Shintoism, Shinto神道,神道

General Information 一般信息

Shintoism was the primitive religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism, which is currently the main religion of Japan. Shintoism is a very simple religion. It gives only one command, the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.神道是日本的原始宗教的到來之前,佛教,這是目前日本的主要宗教。 神道是一個非常簡單的宗教。它只有一個命令,必須忠於自己的祖先。

Its early aspects were naturalistic, which included spiritism, totemism, nature worship, and a crude sort of monotheism. Early Japanese worshipped the sun, thunder, earth, volcanoes, tigers, serpents, trees, shrubs, vines, etc. and even stones. A later stage is more intellectual and ethically oriented.早期自然方面,其中包括招魂術,圖騰崇拜,自然崇拜,以及原油價格排序的一神教。早期日本崇拜太陽,打雷,地球,火山,虎,蛇,樹木,灌木,藤本等,甚至石頭。後一階段是智力和道德導向。

The only deity actually recognized in higher Shintoism is the spiritualized human mind.只有真正認識到神神道是在更高的精神化人的心靈。

For the masses, Shintoism has about 800,000 gods, mostly the deified heroes of the Japanese.為群眾, 神道有八十〇點零萬神,大多是神化的英雄日本人。 The chief god is Amaterasu, the Sun God, from whom the Imperial Family of Japan traces its roots.首席神是天照,太陽神,從其中皇室日本可追溯。

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Shintoism神道

General Information 一般信息

A linguistic definition of Shinto is somewhat anathema to Shinto.語言的定義神道有點詛咒神道。

But anyway, Shinto is awash with idols.無論如何,神道充斥著偶像。 There is (almost) no god that you cannot point to.有(幾乎)沒有上帝,你不能指向。 Shinto approves of the representation of God in the material.神道核准的代表上帝的材料。 Having said that, in Shinto thought too there is an insistence that God is spiritual: the kami is the power in the mountain, the tree, the sun and not these objects themselves.話雖如此,在神道思想也有一個堅持認為上帝是精神:是的神的力量在山區,樹,太陽,而不是這些物體本身。 But Shinto is extremely "idol tolerant".但是,神道是極其“偶像寬容” 。 Conversely, Shinto is I believe, very logo-clastic, it believes that God can not and should not be expressed in words.相反,我認為神道是非常標誌碎屑,它認為上帝能夠,也不應該來表達的話。

Shinto is a loose collection of faiths without any written commandments or creed.神道是一個鬆散的收集信仰沒有任何書面誡命或信仰。 It is conveyed by ritual, practice, and behaviour rather than by word.這是轉達了儀式,實踐和行為,而不是詞。 The following linguistic description of Shinto is, therefore, at best an external analysis rather than "Shinto doctrine" since Shinto avoids linguistic definition to the extent that other religions avoid idolatory.下面的語言描述神道因此,在最好的一個外部的分析,而不是“神道教義” ,因為神道避免語言定義的範圍內,其他宗教避免idolatory 。

An infinite number of gods or spirits are revered in Shinto, but at the supreme level in the Shinto cosmology is the unity of Nature from which all things are born.無限的神或精神崇敬在神道,但在最高法院一級神道宇宙是統一的性質,所有的事情都誕生了。 Humans depend upon the spirits, which are features of nature (such as mountains, waterfalls, trees and the sun) and our human ancestors.人類取決於精神,這是功能性(如高山,瀑布,樹木和陽光)和我們人類的祖先。 The spirits depend upon humans and by being enshrined and how revered they come to be.精神取決於人類和被供奉和崇敬的,他們怎麼來的。

While born pure and at one with nature, humans become defiled through their participation in society.雖然出生在一個純自然,人類成為玷污通過他們參與社會生活。 In order to purify themselves they must worship the spirits.為了淨化自己,他們必須崇拜神靈。 Shintoists perform simple and often silent prayers, rituals and offerings to the spirits at Shrines and at altars within the home. Shintoists進行簡單,常常祈禱,禮儀和服務的精神和在神社內的祭壇首頁。 They try to maintain an attitude of gratitude and humility. Shintoists believe that when they die they eventually become one with the spirits and in turn, with nature to which all things return.他們試圖保持的態度表示感謝和謙卑。 Shintoists相信,當他們死去,他們最終將成為一個與精神,從而,與自然界的一切事物返回。

The number 13 (of sects) came from the number that were approved by the Meiji (late nineteenth, early 20th century) Japanese government. 13號(教派)來自號碼,批准了明治(十九世紀末, 20世紀初)日本政府。 Shinto was reorganised by the government.神道是重組政府。 This had the effect of這措施

