Taoism道教

(6th Century BC) (公元前6世紀)

General Information 一般信息

Tao means 'the Way' or 'Way of Life.'道指'的方式'或'的生活方式。 '

Lao - Tse is the supposed author of the Tao Te Ching, a small book containing the main tenets of Taoism. The book is divided into two parts, the Tao and the Tek, and is subdivided into 81 chapters. He was a contemporary of Confucius, who visited him several times and who was deeply impressed by the spirituality and humility of Lao - Tse.老撾-謝是理應作者陶特青,一小本書包含的主要原則,道教。這本書分為兩部分,該道和技術,並分為81章。他是當代的孔子,誰訪問了他好幾次,誰留下了深刻的印象的精神和謙恭的老撾-謝。

'All things originate from Tao, conform to Tao, and to Tao they at last return.' '所有的事情源於道,符合道,並道,他們終於返回。

Lao - Tse taught a belief in transmigration of souls, which got absorbed into Taoism, Confucianism and the other Eastern religions as reincarnation. 老撾-謝教授相信輪迴的靈魂,它吸收了道教,儒家和其他東方宗教的轉世。

Where Confucianism is rather practical, Taoism is largely negative in its teachings and emphasizes pacifism, mysticism, and the importance of non - activity.凡儒學是相當實際的,基本上是負面的道教在其教義,並強調和平主義,神秘主義,並重視非-的活動。

Taoism taught its believers to cast aside worldly pleasures, honors, and glory and to be content with their lot. Later on, Taoism came to be a religion of spirits and ancestor worship far removed from the original simple teachings. 道教教導其信徒拋棄世俗的快樂,榮譽,並光榮和內容必須與他們的命運。後來,後來被道教的宗教精神和祖先崇拜遠離原來的簡單的教義。 A priesthood arose, shrines and temples were erected, and an elaborate system composed of magic, charms, and spells was developed.阿鐸站起身來,神社和寺院分別豎立,並闡述系統組成的魔法,魅力,並說明是發達國家。

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In principle, Taoism suggests not striving for 'the best', which theoretically is never attainable.從原則上說, 道教認為沒有爭取'最好的' ,這在理論上是永遠不會實現的。 Just accept 'good enough' and be contented and happy. Taoism teaches simplicity, frugality and love of the soil. 剛剛接受'好' ,並滿足和快樂。道教教簡單,節儉和愛的土壤。 Extensive education was not sought in Taoism as in Confucianism.廣泛的教育是不尋求道教作為儒家。

Three stages of religious growth occurred.三個階段的宗教增長發生。 The first, eremital, involved abstention from too much food, deep breathing, and learning rules for longevity.第一, eremital ,參與棄權太多食物,深呼吸,學習規則長壽。 (up to about 200 BC) (高達約200年)

The second, the magical, lasted from 200 BC to 200 AD.第二,神奇,歷時200年到公元200 。 Taoists developed fortunetelling and exorcism.道教發達fortunetelling和驅魔。

The third, the ecclesiastical, is a church - like phase up to today. Taoism took over many of the gods of Buddhism over the years as well as other conventions.第三,教會,是教會-就像階段到今天。道教了許多佛教的神多年來以及其他公約。 Lao Tse was deified along with Pan Ku and Yu Huang Shanti who became the Trinity that corresponds to the Three Jewels of Buddhism.老子被神化連同潘酷餘黃山荑誰成為三一相對應的三個珠寶佛教。


Taoism道教

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term Taoism refers both to the philosophy outlined in the Tao Te Ching (identified with Lao - Tzu) and to China's ancient Taoist religion.這個詞既指道教哲學中概述陶特青(確定老撾-慈濟)和中國古代道教的宗教。 Next to Confucianism, it ranks as the second major belief system in traditional Chinese thought.旁邊的儒學,它名列第二個主要的信仰系統在傳統思想。

Taoist Philosophy道家哲學

The formulation of Taoist philosophy is attributed to Lao - Tzu (fl. 6th or 4th century BC) and Chuang - Tzu (c. 369 - c. 286 BC) as well as the Lieh - tzu (compiled during the Han dynasty, 202 BC - 220 AD).制定道家哲學是由於老撾-慈濟( fl.第六或公元前4世紀)和莊-慈濟(角369 -角286年) ,以及列-慈濟(彙編在漢代,公元前202 -公元220 ) 。 Three doctrines are particularly important: Tao (way) is nonbeing (wu), the creative - destructive force that brings everything into being and dissolves everything into nonbeing; return (fu) is the destiny of everything - that is, everything, after completing its cycle, returns to nonbeing; and nonaction (wu wei), or action in harmony with nature, is the best way of life.三是特別重要的理論:道(方法)是nonbeing (吳) ,創意-破壞性力量,使一切形成和溶解一切納入nonbeing ;返回(富)是命運的一切-這就是一切,在完成其週期,返回nonbeing ;和nonaction (吳偉) ,或採取行動與自然和諧,是最好的生活方式。 Chuang - tzu taught that, from a purely objective viewpoint, all oppositions are merely the creations of conceptual thought and imply no judgments of intrinsic value (one pole is no more preferable than its opposite). Hence the wise person accepts life's inevitable changes. The Lieh - tzu said that the cultivation of Tao would enable a person to live for several hundred years.莊-慈教授認為,從純客觀的角度來看,所有反對只是概念性的創作思想和意味著沒有判決的內在價值(一極,沒有比它更可取對面) 。因此,明智的人接受的生活不可避免的變更。烈-慈濟表示,種植道將使一個人生活數百年。 Taoism teaches the devotee to lead a long and tranquil life through the elimination of one's desires and aggressive impulses.道教教信徒導致長期和安寧的生活,通過消除一個人的慾望和積極的衝動。

