Transmigration of Souls輪迴的靈魂

General Information 一般信息

Transmigration of souls, sometimes called metempsychosis, is based on the idea that a soul may pass out of one body and reside in another (human or animal) or in an inanimate object. The idea appears in various forms in tribal cultures in many parts of the world (for example, Africa, Madagascar, Oceania, and South America).輪迴的靈魂,有時被稱為輪迴,是基於我們的想法是一個靈魂可以運出一具屍體和居住在另一個國家(人類或動物) ,或在一個沒有生命的物體。這個想法出現在各種形式的部落文化的許多地方世界上(例如,非洲,馬達加斯加,大洋洲和南美洲) 。 The notion was familiar in ancient Greece, notably in Orphism, and was adopted in a philosophical form by Plato and the Pythagoreans.熟悉的概念是在古希臘,尤其是在Orphism獲得通過,在哲學形式的柏拉圖和Pythagoreans 。 The belief gained some currency in gnostic and occult forms of Christianity and Judaism and was introduced into Renaissance thought by the recovery of the Hermetic books.相信取得了一些貨幣的諾斯底和隱匿形式的基督教和猶太教和引入文藝復興思想的恢復密封書籍。

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The most fully articulated doctrine of transmigration is found in Hinduism.最充分闡明理論輪迴中發現印度教。 It does not appear in the earliest Hindu scriptures (the Rig Veda) but was developed at a later period in the Upanishads (c. 600 BC).它沒有出現在最早的印度教經文(該鑽機吠陀) ,但發達國家在稍後時期Upanishads (約公元前600年) 。 Central to the conception of human destiny after death was the belief that human beings are born and die many times.環的概念,人類的命運是死亡後,認為人人生而死亡了很多次。 Souls are regarded as emanations of the divine spirit.靈魂被視為emanations神聖的精神。 Each soul passes from one body to another in a continuous cycle of births and deaths, their condition in each existence being determined by their actions in previous births.每個靈魂通行證從一個身體到另一個週期的持續出生和死亡,他們在每一個存在條件是取決於它們的行動在以前出生。

Thus, transmigration is closely interwoven with the concept of Karma (action), which involves the inevitable working out, for good or ill, of all action in a future existence.因此,輪迴是密切交織在一起的概念,噶瑪(行動) ,其中涉及了不可避免的工作,良好的或虐待,所有的行動在未來的存在。 The whole experience of life, whether of happiness or sorrow, is a just reward for deeds (good or bad) done in earlier existences.整個的生活經驗,無論幸福或悲傷,是一種回報事蹟(好或壞)早些時候所做的存在。 The cycle of karma and transmigration may extend through innumerable lives; the ultimate goal is the reabsorption of the soul into the ocean of divinity from whence it came.因果報應的循環和輪迴可能延長到無數人的生命的最終目標是吸收靈魂入海的神它從何處來。 This union occurs when the individual realizes the truth about the soul and the Absolute (Brahman) and the soul becomes one with Brahman.這個聯盟時,就會發生個人認識真相的靈魂和絕對(婆羅門)和靈魂,成為與婆羅門。 It is often mistakenly thought that Buddhism also involves transmigration.人們常常誤以為佛教也涉及輪迴。 The classical Buddhist doctrine of anatta ("no soul"), however, specifically rejects the Hindu view.古典佛法的無我( “沒有靈魂” ) ,但是,具體反對印度教的觀點。 The Buddhist position on the workings of karma is exceedingly complex.佛教的立場的工作是極其複雜的情感氛圍。

The idea of transmigration has been propagated in the Western world by movements such as Theosophy and by the more recent proliferation of Oriental religious cults.輪迴的想法一直在宣揚西方世界的運動,如神智學和最近擴散東方邪教。 Most of these Westernized versions appear to lack the intellectual rigor and philosophical content of the classical Hindu doctrine.大多數這些西方版本似乎缺乏嚴謹,智慧和哲學的經典內容印度教教義。

Charles W Ranson查爾斯W蘭森

Bibliography: 參考書目:
J Head, ed., Reincarnation in World Thought (1967); AW Holzer, Born Again (1970). J團長,教育署。 ,轉世在世界思想( 1967年) ;抗磨霍爾澤生於同樣( 1970年) 。


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