  1. Removing the "foreign" Buddhist elements刪除“外國”佛教內容
  2. Reducing the amount of lay spirituality and "superstision"減少的數額奠定精神和“ superstision ”
  3. Reorganising the remainder around the panthenon as described in the Kojiki myth.重組其餘各地panthenon中所描述古事記神話。

As part of (2) the government had religions practioners register and they only recognised 13 religions sects outside of their new State/Shrine Shinto framework.的一部分( 2 )政府宗教從業人員登記和認可的13只以外的宗教教派的新的國家/神社神道框架。

T Leuers Ť Leuers


Shinto神道

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Shinto is the indigenous religious tradition of Japan. Unlike some religions, Shinto has no historical founder; its roots lie deep in the prehistoric religious practices of the Japanese people.神道是土著宗教傳統的日本。不像某些宗教,神道沒有歷史的創始人,其根源在於深的史前宗教習俗的日本人民。 Nor does Shinto have any canon of sacred scriptures, although important elements of its mythology and cosmology may be found in ancient Japanese chronicles (the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki), and ritual prayers called norito were compiled into written collections at an early date.也不神道有任何佳能的神聖經文,雖然重要內容神話和宇宙學中可以找到古老的日本編年史(在古事記和Nihonshoki ) ,和祭祀祈禱呼籲norito被彙編成書面收藏早日。

The name Shinto is actually the Sino Japanese reading for the more purely Japanese kami no michi , which means the "way of the kami."神的名字,其實就是中日閱讀更純粹的日本上沒有路 ,這意味著“的方式上。 ” The kami are innumerable Japanese deities that may be thought of as full fledged gods (such as the sun - goddess Amaterasu, from whom the imperial family is said to descend); the divinized souls of great persons (warriors, leaders, poets, scholars); the ancestral divinities of clans (uji); the spirits of specific places, often of natural beauty (woods, trees, springs, rocks, mountains); or, more abstractly, the forces of nature (fertility, growth, production).上有無數的日本神,可能被認為是完整的神(如太陽-女神照,從他們的皇室據說下降) ;的divinized偉大靈魂的人(勇士領導人,詩人,學者) ;祖先神的部族(宇治) ;精神的具體地方,往往是自然美景(老虎伍茲,樹木,泉水,岩石,山) ;或更抽象,自然的力量(生育,生長,生產) 。

Kami are generally worshiped at shrines (jinja), which are established in their honor and house the go - shintai (sacred objects) in which the kami are said to reside. Worshipers will pass under a sacred arch (torii), which helps demarcate the sacred area of the shrine.神一般供奉在神社(津) ,這是建立在他們的榮譽和房子去- shintai (聖物) ,其中上據說居住。信徒會將下一個神聖的弓(牌坊) ,這有助於標定神聖領域的靖國神社。 They will then purify themselves by washing their hands and rinsing their mouths, approach the shrine itself, make an offering, call on the deity, and utter a silent prayer.然後,他們將自己的淨化洗手和清洗自己的嘴巴,自己參拜靖國神社的做法,使一個產品,請神,並說一句默禱。

Special times for worship include important moments in the life cycle of individuals (birth, youth, marriage, and, more recently, school entrance examinations) and festival dates (matsuris) that reflect the rhythm of the year: the New Year, the advent of spring, rice planting, midsummer, harvesting, and so on.特別禮拜的時間包括重要的時刻在整個生命週期的個人(出生,青年,結婚,以及最近的學校入學考試)和節日期( matsuris ) ,反映的節奏一年:新的一年裡,到來春天,水稻種植,盛夏,收割,等等。 In addition, each shrine will usually have its own special matsuri particular to its own history or foundation.此外,每個神社通常會擁有自己的特殊祭特別是自己的歷史或基金會。 On any of these occasions the shrine will be crowded with worshipers, many of whom may wish to have their fortunes told or to receive special blessings or purifications from the Shinto priests.對任何這些場合靖國神社將擠滿了信徒,他們中許多人可能希望他們的命運告訴或接受特別祝福或purifications從神道牧師。 Certain shrines have also taken on national importance.某些聖地也採取了對國家的重要性。 The Grand Shrine of Ise, for example, is sacred to Amaterasu.大神社的伊勢,例如,是神聖的照。 Because she is associated with the imperial family, her shrine is a national center of pilgrimage - the focal point for paying respect to the emperor and, through him, to Japan.因為她是與皇室,她的靖國神社,是一個國家的朝聖中心-的中心點參拜天皇,並通過他向日本。