Taoist Religion道教的宗教

Often regarded as a corruption of Taoist philosophy, the Taoist religion began in the 3d century BC with such practices as Alchemy (the mixing of elixirs designed to ensure the immortality of the body).往往被視為腐敗的道家哲學,道教宗教開始在3D世紀這種做法煉金術(混合原料旨在確保不朽的機構) 。 The alchemy was carried out by Taoist priest - magicians at the court of Shih Huang - ti of the Ch'in dynasty (221 - 207 BC).煉金術進行了道士-魔術師法院石黃-鈦的秦王朝( 221 - 207年) 。 These magicians were also acclaimed as spirit mediums and experts in levitation.這些魔術師也被譽為精神媒介和專家的磁懸浮。 They were the heirs of the archaic folk religion of China, which had been rejected by the early Confucianists.他們的繼承人古老民間信仰中,已拒絕了早期儒家。 Among the prominent features of Taoist religion are belief in physical immortality, alchemy, breath control and hygiene (internal alchemy), a pantheon of deities (including Lao - tzu as one of the three Supreme Ones), monasticism and the ritual of community renewal, and revealed scriptures.其中突出的特點是道教信仰的宗教身體永生,煉丹術,呼吸控制和衛生(內部煉金術) ,一個神殿的神(包括老撾-慈濟之一的三個最高的國家) ,修道和禮儀的社會重建,揭示經文。 The Taoist liturgy and theology were influenced by Buddhism.道教禮儀和神學是受佛教影響。 Its scriptures, the Tao - tsang, consist of hundreds of separate works totaling more than 5,000 chapters.它的經典,道-曾蔭權,包括數以百計的獨立的工程總額超過5000章節。

Among the principal Taoist sects to emerge was the Heavenly Master sect, founded in West China in the 2d century AD.各主要道教教派出現是天師節,成立於華西在二維世紀。 It advocated faith healing through the confession of sin and at one time recruited members as soldiers and engaged in war against the government.它主張信仰癒合通過懺悔罪和在同一時間招募成員充當士兵和從事反政府的戰爭。 The Supreme Peace sect, also founded in the 2d century, adopted practices much like those of the Heavenly Master sect and launched a great rebellion that went on for several years before ending in 205 AD.最高法院和平節,還成立了二維世紀,通過做法就像是天師節,並發起了偉大的叛亂的過程持續了幾年前結束的205年。 The Mao - shan (Mount Mao) sect, founded in the 4th century, introduced rituals involving both external and internal alchemies, mediumistic practice, and visionary communication with divinities.毛澤東-山(山毛)節,創立於4世紀,介紹禮儀,涉及外部和內部alchemies , mediumistic實踐中,和富有遠見的溝通與神。

The Ling - pao (Marvelous Treasure) sect, also founded in the 4th century, introduced the worship of divinities called T'ien - tsun (Heavenly Lords).嶺-寶(奇寶)節,還創立於4世紀,介紹了神崇拜所謂天子-村(天上的上帝) 。 The Ch'uan - chen (Completely Real) sect was founded in the 12th century as a Taoist monastic movement.該Ch'uan -陳(完全真實)節創辦於12世紀的道教廟宇的運動。 Eventually the Heavenly Master sect absorbed most of the beliefs and practices of the other sects and, in the 20th century, became the most popular Taoist group.最終天師節吸收大部分的信仰和習俗的其他宗派,並在20世紀,成為最流行的道教組。

David C Yu戴維麥克於

Bibliography: 參考書目:
M Chiu, The Tao of the Chinese Religion (1985); G Geng and J English, Lao Tzu: The Tao Te Ching (1979); AC Graham, Chuang Tzu: The Inner Chapters (1981); M Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism (1969); S Little, Realm of the Immortals: Daoism in the Arts of China (1988); M Saso, Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal (1972); RM Smullyan, The Tao Is Silent (1977); A Waley, The Way and Its Power (1958); H Welch, Taoism (1957). M照,該道的中國宗教( 1985年) ; G耿和J英語,老子:在陶特清( 1979年) ;交流格雷厄姆莊子:在內蒙古分會( 1981年) ; M Kaltenmark ,老子與道教( 1969年) ;小,境界神仙:道教藝術中( 1988年) ; M Saso ,道教和禮儀宇宙重建( 1972年) ;室Smullyan ,該道沉默不語( 1977年) ;阿理,途徑和其權力( 1958年) ; H韋爾奇,道教( 1957年) 。


Lao - tzu (Laozi)老撾-慈濟(老子)

