路撒冷,在他被驅逐出英國北部,他承諾給一個圓圈的忠實追隨者耶和華那裡居住。

Repentance and Forgiveness.懺悔和寬恕。

Amos is undoubtedly one of the grandest personalities among the Old Testament prophets; indeed, the most imposing of all, if the fact be considered that he is the first of the writing-prophets.阿莫斯納曼無疑是一個偉大的人物之一舊約先知;事實上,史上最宏偉的是,如果事實被認為,他是第一個寫作先知。 His lofty conception of Deity, his uncompromisingly moral conception of the order of the universe, and his superiority to all religious narrowness, are admirable indeed.他的崇高概念的神,他毫不妥協的道德觀念秩序的宇宙,他的優勢,所有宗教偏狹,確實令人欽佩。 Leaving the above-mentioned "doxologies" aside, YHWH is in vii.離開上述“ doxologies ”之外,耶和華是在七。 4, ix. 4 ,九。 2 the Ruler of the universe, and in i., ii., and ix. 2統治者的宇宙,並在一,二。 ,和第九章。 7 He is the Lord of all other nations as well as of Israel. 7他是上帝的所有其他國家以及以色列。 The standard by which He measures peoples is morality, and morality only.標準的人民,他的措施是道德,道德只。 It is by His inscrutable will that Israel was chosen among the peoples, but as a result it follows that God is doubly strict in His demands upon this nation, and doubly severe in His punishment of its transgressions (iii. 2). Ritualistic zeal and the richest burnt-offerings avail nothing in extenuation; such acts are contemptuous in the sight of YHWH, who may be served without any religious ceremonies, but not without morality (iii. 21-25, iv. 4, 5, 13).這是由他的不可思議的將是以色列人民之間的選擇,但由於因此,上帝是倍加嚴格要求在他的這個國家,並在他的雙重嚴重懲罰其越軌( iii. 2 ) 。儀式的熱情和最富有的爛花產品利用任何減輕;這種行為是藐視在看到耶和華,誰可能是未經任何宗教儀式,但並非沒有道德( iii. 21日至25日,四。 4 , 5 , 13 ) 。 Therefore let the nation not comfort itself with the hope of the "Day of YHWH," which will be a day of terror for Israel, and not of salvation (v. 18-20).因此,讓全國沒有安慰自己,希望“天的耶和華, ”這將是一個恐怖的一天,以色列,而不是救贖(五18-20 ) 。 It is all over with Israel; the complete destruction is at hand (see especially ii. 5, v. 1 et seq., ix. 1-4).這是所有與以色列徹底摧毀是手(見特別是二。 5 ,五, 1起。 ,九。 1-4 ) 。

Personality of Amos.人格阿莫斯納曼。

Distinct as are these fundamental principles of his discourses, Amos must by no means be considered as an uncompromising prophet of evil; it should not be forgotten that Israel's destruction is brought about by its sinfulness, and it is only because experience appears to show an unwillingness to repent, that the hope of forgiveness is cut off.不同的是這些基本原則的論述,阿莫斯納曼絕不能視為是不妥協的先知的罪惡,它不應忘記的是,以色列的破壞所帶來的罪惡,它只是因為經驗似乎表明不願意懺悔,即希望寬恕是切斷。 Should this experience prove false and Israel actually repent, forgiveness and national life would be by no means hopeless; and therefore utterances like v. 4 and 14, however inconspicuous they may be in comparison with the denunciatory passages, are by no means to be overlooked, and certainly not to be held as spurious.如果這方面的經驗證明,以色列實際上假懺悔,寬恕和國民生活將絕非無望;因此話語像訴4和第14條,但是不顯眼,他們可能會在比較非難通道,絕不是被忽視,當然更不是將要舉行的欺騙性。 It is certain, however, that Amos did not shrink from facing the possibility of the utter destruction of Israel.這是肯定的,但是,阿莫斯納曼沒有退縮面臨的可能性完全摧毀以色列。

