Virgin Birth處女生育

General Information 一般信息

The accounts of the birth of Jesus Christ in the Gospels according to Matthew and Luke, specifically the two Annunciation stories (Matt. 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38), tell of a virginal conception by Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit. Belief that Jesus was thus conceived without a human father was more or less universal in the Christian church by the 2d century and is accepted by the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and most Protestant churches.帳目的耶穌基督誕生的福音馬太和路加福音,特別是兩個報喜故事(太1:18-25 ;路加福音1:26-38 ) ,告訴了瑪麗處女觀念的力量聖靈。 信仰耶穌,因此設想沒有一個人的父親是或多或少普遍的基督教教堂的二維世紀,是接受了羅馬天主教,東正教,基督教和最。

The origin of the tradition, however, is a controversial subject among modern scholars.原產地的傳統,但是,是一個有爭議的問題之一現代學者。 Some believe it to be historical, based on information perhaps from Mary or her husband Joseph; for others it is a theological interpretation developed from extraneous sources (Hellenistic Jewish traditions about the birth of Isaac or pagan analogies).有些人認為這是歷史的基礎上,從信息或許瑪麗或她的丈夫約瑟夫;為他人這是一個神學解釋發達國家從外部來源(希臘猶太人傳統的誕生艾薩克或異教徒類比) 。 Whatever its origin, it may be recognized as a Christological affirmation denoting the divine origin of the Christ event.不論其來源,它可能被承認為基督肯定指的神源是基督事件。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
Reginald H. Fuller雷閣下富勒

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Brown, RE, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (1973) and The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke (1977); Campenhausen, H. von, The Virgin Birth in the Theology of the Ancient Church (1964); Miguens, M., The Virgin Birth: An Evaluation of Scriptural Evidence (1975).布朗,可再生能源的處女觀和身體復活的耶穌( 1973 )和的誕生彌賽亞:評幼年敘事馬太和路加( 1977年) ; Campenhausen閣下馮,維爾京出生在神學古教堂( 1964年) ; Miguens先生,維爾京出生:對聖經的證據( 1975年) 。


Virgin Birth of Jesus美屬維爾京耶穌誕生

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Matt.馬特。 1:18, 22-25 and Luke 1:26-38 teach that the birth of Jesus resulted from a miraculous conception. 1:18 , 22-25和路加福音1:26-38告訴我們,耶穌的誕生造成的奇蹟概念。 He was conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit without male seed.他設想在子宮內的聖母的力量聖靈沒有男性種子。 This is the doctrine of the virgin birth, which must be distinguished from other doctrines concerning Mary such as perpetual virginity, her immaculate conception, her assumption, which are rejected by most Protestants, and from views in which the phrase "virgin birth" is taken to indicate some sort of divine involvement in the incarnation without affirming the biological virginity of Jesus' mother.這是理論的處女生育,必須有別於其他學說關於永久瑪麗如處女,她的完美無暇的概念,她的假設,這是拒絕了大多數新教徒,從意見中的“處女生育”是採取表明某種神聖參與的化身沒有申明生物童貞耶穌的母親。 Views of the latter sort are common enough in modern liberal theology, but it is an abuse of language to call them affirmations of the virgin birth; they are denials of the virgin birth, though they may indeed be affirmations of something else.意見後者是常見的那種足夠的現代自由神學,但它是一種濫用的語言給他們打電話肯定的處女生育;他們否認處女生育,儘管他們可能確實是肯定的其他東西。

Possibility and Probability可能與概率

If one rejects the possibility of miracle in general, as does, eg, Bultmann, then one must reject the virgin birth as well.如果拒絕的可能性奇蹟一般,一樣,例如,布爾特曼,那麼必須摒棄以及美屬維爾京誕生。 But such a generalized rejection of miracle is arbitrary and indefensible on any ground, and it is contrary to the most fundamental presuppositions of Christian thought.但是,這種普遍排斥奇蹟是任意的,是站不住腳的任何理由,這是違背了最基本的前提的基督教思想。 The virgin birth is no more miraculous than the atonement or the resurrection or the regeneration of sinners.維爾京出生不再是奇蹟比贖罪或復活或再生的罪人。 If miracle is rejected, then nothing important to Christianity can be retained.如果奇蹟是拒絕,那麼沒有什麼重要的基督教可予以保留。

If one accepts the general possibility of miracle, one must still ask about the possibility and probability of the virgin birth in particular.如果接受一般可能性奇蹟,還必須問一個的可能性和概率,特別是美屬維爾京誕生。 For an evangelical Christian the fact that this doctrine is taught in God's inerrant Word settles such questions.對於基督教的事實,即這一理論講授上帝的inerrant的Word解決這些問題。 Yet this fact does not make historical investigation superfluous.然而,這一事實並沒有多餘的歷史考察。 If indeed Scripture is inerrant, it is consistent with all historical discovery.如果確實經文inerrant ,它符合所有的歷史發現。 To illustrate this consistency can only be helpful, not only to convince those who doubt the authority of Scripture, but also to confirm the faith of those who accept it.為了說明這一點的一致性只能是有益的,不僅是為了說服那些誰懷疑聖經的權威,而且還以確認誰信仰的人接受它。 But such investigation must be carried out on principles compatible with the Christian revelation, not (as with Bultmann) on principles antagonistic to it from the outset.但是,這種調查必須進行的原則與基督教的啟示,而不是(如布特曼)原則上是對立的,從一開始。

The NT Accounts在NT帳戶

On that basis, then, let us examine the credibility of the NT witnesses, Matthew and Luke.在此基礎上,然後,讓我們來看看的信譽新台幣證人,馬修和盧克。 Both Gospels are often dated from AD 70-100, but if we grant the assumption that Jesus was able to predict the fall of Jerusalem (AD 70; and why would a Christian deny this?), there is ample evidence for dating these Gospels in the 60s or earlier.這兩個福音往往追溯到公元70-100 ,但是,如果我們給予的假設是耶穌能夠預測秋季耶路撒冷(公元70 ;和基督教為什麼要否認這一點? ) ,有足夠的證據對這些福音的約會60年代或更早。 In any case, the two accounts are generally thought to be independent of each other and thus to be based on a tradition antedating both.在任何情況下,這兩個帳戶,一般認為是相互獨立的,從而將傳統的基礎上提前兩個。

Confirming the antiquity of this tradition is the remarkably "Hebraic" character of both birth accounts: the theology and language of these chapters seem more characteristic of the OT than the NT, as many scholars have noted.證實了這一古老傳統是非常“希伯來”性質都出生賬戶:神學和語言這些章節似乎更有特點催產素比新台幣,正如許多學者所指出的。 This fact renders very unlikely the hypothesis that the virgin birth is a theologoumenon, a story invented by the early church to buttress its Christological dogma.這一事實使不太可能的假設的處女生育是一個theologoumenon ,一個故事發明了早期教會,以支持其基督教條。 There is here no mention of Jesus' preexistence.人們在這裡沒有提到耶穌的前身。 His title "Son of God" is seen to be future, as is his inheritance of the Davidic throne (Luke 1:32, 35).他的頭銜“上帝之子”被認為是未來的,這是他繼承王位的Davidic (路加福音1:32 , 35 ) 。 In the birth narratives Jesus is the OT Messiah, the son of David, the fulfillment of prophecy, the one who will rescue God's people through mighty deeds, exalting the humble and crushing the proud (Luke 1:46-55).的誕生說明耶穌是彌賽亞的催產素的兒子大衛,實現的預言,誰將拯救上帝的子民,通過強大的事蹟,振奮人心的謙虛和破碎的驕傲(路加福音1:46-55 ) 。 The writers draw no inference from the virgin birth concerning Jesus' deity or ontological sonship to God; rather, they simply record the event as a historical fact and (for Matthew) as a fulfillment of Isa.作家沒有推理得出的處女生育有關耶穌的神或上帝本體sonship ,而是簡單地記錄事件的歷史事實和(馬修)作為一個圓滿的ISA 。 7:14. 7點14分。

Not much is known about the author of Matthew, but there is much reason to ascribe the third Gospel to Luke the physician (Col. 4:14), a companion of Paul (II Tim. 4:11; cf. the "we" passages in Acts, such as 27:1ff.) who also wrote the Acts of the Apostles (cf. Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-5).沒有太多了解的作者馬修,但仍然有很多原因歸咎於第三福音路加醫生(上校4點14 ) ,配套的保羅(二蒂姆。 4時11分;比照。 “我們”通道的行為,如27:1頁。 )誰也寫了使徒行傳(參見路加福音1:1-4 ;行為1:1-5 ) 。 Luke claims to have made a careful study of the historical data (1:1-4), and that claim has been repeatedly vindicated in many details even by modern skeptical scholars such as Harnack.盧克聲稱已經作出了認真的研究的歷史數據( 1:1-4 ) ,並聲稱已多次證明,許多細節甚至持懷疑態度的現代學者如哈爾納克。 Both his vocations, historian and physician, would have prevented him from responding gullibly to reports of a virgin birth.他的職業,歷史學家和醫生,將阻止他的報告作出回應gullibly一個處女生育。 The two birth narratives have been attacked as inconsistent and/or erroneous at several points: the genealogies, the massacre of the children (Matt. 2:16), the census during the time of Quirinius (Luke 2:1-2); but plausible explanations of these difficulties have also been advanced.這兩個出生遭到襲擊的說明不符和/或錯誤的幾個要點:族譜,大屠殺的兒童(太二時16分) ,普查時期Quirinius (路加福音2:1-2 ) ;但合理的解釋,這些困難也先進。 Jesus' Davidic ancestry (emphasized in both accounts) has been under suspicion also; but as Raymond Brown argues, the presence of Mary and Jesus' brothers, especially James (Acts 1:14; 15:13-21; Gal. 1:19; 2:9), in the early church would probably have prevented the development of legendary material concerning Jesus' origin.耶穌的Davidic血統(強調兩個帳戶)一直受到懷疑也;但作為雷蒙德布朗認為,在場的瑪麗和耶穌的兄弟,特別是詹姆斯(使徒1時14分; 15:13-21 ;半乳糖。 1時19分; 2:9 ) ,在早期教會可能會阻礙發展的傳奇材料關於耶穌的血統。 All in all, we have good reason, even apart from belief in their inspiration, to trust Luke and Matthew, even where they differ from the verdicts of secular historians ancient and modern.總之,我們有充分的理由,甚至除了相信他們的靈感,信任盧克和馬修,即使他們不同於判決的世俗歷史學家古代和現代。

