Semites閃米特

General Information 一般信息

Semites are peoples who speak Semitic languages; the group includes Arabs, Aramaeans, Jews, and many Ethiopians. In a Biblical sense, Semites are peoples whose ancestry can be traced back to Shem, Noah's eldest son. 閃米特人的民族主義誰講的語言;該集團包括阿拉伯人, Aramaeans ,猶太人,和許多埃塞俄比亞人。在聖經的意義上說,是人民的閃米特人的祖先可以追溯到閃,諾亞的長子。 The ancient Semitic populations were pastoral Nomads who several centuries before the Christian Era were migrating in large numbers from Arabia to Mesopotamia, the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, and the Nile River delta.古代猶太人的人口牧區誰游牧民族幾百年前基督教時代遷移大批來自阿拉伯,以美索不達米亞平原,海岸的地中海,和尼羅河三角洲。 Jews and other Semites settled in villages in Judea, southern Palestine.猶太人和其他閃米特人的村莊定居在朱迪亞,南部巴勒斯坦。

Present day speakers of Semitic languages are as diverse in physical, psychological, cultural, and sociological characteristics as are speakers of Indo European languages. The most prominent Semites today are Arabs and Jews. They are different in many ways, and they have absorbed a variety of European traits through centuries of migration and trade.今天發言的猶太人的語言是不同的生理,心理,文化和社會特點是講印度歐洲語言。 最突出的閃米特今天是阿拉伯人和猶太人。他們是不同的在許多方面,他們吸收了各種歐洲的特性,通過數百年的移民和貿易。 The origin of Semitic languages, however, and many similarities in the stories of Islam and Judaism reflect a common ancient history.原產地閃語言,然而,和許多相似之處的故事伊斯蘭教和猶太教反映一個共同的悠久歷史。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
B Lewis, Semites and Anti Semites (1987); J Morgenstern, Rites of Birth, Marriage, Death, and Kindred Occasions among the Semites (1966); S Moscati, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (1957); WR Smith, The Religion of the Semites (1890).乙劉易斯主義和反閃米特人( 1987年) ; J摩根斯坦,禮記的出生,婚姻,死亡,和類似場合的閃米特人( 1966年) ;縣莫斯卡蒂,古代猶太人的文明( 1957年) ;水利史密斯的宗教,閃米特人( 1890年) 。


Additional Information 其他信息

A Semite is someone descended from Sem or Shem, the eldest son of Noah. (See the article from the 1912 Edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, presented below.) 阿閃米特人的後裔是SEM或閃的長子諾亞。 (見第從1912年版的天主教百科全書,介紹如下。 )

A HEBREW is someone descended from Heber (or, "Eber"), one of the great-grandsons of Shem.希伯來人的後裔是赫柏(或“韋伯” ) ,一個偉大的,孫子的閃。 So all Hebrews are Semites, but not all Semites are Hebrews.因此,所有猶太人都是閃米特人,但並非所有閃米特是猶太人。 ( Both Sunnite Arabs and Jews are Semites, and Hebrews, as well as Jews. )這兩個遜尼派阿拉伯人和猶太人都是閃米特人,和猶太人,以及猶太人。

Six generations after Heber, Abraham was born to his line, so Abraham was both a Hebrew and a Semite, born of the line of Heber and Shem.六代後赫柏,亞伯拉罕出生他的行,所以亞伯拉罕既是希伯來語和閃米特人,生於線赫柏和閃。

Ishmael was born of Abraham, and (Sunnite) Arabs (and specifically Muslims) consider themselves to be descendants of him, so they are both Semitic and Hebrews. Isaac was born of Abraham, then Jacob of Isaac. 伊斯梅爾出生亞伯拉罕和(遜尼派)阿拉伯人(和具體穆斯林)認為自己是他的後裔,所以他們都是猶太人和猶太人。艾薩克出生亞伯拉罕,然後雅各布以撒。 Jacob's name was changed to "Israel," and he fathered 12 sons.雅各的名字改為“以色列, ”他的父親12個兒子。 His sons and their descendants are called Israelites, and they would therefore be both Semitic and Hebrew. However, this would not make either Abraham or Isaac "Israelites." Those who poorly use the words "Jew" and Israelite, call Abraham a Jew, even though Abraham was not even an Israelite, and where the word "Jew" is not used in the Bible until 1,000 years AFTER Abraham.他的兩個兒子和他們的後裔被稱為以色列人,他們因此將兩個猶太人和希伯來文。然而,這不會使任何亞伯拉罕或艾薩克“以色列人。 ”誰使用不當的話“猶太人”和以色列人,要求亞伯拉罕一個猶太人,儘管亞伯拉罕甚至沒有一個以色列人,而改為“猶”而不是用來聖經,直到1000年後的亞伯拉罕。