Amos has always been admired for the purity of his language, his beauty of diction, and his poetic art.阿莫斯納曼一直欽佩的純度,他的語言,他的美麗的詞,他的詩歌藝術。 In all these respects he is Isaiah's spiritual progenitor.在所有這些方面,他是以賽亞的精神祖。 There is no need for astonishment that a rustic should have been capable of such diction.因此沒有必要驚訝,一個質樸的應該是這樣的詞能。

The period of the prophet's activity is the reign of Jeroboam II., king of Israel, whose dynasty he mentions in one of his prophecies (vii. 9), while the narrator of vii.期間的先知活動是耶羅波安二世統治時期。國王以色列,他提到的時期之一,他的預言( vii. 9 ) ,而敘述者的七。 10, etc. (probably not identical with Amos), clearly states that Jeroboam was reigning at the time when Amos preached at Beth-el. 10等(可能不等同於阿莫斯納曼) ,明確指出,耶羅波安是在位時阿莫斯納曼鼓吹在貝絲-薩爾瓦多。 The superscription of the book (i. 1) mentions Uzziah, king of Judah, before Jeroboam, which is doubtless correct, inasmuch as Uzziah was a contemporary of Jeroboam; but the statement is at the same time puzzling, since it is not known that Amos was ever active in Judah.該superscription本書(一1 )提到Uzziah ,猶太國王之前,耶羅波安,這無疑是正確的,因為Uzziah是一種當代的耶羅波安;但聲明同時也令人費解,因為它是不知道阿莫斯納曼是以往任何時候都活躍在猶太。

Superscription of the Book. Superscription的圖書。

The superscription adds that he "saw" his words two years before the earthquake.該superscription補充說,他“看到”他的話前兩年的地震。 Now Amos doubtless experienced an earthquake (iv. 11), and an earthquake under King Uzziah is testified to in Zech.現在阿莫斯納曼無疑經歷了一場地震( iv. 11 ) ,並根據地震國王Uzziah是證明在Zech 。 xiv.十四。 5; but unfortunately this passage does not help us much, seeing that it is of late origin, and may itself be taken from Amos, iv. 5 ;但不幸的是,這一段不幫助我們更看到,這是已故出身,本身可能採取從阿莫斯納曼,四。 11, or even from the heading of the book. 11 ,甚至是從標題的書籍。 On the other hand, the superscription may be based on the hints contained in the book itself, and indeed G. Hoffmann in Stade's "Zeitschrift," iii.另一方面,在superscription可根據提示載於圖書本身,實際上灣霍夫曼在體育場的“雜誌, ”三。 123, has tried to offer an explanation for the phrase "two years before the earthquake" which would deprive the words of every real significance. 123 ,試圖提供一種解釋“一語前兩年地震” ,這將剝奪的話,每一個真正的意義。 His explanation seems to be somewhat artificial, but has been accepted by such scholars as Cheyne and Marti.他的解釋似乎有點人為的,但已接受了這種學者陳和馬蒂。 Still, since the heading undoubtedly contains reliable and authentic statements, the possibility that the reference to the earthquake is also authentic must be admitted.不過,因為標題無疑包含可靠和真實的聲明的可能性,在提到地震也是正宗必須承認。 The question, however, remains whether all the prophecies united in the Book of Amos are to be understood as uttered in this same year.但是,問題仍然是,是否所有的預言美國在阿摩司書應理解為說出在這同一年。 Their extent would not make this impossible, nor is it likely that Amos, rebuking the sins of Ephraim so openly, would have been tolerated many years before being denounced and expelled, as we read in vii.其範圍不會使這個不可能的,也不是可能阿莫斯納曼,譴責的罪過埃弗拉伊姆如此公開,將是不能容忍的多年之前,譴責和驅逐,正如我們在第七。 10. 10 。 In this case the earthquake in iv.在這種情況下,地震發生在四。 11 must be another than that mentionedin i. 11必須在另一個比mentionedin島 1, because it could not be referred to two years before it actually happened. 1 ,因為它不能被稱為是前兩年的實際情況。 Moreover, it is unlikely that Amos should not have added new prophecies to those spoken during his stay in the northern kingdom, when he once proceeded to write down his utterances (compare Jer. xxxvi. 32).此外,它是不可能的阿莫斯納曼不應增加了新的預言這些訪問期間,他談到在英國北部,當他再次開始寫下他的言論(比較哲。三十六。 32 ) 。 If i.如果一 1 be admitted as authentic, the most probable conclusion is that "two years before the earthquake" was originally the date for only a part of the book, perhaps for only the introductory speech in i. 1被接納為正宗,最有可能的結論是, “前兩年地震”最初的日期只是一個組成部分這本書,也許只在一,介紹性發言 2. 2 。