General Information 一般信息

Lao - tzu, or Master Lao, is the name of the supposed author of the Taoist classic Tao - te Ching.老撾-慈濟,或碩士老撾,名稱是假定作者的道教經典道-德青。 According to Taoist legend, Lao - tzu, the founder of Taoism, was named Li Erh and had the courtesy name Lao Tan.根據道教傳說,老撾-慈濟,道教的創始人,被任命為李二和出於禮貌名老撾談。 An older contemporary of Confucius (551 - 479 BC), he was keeper of the archives at the imperial court.一個舊的當代孔子( 551 - 479年) ,他被門將檔案在朝廷。 In his 80th year he set out for the western border of China, toward what is now Tibet, saddened and disillusioned that men were unwilling to follow his path to natural goodness.他在80年他開始為我國西部邊界,對現在的西藏,難過和失望,男人不願遵循他的道路自然善良。 At the border (Hank Pass), however, the guard Yin Hsi requested that Lao - tzu record his teachings before he left, whereupon he composed in 5,000 characters the famous Tao - te Ching (The Way and Its Power).在邊界(漢克密碼) ,但是,後衛尹西要求老撾-慈濟記錄他的教誨離任前,在這種情況下,他在5000字組成的著名的道-德青(途徑和電力) 。

The essential teaching of Lao - tzu is the Tao, or Way, to ultimate reality - the way of the universe exemplified in nature.基本教學老撾-慈濟是道,或方式,以最終實現-的方式體現了宇宙的性質。 The harmony of opposites (T'ai Ch'ai) is achieved through a blend of the yin (feminine force) and the yang (masculine force); this harmony can be cultivated through creative quietude (wu wei), an effortless action whose power (te) maintains equanimity and balance.和諧的對立統一(台Ch'ai )是通過融合的銀(女性武力)和楊(男性生效) ;和諧可耕地通過創造性寧靜(吳偉) ,一個輕鬆的行動的權力(德)保持鎮定和平衡。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
WT Chan, trans., The Way of Lao Tsu (Tao te Ching) (1963); H Welch, The Parting of the Way (1957); M Kaltenmark, Lao - Tzu and Taoism (1969).野生陳式。 ,路老子(道德經) ( 1963年) ; H韋爾奇,該分的方法( 1957年) ; M Kaltenmark ,老撾-慈濟與道教( 1969年) 。


Tao Te Ching (Daode Jing)陶特青(道德婧)

General Information 一般信息

A philosophical classic by Lao - Tzu, the Tao Te Ching is the single most important text of Chinese Taoism.哲學經典的老撾-慈濟的陶特青是唯一最重要的案文中道教。 According to tradition, the sage composed its approximately 5,000 words in the 6th century BC at the request of a gatekeeper who wanted a record of his teachings.按照傳統,聖人組成約5000字在公元前6世紀的要求,看門人誰想要一個記錄他的教誨。 The book is now considered to date from the 4th century BC.這本書現在被認為是迄今從公元前4世紀。 Laced with richly poetic imagery, it counsels balance, restraint, simplicity, and the avoidance of activity and desire as the means of achieving harmony with the natural currents of the Tao, or universal way.含有豐富的詩歌意象,它律師平衡,克制,簡單,並避免活動和願望的手段實現和諧與自然電流的道,或普遍的方式。 In ancient China Lao - tzu's thoughts rivaled those of Confucius in popularity, and his book has elicited hundreds of commentaries and translations.我國古代老撾-慈濟思想媲美這些孔子的普及,和他的書引起了數以百計的評論和翻譯。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Lao - tzu, Tao Te Ching (1964); BB Sims, Lao - tzu and the 'Te Ching' (1971).老撾-慈濟,陶特青( 1964年) ; BB心跳希姆斯,老撾-慈濟和'特青' ( 1971年) 。


Taoism道教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

(TAO-KIAO.) ( TAO-KIAO. )

Taoism is the second of the three state religions (San-kiao) of China. This religion is derived from the philosophical doctrines of Lao-tze.道教是第二三個國家的宗教(三僑)我國。這是來自宗教的哲學理論老撾姿。 "Lao-tze's Taoism", says Legge (Religions of China, 229), "is the exhibition of a way or method of living which men should cultivate as the highest and purest development of their nature". “老子姿的道教”說,理雅各(宗教中, 229 ) , “是展覽的方式或方法的生活,男人應該培養作為最高和純淨發展其性質。 ” According to De Groot (Religious System of China, IV, p. 66): "Taoism, as the word indicates, is the Religion of the Tao, a term meaning Path or Way, but denoting in this peculiar case the way, course or movement of the Universe, her processes and methods. In other words, Taoism is the Religion of Heaven and Earth, of the Cosmos, of the World or Nature in the broadest sense of these words. Hence we may call it Naturism".據德格魯特(宗教系統中,四,第66頁) : “道,因為這個詞所表明的,是宗教的道,這個詞的含義路徑或方式,而是指在這個特殊的情況下,這樣,課程或運動的宇宙,她的程序和方法。換言之,是道教的宗教天地,宇宙,世界或性質最廣泛意義上的這些話。因此,我們可以稱之為Naturism “ 。

