Vedas吠陀

General Information 一般信息

The Vedas (Sanskrit: "knowledge"), the most sacred books of Hinduism and the oldest literature of India, represent the religious thought and activity of the Indo European speaking peoples who entered South Asia in the 2d millennium BC, although they probably also reflect the influence of the indigenous people of the area.該吠陀(梵: “知識” ) , 最神聖的書籍,印度教和印度最古老的文學,代表了宗教思想和活動的發言人民印度支那歐洲誰進入南亞二維公元前3000年,雖然他們可能也反映了的影響,土著人的地區。 The Vedic texts presumably date from between 1500 and 500 BC.吠陀文本大概的日期從1500年之間, 500年。 This literature was preserved for centuries by an oral tradition in which particular families were entrusted with portions of the text for preservation.這文學保存數百年的口頭傳說中,特別是家庭被賦予部分文字保存。 As a result, some parts of the texts are known by the names of the families they were assigned to.因此,一些地方的文本所熟知的名字,他們的家屬被分配到。

In its narrowest sense, the term Veda applies to four collections of hymns (samhita): Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. These hymns and verses, addressed to various deities, were chanted during sacrificial rituals.在其狹窄的意義上說,長期吠陀適用於四個收藏的讚美詩(集) : 鑽機吠陀,薩馬吠陀,雅育爾吠陀和阿塔發吠陀。這些讚美詩和經文,給不同的神,是在祭祀儀式呼喊。 In a wider sense, Veda refers to both these hymns and the materials that accreted around them to form four books with four parts. For each of the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva, there are not only hymns, but also Brahmanas - prose texts that explain and illustrate the significance of the ritual; Aranyakas, or forest - treatises - esoteric texts providing symbolic or magical interpretations of ritual formulae; and the commentaries called Upanishads - the beginnings of Hindu philosophy.從更廣的意義,吠陀指這些讚美詩和材料堆積在他們周圍形成四本書的四個部分。對於每個鑽機,沙瑪,雅育爾,和阿塔發,不僅讚美詩,但也Brahmanas -散文文本的解釋和說明意義的儀式; Aranyakas ,或森林-論文-深奧文本提供象徵性的或神秘的解釋儀式公式;和評論呼籲Upanishads -初期的印度教哲學。

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Vedic rituals essentially involved offerings to and with fire under precisely prescribed conditions by which the sacrificer hoped to communicate with the deities and thus to obtain desired results. The importance attached to the satisfaction of formal conditions required that a priest with knowledge of the proper forms officiate at the sacrifice.吠陀儀式主要涉及的產品,並符合消防規定的條件下準確地在該sacrificer希望與神溝通,從而獲得理想的結果。重視滿意的正式必要條件,一個神父有正確認識的形式主持犧牲。 Many of the deities addressed by the sacrifice were identified or associated with natural objects of forces such as fire, water, and wind.很多神處理的犧牲被確定或與其相關的自然物體的力量,如消防,水,和風力發電。 Among the most important were Indra (thunder, war, and perhaps creator), Varuna (guardian of the cosmic order and moral law), Agni (fire, light), and Soma (a liquid used in the sacrifice).其中最重要的是因陀羅(打雷,戰爭,也許創作者) ,伐樓拿(監護人的宇宙秩序和道德律) ,烈火(火災,輕) ,並索瑪(液體中所用的犧牲) 。 The form and functions of one god, however, were not strictly distinguished from those of others and, as the Vedic period progressed, thought developed from polytheism to monotheism and thence, in the Upanishads, to monism.形式和職能的一個上帝,但是,並沒有嚴格區分他人的,正如吠陀時期的進展, 認為從多神教到一神教,再在Upanishads ,以論。

The relation of Vedism to the Hinduism of later centuries is complex and not well understood.的關係Vedism到印度教的世紀中是複雜的,沒有得到很好的理解。 The Vedas are preserved in traditional fashion in certain parts of India, and the tendency is widespread to look to them as expressions of the fundamental genius of Hindu thought and aspiration.在吠陀保存在傳統的方式在某些地區,印度,和目前的趨勢是普遍的期望表達他們的基本天才印度教思想和願望。 The originals of the major Hindu gods - Shiva and Vishnu - can be found among the minor deities of the Vedas. The sacrifice has, however, all but disappeared from India in its Vedic form, replaced by different rites; and the analogy, central to the Vedic ritual, between actions on Earth and events in the heavens is replaced in Hinduism by the goal of liberation from actions on Earth, from life itself.正本主要印度教神-濕婆和毗濕奴-可以發現未成年人神之間的吠陀。所做出的犧牲了,但是,全部消失在其從印度吠陀形式,取而代之的是不同的宗教儀式;和類推,中央對在吠陀儀式,地球上的行動和事件的天空是取代在印度教的目標是解放地球上的行動,從生活本身。 The concepts of Karma and Transmigration of Souls are not found in the Vedic corpus until the Upanishads.噶瑪的概念和輪迴的靈魂中找不到吠陀語料庫,直到Upanishads 。

Karl H Potter卡爾H哈利波特

Bibliography: 參考書目:
EV Arnold, The Rigveda (1960); S Aurobindo, The Secret of the Veda (1971); J Gonda, Vedic Literature: Samhitas and Brahmanas (1975); AB Keith, Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads (1926); CK Raja, The Vedas: A Critical Study (1957).電動車阿諾德,該Rigveda ( 1960年) ;縣奧羅賓多,秘密的吠陀( 1971年) ; J貢達,吠陀文學: Samhitas和Brahmanas ( 1975年) ;公司基思,宗教和哲學的吠陀和Upanishads ( 1926年) ;對照拉賈的吠陀:一個批判的研究( 1957年) 。


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