Sikhs, Sikhism錫克教徒,錫克教

General Information 一般信息

Sikhs are followers of Sikhism, an Indian religion that originated in the Punjab in northwest India.錫克教徒的追隨者錫克教,印度的宗教,起源於印度西北部旁遮普邦。 In 1971, India had approximately 10.3 million Sikhs, 1.9% of the population. 1971年,印度擁有大約030萬美元錫克教徒, 1.9 %的人口。 Small communities of Sikhs also exist in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Malaysia, and East Africa.小社區的錫克教徒也存在於英國,加拿大,美國,馬來西亞,非洲和東部非洲。

The movement was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak (1469 - 1539), who sought to combine Hindu and Muslim elements in a single religious creed. He taught "the unity of God, brotherhood of man, rejection of caste and the futility of idol worship." He was followed by nine masters, the last of whom was Guru Gobind Singh (1666 - 1708; guru 1675 - 1708), who involved his followers in an unsuccessful martial struggle against Mogul rule. 不結盟運動成立於旁遮普省的古魯那那( 1469年至1539年) ,誰試圖結合印度教和穆斯林分子在一個單一的宗教信條。他教“上帝的團結,友愛的人,反對種姓和徒勞的偶像禮拜。 “他是個名人賽之後,最後一個人是大師戈賓德辛格( 1666年至1708年;大師1675年至1708年) ,誰在他的追隨者參加了一次不成功的武術鬥爭邦默規則。

After Gobind's assassination, the Sikhs were persecuted by the Muslim Mogul rulers until 1799 when, under Ranjit Singh (1780 - 1839), they laid claim to a large part of northwest India.經過戈賓德暗殺,錫克教徒遭到迫害的穆斯林統治者,直到1799年莫臥兒時,根據蘭吉特辛格( 1780年至一八三九年) ,奠定聲稱他們有很大一部分西北印度。 After Ranjit's death his Sikh kingdom disintegrated into anarchy.經過蘭吉特去世他錫克王國解體的無政府狀態。 The British moved into the Punjab, and the Sikh Wars followed (1845 - 46, 1848 - 49).英國轉移到旁遮普邦和錫克戰爭之後( 1845年至1846年, 1848年至1849年) 。

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The Sikhs were defeated, and the British annexed the Punjab.錫克教徒被打敗,英國吞併了旁遮普邦。 Sikhism did not recover until the 20th century, when the Sikhs were given control of their holy places (gurdwaras).錫克教沒有恢復到20世紀時,錫克教徒有控制他們的聖地( gurdwaras ) 。 When the Indian subcontinent was partitioned in 1947, the western Punjab became Pakistani territory and the eastern Punjab part of India.當印度次大陸被分割在1947年,西部旁遮普成為巴基斯坦境內和東部旁遮普邦印度的一部分。 The Sikhs were victimized by the ensuing communal rioting, especially in Pakistan's Punjab, and about 2,500,000 moved from Pakistan into India.錫克人受害隨後部族暴亂,尤其是在巴基斯坦的旁遮普省,約二百五十〇點○○○萬從巴基斯坦進入印度。

The holiest place for Sikhs is the Golden Temple at Amritsar (now in the Indian state of Punjab) founded by the fourth guru, Ram Das (guru 1574 - 81).最神聖的地方是錫克教徒在阿姆利則金廟(現在在印度旁遮普邦)成立第四大師,內存達斯(大師1574年至1581年) 。 The fifth guru, Arjun (guru 1581 - 1606), gave Sikhism its holy book, the Granth Sahib, which contains hymns of Sikh gurus as well as those of Hindu and Muslim saints such as Kabir.第五大師,古塔(大師1681至06年) ,給予其錫克教聖地書中, 格蘭斯希卜,其中載讚美詩的錫克教大師以及印度教和穆斯林聖人如卡比爾。

Sikhs are readily identifiable by their turbans. They take a vow not to cut their hair as well as not to smoke or drink alcoholic beverages. 錫克人很容易辨認他們的頭巾。他們許願不削減他們的頭髮,以及不要吸煙或飲含酒精飲料。 When Gobind Singh founded (1699) the martial fraternity Khalsa ("pure"), his followers vowed to keep the five K's: to wear long hair (kesh), a comb in the hair (kangha), a steel bracelet on the right wrist (kara), soldier's shorts (kachha), and a sword (kirpan). The tradition persists to the present day.當戈賓德辛格成立( 1699年)的武術博愛哈爾薩( “純” ) ,他的追隨者誓言要保持5 K的:穿長頭髮( kesh ) ,梳子在頭髮( kangha ) ,鋼手鐲的右手腕(卡拉) ,士兵的短褲( kachha )和一把劍( kirpan ) 。這個傳統持續到今天。