Lao-tze, the equivalent to "the Old or Venerable Philosopher" (if taken as a title of respect), or to "Old Boy" (if literally translated), was born in the third year of Ting Wang, Prince of Chou, ie in 604, at K'io-jin, in the Kingdom of Ts'u, today Ho-nan Province.老撾姿,相當於“老或法師哲學家” (如果作為一個標題尊重) ,或以“老男孩” (如果直譯) ,出生在第三年王婷,王子週,即在604 ,在K'io金,在王國Ts'u ,今天何南省。 The legend given by Ko Hung in his "Record of Spirits and Immortals" (written in the fourth century AD), says that "he was not born till his mother had carried him in her womb seventy-two years or, according to some accounts, eighty-one years".傳說給予高洪在他的“記錄的精神和八仙” (寫在公元4世紀) ,說: “他不是出生到他的母親進行他在她的子宮裡七十二年,或根據一些賬戶,八十一年“ 。 "No wonder", adds Legge (1. c., pp. 203-4) "that the child should have had white hair, - an 'old boy' of about fourscore years!" “難怪” ,增加了理雅各( 1 。角,頁。 203-4 ) “兒童應該有白頭髮, -一個'歲男孩'約fourscore年! ” This date of 604, in accordance with historical tradition, is not given by Sze-ma Ts'ien in the biography which he devoted to the philosopher in his "She-ki" (Historical Memoirs); if this date be accepted, it is difficult to admit of the authenticity of the meeting between Lao-tze and Confucius, 500 BC; if the latter was then fifty-one years old according to Chwang-tze, Lao-tze was then one hundred and four years old.此日期的604 ,根據歷史傳統,是不是給詩馬Ts'ien的傳記,他致力於哲學家在他的“她基” (歷史回憶錄) ;如果這個日期被接受,它是很難承認的真實性會晤老撾姿和孔子,公元前500 ;如果是後者,然後五十一年歲根據Chwang智,老撾,陳子當時一〇四年歲。

The family name of Lao-tze was Li, his name Eul (meaning "Ear"), his honorary title Pe-yang, and his posthumous name Tan (meaning "Flat-eared").姓氏老撾姿是李,他的名字乙(意思是“耳朵” ) ,他的榮譽稱號聚乙烯楊和他的諡談(意思是“扁平耳” ) 。 He was one of the "Sze", recorders, historiographers, keepers of the archives of Lo, the Court of the princes of the Chou dynasty.他是一個“詩” ,錄音機,史官,飼養的檔案羅湖,法院的王子周朝。 Foreseeing the decay of this dynasty, he gave up his office, and undertook a journey; at the Han-kou Pass, Ho-nan Province, the watchman, Yin Hi, begged him to write his thoughts for his own instruction before he retired from the world; consequently, Lao-tze wrote his work in two parts in the Tao and the Te, and having entrusted it to Yin Hi, he disappeared; the time of the death of the philosopher is not known.預見衰減這一時期,他放棄了他的辦公室,並進行了旅程;在漢族扣證,何楠省,看守,銀喜,求他寫他的思想為自己的指示,他退休前世界;因此,老撾,陳子寫道他的工作分為兩部分中的道和德,並賦予它以銀喜,他消失;的時候,死亡的哲學家不詳。 Lao-tze had a son Called Tsung who was a general of the Kingdom of Wei and who obtained the grant of land at Twan-kan.老撾姿生了一個兒子名為崇誰是一般王國偉,誰獲得了補助金的土地, Twan館。 His son named Chu had himself a child Kung; Hia, grandson of Kung, was an official under Emperor Hiao-wen-ti, of the Han dynasty. Kiai, son of Hia, became a minister of K'iang, King of kiao-si, and, owing to this circumstance, settled with his family in the Kingdom of Ts'i.他的兒子命名為楚本人兒童西貢; Hia ,孫子西貢,是一個正式下皇帝Hiao文鈦,漢代。 Kiai兒子Hia ,成為部長K'iang ,王僑-市,但由於這種情況下,與家人定居在英國的Ts'i 。