The Rest of Scripture其餘的聖經

Much has been said concerning the "silence" of Scripture about the virgin birth outside of the passages mentioned. This silence is real, but it need not be explained by any ignorance or denial of the virgin birth by other NT writers.已經說了很多關於“沉默”聖經出生的美屬維爾京以外的段落提及。這種沉默是真實的,但它不需要任何解釋的無知或剝奪處女生育的其他新台幣作家。 It is significant that even the Gospels of Matthew and Luke are "silent" about the virgin birth through fifty of their combined fifty-two chapters.重要的是,即使馬太福音和路加福音是“無聲”的處女生育通過50其合計52章。 The silence of the rest of the NT can be explained in essentially the same ways as one would explain the partial silence of Matthew, and Luke.保持緘默的情況下其餘新台幣可以解釋基本上是相同的方式作為一個可以解釋的部分沉默馬修和盧克。 The NT deals chiefly with (1) Jesus' preaching, life, death, resurrection (the Gospels and to some extent the epistles); (2) the preaching and missionary work in the early church (Acts especially); (3) teaching concerning the theological and practical problems of the church (Acts, epistles); (4) assurances of the triumph of God's purposes and visions of the end times (Revelation, other NT books).新台幣主要涉及( 1 )耶穌的說教,生命,死亡,復活(福音,並在一定程度上書信) ; ( 2 )和傳教士的傳教工作,初期教會(使徒特別) ; ( 3 )教學有關神學和實際問題的教堂(使徒,書信) ; ( 4 )保證勝利的上帝的宗旨和願景的結束時間(啟示,其他新台幣書籍) 。 The virgin birth was not part of Jesus' preaching or that of the early church.維爾京出生不屬於耶穌的說教或早期教會的使命。 It was not a controversial matter such as might have been addressed in the epistles (Christology in general was not a particularly controversial matter among the Christians, and even if it had been, the virgin birth most likely was not seen as a means of supporting Christological dogma).這不是一個有爭議的問題,如可能已經解決的書信(基督一般不是一個特別有爭議的問題之一基督徒,即使它已經,維爾京誕生最有可能不被視為一種手段,支持基督教條) 。 The main function of the virgin birth in the NT, to show the fulfillment of prophecy and to describe the events surrounding Jesus' birth, is appropriate only to birth narratives, and only two birth narratives have been preserved in the canon.其主要職能維爾京出生在NT中,以顯示實現的預言和描述事件耶穌的誕生,是適當的出生僅說明,只有兩個出生說明已保存在佳能。 We must also assume that the early church maintained a certain reserve about public discussion of these matters out of respect for the privacy of Jesus' family, especially Mary.我們還必須假定初期教會保持了一定的儲備有關公共討論這些問題出於尊重隱私的耶穌的家庭,特別是瑪麗。

Is there anything in the NT that contradicts the virgin birth accounts? There are passages where Jesus is described as the son of Joseph: John 1:45; 6:42; Luke 2:27, 33, 41, 43, 48; Matt. 有什麼在新界矛盾的處女生育帳戶?有通道在耶穌被描述為的兒子約瑟夫:約翰1點45分; 6點42分;路加福音2時27 , 33 , 41 , 43 , 48 ;馬特。 13:55. Clearly, though, Luke and Matthew had no intention of denying the virgin birth of Christ, unless the birth narratives are later additions to the books, and there is no evidence of that. 13時55分。顯然,儘管路加福音和馬修無意否認美屬維爾京基督誕生,除非是在出生後補充說明到的書籍,也沒有證據表明這點。 These references clearly refer to Joseph as the legal father of Jesus without reference to the question of biological fatherhood.這些提法明確提及的法律約瑟夫的父親耶穌沒有提到的問題,生物的父親。 The same is true in the Johannine references, with the additional fact that the words in question were spoken by those who were not well acquainted with Jesus and/or his family.這同樣適用於Johannine參考,與更多的事實,即詞的問題是誰講的那些不熟悉耶穌和/或他的家人。 ( The text of Matt. 1:16, saying that Joseph begat Jesus, is certainly not original .) 內容馬特。 1:16說,約瑟夫begat耶穌,當然不是原來的 。 )

It is interesting that the Markan variant of Matt.有趣的是,在Markan變種馬特。 13:55 (Mark 6:3) eliminates reference to Joseph and speaks of Jesus as "Mary's son," an unusual way of describing parentage in Jewish culture. 13時55分( 6時03馬克)消除提到約瑟夫和講耶穌為“瑪麗的兒子, ”不尋常的方式描述父母的猶太文化。 Some have thought that this indicates some knowledge of the virgin birth by Mark, or even some public knowledge of an irregularity in Jesus' origin, even though Mark has no birth narrative as such.有些人認為,這表明一些知識維爾京誕生的標誌,甚至一些公共知識的一個不規則的耶穌的血統,儘管馬克沒有說明這樣誕生。 Cf.比照。 John 8:41, where Jesus' opponents hint his illegitimacy, a charge which apparently continued to be made into the second century.約翰8點41分,在耶穌的對手暗示他的私生子,收費顯然繼續取得進入第二世紀。 Brown remarks that such a charge would not have been fabricated by Christians, nor would it have been fabricated by non-Christians probably, unless Jesus' origin were known to be somehow unusual.布朗的話,這樣的收費就不會被捏造出來的基督徒,也不會被捏造出來的非基督徒可能,除非耶穌的原產地被稱為是某種不尋常的。 Thus it is possible that these incidental references to Jesus' birth actually confirm the virgin birth, though this evidence is not of great weight.因此,它是可能的,這些附帶提及耶穌的誕生實際上證實了美屬維爾京誕生,雖然這方面的證據並不十分重視。

Is Isa. 是伊薩。 7:14 a prediction of the virgin birth? Matt. 7點14分預測的處女生育?馬特。 1:22 asserts that the virgin birth "fulfills" that passage, but much controversy has surrounded that assertion, turning on the meaning of the Isaiah passage in context, its LXX translation, and Matthew's use of both. 1時22分聲稱,美屬維爾京誕生“滿足”的通道,但許多爭議圍繞這一斷言,打開的含義以賽亞通行情況下,其LXX翻譯,和馬修的同時使用。 The arguments are too complicated for full treatment here.論點是過於複雜,在這裡充分治療。 EJ Young has mounted one of the few recent scholarly defenses of the traditional position.伯克利分校青年發起一項最近的一些學術防禦的傳統立場。 I would only suggest that for Matthew the concept of "fulfillment" sometimes takes on aesthetic dimensions that go beyond the normal relation between "prediction" and "predicted event" (cf. his use of Zech. 9:9 in 21:1-4).我只想說,這表明,馬修的概念, “圓滿”有時需要的審美層面,超出了正常的關係“預測”和“預測的事件” (見他使用Zech 。 9時零九在21:1-4 ) 。 For Matthew, the "fulfillment" may draw the attention of people to the prophecy in startling, even bizarre ways which the prophet himself might never have anticipated.馬修的“圓滿”可提請人們預言的驚人,甚至奇怪的方式先知自己可能永遠不會有預期的。 It "corresponds" to the prophecy in unpredictable but exciting ways, as a variation in music corresponds to a theme.據“對應”的預言中的不可預知,但令人振奮的方式,作為一個變異的音樂對應的一個主題。 It may be that some element of this takes place in Matt.這可能是某種這發生在馬特。 1:23, though Young's argument may prevail in the long run. 1點23分,但年輕的論點可能佔上風從長遠來看。

Postbiblical Attestation Postbiblical認證

Belief in the virgin birth is widely attested in literature from the second century.相信在維爾京出生證明被廣泛文學從第二世紀。 Ignatius defended the doctrine strongly against the docetists, who held that Jesus only "appeared" to have become man.伊格內修辯護的理論強烈反對docetists ,誰認為耶穌只是“似乎”已成為男人。 Some have thought that Ignatius shows acquaintance with a tradition independent of the Gospels affirming the virgin birth.有些人認為,依納顯示熟人的傳統獨立的福音申明處女生育。 The virgin birth was denied only by Gnostic docetists and by Ebionites, who held Jesus to be a mere human prophet.維爾京出生被拒絕只有諾斯底docetists和以便尼派,誰舉行耶穌僅僅是一個人的先知。 The silence of some church fathers, like the silence of Scripture, has been cited as evidence of a tradition contrary to this doctrine, but there is no clear evidence of any such things, and the argument from silence can easily be countered as above.沉默的一些教會的父親一樣,沉默的經文,被稱為傳統的證據與此相悖的理論,但目前還沒有明確證據證明任何此類的事情,從沉默的論點可以很容易地反駁如上。