Some of India's Sikhs favor the establishment of a separate Sikh nation.一些印度的錫克教徒有利於建立一個單獨的錫克民族。 In the early 1980s Akali Dal, a Sikh nationalist party, provoked a confrontation with the Indian government by demanding greater autonomy for Punjab.在1980年代初期阿卡利黨,一個錫克民族主義黨,挑起對抗,與印度政府,要求更大的自治權旁遮普。 Unassuaged by the election of a Sikh, Zail Singh, to the largely ceremonial office of president of India in 1982, the militants continued to stage violent demonstrations. As fighting between Sikhs and Hindus became widespread in Punjab, the central government took direct control of the state in 1983. By April 1984 50,000 troops occupied Punjab and the neighboring state of Haryana. Unassuaged的選舉錫克教, Zail辛格,向辦事處的主要儀式,印度總統於1982年,在武裝分子繼續在暴力示威。隨著戰鬥錫克教徒和印度教徒之間成為普遍在旁遮普邦,中央政府採取了直接控制國家於1983年。通過1984年4月50000部隊佔領旁遮普和周邊國家的哈里亞納邦。 Sant Jarnail Bhindranwale, leader of Akali Dal's most intransigent faction, sought refuge from arrest in the Golden Temple.聖Jarnail Bhindranwale領袖阿卡利黨的最不妥協的派別,從逮捕尋求避難的金廟。

Karl H Potter卡爾H哈利波特

Bibliography: 參考書目:
MA Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion (1909); WH McCleod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion (1968); G Singh, The Religion of the Sikhs (1971); H Singh, The Heritage of the Sikhs (1964); M Singh, Sikhism: Its Impact (1973).馬Macauliffe ,錫克教宗教( 1909年) ;武漢McCleod ,古魯那那和錫克教宗教( 1968年) ; G辛格的宗教,錫克教徒( 1971年) ; H辛格遺產的錫克人( 1964年) ; M辛格錫克教:及其影響( 1973年) 。


Basic Creed of the Sikhs基本信條的錫克教徒

General Information 一般信息

The basic creed of the Sikhs - the Mul Mantra - gives the idea of Reality in a few telling words.基本教義的錫克教徒-在多咒語 -讓真實的想法告訴了幾個單詞。 The creed is:的信條是:
Ekonkar Satnam, Karta Purkh, Nirbhav, Nirvair, Akal Murat, Ajoni, Suabhav, Gur Parsad. Ekonkar Satnam , Karta Purkh , Nirbhav , Nirvair , Akal繆拉, Ajoni , Suabhav ,古爾Parsad 。

In these words, Guru Nanak praises God and mentions some of His great attributes: He is Truth, self-created, beyond the limits of time, He can be realized through the grace of the Guru.在這些話,古魯那那歌頌上帝,並提到他的一些偉大的屬性:他是真理,自我創造,範圍之外的時間,他可以實現通過寬限期的大師。 Let us study the meaning of each word of the Mul Mantra.讓我們學習的含義,每個字的多頌歌。

Ekonkar : Ekonkar
The only One Absolute God who is forever unfolding.唯一的絕對的上帝誰是永遠展開。 He is the Absolute - the Transcendental.他是絕對-超越。 As such, He is Unknowable, Unfathomable. He is beyond description and beyond human comprehension.因此,他是不可知,深不可測。他是難以形容和人類所能理解的。

Satnam : Satnam
His name is true.他的名字是真實的。 He really exists.他確實存在。 He is not an idea or a hypothesis or an illusion.他不是一個想法或假設或一種幻想。 As one who exists, He is ever changing. He is never the same, evolving and growing.正如一位誰存在,他是不斷變化的。他是永遠不會相同,完善和擴大。 Everything exists in Him and is caused by Him.一切都存在著對他和他所造成的。 His name is Truth.他的名字是真理。 He is formless - He is "The Holy spirit" - NAM.他是無形的-他是“聖靈” -南。

Karta Purkh : Karta Purkh
He is the creator of the cosmos.他是宇宙的創造者。 He is responsible for the coming into existence of the whole universe.他負責為未來存在的整個宇宙。