The reign of Jeroboam II.在位耶羅波安二。 lasted forty-one years, according to II Kings, xiv.持續四十一年,根據二王,十四。 23. 23 。 Though it can not be fixed with certainty, this much may be said, that its termination must be placed between 750 and 740 BC Marti ("Ency. Bibl." article. "Chronology," p. 797) fixes his reign between 782 and 743 BC The activity of Amos could hardly have coincided with the close of his reign.雖然它無法修好肯定,這更可以說,其終止必須把750和740之間公元前馬蒂( “ Ency 。 Bibl 。 ”文章。 “大事記” ,頁797 )修正他的統治,並與782 743年的活動阿莫斯納曼很難正好與他的統治結束。 The fact alone that Isaiah's call can not have happened later than 740, while he so evidently draws on Amos' prophecies, is sufficient ground for placing Amos not later than 750.這一事實本身的以賽亞的要求不能發生不遲於740 ,而他做顯然吸取了阿莫斯納曼'的預言,是足夠的理由把阿莫斯納曼不得遲於750 。

The Present Form of the Book.目前的形式圖書。

The first indication that a distinction must be made between the prophecies of Amos and the book that bears his name is to be found in the narrative, vii.第一個跡象表明,必須加以區分的預言阿莫斯納曼和書,他的名字命名是可以找到的敘述,七。 10-17. 10月17日。 This is inserted after the third of five visions which form a connected series.這是插入後的第三個五年願景形成了連接系列。 The insertion in question is simply a comment on vii.插入的問題很簡單評論七。 9, and contains the threat of the overthrow of Jeroboam and his house. 9 ,並載有威脅推翻耶羅波安和他的房子。 It is mentioned in vii.這是中提到的七。 10 that Amos' boldness resulted in his expulsion from the northern kingdom. 10阿莫斯納曼'勇氣導致他被驅逐出英國北部。 It is not likely that Amos himself would have interrupted his series of addresses in this way.這是不太可能阿莫斯納曼自己會打斷了他的一系列的地址,這種方式。 Moreover, he is not the narrator; another writer speaks of him in the third person.此外,他還沒有敘述者;另一作家談到了他的第三人。 Hence it is clear that his book has not come to us exactly as he wrote it. But, on the other hand, vii.因此很顯然,他的書卻沒有給我們完全一樣,他寫的。但是,另一方面,七。 10 et seq. 10起。 must have been written soon after the event by a writer who had thoroughly trustworthy accounts of Amos.必須是書面的事件後不久,由作家誰曾詳細帳目阿莫斯納曼信賴。 This is a fact of great importance.這是一個事實是非常重要的。