Pagan or Jewish Background? Occasionally someone will suggest that the virgin birth narratives are based not on fact but on pagan or Jewish stories of supernatural births. 異教徒或猶太人的背景?偶爾有人會認為是處女生育敘述不是基於事實,但對異教徒或猶太人的故事超自然產。 Such a hypothesis is most unlikely. There is no clear parallel to the notion of a virgin birth in pagan literature, only of births resulting from intercourse between a God and a woman (of which there is no suggestion in Matthew and Luke), resulting in a being half-divine, half-human (which is far different from the biblical Christology).這種假設是最不可能的。沒有明確平行的概念,美屬維爾京出生在異教文學,只生育造成交往上帝一女(其中沒有任何建議,馬修和盧克) ,因此一正半神半人(其中有很大的不同從聖經基督) 。 Further, none of the pagan stories locates the event in datable history as the biblical account does.此外,沒有任何異教徒的故事發生在位於datable歷史聖經帳戶沒有。 Nor is there any precise parallel in Jewish literature.也沒有任何確切的平行在猶太文學。 The closest parallels would be the supernatural births of Isaac, Samson, and Samuel in the OT, but these were not virgin births.最接近的相似之處是超自然的產以撒,大力士,和Samuel的催產素,但這些人不是處女生育。 Isa.伊薩。 7:14 was not considered a messianic passage in the Jewish literature of the time. 7點14分不被認為是救世主通行的猶太文學的時間。 It is more likely that the event of the virgin birth influenced Matthew's understanding of Isa.這是更可能發生的影響,美屬維爾京馬修出生的理解伊薩。 7:14 than the reverse. 7點14分不是相反。

Doctrinal Importance理論意義

The consistency of this doctrine with other Christian truth is important to its usefulness and, indeed, to its credibility.的一致性,這一理論與其他基督教真相是重要的它的作用,事實上,它的信譽。 For Matthew and Luke the chief importance of the event seems to be that it calls to mind (as a "sign," Isa. 7:14) the great OT promises of salvation through supernaturally born deliverers, while going far beyond them, showing that God's final deliverance has come. But one can also go beyond the specific concerns of Matthew and Luke and see that the virgin birth is fully consistent with the whole range of biblical doctrine.馬修和盧克行政重要性的事件似乎是,它要求想起(作為“標誌, ”伊薩。七時14 )偉大的催產素的承諾救贖通過超自然出生運送,而遠遠超過他們,這表明上帝的最後解脫的時候了。但也可以超越關切的具體問題,馬修和盧克和看到處女生育是完全符合的一系列聖經教義。 The virgin birth is important because of: (1) The doctrine of Scripture.維爾京誕生是重要的,因為: ( 1 )聖經的教義。 If Scripture errs here, then why should we trust its claims about other supernatural events, such as the resurrection? (2) The deity of Christ.如果聖經errs這裡,那麼我們為什麼要相信其要求的其他超自然的事件,如復活? ( 2 )神的基督。 While we cannot say dogmatically that God could enter the world only through a virgin birth, surely the incarnation is a supernatural event if it is anything.雖然我們不能說教條,上帝可以進入世界只有通過維爾京出生,肯定的化身是一個超自然的事件,如果它是什麼。 To eliminate the supernatural from this event is inevitably to compromise the divine dimension of it.為了消除這一超自然事件是不可避免的妥協神層面的。 (3) The humanity of Christ. ( 3 )人類的救世主。 This was the important thing to Ignatius and the second century fathers.這是重要的伊格內修和父親的第二個世紀。 Jesus was really born; he really became one of us.耶穌真的出生;他真正成為我們的一員了。 (4) The sinlessness of Christ. ( 4 )清白基督。 If he were born of two human parents, it is very difficult to conceive how he could have been exempted from the guilt of Adam's sin and become a new head to the human race.如果他出生的兩個人的父母,很難想像他如何本來可以免於有罪亞當的罪孽,並成為一個新的負責人對人類。 And it would seem only an arbitrary act of God that Jesus could be born without a sinful nature.它似乎只是一個任意天災,耶穌可能是出生沒有罪惡性質。 Yet Jesus' sinlessness as the new head of the human race and as the atoning lamb of God is absolutely vital to our salvation (II Cor. 5:21; I Pet. 2:22-24; Heb. 4:15; 7:26; Rom. 5:18-19).然而,耶穌的清白作為新的負責人,並作為人類的贖罪上帝的羔羊是絕對重要的救贖(二心病。 5時21分,我寵物。 2:22-24 ;希伯來。 4:15 ; 7 : 26 ;光盤。 5:18-19 ) 。 (5) The nature of grace. ( 5 )性質的寬限期。 The birth of Christ, in which the initiative and power are all of God, is an apt picture of God's saving grace in general of which it is a part. It teaches us that salvation is by God's act, not our human effort.基督誕生,其中的積極性和力量都是上帝,是一個容易圖片上帝的恩典在節能秘書長它的一部分。它告訴我們,救贖是上帝的行為,而不是我們人類的努力。 The birth of Jesus is like our new birth, which is also by the Holy Spirit; it is a new creation (II Cor. 5:17).耶穌的誕生就像是我們新的出生,這也是由聖靈,它是一種新的創造(二心病。 5點17 ) 。

Is belief in the virgin birth "necessary"? It is possible to be saved without believing it; saved people aren't perfect people. 是信仰的處女生育“必要的” ?有可能被保存不相信;保存人不是完美的人。 But to reject the virgin birth is to reject God's Word, and disobedience is always serious.但拒絕處女生育是拒絕神的話語,和不服從始終是嚴重的。 Further, disbelief in the virgin birth may lead to compromise in those other areas of doctrine with which it is vitally connected.此外,相信在美屬維爾京出生可能導致妥協,那些其他領域的理論與它極為連接。

JM Frame JM幀
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
T. Boslooper, The Virgin Birth; RE Brown, The Birth of the Messiah and The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus; FF Bruce, Are the NT Documents Reliable?噸Boslooper ,維爾京出生;稀土布朗,出生率彌賽亞和處女觀和身體復活的耶穌;法郎布魯斯是新台幣文件可靠嗎? H. von Campenhausen, The Virgin Birth in the Theology of the Ancient Church; RG Gromacki, The Virgin Birth: Doctrine of Deity; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; J. Murray, Collected Writings, II, 134-35; O . Piper, "The Virgin Birth: The Meaning of the Gospel Accounts," Int 18:131ff.; BB Warfield, "The Supernatural Birth of Jesus," in Biblical and Theological Studies; EJ Young, Commentary on Isaiah.閣下馮Campenhausen ,維爾京出生在神學古代教會的RG Gromacki ,維爾京出生:學說神; JG麥,維爾京耶穌誕生的J.默里,文集,二, 134-35 ; ö 。派珀說: “處女生育:意思是福音帳戶, ”整數18:131頁。 ; BB心跳沃菲爾德“超自然耶穌誕生” ,在聖經和神學研究;膀胱楊,評以賽亞。


Virgin Birth of Christ美屬維爾京基督誕生

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son.教的教條的聖母耶穌是美屬維爾京之前,期間和之後的概念和出生的她的神聖兒子。

I. THE VIRGIN BIRTH IN CATHOLIC THEOLOGY一,維爾京出生在天主教神學

Councils and Creeds安理會和信仰

The virginity of our Blessed Lady was defined under anathema in the third canon of the Lateran Council held in the time of Pope Martin I, AD 649.在處女的夫人是我們神聖的詛咒中所規定的第三佳能的拉特蘭安理會舉行的時間教皇馬丁一,公元649 。 The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, as recited in the Mass, expresses belief in Christ "incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary"; the Apostles' Creed professes that Jesus Christ "was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary"; the older form of the same creed uses the expression: "born of the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary".尼西亞, Constantinopolitan信仰,作為背誦大眾,表示相信在基督“道成肉身的聖靈的聖母” ;宗徒信經自稱是耶穌基督“的構想的聖靈,出生的聖母” ;舊形式使用同一信仰的表達: “出生的聖靈和聖母” 。 These professions show:這些職業查看:

That the body of Jesus Christ was not sent down from Heaven, nor taken from earth as was that of Adam, but that its matter was supplied by Mary; that Mary co-operated in the formation of Christ's body as every other mother co-operates in the formation of the body of her child, since otherwise Christ could not be said to be born of Mary just as Eve cannot be said to be born of Adam;該機構是耶穌基督沒有寄出從天降臨,也沒有從地球的是,亞當,但它的問題是所提供的瑪麗;瑪麗共同經營的形成的基督身體的每一個其他的母親共同經營在組建機構的孩子,否則基督不能說將出生的瑪麗就像除夕不能說將出生的亞當;

that the germ in whose development and growth into the Infant Jesus, Mary co-operated, was fecundated not by any human action, but by the Divine power attributed to the Holy Ghost;該細菌在其發展和增長的嬰兒耶穌,馬利亞共同經營,是fecundated不是任何人的行動,而是由神聖權力歸於聖靈;

that the supernatural influence of the Holy Ghost extended to the birth of Jesus Christ, not merely preserving Mary's integrity, but also causing Christ's birth or external generation to reflect his eternal birth from the Father in this, that "the Light from Light" proceeded from his mother's womb as a light shed on the world; that the "power of the Most High" passed through the barriers of nature without injuring them; that "the body of the Word" formed by the Holy Ghost penetrated another body after the manner of spirits.這一超自然的影響擴大到聖靈耶穌基督誕生的,而不僅僅是維護瑪麗的完整性,而且還造成基督出生或外部代以反映他的永恆的父親出生在此,說: “光從光”從他母親的子宮作為輕下跌對世界的“權力的最高級”通過障礙不傷害它們的性質,即“身體的Word ”所形成的聖靈侵入後,另一機構的方式烈酒。

Church Fathers教會教父

The perpetual virginity of our Blessed Lady was taught and proposed to our belief not merely by the councils and creeds, but also by the early Fathers.永遠童貞的夫人是我們神聖的教授,並建議我們的信念而不僅僅是安理會和信仰,但也由早期教父。 The words of the prophet Isaias (vii, 14) are understood in this sense by的話,先知伊薩亞(七, 14歲)是在這個意義上理解的