One of Jacob-Israel's children was Judah (Hebrew - Yehudah).雅各布之一,以色列的猶太兒童(希伯來語- Yehudah ) 。 His descendants were called Yehudim ("Judahites").他的後代被稱為Yehudim ( “ Judahites ” ) 。 In Greek this reads Ioudaioi ("Judeans").在希臘這個內容Ioudaioi ( “ Judeans ” ) 。 The confusing thing here is that almost all Bible translations employ the word "Jew," which is a modern, shortened form of the word "Judahite."在混亂的事情是,幾乎所有的聖經翻譯聘用改為“猶太人” ,這是一個現代化,縮短形式改為“ Judahite 。 ” Every time you come to the word "Jew" in the Old Scriptures, you should read "Judahite;" and every time you come to the word "Jew" in the New Scriptures, you should read it as "Judean."每次你來的“猶太人”老聖經,你應該閱讀“ Judahite ; ”每次你來的“猶太人”在新的聖經,你應該閱讀這是“猶太人” 。

R Novosel R諾沃塞爾


Semites閃米特

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa. The expression is derived from the Biblical table of nations (Genesis 10), in which most of these peoples are recorded as descendants of Noah's son Sem (Shem) .閃米特人的任期是適用於一組密切相關的民族的語言,他們的棲息地是亞洲和部分非洲國家。 表達源自聖經表的國家(創10 ) ,其中大多數的人民都記錄為後代諾亞兒子半導體(閃)

The term Semite was proposed at first for the languages related to the Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's "Repertorium", vol.閃米特人的任期是第一次提出的語言相關的希伯來文的路德維希Schlözer ,在艾希霍恩的“ Repertorium ” ,第二卷。 VIII (Leipzig, 1781), p.第八章(萊比錫, 1781年) ,第 161. Through Eichhorn the name then came into general usage (cf. his "Einleitung in das Alte Testament" (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45. In his "Gesch. der neuen Sprachenkunde", pt. I (Göttingen, 1807) it had already become a fixed technical term. Since then the name has been generally adopted, except that modern science uses it in a somewhat wider sense to include all those Peoples who are either demonstrably of Semitic origin, or who appear in history as completely Semitized. 161 。通過艾希霍恩名稱然後進入一般使用(參見他的“老東西導論在全書” (萊比錫, 1787年) ,我,第45頁。在他的“ Gesch 。河畔neuen Sprachenkunde ”角。口(哥廷根, 1807年) ,它已成為一個固定的技術術語。自那時起,名稱已被普遍採用,但現代科學使用它在某種程度上更廣泛的意義上,包括了所有這些國家的人民都證明誰的猶太人血統,或誰出現在歷史上完全Semitized 。

CLASSIFICATION分類

In historic times all Western Asia (see below), with the exception of the peninsula of Asia Minor, was Semitic.在歷史時代所有西亞(見下文) ,除小亞細亞半島,是猶太人。 From the philological point of view the Semitic peoples are divided into four chief Babylonian-Assyrian Semites (East Semites), Chanaanitic Semites, (West Semites), Aramaic Semites (North Semites), and Arabian Semites (South Semites).從語言學的角度來看,民族主義分為四個行政巴比倫,亞述人的閃米特人(東閃米特人) , Chanaanitic主義, (西閃米特人) ,阿拉姆閃米特(北閃米特人)和阿拉伯閃米特(南閃米特人) 。 The last-named group is divided into North and South Arabians, of which last the Abyssinians are a branch.最後命名組分為南方和北方阿拉伯人,其中去年的Abyssinians的一個分支。 The first three groups are usually termed North Semites, in contrast to the Arabian group, or South Semites.前三個集團通常稱為北閃米特人,而相比之下,阿拉伯集團,或南閃米特。 But the classification of the Babylonian with the Aramaic and Chanaanitic Semites is not permissible from the philological point of view.但是,分類巴比倫與阿拉姆語和Chanaanitic主義,不允許從語言學的角度來看。