Editorial and Later Additions.編輯和後來補充。

The book is well arranged in its general features.這本書是停妥在其一般特點。 There is in chaps.目前在第一和第五章。 i.字母i. and ii.和二。 a coherent series of judgments on sinful and unrepentant peoples, aimed particularly at Israel.一系列連貫的有罪判決和執迷不悟人民,特別針對以色列。 In chaps. vii.-ix.在第一和第五章。 vii.-ix. are the above-mentioned five visions; in chaps.在上述五個願景;在第一和第五章。 iii.-vi. a series of discourses, loosely connected, whose beginning and end can not be fixed with certainty.一系列論述,鬆散連接的,其開始和結束時不能固定確定性。 The same problem is presented in other prophetical books; the prophet himself would scarcely lay great stress on the separation of the single discourses when he wrote or dictated them.同樣的問題,提出的其他預言書;先知本人將幾乎奠定十分重視分離的單一話語時,他寫道或支配他們。 There is no reason to doubt that this arrangement goes back to the first editors, working soon after the prophet's death or even delegated by him for this task.人們沒有理由懷疑,這種安排可追溯到第一編輯,工作後不久,先知死刑或即使授權他完成這項任務。 This does not preclude the possibility of later changes and additions.這並不排除的可能性,後來修改和補充。 Since the investigations of Stade and Wellhausen, such changes have been assumed in increasing proportions.由於調查隊和豪森,這種變化已經在越來越多的比例承擔。 The most complete and discriminating survey of those passages whose originality hitherto has been doubted is given by Cheyne ("Ency. Bibl." article "Amos"). They can be grouped under the following titles: (1) Passages widening the horizon of the book, so as to include the southern kingdom of Judah.最完整和歧視調查這些通道的原創性一直被懷疑是由陳( “ Ency 。 Bibl 。 ”條“阿莫斯” ) 。他們可以分為以下幾個題目: ( 1 )通道拓寬視野的圖書,以便包括南部的猶太王國。 (2) Additional predictions affirming a better future than the gloomy auguries of the old prophet. ( 2 )附加預測申明一個更美好的未來暗淡auguries比舊的先知。 (3) Additions giving expression to the loftier and more spiritual theology of a later time. ( 3 )添置體現的崇高精神,更神學以後。 (4) Glosses and explanations based on an erroneous conception of the texts. ( 4 ) Glosses和解釋的基礎上的錯誤概念的文本。

(1) The chief passage of the first group is ii. ( 1 )行政長官通過了第一組是二。 4, etc., the denunciation of Judah in the series of judgments against the nations. 4 ,等等,譴責猶太系列中的判決對聯合國。 The same judgment against Edom in i.同樣的判決中島以東 11 and 12 is perhaps also an addition, and the same has been surmised of the passage about Tyre in i. 11日和12日也許是還此外,同一直推測的通道大約在提爾島 9. 9 。 The isolated verse i.孤立的詩島 2, in which Zion is spoken of as the fixed seat of YHWH, is also doubtful, and the same is true of the address to Zion in vi. 2 ,其中錫安是談到作為固定座位的耶和華,也值得懷疑,也是如此的地址錫安在六。 1, and the expression "like David" in vi. 1 ,表達“大衛像”在六。 5. 5 。

(2) The second group is represented by ix. ( 2 )第二類是由九。 8-15, canceled by Stade, Wellhausen, Cornill, Nowack, Cheyne, and many others, as spurious. These verses do not form a single whole, but are composed of different passages. 8月15日,取消了體育場,豪森, Cornill , Nowack ,陳,和許多其他國家,如虛假的。這些經文不構成一個整體,而是由不同的通道。 Verses 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 seem to be mere fragments or insertions in the context.詩篇10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14似乎僅僅片段或插入的背景。 The last verse, which, by virtue of its inimitable originality, is unanimously ascribed to Amos, can not have formed the concluding verse of the book, but appears to have been the beginning of a new address.過去的詩,其中,憑藉其獨特的創意,是一致歸因於阿莫斯納曼,不能形成的結論詩句的書籍,但似乎已經進入了一個新的地址。 If the verses 8-15 are to be taken in their entirety as a later addition, the original continuation must either have been lost through the mutilation of the manuscript, or have intentionally been stricken out on account of the too mournful survey of the future.如果詩句8月15日是將要採取的全部作為後來此外,原來的延續必須要么已經失去通過切割的時間,或有故意被飽經了到太悲哀調查未來。 The latter suggestion is improbable, because verse 7 would have been rejected for the same reason, and because in other passages (see verses 1-4) the most terrible predictions have been retained.後者的建議是不可能的,因為詩7將被拒絕出於同樣的原因,並因為在其他段落(見詩句1-4 )最可怕的預言已被保留。 If, on the other hand, the conclusion had been lost in consequence of the mutilation and then supplied at hazard, a more uniform continuation would have been expected in place of such a rugged one, with its disjointed and disconnected sentences.如果在另一方面,失去了最後的後果是,切割,然後在災害提供一個更加統一的繼續本來預計在這樣一個堅固的一個,其脫節和斷開句子。 The possibility remains that verses 8-15 are a repeated elaboration of the original conclusion.的可能性仍然是詩句8月15日是一個反复闡述的原始結論。 It is erroneous to consider verse 11, concerning the restoration of the fallen tabernacle of David, as a specifically Judaic prediction; it can only assume this character through the addition of verse 12, which regards the subjection of the vassals of Judah as an essential feature of such reestablishment.這是錯誤的考慮詩11 ,關於恢復下降幕大衛,作為一個專門猶太教預測,它只能承擔起這一特點,通過增加詩12 ,這方面受的奴僕的猶太作為一個基本特徵這種重建。 The verse refers to the reestablishment of the united kingdom of Israel, founded by David and sundered after the death of Solomon.詩歌是指重建聯合王國以色列,成立由David和sundered去世後所羅門。 Verses 8, 9, 11, 14, and 15 may possibly contain an original prediction directed, like vii.詩8 , 9 , 11 , 14和15可能包含原始預報指示,像七。 9, against the house of Jeroboam, and promising for the future the restoration of a united Israel, as pleasing to Jehovah. 9 ,對眾議院的耶羅波安,和充滿希望的未來恢復聯合國以色列,高興地耶和華。 Of course, conclusive proof of this theory can no longer be secured, nor can the original text of such prediction be restored with reasonable certainty.當然,最後證明這個理論不能再擔保,也不能原始文本的這種預測得到恢復以合理的確定性。