This story is too matter of fact and lacks the marvellous legend which should surround the person of the chief of a new religion.這個故事太事實上並沒有神奇的傳說,應圍繞著人的主要的一個新的宗教。 Legend was provided for.聯想提供的。 Ko Hung, already mentioned, had placed the legend of Lao-tze at the beginning of the "Shon-sion-ch'-wan" (Records of Spirits and Immortals), and he says: "His mother carried him after the emotion she felt in seeing a large shooting star. He received from Heaven the vital breath; as he was born in a house whose proprietor was called Li (Pear tree), so he was named Li".高洪,已經提到,把傳奇的老撾姿開始時的“孫術, ch'灣” (記錄精神神仙) ,他說: “他的母親進行他的情緒後,她認為在看到一個大流星。他收到來自天堂的切身呼吸;因為他出生在一所房子的所有人被稱為李(梨樹) ,所以他被任命為禮“ 。 Some authors say that Lao-tze was born before heaven and earth.有些作者說,老撾姿出生之前天地。 According to others, he possessed a pure soul emanated from heaven, He belonged to the Class of spirits and gods. The chief work of Lao-tze, in fact the only one which has been ascribed to him with some probability, is the "Tao-teh-king".根據其他國家,他擁有一個純粹的靈魂來自天堂,他屬於類精神和神。主要工作老撾姿,事實上是唯一一個已歸因於他的一些可能性,是“道德王“ 。 In the "China Review" (March-April, 1886), Dr. Herbert A. Giles wrote a sensational article, "The Remains of Lao Tzu", to show by various arguments that the "Tao-teh-king" is a spurious work and that its now spurious portions have been mostly mistranslated. It was the starting-point of a controversy in which Dr. Chalmers, Dr. Legge, Dr. Edkins, and some other sinologues took part.在“中國評論” ( 3月至4月, 1886年) ,博士赫伯特理斯寫了一篇聳人聽聞的文章說: “老子遺跡” ,以顯示不同的論點認為, “道德王”是一個虛偽的工作,它現在已被虛假的部分主要是誤。這是出發點的爭議,其中博士查博士,理雅各博士埃德金斯,和其他一些sinologues參加。 The authenticity of the work has been admitted by most of them.真實性的工作已承認其中的大多數。 Wylie says (Notes on Chinese Literature, new ed., p. 216): "The only work which is known to be truly the production of Lao Keun is the 'Taòu tih king', which has maintained its reputation and secured a popularity to a certain extent among reading men generally of every denomination."懷利說, (附註華文文學,新的性別。 ,第216頁)說: “只有工作,這是眾所周知的是真正的生產老撾根是' Taòu載通國際國王,這保持了其聲譽和知名度,以保證在一定程度上閱讀之間的男子一般都面額。 “ Legge writes (Religions of China, p. 203): "No other writing has come down to us from the pencil of Lâo-tsze, its author", and (Brit. Quart. Rev., July, 1883, p. 9): "We know that Lao Tzu wrote the 'Tao Tê Ching'", and (p. 11): "The 'Tao Tê Ching' is a genuine relic of one of the most original minds of the Chinese race, putting his thoughts on record 2400 years ago."理雅各寫道(宗教中,第203頁) : “沒有任何其他書面歸結為我們的鉛筆老tsze ,其作者” ,和( Brit.夸脫。修訂版, 7月, 1883年,第9頁) : “我們知道,老子寫的'道德經” ,以及(第11頁)說: “ '道德經'是一個真正的遺物,其中最原始的思想對中華民族,把他的思考記錄二千四百年前。 “ The German E. Faber (China Rev., XIII, 241) says that "there is little room left for doubts regarding the authenticity of our Canon."德國體育法伯(中國修訂版,十三, 241 )說, “幾乎沒有餘地懷疑我們的真實性佳能。 ”

Besides the "Tao-teh-king" a good many works treat of Taoism: the "Yin-fu-king-kiai" which professes to be an exposition of the oldest Taoist record in existence; "Ts'ing-tsing-king" (The Book of Purity and Rest); the "T'ai-hsi-king" (Respiration of the Embryo); the "T'ai-shang-Kan-ying-pien" (Tractate of Actions and their Retributions).除了“道德王”一個良好的許多作品治療道教:在“銀福景kiai ”這些自稱是博覽會上最古老的道教記錄存在; “ Ts'ing青王” (書的純度和休息) ;的“台熙王” (呼吸的胚胎) ;的“台尚侃瑩,變” (短文的行動和他們的Retributions ) 。

The chief Taoist philosophers are: Tsou-yuen (400 BC), author of a work on the influences of the five ruling elements, influenced by Buddhist doctrines; Kweiku-tze (380 BC), a mystic, astrologer, and fortune-teller; Ho-kwan-tze (325-298 BC), an orthodox Confucianist when writing on jurisprudence, a Taoist in other writings; Chwang-tze (330 BC), the author of the "Nan-hua" classic, the adversary to Mencius, and according to Eitel "the most original thinker China ever produced"; Shi-tze (280 BC), a Taoist writer, influenced by the heterodox philosopher, Yang-chu (450 BC), the Apostle of Selfishness; the statesman Han-feitze (250 BC); Liu-ngan or Hwai-nan-tze (died 112 BC), a cosmogonist.首席道教哲學是:鄒元(公元前400年) ,作者的工作影響的五個執政黨要素的影響,佛教理論; Kweiku智( 380年) ,一個神秘的,占星家和算命先生;何群智( 325-298年) ,正統儒家寫作時的判例,道士在其它著作; Chwang智( 330年) ,作者的“南華”典型,以孟子的對手,並根據艾特爾“最原始的思想家中都產生” ;詩慈( 280年) ,道士作家,受非正統哲學家,鄭陽( 450年) ,使徒自私;政治家漢feitze ( 250年) ;劉顏或林懷南慈(死於112年) ,一個cosmogonist 。 But the first disciples of Lao-tze were Kang-sang-tze (570-543 BC), the first expositor of Taoism as a distinct system, the sceptic Li-tze (500 BC), and Wen-tze (500 BC).但在第一次門徒老撾姿是李康生姿( 570-543年) ,第一次expositor道教作為一個獨特的系統,懷疑論者李姿( 500年) ,和文慈( 500年) 。 The historian Sze-ma-ts'ien speaking of Chwang-tze says: "He wrote with a view to asperse the Confucian school and to glorify the mysteries of Lao Tze. . . His teachings are like an overwhelming flood, which spreads at its own sweet will. Consequently, from rulers and ministers downwards, none could apply them to any definite use."歷史學家詩馬ts'ien談到Chwang智說: “他寫道,以讒儒家和美化的奧秘老子。 。 。他的教導就像絕大多數洪水,傳播在其將自己的甜蜜。因此,從統治者和部長會議向下,但可以適用於他們任何明確的使用。 “ Giles (Chinese Literature, 60) concludes from this passage: "Here we have the key to the triumph of the Tao of Confucius over the Tao of Lao Tze. The latter was idealistic, the former a practical system for every-day use."賈爾斯(華文文學, 60歲)的結論從這段: “我們在這裡有關鍵的勝利道孔子的道的老子。後者是理想的,前一個實際系統的日常使用。 ”