TERRITORY領地

The great mountain-chains which begin at the Syro-Cilician boundary, and then curving towards the south-west extend to the Persian Gulf, separate on the north and east the territory of the Semites from that of the other peoples of Western Asia.大山鏈的開始, Syro - Cilician邊界,然後彎曲朝向西南延伸到波斯灣,另在東部和北部地區的領土上的閃米特人從其他人民西亞。 It includes the Syro-Arabian plain with the civilized countries extending to the east and west and the Arabian Peninsula which joins it on the south.它包括Syro -阿拉伯平原的文明國家擴展到東部和西部和阿拉伯半島的同它的南面。 The lowlands to the east are formed by the Euphrates and the Tigris, and include the homes of two very ancient civilizations, in the north the rather undulating Mesopotamia, in the south the low Babylonian plain; the land extending to the west from the lower Euphrates is called Chaldea.低地以東是由幼發拉底河和底格里斯河,包括家中的兩個非常古老的文明,在北方,而起伏的美索不達米亞,在南部低巴比倫平原;土地擴展到西部幼發拉底河從低被稱為Chaldea 。 These are the territories of the East Semitic tribes and states.這些領土的東方猶太人部落和國家。 On the west lies Northern Syria, then the Lebanon Mountains with the intervening Coelo-Syria, the oasis of Damascus, the seat of an ancient culture, the Hauran, and in the midst of the desert the oasis of Palmyra (Tadmor).在敘利亞北部西謊言,那麼黎巴嫩山脈與干預Coelo -敘利亞,綠洲大馬士革,所在地的一個古老的文化, Hauran ,並在沙漠中的綠洲帕爾邁拉(大德摩) 。 These territories were at a later period occupied principally by Aramaic tribes.這些領土在以後期間佔領主要由阿拉姆部落。 The territory on the coast extending westwards from Lebanon, and Palestine, which joins it on the south, are the principal seats of the Chanaanitic Semites.關於領土海岸向西延伸到黎巴嫩和巴勒斯坦,這同它的南面,是主要的席位Chanaanitic閃米特。 The mountainous country to the east of Arabia and the Sinaitic peninsula extending to the west of Arabia, belong to Arabia proper, the territory of the South Semites.在多山的國家以東的阿拉伯和Sinaitic半島延伸到西部的阿拉伯,屬於阿拉伯適當,領土南閃米特。

ORIGINAL HOME原居住

The tribes which inhabited these territories, and to some extent still inhabit them, show in language, traits, and character a sharply characterized individuality which separates them distinctly from other peoples.該部落居住在這些地區,並在一定程度上仍居住其中顯示的語言,特性,和性格特點的個性大幅分隔他們明顯從其他國家的人民。 Their languages axe closely related to one another, not being almost independent branches of language, like the great groups of Indo-Germanic languages, but rather dialects of a single linguistic group.他們的語言斧密切相關的一個,幾乎沒有獨立的部門的語言,就像偉大的群體印度支那日耳曼語言,而是一個單一的方言語言群體。 Physically, also, the Semitic form it is found in Arabia.身體,另外,猶太人的形式存在於沙特阿拉伯。 Here also the phonetics and partly also the grammatical structure of the Semitic language, are most purely, as the vocabulary is most completely, preserved.這裡還部分的語音和語法結構還對猶太人的語言,是最純粹的,因為詞彙是最完整,保存。 From these as well as from other circumstances the conclusion has been drawn that Arabia should be considered the original home of the Semitic peoples.從這些以及其他情況下的結論說,已提請國家應該考慮的發源地的猶太人人民。 All the racial peculiarities of the Semites are best explained from the character of a desert people.所有的種族特點的最好解釋是閃米特人的性質的沙漠人。 All Semites settled in civilized lands are, therefore, to be considered offshoots of the desert tribes, which were detached one after the other from the parent stem.所有閃米特文明的土地上定居的,因此被視為分支沙漠部落,這是離一個接一個從父幹。 This pressing forward towards civilized lands was a continuous movement, often in a slow development lasting through centuries but often also in mighty and sudden invasions, the last of which appears in that of the Arabs of Islam.這一緊迫走向文明的土地上是一個持續的運動,往往是在一個緩慢發展的持久數百年來,但往往也威武之師,突然入侵,其中最後出現在了伊斯蘭教的阿拉伯人。 The further question as to how the original ancestors of the Semites came to Arabia, is for the present beyond historical knowledge.進一步的問題是,如何原始祖先閃米特人來到沙特阿拉伯,是本超越歷史知識。