Nirbhav : Nirbhav
He is fearless.他是無所畏懼的。 He is afraid of no one because He is the Lord of the universe.他害怕任何人,因為他是上帝的宇宙。

Nirvair : Nirvair
He is without any enmity.他是沒有任何敵意。 His love and protection extend to all.他的愛和保護擴大到所有。 This cuts at the root of the theory of the chosen prophets and the chosen people.這從根本上削減的理論選擇先知和人民的選擇。 Like God, a true Sikh must be fearless and impartial. This will help to establish equality and justice.像上帝,一個真正的錫克必須無所畏懼的和公正的。這將有助於建立平等和正義。

Akal Murat : Akal繆拉
He is Timeless.他是永恆的。 He is not subject to death.他並不受死亡。

Ajoni : Ajoni
He is unborn.他是出生。 God does not take birth in any manner.上帝不採取任何方式出生。 This is the very antithesis of the theory of incarnation.這是非常對立的理論化身。

Suabhav : Suabhav
He is self-existent.他是獨立存在的。 He is unique in His own right.他是在他自己的獨特的權利。

Gur Prasad : 古爾普拉薩德
By the grace of the Guru, the Sikh can acquire knowledge of God的恩典的大師,錫克可以獲取知識的上帝

The short form of the creed is Ekonkar Satgur Prasad as used in the Guru Granth Sahib.短期形式的信條是Ekonkar Satgur普拉薩德中所用大師格蘭斯希卜。


Core Beliefs of the Sikhs核心理念的錫克教徒

General Information 一般信息


Sikhism錫克教

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped.在一個好戰的宗教節的印度,在其原產地在旁遮普和其中心在聖城阿姆利則,他們的神聖的書籍保存和崇拜。 The name Sikh signifies "disciple", and in later times the strict observants or elect were called the Khalsa.錫克族的名稱,標誌“門徒” ,並在以後的時間嚴格observants或選舉被稱為哈爾薩。 The founder of the sect, Nanak (now called Sri Guru Nanak Deva), a Hundu belonging to the Kshastrya caste, was born near Lahore in 1469 and died in 1539.的創始人節,那納克(現稱斯里蘭卡古魯那那天) ,一個Hundu屬於Kshastrya種姓,出生在拉合爾附近的1469年,卒於1539年。 Being from childhood of a religious turn of mind, he began to wander through various parts of India, and perhaps beyond it, and gradually matured a religious system which, revolting from the prevailing polytheism, ceremonialism, and caste-exclusiveness, took for its chief doctrines the oneness of God, salvation by faith and good works, and the equality and brotherhood of man.來自童年宗教之交的心,他開始漫步印度各地,甚至超越它,並逐漸成熟的宗教制度,令人作嘔的普遍多神教, ceremonialism ,和種姓的排斥,在其行政理論一體的上帝,拯救的信念和良好的工程,以及平等和兄弟情誼的人。 The new religion spread rapidly and, under the leadership of nine successive gurus or teachers, soon became an active rival not only to the older Hinduism, but also the newer Mohammedanism of the reigning dynasties.新的迅速蔓延和宗教的領導下,連續九屆大師或教師,很快就成了一個積極的競爭對手不僅對老年人印度教,而且新的Mohammedanism的執政時期。 The "disciples" were therefore somewhat ill-treated by the governing powers. “弟子” ,因此有些虐待的執政權力。 This persecution only gave fresh determination to the sect, which gradually assumed a military character and took the name of Singhs or "champion warriors"; under Govind Sing, their tenth and last guru (b. 1660; d. 1708), who had been provoked by some severe ill-treatment of his family by the Moslem rulers, they began to wage active war on the Emperor of Delhi.這種迫害不僅提供了新的決心,該教派,並逐漸承擔了軍事性質,並採取了名稱Singhs或“冠軍勇士” ;根據Govind星,他們的第十次也是最後大師(灣1660年; 4 1708年) ,誰是挑起一些嚴重虐待家人的穆斯林統治者,他們開始發動戰爭的積極皇帝新德里。 But the struggle was unequal.但鬥爭是不平等的。 The Sikhs were defeated and gradually driven back into the hills. The profession of their faith became a capital offence, and it was only the decline of the Mogul power, after the death of Aurungzeb in 1707, which enabled them to survive.錫克教徒被打敗,並逐步推動放回山上。專業的他們的信仰成為資本罪,只是下降的莫臥兒權力,去世後Aurungzeb於1707年,使他們能夠生存下去。 Then seizing their opportunity they emerged from their hiding places, organized their forces, and established a warlike supremacy over a portion of the Punjab round about Lahore.然後抓住他們的機會,他們擺脫他們的藏身之地,有組織的部隊,並建立了一個好戰的霸權超過的部分約拉合爾旁遮普輪。