As De Groot observes (lsc, IV, 67): "Taoism being fundamentally a religion of the Cosmos and its subdivisions, old Chinese Cosmogony is its Theogony. It conceives the Universe as one large organism of powers and influences, a living machine, the core of which is the Great Ultimate Principle or T'ai-kih, comprising the two cosmic Breaths or Souls, known as the Yang and the Yin, of which, respectively, Heaven and Earth are the chief depositories. These two souls produce the four seasons, and the phenomena of Nature represented by the lineal figures called kwa".作為德格魯特指出( 7075 ,四, 67 ) : “從根本上道教的宗教宇宙及其分支機構,舊中國宇宙是神統記。它設想的宇宙生物的一個大的權力和影響,生活機,核心是偉大的終極原則或台, kih ,包括兩個宇宙呼吸或靈魂,被稱為楊和銀,其中,分別是天地行政託管。這兩個靈魂產生4季節和自然現象所代表的數字稱為直系土瓜灣“ 。 In fact the Yang and the Yin produce by the power of their co-operation all that exists, man included.事實上,楊和銀產生的力量他們的合作都存在,人包括在內。 Ancient Chinese philosophy attributes to man two souls:我國古代的哲學屬性,兩個人的靈魂:

The shen, or immaterial soul, emanates from the ethereal, celestial part of the Cosmos, and consists of yang substance.沉,或無形的靈魂,來自空靈,天體宇宙的一部分,由楊實質。 When operating actively in the living human body, it is called k'i or 'breath', and kwun; when separated from it after death, it lives as a refulgent spirit, styled ming.作業時積極的生活人體,它被稱為k'i或'呼吸'和觀塘;當脫離它死後,它的生命作為refulgent精神,風格的明。

The kwei, the material, substantial soul, emanates from the terrestrial part of the Universe, and is formed of yin substance.在桂,材料,大量的靈魂,來自陸地的一部分宇宙,並形成陰陽物質。 In living man it operates under the name of p'oh and on his death it returns to the Earth" (De Groot, IV, p. 5).在生活的人經營的名義下p'oh和對他的死亡重返地球“ (德格魯特,四,第5頁) 。

Thus the kwei is buried with the man and the shen lingers about the tomb. Marking the distinction between the two souls, there existed in the legendary period, according to the "Li-ki", a sacrificial worship to each soul separately: the hwun or k'i returns to heaven, the p'oh returns to earth.因此,桂埋葬的人與沉不散的古墓。可塑的區分這兩個靈魂,存在的傳奇期間,按照“立基” ,成了每個禮拜靈魂分開:在hwun或k'i返回天上的p'oh返回地球。 These two souls are composite; in fact all the viscera have a particular shen.這兩個靈魂是複合材料;事實上,所有的內臟有特別沉。 "There are medical authors who ascribe to man an indefinite number of souls or soul-parts, or, as they express. it, a hundred shen. Those souls, they say, shift in the body according to the age of the owner; so, eg when he is 25, 31, 68 or 74, and older they dwell in his forehead, so that it is then very dangerous to have boils or ulcers there, because effusion of the blood would entail death. At other times of life they nestle under the feet or in other parts and limbs, and only in the 21st, 38th, 41st, and 50th years of life they are distributed equally through the body, so that open abscesses, wherever they appear, do not heal then at all. Such pathologic nonsense regulates, of course, medical practice to a high degree" (De Groot, IV, p. 75). “有醫療作者誰賦予男子無限期一些心靈或靈魂的地方,或者,他們表示。那樣, 100沉。這些靈魂,他們說,轉變機關根據時代的主人,所以例如當他是25 , 31 , 68或74歲以上,他們住在他的額頭,所以這是非常危險的然後有癤子或潰瘍存在,因為滲出的血液會導致死亡。在其他時候,他們的生活雀巢公司根據英尺或在其他地區和四肢,只有21 ,第38 ,第41 ,和50年的生命,他們是平均分配到身體的其他部位,從而使開放膿腫,不管它們出現在哪裡,不癒合然後在所有。這種病理胡說八道規定,當然,醫療實踐,以高度“ (德格魯特,四,第75頁) 。 The liver, the lungs, and the kidneys correspond to the spring, to the autumn, to the winter, as well as to the east, the west, and the north.肝,肺,腎對應於春季,到秋天,在冬天,以及東,西方和北方。 The soul may be extracted from a living man; the body may still live when left by the soul, for instance during sleep; the soul of a dead man may be reborn into other bodies.靈魂可以從生活中提取的人的屍體可能仍住在留下的靈魂,例如在睡眠;的靈魂,死人可再生到其他機構。 Ghosts may enter into relation with the living, not only in dreams, but they may take revenge on their enemies.鬼可能進入與生活,不僅在夢想,但他們可能採取報復他們的敵人。

At the head of the Taoist Pantheon is a trinity of persons:在領導道教神殿是一個三位一體的人:

Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun, "the honoured one of heaven, first in time", residing in "the jade-stone region", who created the three worlds;元朗市,天子村“之一的榮幸天堂,首先是時間” ,居住在“玉,石區” ,誰創造了三個世界;

Ling-pan-t'ien-tsun, "the honored one of heaven who is valued and powerful", residing in the "upper pure region", collector of the sacred books, calculator of the succession of time, and the regulator of the two principles yin and yang;靈泛天子村“之一的榮幸天堂誰的價值和強大的” ,住在“上純地區” ,收藏家的神聖書籍,計算器繼承的時間,以及監管機構的兩個原則陰陽;

Lao-tze himself, who exposed to mankind the doctrines uttered by the first person in the trinity and collected in the form of books by the second.老撾澤本人,誰接觸到人類所發出的理論的第一人在三一和形式收集的圖書的第二位。

Next come: Yuh-hwang-ta-ti, "the great jade-stone emperor", who governs the physical universe; Hen-t'u-hwang-ti-k'i, "Spirit of imperial earth, ruler of the soil"; the star gods, whose lord (sing-chu) resides in a star near the pole; T'ien-hwang-ta-ti, who lives in the pole star, etc.; Liu-tsu, the "father of thunder".下一步是:陳育黃鉭鈦, “偉大的翡翠石皇帝” ,誰管理的物理宇宙;母雞- t'u黃體k'i , “地球帝國精神,統治者的土壤“神星,其主(唱初)居住在附近的恆星極;天子黃鉭鈦,誰住在北極星等;劉津之父”雷聲“ 。 "While he discourses on doctrine, his foot rests on nine beautiful birds. He has under him thirty-six generals, t'ien tsiang" (Edkins, "Journ. North China Br. Roy. Asiat. Soc.," III, Dec., 1859, p. 311); the sun and moon; the San-yuen or San-kwan, "the three rulers" who preside over three departments of physical nature, heaven, earth, and water; Hiuen-kien-shang-ti, "high emperor of the dark heaven", who is described as the model of the true ascetic. “雖然他的理論論述,他的腳落在9美麗的鳥。他根據他36將軍,天子士” (埃德金斯“雜誌。華北一二。羅伊。 Asiat 。紹奇。 ”三, 12月。 , 1859年,第311頁) ;太陽和月亮;聖元或三關, “三統治者”誰主持三個部門的物理性質,天,地,水; Hiuen ,建商,鈦, “高皇帝黑暗天堂” ,誰被描述為模型的真實禁慾。 He has transformed himself eighty-two times to become the instructor of men in the three national religions (Edkins, lc, p. 312).他改變了自己82倍,成為教員的男子在這三個國家的宗教(埃德金斯,立法會,第312頁) 。 A number of personages were worshipped under the name of tsu, patriarchs.一些人士被崇拜的名義津始祖。 Confucius himself has a place assigned him among the deities of this religion, and he is addressed as "the honoured one of heaven who causes literature to flourish and the world to prosper" (Edkins).孔子本人的地方之間的分配他的這一宗教神,他是處理“的榮幸之一天堂誰原因文學的繁榮發展和繁榮的世界” (埃德金斯) 。 Some men have been worshipped as gods after their death: Kwan-ti, the god of war; Hu-tsu, a physician; a medical divinity, Ko-tsu Sa-tsu ; etc.有些男子被崇拜的神死後:關錦鵬鈦,戰爭之神;胡津醫生;醫療神,高姿颯津市等