EAST SEMITES東閃米特

The first emigrants from Arabia who succeeded in acquiring new landed possessions were the Semitic Babylonians.第一個阿拉伯移民誰成功降落在獲取新的猶太人的財產被巴比倫人。 In Babylonia the invaders proceeded to adopt the highly-developed civilization of an ancient non-Semitic people, the Sumerians, and with it the cuneiform alphabets which the latter had invented. When this invasion occurred is not known; but that it was accomplished in several stages, and after temporary settlements on the borders, is unquestionable.在巴比倫進行入侵者通過高度發達的文明的一個古老的非猶太人的人,蘇美爾人,並有楔形文字字母表後者發明。入侵發生時,這是不知道,但是,這是完成在幾個階段後,臨時安置的邊界上,是不容置疑的。 By 3000 BC the dominion of the Semites in Babylonia was an accomplished fact.由公元前3000年的自治領的閃米特人的東風是一個既成事實。

Ethnologically considered, the Babylonians are a mixed people, composed partly of the Sumerian and the most ancient Semitic emigrants, partly also of the continuously invading West Semites, and further more of Kassites and other people, all of whom were amalgamated. Ethnologically認為,巴比倫人是一種混合的人,組成部分的蘇美爾和最古老的猶太人移民,部分還不斷入侵西閃米特人,並進一步更多的Kassites和其他人,他們都被合併。 The principal seat of the Semitic element was in the north, in the land of Accad, while in the south the Sumerians were most numerous.主要所在地主義的因素是在北部,在土地Accad ,而在南部的蘇美爾人最無數。 Under Sargon and Naram-Sin was completed the amalgamation of the Sumerian and the Accadian (Semitic) civilization, which in the age of Hammurabi appears as an accomplished fact.根據薩爾貢和Naram信已完成合併的蘇美爾和Accadian (猶太人)文明時代的漢謨拉比似乎是既成事實。 The mighty expansion of the kingdom to the Mediterranean naturally resulted in the wide extension of the Sumerian-Accadian civilization, and for a millennium and a half Babel was the intellectual centre of Western Asia.強大的擴展王國地中海自然導致廣泛延長蘇梅利亞- Accadian文明,為千年半巴貝爾是智力中心西亞。 As is proved by the Tel-el-Amarna letters, the Babylonian language and script were known in Western Asia as well as in Egypt and Cyprus, at least at the courts of the rulers.作為證明的電話,薩爾瓦多,阿瑪爾納字母,巴比倫的語言和文字被稱為西亞以及在埃及和塞浦路斯,至少在法院的統治者。 At an early period the Semites must have invaded the mountainous territory to the east of Babylonia.在較早時期的閃米特人必須具有入侵山區領土以東的東風。 Not until about 2300 BC do we find a foreign element in Elam.直到公元前約2300年,我們找到一個外國因素伊拉姆。 Before this time, according to inscriptions which have been found, Babylonian Semites lived there.在此之前的時間,根據銘文已被發現,巴比倫閃米特人住在那裡。

On the Accadian border dwelt the Semitic tribes of Mesopotamia, which are included under the general term Subari.在談到Accadian邊境的部落的美索不達米亞猶太人,其中包括根據一般任期Subari 。 The centre of this region is desert, but on the banks of the Euphrates, Chaboras, and Tigris are strips of land capable of cultivation, upon which at an early period Semitic settlements were established for the most part probably under local dynasties.該中心的這一地區是沙漠,但對銀行的幼發拉底河, Chaboras ,和底格里斯河的狹長土地能夠種植,賴以在初期建立猶太人定居點的大部分可能根據當地的朝代。 The Subari include also the Assyrians, who founded on the right bank of the Tigris - between the mouths of the two Zab rivers a city which bore the same name as the race and its god.該Subari還包括亞述人,誰的基礎上右岸底格里斯河-河口之間的兩個扎卜城市河流承擔相同名稱的比賽,其神。 All these tribes and states were under the influence of Babylonia and its civilization, and Babylonian-Semitic was their official and literary language. But while in Babylonia the Semitic element was amalgamated with different strata of the original population, in Mesopotamia the Semitic type was more purely preserved.所有這些部落和國家的影響下,東風和文明,巴比倫的猶太人是他們的官方和文學語言。但是,在巴比倫的猶太人的內容是合併與不同階層的原始居民,在美索不達米亞的猶太人類型更純粹的維護。