With the establishment of Buddhism in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods (710 - 1185 AD), Shinto quickly came under its influence as well as that of Confucianism and Chinese culture as a whole.由於設立了佛教在日本奈良,平安時期( 710 -公元1185年) ,神道很快受到它的影響力以及儒學與中華文化作為一個整體。 On the one hand, it became more highly structured, following the Buddhist lead.一方面,它變得更加高度結構化的,按照佛教領先。 On the other hand, certain kami came to be thought of as manifestations of particular Buddhas or bodhisattvas.另一方面,某些神來被認為是表現特別佛像或菩薩。 (Amaterasu, for example, was identified with the cosmic Buddha Vairocana.) Thus the two religions both mixed and coexisted at the same time. (照,例如,被確定的宇宙佛毘盧遮那。 )因此,兩種宗教共存兩種混合在同一時間。

During the Tokugawa period (1603 - 1868), the Buddhist sects became tools of the feudal regime and neo Confucianism served as the guiding ideology.在德川幕府時期( 1803至68年) ,佛教教派成為工具的封建政權和新儒學作為指導思想。 Shinto was overshadowed in the process. Gradually, however, certain nationalist scholars, reacting against what they considered foreign ideologies, turned more and more to Shinto as the source of a uniquely Japanese identity.神道是在這一進程蒙上陰影。漸漸地,但是,某些民族主義學者,對什麼反應,他們認為外國的意識形態,把越來越多的以神道的源泉日本一種獨特的身份。

With the Meiji Restoration in 1868 - and the disestablishment of both the Tokugawa regime and the Buddhism that had accompanied it - Shinto naturally came to the fore.與1868年明治維新-和脫離雙方的德川政權和佛教陪同它-神道自然來到前列。 In the 1880s the government guaranteed freedom of religion to practitioners of all faiths but also drew a distinction between shrine Shinto (sometimes called state Shinto) and sect Shinto.在19世紀80年代政府保障宗教自由從業人員所有信仰,而且還區分神社神道(有時也稱為國家神道)和教派神道。 The former was a nominally secular organization by means of which the state transformed shrines into centers of a patriotic and nationalistic "cult" applicable to followers of all faiths.前者是名義上世俗的方式組織該國轉變成中心神社的愛國主義和民族主義的“邪教” ,適用於所有信仰的追隨者。

In the 1930s shrine Shinto was used by the ultranationalists and militarists as one of several vehicles for their views.在上世紀30年代神社神道使用的是極端和軍國主義的一個好幾輛汽車的意見。 Sect Shinto, on the other hand, was a separate category for various popular religious groups (a total of 13 Shinto "denominations" were distinguished), which were thereby separated from the state sponsored shrines and had, like the Buddhist sects and Christian denominations, to rely on private, nongovernmental support.節神道,另一方面,是一個單獨的類別為各種流行的宗教群體(共13神道“面值”的尊敬) ,這從而脫離該國主辦的聖地,並且,如佛教教派和基督教教派,依靠私營部門,非政府的支持。 These sect Shinto groups were, in many instances, the prototypes of various new religions that have emerged in Japan during the 20th century, especially since World War II.這些教派神道群體,在許多情況下,原型的各種新的宗教中產生的日本在20世紀,特別是自第二次世界大戰結束以來。

With the end of World War II and the American occupation of Japan, the shrine Shinto system was dismantled and Shinto as a whole was disassociated from the state.隨著二戰結束和美國佔領日本,神社神道制度被拆除並神道作為一個整體是脫離該國。 Following that period, however, the shrines were revitalized and today remain one of the sacred focuses of Japanese religious sentiment.下面的這段時間裡,然而,有活力的聖地,今天仍然是一個神聖的重點是日本宗教感情。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong約瑟夫M北側約翰強

Bibliography: 參考書目:
WG Aston, Shinto: The Way of the Gods (1905); DC Holtom, Modern Japan and Shinto Nationalism (1963), and The National Faith of Japan (1938); G Kato, A Study of Shinto (1971); S Ono, Shinto: The Kami Way (1962).工作組阿斯頓,神道:路神( 1905年) ;直流Holtom ,近代日本和日本民族主義( 1963年) ,和國家信仰的日本( 1938年) ; G加藤,神道教的研究( 1971年) ;縣大野,神道:在神路( 1962年) 。