One may well ask how the pure abstract doctrine of Lao-tze was turned into a medley of alchemical researches, a practice of witchcraft, with the addition of Buddhist superstitions, which constitute today what is called Tao-kiao, the religion or the teaching of Tao.有人可能會問如何純粹抽象的理論,老撾澤變成了混合泳的煉金術的研究,這種做法的巫術,加上佛教迷信,這是今天所謂桃僑,宗教或教學道。 This was the work of a legendary being, Chang Tao-ling, a descendant of the eighth generation of Chang Leang, a celebrated advisor of Liu-pang, founder of the Han dynasty.這是工作的一個傳奇目前,張道玲,後代的第八代長Leang ,著名的顧問劉金榜,創始人大漢。 He was born in the tenth year of the Emperor Kwang Wu-ti (AD 34) in a cottage of a small village of the Che-kiang Province, at the foot of the T'ien-mu-Shan, in the Hang-chou Prefecture.他出生在10年的皇帝光吳鈦(公元34 )在平房的一個小村莊的車野驢省,在天子腳下的木山,在杭洲縣。 At an early age Chang studied the works of Lao-tze to which he added researches of alchemy, a science aiming at "prolonging life beyond the limits assigned by nature".早齡長研究工作的老撾姿而他補充說:煉金術研究,科學,旨在“延長壽命超出分配的性質。 ” He found the drug of immortality, and by order of Lao-tze he destroyed the six great demons of the province; Lao-tze gave him also two books, two swords, one male, one female, a seal Called Tu-kung, etc. Chang gave his swords and books to his son Heng, bidding him to continue his pontificate from generation to generation.他發現毒品的永生,並命令老撾姿,他摧毀了6個巨大的惡魔省;老撾姿也給了他兩本書,兩把劍,一男一女,印章稱為土區等。常給他的劍和書籍給他的兒子衡,投標他繼續教皇代代相傳。 At noon on the seventh day of the first moon of the second year Yung-shou of the Han Emperor Heng (AD 157), Tao-ling ascended the Cloudy Mountain (Yun-shan) with his wife and two disciples, and with them disappeared into heaven.中午在第七天人類第一次登上月球的第二年林永壽的漢高祖恆(公元157 ) ,道玲登上多雲山(蘊珊)與他的妻子和兩個弟子,並與他們消失進入天堂。 Chang Heng, son of Chang Tao-ling, continued his father's tradition both in spiritual and alchemical researches, and Chang Lu the grandson, played an important part in the Yellow Cap Rebellion at the beginning of the Han dynasty.張珩,兒子張道玲,繼續他父親的傳統,無論在精神和煉金術的研究,和張路的孫子,發揮了重要作用黃河第起義開始時的大漢。 During the fifth century AD, when the Wei dynasty was ruling in Northern China, a certain K'iu Kien-che tried to substitute himself to the Chang family and received in 423 from the emperor the title of T'ien-shi, "Preceptor of Heaven", which formerly belonged to Tao-ling.在公元5世紀時,北魏是執政黨在我國北方某K'iu建哲試圖取代自己張家和收到的423從皇帝的標題天子市“導師天堂“ ,原先屬於道玲。 In 748 the T'ang Emperor Hiuen-Tsung conferred this title upon the heirs of the latter, and a grant of a large property near Lung-hu Shan was made to them in 1016 by the Sung Emperor Chen-Tsung.在748的唐朝皇帝Hiuen宗授予這一稱號後的繼承人後者,並給予大量財產附近肺胡善了他們在1016年由宋皇帝陳琮。 Heredity in the charge of high priest of the cult was secured to the descendants of Chang by the transmigration of the soul of Tao-ling's successor, at the time of his demise, to the body of a junior member of the family, whose selection is indicated by a supernatural phenomenon.遺傳的負責大祭司邪教是穩固的後裔長的輪迴的靈魂道玲的接班人時,他的去世,對身體的初中的家庭成員,他們的選擇是所指出的超自然現象。

To-day, at the head of the Taoist hierarchy is the Cheng-i-sze-kiao-chen-jen, "Heir to the founder of the Taoist sect"; this title was conferred by the Ming dynasty upon Chang Cheng-shang, descendant from Chang Tao-ling of the thirty-ninth generation.今天,在領導道教層次是成一詩僑陳禎, “繼承人的創始人道教節” ,這標題所賦予明朝時鄭尚後裔由張道玲的第三十九代。 This title "belongs, by an hereditary privilege, to the firstborn descending in a direct line from Chang Tao-ling. He lives upon the Lung-hu Mountain, in the Kiang-si Province. His office consists in using his magical art to frighten demons away, to baffle diabolical influence, and to refrain the evil-doing souls of the dead. He names the new Ch'eng-hwang, 'tutelary deities of the cities', and for a fee, he gives to Taoists titles permitting them to celebrate the ceremonies with more solemnity" (P. Hoang, "Mélanges sur l'Administration", 34).這個標題是“屬於一種遺傳性的特權,給初生降序直接線從張道玲。他住的肺癌虎山區,在九江市省。他的辦公室組成,在使用他的神奇的藝術嚇唬惡魔消失,到擋板窮凶極惡的影響,並避免邪惡,這樣的靈魂的死亡。他的名字,新誠,黃, '守護神神的城市' ,並收取一定費用,他給予允許他們道教書籍慶祝儀式更加莊嚴“ (第晃, ”混雜岩要件管理“ , 34 ) 。 In the capital of the empire the Taoist priesthood includes: two Tao-lu-sze, superiors, a title corresponding with that of the Buddhists, seng-lu-sze; two Cheng-i, Taoists of right simplicity; two Yen-fa, ritual Taoists; two Che-ling, Taoists of great excellence, thaumaturgus; and two Che-i, Taoists of great probity, an inferior class of priests.在首都帝國道教祭司包括:兩道陸詩上級所有權與相應的佛教徒,恆生陸詩;兩成一,道家的權利簡單; 2日元發,儀式道家;兩車玲,道家非常卓越, thaumaturgus ;和兩個車一,道家的偉大正直,劣勢階級的神職人員。 In the provinces at the head of the priesthood are: Tao-ki-sze Ton-ki, superior of the Taoists of a fu (prefectute), and Tao-ki-sze Fou Ton-ki, vice-superior of the Taoists of a fu; Tao-cheng, superior of the Taoists of a chou or a t'ing; Tao-hwei, superior of the Taoists of a hien.在各省領導鐸是:道基詩噸基,卓越的道家的福( prefectute )和道基詩傅聰噸基,副優越的道教的傅;道成,優良的道教一個週或t'ing ;道輝,卓越的道家一個賢。 The superiors are appointed by the governors-general (tsung-tu), or by the governors (fu-t'ai), on the presentation of the prefect of sub-prefect of the chou, t'ing, or hien.上級任命的省長的信(崇土) ,或由省長(复台) ,對所提出的省長支廳的週, t'ing ,或賢。

Publication information Written by Henri Cordier.出版信息作者亨利博德曼。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯學者波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.致力於聖心耶穌基督天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年7月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約


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