Briefly recapitulating the political history of the Eastern Semites, we may distinguish four periods.簡要地回顧一下歷史上的政治東部主義,我們可以區分四個時期。 The first includes essentially the fortunes of the ancient Babylonian realm; the second witnesses the predominance of Assur, involved in constant struggles with Babylonia, which still maintained its independence.第一類包括基本上命運,古巴比倫王國,第二個證人優勢亞述,參與不斷奮鬥與東風,仍然保持其獨立性。 During the third period Amur, after the overthrow of Babylonia, achievers the summit of its power; this is followed, after the destruction of Nineveh, by the short prosperity of the new Babylonian Kingdom under the rule of the Chaldeans.在第三期黑龍江,推翻之後,東風,成績首腦會議的權力,這是其次,在銷毀尼納瓦,由短期繁榮的新巴比倫王國的統治下的迦勒。 This power, and with it the entire dominion of the Semites in south-western Asia, was overthrown by the Persians.這種權力,而與整個統治的閃米特在西南部地區,被推翻的波斯人。

CHANAANITIC SEMITES CHANAANITIC閃米特

This designation was chosen because the races belonging to this group can best be studied in the land of Chanaan.這是選擇,因為指定的比賽屬於這一類,才能最好地研究土地Chanaan 。 They represent a second wave of emigration into civilized territory.他們代表第二波移民到文明領土。 About the middle of the third millennium before Christ they were a race of nomads in a state of transition to settled life, whose invasions were directed against the East as well as the West.關於中東的第三個千年公元前他們比賽的游牧民族的狀態過渡到定居生活,他們的入侵是針對東方以及西方。 About this time there constantly appear in Babylonia the names of gods, rulers, and other persons of a distinctly Chanaanitic character.大約在這個時候,有不斷出現在東風神的名字,統治者,和其他人的明顯Chanaanitic性質。 To these belongs the so called first Babylonian dynasty, the most celebrated representative of which is Hammurabi.這些屬於所謂的第一個巴比倫王朝,最著名的代表是漢謨拉比。 Its rule probably denotes the high tide of that new invasion of Babylonia, which also strongly influenced Assyria.其規則可能是指高潮,新的入侵的東風,也強烈影響亞述。 In time the new stratum was absorbed by the existing population, and thereby became a part of Babylonian Semitism.隨著時間的推移新的地層吸收現有的人口,從而成為部分巴比倫主義。 Through the same invasion the civilized territory of the West received a new population, and even Egypt was affected.通過相同的入侵文明領土西方收到了新的人口,甚至埃及受到影響。 For the Hyksos (shepherd kings) are in the main only the last offshoot of that Chanaanitic invasion, and in their rulers we see a similar phenomenon as that of the Chanaanitic dynasty of Babylonia.為Hyksos (牧羊人國王)是主要只有最後分支的Chanaanitic入侵,並在他們的統治者,我們看到了類似的現象,在Chanaanitic王朝的東風。 As regards the Semites in Chanaan itself, the earliest wave of the invasion, which in consequence of subsequent pressure was ultimately pushed forward to the coast, is known to us under the name of the Phoenicians.至於閃米特在Chanaan本身,最早一波的入侵,而這後果是以後的壓力,最終推動海岸,被稱為我們的名義下,腓尼基人。 A picture of the conditions of the races and principalities of Palestine in the fifteenth century BC is given in the Tel-el-Amarna letters.照片的條件種族和公巴勒斯坦在公元前15世紀,給出了電話,薩爾瓦多,阿瑪爾納字母。 In them we find a series of Chanaanitic glosses, which show that even at that time the most important of those characteristic peculiarities had been developed, which gave their distinctive character to the best known Chanaanitic dialects, the Phoenician and the Hebrew.其中我們發現了一系列Chanaanitic掩蓋,這表明,即使在那個時候最重要的特徵特性已制定,而獻出了自己的特色,以最著名的Chanaanitic方言,腓尼基和希伯來文。 Further examples of Chanaanitic language of the second millennium, especially as regards the vocabulary, are the Semitic glosses in the Egyptian.進一步的例子Chanaanitic語言的第二個千年,特別是關於詞彙,是猶太人的粉飾在埃及。