Shinto神道

Additional Information 其他信息

Shinto is an ancient Japanese religion.神道是一個古老的日本宗教。 Beginning about 500 BC (or earlier) it was originally an amorphous mix of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism. Its name was derived from the Chinese words "shin tao" (The Way of the Gods) in the 8th Century AD.從公元前約500 (或更早)最初是一種無定形的混合自然崇拜,生殖崇拜,占卜技術,英雄崇拜和薩滿教。它的名字源於中國的“新道” (路神)的公元8世紀。 At that time, the Yamato dynasty consolidated its rule over most of Japan, divine origins were ascribed to the imperial family, and Shinto established itself as the official religion of Japan, along with Buddhism.在那個時候,大和王朝鞏固其統治大多數日本,神聖的起源被歸因於皇室,和神道確立了自己作為官方宗教的日本,隨著佛教。

The complete separation of Japanese religion from politics did not occur until just after World War II.完全分開日本宗教和政治沒有發生直到第二次世界大戰結束後。 The Emperor renounced his divinity at that time.皇帝放棄神在那個時候。

Shinto has no real founder, no written scriptures, no body of religious law, and only a very loosely-organized priesthood.神道已沒有真正的創始人,沒有書面的經文,沒有機構的宗教法,只有一個非常鬆散的組織鐸。

Beliefs信仰

Most Japanese citizens follow two religions: both Shinto and Buddhism. Buddhism first arrived in Japan from Korea and China during the 8th century AD.大多數日本國民的後續兩個宗教:既神道和佛教。佛第一次來到日本的韓國和中國在公元8世紀。 The two religions share a basic optimism about human nature, and for the world.兩個宗教的份額基本持樂觀態度人性,對世界。 Within Shinto, the Buddha was viewed as another Kami (nature deity).在神道教,佛教被視為另一種 (自然神) 。 Meanwhile, Buddhism in Japan regarded the Kami as being manifestations of various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.同時,佛教在日本認為是表現上的各種佛,菩薩。

Shinto does not have as fully developed a theology as do most other religions.神道沒有完全開發出一種神學作為大多數其他宗教。 Their religious texts discuss the High Plain of Heaven and the Dark Land which is an unclean land of the dead, but give few details.他們的宗教信仰案文討論了高級平原天堂黑暗土地,是一個不乾淨的土地的死亡,但沒有詳細。 Shinto creation stories tell of the history and lives of the Kami.神道創造故事講述的歷史和生活的上。 Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands.它們之間是一個神聖的情侶,伊奘諾之命和伊邪那美之命,誰生下了日本列島。 Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans.他們的子女成為神的日本各部族。 Amaterasu (Sun Goddess) was one of their daughters.照(太陽神)是他們的女兒。 She is the ancestress of the Imperial Family. Her descendants unified the country.她是ancestress的皇室。她的後裔統一的國家。 Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth.她的哥哥,素下來,並從天上漫遊整個地球。 He is famous for killing a great evil serpent.他是著名的殺死了巨大邪惡蛇。 The Sun Goddess is regarded as the chief deity. There are numerous other deities who are conceptualized in many forms.太陽女神被視為首席神。還有很多其他的神誰是概念化多種形式。

Some are related to natural objects and creatures, from food to rivers to rocks.有些人與自然物體和生物,從食品到河流岩石。 There are Guardian Kami of particular areas and clans. Some are exceptional past people, including all but the last of the emperors. Some are abstract creative forces.有衛上的特定領域和部族。一些過去的人是例外,其中包括所有,但最後的皇帝。一些摘要創造性力量。 They are seen as benign; they sustain and protect.它們被視為良性;他們維持和保護。 There are no concepts which compare to the Christian beliefs in the wrath of God, His omnipotence and omni-presence, or the separation of God from humanity due to sin.沒有概念比較的基督教信仰在憤怒的上帝,他的全能和全方位的存在,或分離的上帝從人類由於罪孽。

Ancestors are deeply revered and worshipped.祖先是深深尊敬和崇拜。 All of humanity is regarded as Kami's child.全人類被視為神的孩子。 Thus all human life and human nature is sacred. Believers revere musuhi , the Kamis' creative and harmonizing powers. They aspire to have makoto , sincerity or true heart.因此,所有人類生命和人類的本性是神聖的。信徒尊崇musuhi的Kamis創新和協調的權力。他們渴望有 ,真誠或真實的心。 This is regarded as the way or will of Kami.這被看作是正在進行或將上。 Morality is based upon that which is of benefit to the group.道德的基礎是認為這是有利於本集團。 Shinto emphasizes right practice, sensibility, and attitude.神道強調正確的做法,情感和態度。