A reversal took place in 1762, when Ahmed Shah badly defeated them and defiled their sacred temple at Amritsar.的逆轉發生在1762年,當艾哈邁德沙阿馬蘇德嚴重打敗他們,玷污他們的神聖廟宇在阿姆利則。 In spite of this reverse they manged still to extend their dominion along the banks of the Sutlej and the Jumna Rivers, northwards as far as Peshawar and Rawalpindi, and southwards over the borders of Rajputana.儘管這樣扭轉他們manged仍然擴大其自治領銀行沿線的Sutlej和Jumna河流,向北至於白沙瓦和拉瓦爾品第,並向南的邊界Rajputana 。 In 1788 the Mahrattas overran the Punjab and brought the Sikhs under tribute.在1788年佔領的Mahrattas的旁遮普邦的錫克教徒,使下敬意。 Upon the Mahrattas supervened the British, who received the allegiance of a portion of the Sikhs in 1803, and later on, in 1809, undertook a treaty of protection against their enemy Runjeet Singh, who although himself a prominent Sikh leader, had proved overbearing and intolerable to other portions of the sect.經Mahrattas supervened英國,誰收到了效忠的部分錫克教徒在1803年,以及後來,在1809年,進行了條約的保護,防止他們的敵人Runjeet辛格,雖然自己是誰突出錫克教領袖,已證明霸道和不能容忍的其他部分節。 Various other treaties between the British and the Sikhs, with a view of opening the Indus and the Sutlej Rivers to trade and navigation, were entered into; but as these agreements were not kept, the British declared war on the Sikhs in 1845.其他各種之間的條約,英國和印度錫克教徒,以期開放的梧桐和Sutlej河流貿易和航行,訂立;但由於這些協議沒有被保存下來,英國宣戰錫克於1845年。 By 1848, partly through actual defeat, partly through internal disorganization and want of leaders, the Sikh power was broken; they gradually settled down among the rest of the population, preserving only their religious distinctiveness intact.由1848年,部分是通過實際的失敗,部分是通過內部混亂和希望的領導人,錫克教權力被打破,他們逐漸安定下來的其他人,只保留其宗教獨特完好無損。 According to the census of 1881 the number of Sikhs was reckoned at 1,853,426, which in the census of 1901 rose to 2,195,339.據1881年普查的人數估計在錫克教徒是1853426 ,其中在1901年人口普查上升到2195339 。 At the time of writing the census of 1911 is not yet published.在撰寫本報告時的1911年人口普查是尚未公佈。