St. Irenaeus (III, 21; see Eusebius, HE, V, viii), Origen (Adv. Cels., I, 35), Tertullian (Adv. Marcion., III, 13; Adv. Judæos, IX), St.聖愛任紐(三, 21日;見歐西比烏斯,他說,第五,第八) ,奧利( Adv.細胞。 ,我, 35歲) ,良( Adv.馬吉安。 ,三, 13人;腺病毒。 Judæos ,九) ,聖 Justin (Dial. con. Tryph., 84), St.賈斯汀( Dial.節能。 Tryph 。 , 84 ) ,聖 John Chrysostom (Hom. v in Matth., n. 3; in Isa., VII, n. 5); St.約翰金口( Hom.第五Matth 。 ,北3 ;在ISA 。 ,七,注5 ) ;街 Epiphanius (Hær., xxviii, n. 7), Eusebius (Demonstrat. ev., VIII, i), Rufinus (Lib. fid., 43), St.埃皮法尼烏斯( Hær. ,二十八,第7號) ,優西比烏( Demonstrat.電動車。 ,八,一) , Rufinus ( Lib.瞎話。 , 43歲) ,聖 Basil (in Isa., vii, 14; Hom. in S. Generat. Christi, n. 4, if St. Basil be the author of these two passages), St.羅勒(在ISA 。 ,七,第14條;磡。於第代。基督,注4 ,如果聖巴茲爾的作者是這兩個通道) ,街 Jerome and Theodoretus (in Isa., vii, 14), St.杰羅姆和Theodoretus (在ISA 。 ,七, 14 ) ,聖 Isidore (Adv. Judæos, I, x, n. 3), St.伊西多爾( Adv. Judæos ,我,第十,注3 ) ,街 Ildefonsus (De perpetua virginit. s. Mariæ, iii). Ildefonsus (者阿virginit 。條Mariæ ,三) 。

St. Jerome devotes his entire treatise against Helvidius to the perpetual virginity of Our Blessed Lady (see especially nos. 4, 13, 18).聖杰羅姆專門針對他的整個論文的永久Helvidius童貞的我們神聖的夫人(見特別是我。 4 , 13 , 18 ) 。

The contrary doctrine is called:與此相反的理論被稱為:

"madness and blasphemy" by Gennadius (De dogm. eccl., lxix), "madness" by Origen (in Luc., h, vii), "sacrilege" by St. Ambrose (De instit. virg., V, xxxv), "impiety and smacking of atheism" by Philostorgius (VI, 2), "perfidy" by St. Bede (hom. v, and xxii), "full of blasphemies" by the author of Prædestin. “瘋狂和褻瀆”的粉蝨(者dogm 。 eccl 。 , lxix ) , “瘋狂”的奧利(在呂克。 ,氫,七) , “褻瀆”的聖安布羅斯(者instit 。 virg 。 ,五,三十五) “ impiety和經常毆打無神論”的Philostorgius (六, 2 ) , “背信棄義”的聖比德( hom. V和22 ) , “充分的褻瀆”的作者Prædestin 。 (i, 84), "perfidy of the Jews" by Pope Siricius (ep. ix, 3), "heresy" by St. Augustine (De Hær. h., lvi). (我84 ) , “背信棄義的猶太人”教皇Siricius ( ep.九, 3 ) , “邪”的聖奧古斯丁(德Hær 。閣下, LVI )號決定。

St. Epiphanius probably excels all others in his invectives against the opponents of Our Lady's virginity (Hær., lxxviii, 1, 11, 23).聖埃皮法尼烏斯可能優於所有其他人對他的謾罵對手聖母的處女( Hær. , lxxviii , 1 , 11 , 23 ) 。

Sacred Scripture聖經

There can be no doubt as to the Church's teaching and as to the existence of an early Christian tradition maintaining the perpetual virginity of our Blessed Lady and consequently the virgin birth of Jesus Christ.毫無疑問,以教會的教學和存在的早期基督教傳統保持永久的貞操我們祝福夫人,因此,美屬維爾京耶穌基督誕生。 The mystery of the virginal conception is furthermore taught by the third Gospel and confirmed by the first.神秘的處女的概念是另外教第三福音,並確認的第一次。 According to St. Luke (1:34-35), "Mary said to the angel: How shall this be done, because I know not man? And the angel answering, said to her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the most High shall overshadow thee. And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God."據聖盧克( 1:34-35 ) , “瑪麗說,天使:如何應這樣做,因為我知道沒有人嗎?天使回答,對她說:聖靈降臨你應和權力的最高級應掩蓋你。並因此也聖地應出生的你應稱為神的兒子。 “ The intercourse of man is excluded in the conception of Our Blessed Lord.交往的人是排除在外的概念,我們神聖的主。 According to St. Matthew, St. Joseph, when perplexed by the pregnancy of Mary, is told by the angel: "Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost" (1:20).據聖馬太,聖若瑟,不知所措的時候懷孕的瑪麗,是告訴天使: “誰敢不給你,你的妻子瑪麗,因為這是在她的設想,是在聖靈” ( 1:20 ) 。

II.二。 SOURCES OF THIS DOCTRINE這種理論來源

Whence did the Evangelists derive their information?何處沒有獲得他們的信息福音? As far as we know, only two created beings were witnesses of the annunciation, the angel and the Blessed Virgin.據我們所知,只有兩個人建立了證人的報喜,天使和聖母。 Later on the angel informed St. Joseph concerning the mystery.後來,天使告訴聖約瑟夫關於謎。 We do not know whether Elizabeth, though "filled with the Holy Ghost", learned the full truth supernaturally, but we may suppose that Mary confided the secret both to her friend and her spouse, thus completing the partial revelation received by both.我們不知道伊麗莎白,儘管“充滿聖靈” ,學到的全部真相超自然的,但我們可以假設瑪麗吐露的秘密都向她的朋友和她的配偶,從而完成了部分受啟示。

Between these data and the story of the Evangelists there is a gap which cannot be filled from any express clue furnished by either Scripture or tradition.這些數據之間的故事,福音存在差距無法填補任何明示或者提供的線索聖經或傳統。 If we compare the narrative of the first Evangelist with that of the third, we find that St. Matthew may have drawn his information from the knowledge of St. Joseph independently of any information furnished by Mary.如果我們比較說明第一傳播者與第三,我們發現,聖馬太可能引起他的信息的知識聖約瑟夫獨立於任何提供的資料瑪麗。 The first Gospel merely states (1:18): "When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost."第一福音只是國家( 1:18 ) : “當他的母親瑪麗是信奉約瑟夫之前,他們走到了一起,她被發現與兒童的聖靈。 ” St. Joseph could supply these facts either from personal knowledge or from the words of the angel: "That which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost."聖約瑟夫可以提供這些事實無論從個人的知識或從的話天使: “這是在她的構想,是的聖靈。 ” The narrative of St. Luke, on the other hand, must ultimately be traced back to the testimony of Our Blessed Lady, unless we are prepared to admit unnecessarily another independent revelation.說明聖盧克,另一方面,最終必須追溯到證詞我們神聖的夫人,除非我們準備承認不必要的另一個獨立的啟示。 The evangelist himself points to Mary as the source of his account of the infancy of Jesus, when he says that Mary kept all these words in her heart (2:19, 51).宣道自己點,瑪麗的來源他對耶穌的嬰兒時,他說,瑪麗保存所有這些詞在她的心( 2點19 , 51 ) 。 Zahn [1] does not hesitate to say that Mary is pointed out by these expressions as the bearer of the traditions in Luke 1 and 2.贊恩[ 1 ]不猶豫地說,瑪麗指出了這些表達式作為承載的傳統在路加福音1和2 。

A. How did St. Luke derive his account from the Blessed Virgin?答:如何獲得他的聖盧克帳戶聖母? It has been supposed by some that he received his information from Mary herself.它一直支持的一些,他收到他的信息瑪麗自己。 In the Middle Ages he is at times called the "chaplain" of Mary [2]; J. Nirsch [3] calls St. Luke the Evangelist of the Mother of God, believing that he wrote the history of the infancy from her mouth and heart.在中世紀,他有時被稱為“牧師”瑪麗[ 2 ] ;學者Nirsch [ 3 ]呼籲聖路加宣道天主之母,認為他寫的歷史,嬰兒從她的嘴和心臟。 Besides, there is the implied testimony of the Evangelist, who assures us twice that Mary had kept all these words in her heart.此外,還有一個隱含的證詞的傳播者,誰向我們保證的兩倍,瑪麗一直在所有這些話她的心。 But this does not necessitate an immediate oral communication of the history of the infancy on the part of Mary; it merely shows that Mary is the ultimate source of the account.但是,這並不需要立即口頭交流的歷史上的嬰兒的一部分瑪麗;它只是表明,瑪麗是最終來源帳戶。 If St. Luke had received the history of the infancy from the Blessed Virgin by way of oral communication, its presentation in the third Gospel naturally would show the form and style of its Greek author.如果聖路加收到了歷史上的嬰兒從聖母的方式口頭交流,介紹在第三個福音,自然會表現出形式和風格的希臘作家。 In point of fact the history of the infancy as found in the third Gospel (1:5 to 2:52) betrays in its contents, its language, and style a Jewish-Christian source.事實上歷史上的嬰幼兒如發現第三福音( 1:5至2時52分)暴露在其內容,其語言和風格的一個猶太基督教來源。 The whole passage reads like a chapter from the First Book of Machabees; Jewish customs, and laws and peculiarities are introduced without any further explanation; the "Magnificat", the "Benedictus", and the "Nunc dimittis" are filled with national Jewish ideas.整個通道讀起來就像一章的第一本書的Machabees ;猶太人的風俗,法律和特點,介紹了在沒有任何進一步的解釋;在“ Magnificat ”中, “ Benedictus ”和“孔培養dimittis ”充滿民族猶太思想。 As to the style and language of the history of the infancy, both are so thoroughly Semitic that the passage must be retranslated into Hebrew or Aramaic in order to be properly appreciated.至於風格和語言的歷史,起步階段,無論是如此徹底主義的通道必須retranslated成希伯來文或阿拉姆語,以便得到適當的讚賞。 We must conclude, then, that St. Luke's immediate source for the history of the infancy was not an oral, but a written one.我們必須結束,那麼,聖盧克立即源的歷史,不是一個嬰兒口腔,但書面之一。