(3) The third group of additions are the doxologies iv. ( 3 )第三組增加是doxologies四。 13, v. 8, ix. 56, which invoke YHWH as the Creator and Ruler of the world. 13日,五,八,九。現年56歲,其中援引耶和華作為Creator和統治者的世界。 While it is not impossible that they may have been written by Amos, the style of these additions indicates a much later period, possibly later than Deutero-Isaiah.雖然這不是不可能的,他們可能已經寫阿莫斯納曼,款式這些增加表明後期得多,可能遲於Deutero -以賽亞。 Since all three passages interrupt the context, and iv.由於所有三個通道中斷的情況下,和第四。 12 and v. 7 have inherent difficulties of their own, it may be suggested that the interpolator designed these doxologies to fill up gaps or illegible sentences in the manuscripts. 12日和訴7人固有的困難自己的,可以建議插補設計這些doxologies填補空白或難以辨認的句子中的手稿。

(4) To the fourth group, iii. ( 4 )第四組,三。 14 and viii. 14和第八。 11, and 12 may be assigned. Other passages are open to discussion, particularly the enigmatical verse v. 26 (Wellhausen, Nowack, Cheyne), the difficulty of which is hardly solved by the suggestion of its being simply a marginal gloss. 11日,和5月12日被指派。其他通道是開放的討論,特別是陰陽怪氣詩訴26 (豪森, Nowack ,陳) ,其中的困難是難以解決的建議,它是一種邊際光澤。 Finally, there are many individual words of the text of this book which present numerous difficulties.最後,有許多個人的話的案文的這本書目前的許多困難。

Concerning the problem which the severe logical attitude of Amos presents in the history of religion, compare especially F. Giesebrecht, "Die Geschichtlichkeit des Sinaibundes," p.關於這個問題的嚴重邏輯態度阿莫斯納曼介紹歷史上的宗教,比較特別是樓Giesebrecht , “模具之歷史性Sinaibundes , ”第 14; also K. Budde, "American Lectures on the History of Religions," vol.第14條;還光布德, “美國講座宗教史” ,第一卷。 iv. lecture iv.四。講座四。 To ascribe the whole book to another age, the pre-Deuteronomic period of Josiah (638-621), on account of this and similar difficulties,as HJ Elhorst, "De Profetie van Amos" (Leyden, 1900), proposes, is entirely unwarranted and impossible. See the criticism of P. Volz in Schürer's "Theol. Literatur-zeitung," May 12, 1900.歸咎於全書到另一個時代,前Deuteronomic期喬賽亞( 638-621 ) ,考慮到這一點,類似的困難,因為黃建忠Elhorst “者Profetie麵包車阿莫斯納曼” (萊頓, 1900年) ,建議,是完全不必要的和不可能的。見的批評體育Volz在Schürer的“ Theol 。文學報” ,一九〇 〇年五月十二號。