Their sacred books, called the "Granth" (the original of which is preserved and venerated in the great temple of Amritsar) consists of two parts: "Adi Granth", the first book or book of Nanak, with later additions compiled by the fifth guru, "Arjoon, and with subsequent additions from later gurus down to the ninth, and contributions by various disciples and devotees; secondly, "The Book of the Tenth King", written by Guru Govind Sing, the tenth and last guru, chiefly with a view of instilling the warlike spirit into the sect. The theology contained in these books is distinctly monotheistic. Great and holy men, even if divinely inspired, are not to be worshipped-not even the Sikh gurus themselves. The use of images is tabooed; ceremonial worship, asceticism, and caste-restrictions are explicitly rejected. Their dead leaders are to be saluted simply by the watchword "Hail guru" and the only material object to be outwardly reverenced is the "Granth", or sacred book. In practice, however, this reverence seems to have degenerated into a superstitious worship of the "Granth"; and even a certain vague divinity is attributed to the ten gurus, each of whom is supposed to be reincarnation of the first of the line, their original founder -- for the Hindu doctrine of transmigration of souls was retained even by Nanak himself, and a certain amount of pantheistic language occurs in parts of the sacred hymns. Salvation is to be obtained only by knowledge of the One True God through the Sat Guru (or true spiritual guide), reverential fear, faith and purity of mind and morals -- the main principles of which are strictly inculcated as marks of the true Sikh; while such prevailing crimes as infanticide and suttee are forbidden. They place some restriction on the killing of animals without necessity, but short of an absolute prohibition. Peculiar to the sect is the abstention from tobacco, and in part from other drugs such as opium -- a restriction introduced by Guru Govind Sing under the persuasion that smoking was conducive to idleness and injurious to the militant spirit. At the present time an active religious revival is manifesting itself among the Sikhs, having for its object to purge away certain superstitions and social restrictions which have gradually filtered in from the surrounding Hinduism.神聖的書籍,名為“格蘭斯” (原來的是保存和尊敬的偉大寺廟的阿姆利則)由兩部分組成: “ ADI公司格蘭斯”的第一本書,或書納納克,稍後補充由第五大師“ , Arjoon ,並與隨後補充後來大師下降至第九,和捐款的各種弟子和信徒;其次, ”這本書的第十屆王“ ,作者是大師Govind星,第十次也是最後大師,主要是與以期灌輸的好戰精神融入節。神學這些書籍中所載明顯一神教。偉大和神聖的男子,即使神聖的,不應該崇拜,甚至不是錫克教大師本身。利用圖像的禁忌;禮儀崇拜,禁慾主義和種姓的限制,明確拒絕。死者領導人要致敬的口號只是“冰雹大師” ,唯一的對象是材料表面reverenced是“格蘭斯” ,或神聖的書。在實踐中然而,這種敬畏似乎已經淪落為一種迷信崇拜“格蘭斯” ;甚至某些含糊不清的神是由於10大師,每個人應該是轉世第一線,他們原來的創始人-為印度教教義的靈魂輪迴的保留甚至納納克本人,並採取一定的pantheistic語言發生在地方的神聖讚美詩。救國是獲得知識的只有一個真神通過星期六大師(或者真實的精神指南) ,尊敬的恐懼,信仰和純潔的心態和道德-的主要原則是嚴格灌輸作為商標的真正錫克;而這種普遍的罪行女嬰和自焚被禁止。他們地方上的一些限制殺害動物的必要性,但短期的絕對禁止。特有的節是從煙草中棄權,並在部分來自其他藥物,如鴉片-限制介紹大師Govind星的勸說下,吸煙有利於無所事事和損害的好戰精神。目前積極宗教復興是顯現的錫克教徒,而其對象清除了某些迷信和社會的限制,逐步篩選,從周圍的印度教。

Publication information Written by Ernest R. Hull.出版信息作者:歐內斯特河赫爾。 Transcribed by John Looby. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄由John Looby 。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CUNNINGHAM, "A History of the Sikhs" (Calcutta, 1904; MACGREGOR, "History of the Sikhs" (2 vols., London, 1846); COURT, "History of the Sikhs"' GOUGH, "The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars" (London, 1897); SAYED MOHAMED LATIF, "History of the Punjab" (Calcutta, 1891); SEWARAM SINGH THAPAR, "Sri Guru Nanak Deva" (Rawalpindi, 1904); BHAGAT LAKSHMAN SINGH, "A short Sketch of the life and Work of Guru Govind Singh" (Lahore, 1909); MACAULIFFE, "The Sikh Religion" (6 vols., Oxford, 1909); TRUMPP, "The Adi Granth, the Holy Scriptures of the Sikhs" (London, 1877), stigmatised by Macauliffe as an unreliable translation.坎寧安“的歷史錫克” (加爾各答, 1904年; MACGREGOR , “歷史的錫克教徒” ( 2卷。 ,倫敦, 1846年) ,法院, “歷史的錫克教徒”高夫“的錫克教徒和錫克星球大戰“ (倫敦, 1897年) ; SAYED穆罕默德拉蒂夫, ”歷史的旁遮普邦“ (加爾各答, 1891年) ; SEWARAM辛格塔帕爾, ”斯里蘭卡古魯那那天“ (拉瓦爾品第, 1904年) ; BHAGAT拉克什曼辛格, ”短期的生活素描和工作的大師Govind辛格“ (拉合爾, 1909年) ; MACAULIFFE , ”辛格“ ( 6卷。 ,牛津, 1909年) ; TRUMPP , ” ADI公司格蘭斯,聖經的錫克教徒“ (倫敦, 1877年) ,打上了Macauliffe作為一個可靠的翻譯。


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Shri Guru Granth Sahib - text - Sikhism 利大師格蘭斯希卜-文字-錫克教


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