B. It is hardly probable that Mary herself wrote the history of the infancy as was supposed by A. Plummer [4]; it is more credible that the Evangelist used a memoir written by a Jewish Christian, possibly a convert Jewish priest (cf. Acts 6:7), perhaps even a member or friend of Zachary's family [5]. B.它幾乎可能瑪麗自己寫的歷史,嬰兒作為理應由A.盧默[ 4 ] ,它是更可信的傳播者利用回憶錄寫的一個猶太基督教,可能是轉換猶太牧師(參見行為6時07 ) ,甚至一個成員或朋友的扎卡里的家人[ 5 ] 。 But, whatever may be the immediate source of St. Luke's account, the Evangelist knows that he has "diligently attained to all things from the beginning", according to the testimony of those "who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word" (Luke 1:2).但是,無論可立即來源聖盧克帳戶,傳播者知道他已經“勤奮實現所有的事情從一開始” ,根據證詞,那些“誰從一開始就被目擊者和部長單詞” (路加福音1:2 ) 。

As to the original language of St. Luke's source, we may agree with the judgment of Lagarde [6] that the first two chapters of St. Luke present a Hebrew rather than a Greek or an Aramaic colouring.至於原文的聖盧克來源,我們可能會同意這樣的判斷拉嘉德[ 6 ]的頭兩章的聖盧克提出希伯來語,而不是希臘或阿拉姆染色。 Writers have not been wanting who have tried to prove that St. Luke's written source for his first two chapters was composed in Hebrew [7].作家沒有想誰試圖證明,聖盧克書面來源的頭兩章是由希伯來文[ 7 ] 。 But these proofs are not cogent; St. Luke's Hebraisms may have their origin in an Aramaic source, or even in a Greek original composed in the language of the Septuagint.但是,這些證據沒有說服力;聖盧克Hebraisms可能起源於一個阿拉姆來源,甚至在希臘原始組成的語言譯本。 Still, considering the fact that Aramaic was the language commonly spoken in Palestine at that time, we must conclude that Our Blessed Lady's secret was originally written in Aramaic, though it must have been translated into Greek before St. Luke utilized it [8].不過,考慮到阿拉姆是常用的語言講巴勒斯坦在那個時候,我們必須得出這樣的結論:我們神聖的夫人的秘密原來亞拉姆語寫的,但它必須被翻譯成希臘聖盧克前利用它[ 8 ] 。 As the Greek of Luke 2:41-52 is more idiomatic than the language of Luke 1:4-2:40, it has been inferred that the Evangelist's written source reached only to 2:40; but as in 2:51, expressions are repeated which occur in 2:19, it may be safely inferred that both passages were taken from the same source.正如希臘路加福音2:41-52更慣用的語言比路加福音1:4-2:40 ,已推斷,傳播者的書面來源只能達到2時40分,但在2點51 ,表達式重複發生在二時19分,可以推斷,這兩個安全通道是從同一來源。

The Evangelist recast the source of the history of the infancy before incorporating it into his Gospel; for the use of words and expressions in Luke 1 and 2 agrees with the language in the following chapters [9].福音的來源改寫歷史的初級階段之前將它納入他的福音;使用的字和詞句在路加福音第1和第2同意語言於以下各章[ 9 ] 。 Harnack [10] and Dalman [11] suggest that St. Luke may be the original author of his first two chapters, adopting the language and style of the Septuagint; but Vogel [12] and Zahn [13] maintain that such a literary feat would be impossible for a Greek-speaking writer.哈爾納克[ 10 ]和蜂[ 11 ]表明,聖盧克可能是原作者的頭兩章,通過語言和風格的譯本;但沃格爾[ 12 ]和贊恩[ 13 ]保持這種文學壯舉就不可能希語作家。 What has been said explains why it is quite impossible to reconstruct St. Luke's original source; the attempt of Resch [14] to reconstruct the original Gospel of the infancy or the source of the first two chapters of the first and third Gospel and the basis of the prologue to the fourth, is a failure, in spite of its ingenuity.所說的話解釋了為什麼這是很不可能重建聖盧克原始來源;的企圖雷[ 14 ]重建原始福音的嬰兒期或來源的前兩章的第一和第三的基礎福音的序幕第四,是失敗的,儘管它的聰明才智。 Conrady [15] believed that he had found the common source of the canonical history of the infancy in the so-called "Protevangelium Jacobi", which, according to him, was written in Hebrew by an Egyptian Jew about AD 120, and was soon after translated into Greek; it should be kept in mind, however, that the Greek text is not a translation, but the original, and a mere compilation from the canonical Gospels. Conrady [ 15 ]認為,他已經找到了共同的來源典型的歷史嬰兒在所謂的“ Protevangelium可比” ,而據他說,在希伯來文寫的埃及猶太人約公元120 ,並很快後翻譯成希臘文,它應該牢記,但是,希臘文本不是一個翻譯,但原來的,並只是彙編從典型福音。 All we can say therefore, concerning St. Luke's source for his history of the infancy of Jesus is reduced to the scanty information that it must have been a Greek translation of an Aramaic document based, in the last instance, on the testimony of Our Blessed Lady.我們因此可以說,關於聖盧克來源,他的歷史的嬰兒耶穌是減少到很少的信息,它必須是一個希臘的阿拉姆語翻譯文件為基礎,在過去例如,在證明我們祝福女士。

III.三。 THE VIRGIN BIRTH IN MODERN THEOLOGY維爾京出生在現代神學

Modern theology adhering to the principle of historical development, and denying the possibility of any miraculous intervention in the course of history, cannot consistently admit the historical actuality of the virgin birth.現代神學堅持原則的歷史發展,並否認的可能性,任何奇蹟干預歷史進程中,不能一貫承認歷史現狀的處女生育。 According to modern views, Jesus was really the son of Joseph and Mary and was endowed by an admiring posterity with the halo of Divinity; the story of his virgin birth was in keeping with the myths concerning the extraordinary births of the heroes of other nations [16]; the original text of the Gospels knew nothing of the virgin birth [17].根據現代的觀點,耶穌是真正的兒子約瑟夫和瑪麗和賦予的欣賞子孫後代的光環神;的故事,他的處女生育符合有關的神話的非凡產的英雄其他國家[ 16 ] ;的原始文本福音一無所知的維爾京誕生[ 17 ] 。 Without insisting on the arbitrariness of the philosophical assumptions implied in the position of modern theology, we shall briefly review its critical attitude towards the text of the Gospels and its attempts to account for the early Christian tradition concerning the virgin birth of Christ.沒有堅持的任意性的哲學假設隱含在現代神學的立場,我們將簡要地回顧了批判性的態度文本的福音和企圖帳戶早期基督教傳統的關於美屬維爾京基督誕生。

A. Integrity of the Gospel Text答:誠信福音文字

Wellhausen [18] contended that the original text of the third Gospel began with our present third chapter, the first two chapters being a later addition.威爾浩[ 18 ]爭辯說,原來的案文的第三個福音開始,我們目前的第三章,前兩章以後此外。 But Harnack seems to have foreseen this theory before it was proposed by Wellhausen; for he showed that the two chapters in question belonged to the author of the third Gospel and of the Acts [19].但是,哈爾納克似乎已經預見到這一理論之前,有人建議由威爾浩,因為他發現,有兩章的問題屬於作者第三福音和行為[ 19 ] 。 Holtzmann [20] considers Luke 1:34-35 as a later addition; Hillmann [21] believes that the words hos enouizeto of Luke 3:23 ought to be considered in the same light. Holtzmann [ 20 ]認為路加福音1:34-35作為一個後來; Hillmann [ 21 ]認為,居屋enouizeto的話路加福音3時23分應被視為在同一輕。 Weinel [22] believes that the removal of the words epei andra ou ginosko from Luke 1:34 leaves the third Gospel without a cogent proof for the virgin birth; Harnack not only agrees with the omissions of Holtzmann and Hillmann, but deletes also the word parthenos from Luke 1:27 [23].魏耐耳[ 22 ]認為,取消的話epei安歐ginosko從路加福音1點34分離開第三福音沒有令人信服的證據的處女生育;哈爾納克不僅同意不作為Holtzmann和Hillmann ,但這個詞也刪除parthenos從路加福音1時27分[ 23 ] 。 Other friends of modern theology are rather sceptical as to the solidity of these text-critical theories; Hilgenfield [24], Clement [25], and Gunkel [26] reject Harnack's arguments without reserve.其他朋友的現代神學是相當懷疑,以鞏固這些文字批判理論; Hilgenfield [ 24 ] ,克萊門特[ 25 ] ,和貢克爾[ 26 ]拒絕哈爾納克的論點毫無保留。 Bardenhewer [27] weighs them singly and finds them wanting. Bardenhewer [ 27 ]重量他們發現他們單獨和希望。

In the light of the arguments for the genuineness of the portions of the third Gospel rejected by the above named critics, it is hard to understand how they can be omitted by any unprejudiced student of the sacred text.鑑於論點的真實性部分第三福音否決了上述任命批評,很難了解它們如何可省略任何偏見學生神聖的文字。