There are Four Affirmations in Shinto:四個Affirmations在神道:

The desire for peace, which was suppressed during World War II, has been restored.實現和平的願望,這是壓制在第二次世界大戰期間,已得到恢復。

Practices做法

Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, springs, etc. Each shrine is dedicated to a specific Kami who has a divine personality and responds to sincere prayers of the faithful.神道承認許多聖地:山區,泉水等各供奉著一個具體上誰擁有神聖的人格和響應真誠祈禱的信徒。 When entering a shrine, one passes through a Tori a special gateway for the Gods.當進入一個清真寺,一個經過特殊網關的神。 It marks the demarcation between the finite world and the infinite world of the Gods. In the past, believers practiced misogi, , the washing of their bodies in a river near the shrine.它標誌著劃分和有限世界的無限世界的神。在過去,信徒實行misogi , ,清洗自己的身體附近河中的靖國神社。 In recent years they only wash their hands and wash out their mouths in a wash basin provided within the shrine grounds.近年來,他們只洗手和清洗自己的嘴在洗手盆提供的靖國神社的理由。 Believers respect animals as messengers of the Gods.信徒尊重動物使者的神。 A pair of statues of Koma-inu (guard dogs) face each other within the temple grounds.一對雕像思科馬-犬 (警犬)面對對方的廟理由。 Shrine ceremonies, which include cleansing, offerings, prayers, and dances are directed to the Kami. Kagura are ritual dances accompanied by ancient musical instruments.神社儀式,其中包括清洗,產品,祈禱,和舞蹈是針對上。 神樂是儀式的舞蹈伴隨著古老的樂器。 The dances are performed by skilled and trained dancers.該舞蹈是由熟練和訓練有素的舞者。 They consist of young virgin girls, a group of men, or a single man. Mamori are charms worn as an aid in healing and protection.他們組成的年輕處女,有一群人,或一個人。 馬莫里有魅力磨損作為援助的癒合和保護。 There come in many different forms for various purposes. An altar, the Kami-dana (Shelf of Gods), is given a central place in many homes.有來自許多不同的形式為各種目的。祭壇,在上德納 (大陸架的神) ,給出了一個中心位置在許多家園。

Seasonal celebrations are held at spring planting, fall harvest, and special anniversaries of the history of a shrine or of a local patron spirit. Followers are expected to visit Shinto shrines at the times of various life passages.季節性的慶祝活動舉行春季播種,秋季收穫,特別週年的歷史,供奉或地方守護神的精神。追隨者將訪問神社在時代的各種生命通道。 For example, the annual Shichigosan Matsuri involves a blessing by the shrine Priest of girls aged 3 and 7 and boys aged 5.例如,每年Shichigosan祭涉及祝福的神殿祭司3歲女孩和7歲的男孩和5 。

Forms of Shinto形式神道

Around 1900 AD, Shinto was divided into:公元1900年前後,神道分為:

These three forms are closely linked.這三種形式是密切相連的。 An image may be installed by a member of one of the Sectarian Shinto sects who worships at a particular shrine.圖片可能安裝的成員之一的教派神道教派崇拜誰在某一靖國神社。 Shinto is a tolerant religion which accepts the validity of other religions.神道是一個寬容的宗教接受的有效性,其他宗教。 It is common for a believer to pay respect to other religions, their practices and objects of worship.這是共同的信仰者支付尊重其他宗教,他們的做法和崇拜的對象。

Shinto Texts神道文本

Many texts are valued in the Shinto religion.許多文本具有價值的神道宗教。 Most date from the 8th century AD:最日公元8世紀:

Estimates of the number of Shintoists vary a lot.估計數Shintoists差別很大。 Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million.有些消息來源提供的數字範圍為280到320萬。 One states that 40% of Japanese adults follow Shinto; that would account for about 50 million Shintoists.一個國家, 40 %的日本成年人後續神道,這將占到5000萬Shintoists 。 Others state that about 86% of Japanese adults follow a combination of Shinto and Buddhism; that would put the number of followers of Shinto at 107 million.其他國家,大約有86 %的日本成年人後續結合神道和佛教,這將使一些追隨者神道107萬美元。

One source estimates 1000 followers of Shinto in North America. The Canadian Census (1991) recorded 445 in Canada.一位消息人士估計1000年的追隨者神道在北美地區。加拿大人口普查( 1991 )錄得445在加拿大。


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