Karl Budde Kaufmann Kohler Louis Ginzberg卡爾布德考夫曼科勒路易金茲伯格

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: See, besides the monographs and articles already referred to, the commentaries of Orelli, Hitzig, Steiner, Keil, Reuss.參考書目:見,除專著和文章已經提到,評注的Orelli ,希齊格,施泰納的Keil , Reuss 。 Nowack, Handcommentar zum AT, 1892, et seq.; Wellhausen, Die Kleinen Propheten, 1892; JJP Valeton, Amos en Hosea, 1894; Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, 1896; idem, The Expositor's Bible; Driver, Joel and Amos, in Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, 1897; Heilprin, Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews, 1882, ii.KB Nowack , Handcommentar zum在, 1892年起。 ;豪森,模具Kleinen Propheten , 1892年; JJP莪阿莫斯納曼恩何西阿, 1894年;史密斯,這本書的12個先知, 1896年;同上,該Expositor的聖經;驅動,喬爾和阿莫斯納曼,劍橋聖經為學校和學院, 1897年; Heilprin ,歷史的古代詩歌希伯來, 1882年, ii.KB

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

According to the rabbis (Lev. R. x., Eccl. R. i. 1) Amos was nick-named "the stutterer" by a popular etymology.據猶太教士( Lev.河十, Eccl 。戈科1 )阿莫斯納曼是尼克名為“的stutterer ”由人民詞源。 The people, on hearing his bitter rebukes, retorted: "Has the Lord cast aside all His creatures to let His spirit dwell only on this stutterer?" Regarding the teachings of Amos, the following utterance of Simlai, an amora of the beginning of the third century, is noteworthy: Six hundred and thirteen commandments were given to Moses; King David reduced them to eleven (Ps. xv.); Isaiah to six (Isa. xxxiii. 15); Micah to three (Micah vi. 8); Isaiah, a second time, to two (Isa. lvi. 1); but Amos to one: "Seek Me and Live!"人民在聽到他痛苦的指責,反駁道: “有主拋開他所有的動物,讓他談談精神只有關於這個stutterer ? ”關於教義阿莫斯納曼,以下話語的Simlai ,一個阿莫拉的開始第三個世紀,值得注意的是: 600名和13誡命給予摩西;大衛王減少到11 ( Ps.十五。 ) ;以賽亞書6 ( Isa.三十三。 15 ) ;米卡三年(米卡六。 8 ) ;以賽亞書,第二次,兩次( Isa.左室。 1 ) ;但阿莫斯納曼之一: “來找我和Live ! ” (Mak. 24a). According to rabbinical tradition (Suk. 52b, Pirḳe R. ha-Ḳadosh, viii., based on Micah v. 5 [4]), Amos is one of the "eight princes among men" alluded to in Micah, v. 5. ( Mak. 24A條) 。根據猶太教的傳統( Suk. 52B電纜, Pirḳe河河卡多什,八。基礎上,米卡訴5 [ 4 ] ) ,阿摩司是一個“八王子男子”中提到米卡訴5 。 K.

According to rabbinical tradition, Amos was killed by King Uzziah, who struck him on the forehead with a glowing iron (Gedaliah ibn YaḦyah in his "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," quoted by Heilprin in "Seder ha-Dorot," i. 3110, Venetian ed. of 1587, does not mention anything of this).根據猶太教的傳統,埃默斯被打死國王Uzziah ,誰擊中他的額頭發光與鐵( Gedaliah本YaḦyah在他的“ Shalshelet公頃,卡巴拉, ”引述Heilprin在“ Seder河Dorot , ”一, 3110 ,威尼斯版。的1587年,不提任何本) 。

The story of the martyrdom of Amos, found in the pseudo-Epiphanean writings ("Vita Prophetarum"), is somewhat different; according to this version, Amos was killed by a blow on the temple struck by Amaziah, priest of Beth-el.的故事殉道阿莫斯納曼,發現了偽Epiphanean著作( “簡歷Prophetarum ” ) ,是有所不同,根據此版本,埃默斯被打死打擊的寺廟受到Amaziah ,牧師貝絲-薩爾瓦多。 LG LG電子


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