They are found in all manuscripts, translations, and early Christian citations, in all printed editions - in brief, in all the documents considered by the critics as reliable witnesses for the genuineness of a text. Furthermore, in the narrative of St. Luke, each verse is like a link in a chain, so that no verse can be removed as an interpolation without destroying the whole.它們存在於所有的手稿,譯本,和早期基督教引用,在所有印刷版-簡單地說,在所有審議的文件批評作為可靠的證人的真實性,文字。此外,在敘事的聖盧克,就像每個詩句中的一個環節鏈,這樣就沒有詩可以去除作為插值不破壞整體。

Moreover, verses 34 and 35 are in the Lucan history what the keystone is in an arch, what a diamond is in its setting; the text of the Gospel without these two verses resembles an unfinished arch, a setting bereft of its precious stones [28].此外, 34和35的詩句是在什麼歷史的盧坎的基石是在拱,什麼是鑽石是在其制訂工作;文本的福音沒有這兩個詩句類似於一個未完成的拱門,設置失去了其寶石[ 28 ] 。

Finally, the Lucan account left us by the critics is not in keeping with the rest of the Evangelist's narrative.最後,盧坎帳戶給我們留下的批評不符合其餘的傳播者的敘事。 According to the critics, verses 26-33 and 36-38 relate the promise of the birth of the Messias, the son of Joseph and Mary, just as the verses immediately preceding relate the promise of the birth of the precursor, the son of Zachary and Elizabeth.據批評,經文26-33和36-38的承諾有關的誕生,弭賽亞的兒子約瑟夫和瑪麗,正如詩句緊接有關承諾的誕生前體的兒子扎卡里和伊麗莎白。 But there is a great difference: the precursor's story is filled with miracles - as Zachary's sudden dumbness, John's wonderful conception - while the account of Christ's conception offers nothing extraordinary; in the one case the angel is sent to the child's father, Zachary, while in the other the angel appears to Mary; in the one case Elizabeth is said to have conceived "after those days", while there is nothing added about Mary's conception [29].但是,有很大差別:前體的故事充滿了奇蹟-作為扎卡里突然dumbness ,約翰的奇妙構思-而到基督的概念提供任何特殊,在一個案件中,天使被送到孩子的父親,扎卡里,而在其他的天使似乎瑪麗;在一例伊麗莎白據說構想“後那些日子” ,而沒有任何增加了約瑪麗的概念[ 29 ] 。 The complete traditional text of the Gospel explains these differences, but the critically mutilated text leaves them inexplicable.完整的傳統文本的福音解釋這些差異,但嚴重肢解文本使他們令人費解。

The friends of modern theology at first believed that they possessed a solid foundation for denying the virgin birth in the Codex Syrus Sinaiticus discovered by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson in 1892, more accurately investigated in 1893, published in 1894, and supplemented in 1896.友現代神學首先認為,他們擁有了堅實的基礎,否認在美屬維爾京出生法典發現希如斯西奈抄本夫人劉易斯和夫人吉布森在1892年,更準確的調查於1893年,出版於1894年,在1896年和補充。 According to this codex, Matthew 1:16 reads: "Joseph to whom was espoused Mary the Virgin, begot Jesus who is called Christ."根據該法典,馬修1:16寫道: “約瑟夫的人是擁護瑪麗的美屬維爾京,誰begot耶穌被稱為基督。 ” Still, the Syriac translator cannot have been ignorant of the virgin birth.儘管如此,敘利亞翻譯不能被忽視的美屬維爾京誕生。 Why did he leave the expression "the virgin" in the immediate context?他為什麼離開表達“聖母”在不久的背景? How did he understand verses 18, 20, and 25, if he did not know anything of the virgin birth?如何理解他的詩句18日, 20日和25日,如果他不知道事情的處女生育? Hence, either the Syriac text has been slightly altered by a transcriber (only one letter had to be changed) or the translator understood the word begot of conventional, not of carnal, fatherhood, a meaning it has in verses 8 and 12.因此,無論是敘利亞文文本已略有改變了transcriber (只有一個字母都必須改變) ,或翻譯理解這個詞begot常規,而不是肉體的,父親,一個含義已在8日和12詩句。

B. Non-historical Source of the Virgin Birth B.非歷史來源處女生育

The opponents of the historical actuality of the virgin birth grant that either the Evangelists or the interpolators of the Gospels borrowed their material from an early Christian tradition, but they endeavour to show that this tradition has no solid historical foundation.反對者的歷史現狀的處女生育補助金,無論是福音還是interpolators的福音借來的物質從早期基督教的傳統,但他們的努力表明,這一傳統並沒有堅實的歷史基礎。 About AD 153 St. Justin (Apol., I, xxi) told his pagan readers that the virgin birth of Jesus Christ ought not to seem incredible to them, since many of the most esteemed pagan writers spoke of a number of sons of Zeus.關於公元153街賈斯汀( Apol. ,我, XXI )號決議的讀者告訴他異教徒的美屬維爾京耶穌基督誕生不應該給他們似乎不可思議,因為許多最尊敬的異教徒作家談到了一些兒子的宙斯。 About AD 178 the Platonic philosopher Celsus ridiculed the virgin birth of Christ, comparing it with the Greek myths of Danae, Melanippe, and Antiope; Origen (c. Cels. I, xxxvii) answered that Celsus wrote more like a buffoon than a philosopher.關於廣告的178塞爾蘇斯嘲笑哲學家柏拉圖的美屬維爾京基督誕生,比較它與希臘神話的達娜厄, Melanippe ,並安提厄普;奧利(角細胞。一,三十七)回答說,塞爾蘇斯寫道更像一個丑角不是哲學家。 But modern theologians again derive the virgin birth of Our Lord from unhistorical sources, though their theories do not agree.但是,現代神學再次獲得處女生育我們的主從unhistorical來源,但他們的理論不同意。

The Pagan Origin Theory異教起源理論

A first class of writers have recourse to pagan mythology in order to account for the early Christian tradition concerning the virgin birth of Jesus.一流的作家訴諸異教神話,以帳戶早期基督教傳統的關於美屬維爾京耶穌誕生。 Usener [30] argues that the early Gentile Christians must have attributed to Christ what their pagan ancestors had attributed to their pagan heroes; hence the Divine sonship of Christ is a product of the religious thought of Gentile Christians. Usener [ 30 ]認為,早期詹蒂萊基督徒必須歸於基督自己異教祖先歸因於他們的異教徒英雄,因此基督的神聖sonship是一種產品的宗教思想的詹蒂萊基督徒。 Hillmann [31] and Holtzmann [32] agree substantially with Usener's theory. Hillmann [ 31 ]和Holtzmann [ 32 ]同意大幅Usener的理論。 Conrady [33] found in the Virgin Mary a Christian imitation of the Egyptian goddess Isis, the mother of Horus; but Holtzmann [34] declares that he cannot follow this "daring construction without a feeling of fear and dizziness", and Usener [35] is afraid that his friend Conrady moves on a precipitous track. Conrady [ 33 ]發現的一個基督教聖母模仿埃及女神伊希斯的母親荷魯斯;但Holtzmann [ 34 ]宣布,他無法按照此“大膽的建築沒有感到恐懼和眩暈” ,並Usener [ 35 ]是擔心他的朋友Conrady動作就倉促軌道。 Soltau [36] tries to transfer the supernatural origin of Augustus to Jesus, but Lobstein [37] fears that Soltau's attempt may throw discredit on science itself, and Kreyher [38] refutes the theory more at length.索爾鐸[ 36 ]試圖轉移超自然起源奧古斯耶穌,但Lobstein [ 37 ]擔心,索爾鐸的企圖可能會扔詆毀科學本身, Kreyher [ 38 ]駁斥了理論更長時間。

In general, the derivation of the virgin birth from pagan mythology through the medium of Gentile Christians implies several inexplicable difficulties:一般情況下,得出的處女生育從異教神話假託詹蒂萊基督徒意味著一些令人費解的困難:

Why should the Christian recently converted from paganism revert to his pagan superstitions in his conception of Christian doctrines?為什麼要轉換的基督教最近從異教恢復到他在他的異教迷信觀念的基督教教義?

How could the product of pagan thought find its way among Jewish Christians without leaving as much as a vestige of opposition on the part of the Jewish Christians?怎麼可能產生的異教思想中找到出路,而不必離開猶太基督信徒多達痕跡反對派的一部分猶太基督徒?

How could this importation into Jewish Christianity be effected at an age early enough to produce the Jewish Christian sources from which either the Evangelists or the interpolators of the Gospels derived their material? Why did not the relatives of Christ's parents protest against the novel views concerning Christ's origin?怎麼會這樣,進口猶太基督教的影響早期的年齡足以產生猶太基督教人士的福音,任何一方或interpolators的福音衍生的物質?為什麼沒有親屬基督的父母抗議小說意見基督原產地?

Besides, the very argument on which rests the importation of the virgin birth from pagan myths into Christianity is fallacious, to say the least.此外,非常論點就在於進口的美屬維爾京異教神話從出生到基督教是荒謬的,至少可以說。 Its major premise assumes that similar phenomena not merely may, but must, spring from similar causes; its minor premise contends that Christ's virgin birth and the mythical divine sonships of the pagan world are similar phenomena, a contention false on the face of it.其主要前提假設類似的現象不僅可能,而且必須,春季從類似原因;其小前提說,基督的處女生育和神話神聖sonships的異教世界的類似現象,一個虛假的爭論,面對它。

The Jewish Origin Theory (Isaiah 7:14)猶太人起源理論(以賽亞書7點14 )

A second class of writers derive the early Christian tradition of the virgin birth from Jewish Christian influence.二等作家獲得了早期基督教的傳統,美屬維爾京出生於猶太基督教的影響力。 Harnack [39] is of the opinion that the virgin birth originated from Isaiah 7:14; Lobstein [40] adds the "poetic traditions surrounding the cradle of Isaac, Samson, and Samuel" as another source of the belief in the virgin birth.哈爾納克[ 39 ]認為,維爾京誕生源於以賽亞7點14分; Lobstein [ 40 ]增加了“詩意的傳統周圍的搖籃艾薩克,大力士,和Samuel ”的另一來源,相信在美屬維爾京誕生。 Modern theology does not grant that Isaiah 7:14, contains a real prophecy fulfilled in the virgin birth of Christ; it must maintain, therefore, that St. Matthew misunderstood the passage when he said: "Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying; Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son," etc. (1:22-23).現代神學不授予該以賽亞7時14分,載有一個真正的預言實現在美屬維爾京基督誕生,它必須維持,因此,聖馬太誤解通過時,他說: “現在,所有這樣做,它可能是應驗上帝的先知說,說;看哪處女應與兒童,並帶來一個兒子, “等( 1:22-23 ) 。 How do Harnack and Lobstein explain such a misunderstanding on the part of the Evangelist?如何哈爾納克和Lobstein解釋這樣的誤會的福音? There is no indication that the Jewish contemporaries of St. Matthew understood the prophet's words in this sense.沒有任何跡象表明猶太同時代的聖馬太理解先知的話在這個意義上。 Hillmann [41] proves that belief in the virgin birth is not contained in the Old Testament, and therefore cannot have been taken from it. Hillmann [ 41 ]證明,相信處女生育不包含在舊約,因此不能從已採取它。 Dalman [42] maintains that the Jewish people never expected a fatherless birth of the Messias, and that there exists no vestige of such a Jewish interpretation of Isaiah 7:14.蜂[ 42 ]認為,猶太人民永遠不會預期父親出生的弭賽亞,而且不存在任何痕跡這樣一個猶太解釋以賽亞7時14分。

Those who derive the virgin birth from Isaiah 7:14, must maintain that an accidental misinterpretation of the Prophet by the Evangelist replaced historic truth among the early Christians in spite of the better knowledge and the testimony of the disciples and kindred of Jesus.這些誰獲得來自美屬維爾京以賽亞七時14分出生,必須保持一個偶然的誤解先知的傳播者取代歷史真相的早期基督徒儘管更好地了解和的證詞弟子和親屬的耶穌。 Zahn [43] calls such a supposition "altogether fantastic"; Usener [44] pronounce the attempt to make Isaiah 7:14 the origin of the virgin birth, instead of its seal, an inversion of the natural order.贊恩[ 43 ]呼籲這樣一個假設“共精彩” ; Usener [ 44 ]宣判企圖使以賽亞七點14分的起源處女生育,而不是其印章,一個反轉的自然秩序。 Though Catholic exegesis endeavours to find in the Old Testament prophetic indications of the virgin birth, still it grants that the Jewish Christians arrived at the full meaning of Isaiah 7:14, only through its accomplishment [45].雖然天主教訓詁學努力尋求在舊約先知的跡象維爾京出生,仍然是贈款,猶太人基督徒抵達全部意義以賽亞7點14分,只有通過其成績[ 45 ] 。

The Syncretic Theory理論的融合

There is a third theory which endeavours to account for the prevalence of the doctrine of the virgin birth among the early Jewish Christians.還有第三個理論,努力帳戶流行的理論,美屬維爾京誕生的早期猶太基督徒。 Gunkel [46] grants that the idea of virgin birth is a pagan idea, wholly foreign to the Jewish conception of God; but he also grants that this idea could not have found its way into early Jewish Christianity through pagan influence.貢克爾[ 46 ]贈款的想法處女生育是一個異教徒的想法,獨資猶太神的概念,但他也贈款,這種想法不可能找到了自己的猶太基督教年初通過異教影響。 Hence he believes that the idea had found its way among the Jews in pre-Christian times, so that the Judaism which flowed directly into early Christianity had undergone a certain amount of syncretism.因此,他認為這種想法已經找到了自己的猶太人的前基督教時代,因此,猶太教流直接進入早期基督教經歷了一定程度的融合。 Hilgenfeld [47] tries to derive the Christian teaching of the virgin birth neither from classical paganism nor from pure Judaism, but from the Essene depreciation of marriage. Hilgenfeld [ 47 ]試圖從中基督教教學的處女生育既不從古典異教也從單純的猶太教,而是來自厄色尼折舊的婚姻生活。 The theories of both Gunkel and Hilgenfeld are based on airy combinations rather than historical evidence.理論既貢克爾和Hilgenfeld是根據通風的組合,而不是歷史證據。 Neither writer produces any historical proof for his assertions. Gunkel, indeed, incidentally draws attention to Parsee ideas, to the Buddha legend, and to Roman and Greek fables.作家既不產生任何歷史證明他的說法。貢克爾,事實上,順便提請注意帕西想法,佛陀的傳說,以及古羅馬和希臘寓言。 But the Romans and Greeks did not exert such a notable influence on pre-Christian Judaism; and that the Buddha legend reached as far as Palestine cannot be seriously maintained by Gunkel [48].但是,羅馬和希臘人沒有施加這種影響的一個顯著前基督教猶太教;和佛陀傳奇達成至於巴勒斯坦不能認真維護貢克爾[ 48 ] 。 Even Harnack [49] regards the theory that the idea of virgin birth penetrated among the Jews through Parsee influence, as an unprovable assumption.即使哈爾納克[ 49 ]關於這一理論的想法,美屬維爾京出生的猶太人,侵入通過帕西的影響,作為一項unprovable假設。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息作者歐塞爾馬斯。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.致力於無玷聖心的祝福聖母天主教百科全書,卷十五。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 12年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

[1] "Einleitung in das Neue Testament", 2nd ed., II, 406, Leipzig, 1900 [2] cf. [ 1 ] “導論之新約中” ,第2版。 ,二, 406 ,萊比錫, 1900年[ 2 ]比照。 Du Cange, "Gloss. med. et inf. latinitatis", sv "Capellani"; ed.都參擱, “光澤。醫科大學。與干擾素。 latinitatis ”希沃特“ Capellani ” ;男女。 L. Favre [3] "Das Grab der heiligen Jungfrau Maria", 51, Mainz, 1896 [4] "A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke" in "The International Critical Commentary", Edinburgh, 1896, p.研究法夫爾[ 3 ] “達斯抓斗之聖瑪利亞少女峰” , 51 ,美因茨, 1896年[ 4 ] “一個關鍵和訓詁評述聖盧克福音”中的“國際評論文章” ,愛丁堡, 1896年,磷。 7 [5] cf. 7 [ 5 ]比照。 Blass, "Evangelium secundum Lucam", xxiii, Leipzig, 1897 [6] "Mitteilungen", III, 345, Göttingen, 1889 [7] cf.布拉斯“福音孔型Lucam ” ,二十三,萊比錫, 1897年[ 6 ] “通報” ,三, 345 ,哥廷根, 1889 [ 7 ]比照。 Gunkel, "Zum religions-geschichtl. Verständnis des Neuen Testaments", pp.貢克爾, “ Zum宗教- geschichtl 。 Verständnis萬Neuen聖經” ,頁。 67 sq., Göttingen, 1903 [8] cf. 67平方米,哥廷根, 1903 [ 8 ]比照。 Bardenhewer, "Maria Verkündigung" in "Biblische Studien", X, v, pp. Bardenhewer , “瑪麗亞Verkündigung ”中的“ Biblische Studien ” ,第十章,第五章頁。 32 sq., Freiburg, 1905 [9] cf. 32平方米,弗賴堡, 1905年[ 9 ]比照。 Feine, "Eine vorkanonische Ueberlieferung des Lukas in Evangelium und Apostelgeschichte", Gotha, 1891, p. Feine , “電影vorkanonische Ueberlieferung萬盧卡斯在福音與Apostelgeschichte ” ,戈塔, 1891年,第 19; Zimmermann, "Theol. Stud. und Krit.", 1903, 250 sqq. [10] Sitzungsber. 19 ;齊默爾曼, “ Theol 。梭哈。與Krit 。 ” , 1903年, 250 sqq 。 [ 10 ] Sitzungsber 。 der Berliner Akad., 1900, pp.德國柏林Akad 。 , 1900 ,頁。 547 sqq. [11] "Die Worte Jesu", I, 31 sq., Leipzig, 1898 [12] "Zur Charakteristik des Lukas nach Sprache und Stil", Leipzig, 1897, p. 547 sqq 。 [ 11 ] “模具Worte耶穌” ,我, 31平方米,萊比錫, 1898年[ 12 ] “論Charakteristik萬盧卡斯nach語言與依然” ,萊比錫, 1897年,第 33 [13] Einleitung, 2nd ed., ii, 406 [14] "Das Kindheitesevangelium nach Lukas und Matthäus" in "Texte und Untersuchungen zur Gesch. der altchristl. Literatur", X, v, 319, Leipzig, 1897 [15] "Die Quelle der kanonischen Kindheitsgeschichte Jesus", Göttingen, 1900 [16] Gunkel, "Zum religionsgesch. Verst. des NT", p, 65, Göttingen, 1903 [17] Usener, "Geburt und Kindheit Christi" in "Zeitschrift für die neutest. Wissenschaft", IV, 1903, 8 [18] "Das Evangelium Lukä", Berlin, 1904 [19] Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. 33 [ 13 ]導論,第2版。 ,二, 406 [ 14 ] “達斯Kindheitesevangelium nach盧卡斯和Matthäus ”中的“文本與Untersuchungen楚Gesch 。河畔altchristl 。文學” ,第十章,第五章, 319 ,萊比錫, 1897年[ 15 ] “模具出台之kanonischen Kindheitsgeschichte耶穌” ,哥廷根, 1900 [ 16 ]貢克爾, “ Zum religionsgesch 。 Verst 。萬新台幣” ,磷, 65歲,哥廷根, 1903 [ 17 ] Usener , “基督誕生與Kindheit ”中的“死雜誌neutest 。科學“ ,四, 1903年, 8 [ 18 ] ”福音巴尼亞盧卡達斯“ ,柏林, 1904年[ 19 ] Sitzungsberichte之Kgl 。 preuss.普羅伊斯。 Akad. Akad 。 der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1900, 547 [20] "Handkommentar züm Neuen Testament", I, 31 sq., Freiburg, 1889 [21] "Die Kindheitsgeschichte Jesu nach Lukas kritisch untersucht" in "Jahrb. für protest. Theol.", XVII, 225 sqq., 1891 [22] "Die Auslegung des apostolischen Bekenntnisses von F. Kattenbusch und die neut. Forschung" in "Zeitschrift für dnt Wissensch.", II, 37 sqq., 1901; cf.德國學問柏林, 1900年, 547 [ 20 ] “ Handkommentar züm Neuen全書” ,我, 31平方米,弗賴堡, 1889年[ 21 ] “模具Kindheitsgeschichte耶穌nach普杜斯基kritisch untersucht ”中的“ Jahrb 。 f黵抗議。 Theol 。 ”十七, 225 sqq 。 , 1891年[ 22 ] “模解釋沙漠apostolischen Bekenntnisses馮樓Kattenbusch與模具neut 。科研”的“雜誌二硝基甲苯Wissensch 。 ”二, 37 sqq 。 , 1901年;比照。 Kattenbusch, "Das apostolische Symbol", II, 621, Leipzig, 1897-1900 [23] Zeitschrift für dnt Wissensch., 53 sqq., 1901 [24] "Die Geburt Jesu aus der Jungfrau in dem Lukasevangelium" in "Zeitschr. für wissenschaftl. Theologie", XLIV, 313 sqq., 1901 [25] Theol. Kattenbusch , “達斯apostolische標誌” ,二, 621 ,萊比錫, 1897至1900年[ 23 ]雜誌二硝基甲苯Wissensch 。 , 53 sqq 。 , 1901年[ 24 ] “澳大利亞模具耶穌誕生在德國馬克Lukasevangelium少女”中的“ Zeitschr 。 f黵wissenschaftl 。神學“ ,四十四, 313 sqq 。 , 1901年[ 25 ] Theol 。 Literaturzeitung, 1902, 299 [26] op. Literaturzeitung , 1902年, 299 [ 26 ]同前。 cit., p.前。山口 68 [27] "Maria Verkündigung", pp. 68 [ 27 ] “瑪麗亞Verkündigung ” ,頁。 8-12, Freiburg, 1905 [28] cf. 8月12日,弗賴堡, 1905年[ 28 ]比照。 Feine, "Eine vorkanonische Ueberlieferung", 39, Gotha, 1891 [29] Bardenhewer, op. Feine , “電影vorkanonische Ueberlieferung ” , 39 ,戈塔, 1891年[ 29 ] Bardenhewer ,同前。 cit., 13 sqq.; Gunkel, op.前。 , 13 sqq 。 ;貢克爾,同前。 cit., 68 [30] "Religionsgeschichtl. Untersuchungen", I, 69 sqq., Bonn, 1899; "Geburt und Kindheit Christi" in "Zeitschrift für dnt Wissensch.", IV, 1903, 15 sqq. [31] Jahrb.前。 , 68 [ 30 ] “ Religionsgeschichtl 。 Untersuchungen ” ,我, 69 sqq 。 ,波恩, 1899年, “基督誕生與Kindheit ”中的“雜誌二硝基甲苯Wissensch 。 ” ,四, 1903年, 15 sqq 。 [ 31 ] Jahrb 。 f.荷蘭盾 protest.抗議。 Theol., XVII, 1891, 231 sqq. [32] "Lehrb. dnt Theol.", I, 413 sqq., Freiburg, 1897 [33] "Die Quelle der kanonisch. Kindheitsgesch. Jesus", Göttingen, 1900, 278 sqq. [34] Theol. Theol 。 ,十七, 1891年, 231 sqq 。 [ 32 ] “ Lehrb 。酵母Theol 。 ”我, 413 sqq 。 ,弗賴堡, 1897年[ 33 ] “模具出台之kanonisch 。 Kindheitsgesch 。耶穌” ,哥廷根, 1900年, 278 sqq 。 [ 34 ] Theol 。 Literaturzeit., 1901, p. Literaturzeit 。 , 1901年,第 136 [35] Zeitschr. 136 [ 35 ] Zeitschr 。 fdnt Wissensch., 1903, p. fdnt Wissensch 。 , 1903年,第 8 [36] "Die Geburtsgeschichte Jesu Christi", Leipzig, 1902, p. 8 [ 36 ] “模具Geburtsgeschichte基督耶穌” ,萊比錫, 1902年,第 24 [37] Theol. 24 [ 37 ] Theol 。 Literaturzeitung, 1902, p. Literaturzeitung , 1902年,第 523 [38] "Die jungfräuliche Geburt des Herrn", Gutersloh, 1904 [39] "Lehrb. d. Dogmengesch.", 3rd ed., I, 95 sq., Freiburg, 1894 [40] "Die Lehre von der übernatürlichen Geburt Christi", 2nd ed., 28-31, Freiburg, 1896 [41] "Jahrb. f. protest. Theol.", 1891, XVII, 233 sqq., 1891 [42] Die Worte Jesu, I, Leipzig, 1898, 226 [43] "Das Evangelium des Matthäus ausgelegt", 2nd ed., Leipziig, 1905, pp. 523 [ 38 ] “模具jungfräuliche誕生之Herrn ” ,居特斯洛, 1904年[ 39 ] “ Lehrb 。 4 Dogmengesch 。 ”第3版。 ,我, 95平方米,弗賴堡, 1894年[ 40 ] “模具教馮德übernatürlichen誕生基督“ ,第2版。 , 28日至31日,弗賴堡, 1896年[ 41 ] ” Jahrb 。樓抗議。 Theol 。 “ , 1891年,十七, 233 sqq 。 , 1891年[ 42 ]模具Worte耶穌,我,萊比錫, 1898年, 226 [ 43 ] “達斯萬Matthäus ausgelegt福音” ,第2版。 , Leipziig , 1905年,頁。 83 sq. [44] "Religionsgesch. Untersuch.", I, Bonn, 1889, 75 [45] Bardenhewer op. 83平方米[ 44 ] “ Religionsgesch 。 Untersuch 。 ”我,波恩, 1889年, 75 [ 45 ] Bardenhewer運算。 cit., 23; cf.前。 , 23歲;比照。 Flunk, Zeitschrift f.垮台,雜誌樓 kathol. kathol 。 Theol.", XXVIII, 1904, 663 [46] op. cit., 65 sqq. [47] "Zeitschr. Theol 。 “二十八, 1904年, 663 [ 46 ]同前。前。 , 65 sqq 。 [ 47 ] ” Zeitschr 。 f.荷蘭盾 wissensch. wissensch 。 Theol.", 1900, XLIII, 271; 1901, XLIV, 235 [48] cf. Oldenberg, "Theol. Theol 。 “ , 1900年,四十三, 271 ; 1901年,四十四, 235 [ 48 ]比照。奧爾登貝格, ” Theol 。 Literaturzeit.", 1905, 65 sq. [49] "Dogmengesch.", 3rd ed., Freiburg, 1894, 96 Literaturzeit 。 “ , 1905年, 65平方米[ 49 ] ” Dogmengesch 。 “第3版。弗賴堡, 1894年, 96

Besides the works cited in the course of this article, we may draw attention to the dogmatic treatises on the supernatural origin of the Humanity of Christ through the Holy Ghost from the Virgin Mary especially: WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic Theology, II (London and New York, 1898), 105 sqq.; 208 sqq.; HUNTER, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, II (New York, 1896), 567 sqq.; also to the principal commentaries on Matt., i, ii; Luke, i, ii.此外,工程中所引用的過程本文中,我們可以提請注意教條論文的超自然起源的人性基督通過聖靈從聖母是: WILHELM和斯坎內爾,天主教神學手冊,二(倫敦和紐約, 1898 ) , 105 sqq 。 ; 208 sqq 。 ;亨特綱要教條主義神學,二(紐約, 1896年) , 567 sqq 。 ;也主要評注馬特。 ,一,二;盧克,我,二。 Among Protestant writings we may mention the tr.在新教的著作,我們可以提到文。 of LOBSTEIN, The Virgin Birth of Christ (London, 1903); BRIGGS, Criticism and the Dogma of the Virgin Birth in North Am.的LOBSTEIN ,維爾京基督降生, (倫敦, 1903年) ;布里格斯批評和教條的美屬維爾京出生在北時。 Rev. (June, 1906); ALLEN in Interpreter (Febr., 1905), 115 sqq.; (Oct., 1905), 52 sqq.; CARR in Expository Times, XVIII, 522, 1907; USENER, sv Nativity in Encyclo.修訂版( 6月, 1906年) ; Allen的解釋( Febr. , 1905年) , 115 sqq 。 ; ( 10月, 1905年) , 52 sqq 。 ;轉盤在說明性時報,十八, 522 , 1907 ; USENER ,希沃特誕生在Encyclo 。 Bibl., III, 3852; CHEYNE, Bible Problems (1905), 89 sqq.; CARPENTER, Bible in the Nineteenth Century (1903), 491 sqq.; RANDOLPH, The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1903). Bibl 。 ,三, 3852 ;進益,聖經問題( 1905年) , 89 sqq 。 ;木匠,聖經中的19世紀( 1903年) , 491 sqq 。 ;蘭多夫的處女生育我們的上帝( 1903年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Mariology Mariology
Virgin Mary 聖母
Assumption 假設
Immaculate Conception 聖母受胎

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在