To the Chanaanitic races settled in Palestine belong also the Hebrew immigrants under Abraham, from whom again the Moabites and Ammonites separated.比賽的Chanaanitic屬於定居在巴勒斯坦的希伯來移民亞伯拉罕下,再次從他的莫亞比特人及菊石分開。 A people closely related to the Hebrews were also the Edomites in the Seir mountains, who later appear under the name of Idumaeans in Southern Judea.一個民族密切相關的希伯來書也是Edomites在Seir山區,後來出現在誰的名字Idumaeans在南部猶大。 These mountains had before them been settled by the Horities who were partly expelled, partly absorbed by the Edomites.這些山脈收到得到解決的Horities誰被部分驅逐,部分吸收Edomites 。 A last wave of the immigration into Chanaan are the Israelites, descendants of the Hebrews, who after centuries of residence in Egypt, and after forty years of nomadic life in the desert, returned to the land of their fathers, of which they took possession after long and weary struggles. That the influence of Chanaanitic Semitism extended far into the North is proved by the two Zendsirli inscriptions: the so-called Hadad inscription of the ninth century, and the Panammu inscription of the eighth century, the language of which shows a Chanaanitic character with Aramaic intermixture.在最後一輪的移民到Chanaan是猶太人,猶太人的後裔,數百年後,誰居住在埃及,經過四十年的游牧民族生活在沙漠中,回到了土地,他們父輩,其中他們擁有之後長期和厭倦鬥爭。的影響,遠遠Chanaanitic主義延長到北都證明了這兩個Zendsirli題詞:所謂的哈達題詞第九世紀, Panammu題詞第八世紀,它的語言顯示Chanaanitic性質與阿拉姆合金。 On the other hand, the so-called building inscription of Bir-Rokeb, dating from the last third of the eighth century, is purely Aramaic - a proof that the Aramaization of Northern Syria was in full progress.另一方面,所謂的建設題詞比爾比克拉- Rokeb以來,從去年第三第八世紀,是純粹的阿拉姆-一個證明Aramaization北敘利亞是在充分的進展。

ARAMAIC SEMITES阿拉米文閃米特

These represent a third wave of Semitic immigration.這些代表著第三次浪潮的猶太人移民。 In cuneiform inscriptions dating from the beginning of the fourteenth century BC They are mentioned as Ahlami.在楔形文字銘文的歷史可以追溯到年初的公元前14世紀,他們都提到作為Ahlami 。 Their expansion probably took place within the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries BC from the plain between the mouth of the Euphrates and the mountains of Edom.擴大可能發生在第十五屆和十四世紀到公元前之間的平原口的幼發拉底河和山區以東。 As early as the reign of Salmanasar I (1300) they had pressed far into Mesopotamia and become a public scourge, in consequence of which the stream of immigration could not longer be restrained.早在統治Salmanasar口( 1300 ) ,他們壓到久遠的美索不達米亞,成為公眾的禍害,因此而流的移民無法再克制。 During the new expansion of Assyrian power under Tiglath-Pileser I (1118-1093 BC) his reports enumerate victories over the Aramaeans.在新的擴大,亞述人的權力, Tiglath , Pileser口(公元前1118年至1093年)的報告中列舉戰勝Aramaeans 。 Their further advance into the territory of the Euphrates and towards Syria took place about 1100-1000 BC By then ninth century all Syria was Aramiaicized; many small states were formed, principally successors of the Hittite Kingdom.他們進一步進軍境內的幼發拉底河和對敘利亞進行了約1000至00年公元前9世紀然後所有敘利亞是Aramiaicized ;許多小國組成,主要繼承人的赫梯王國。 The most important Arammaean principality was that of Damascus, which was destroyed by Tiglath-Pileser III in 732.最重要的是, Arammaean公大馬士革,被摧毀的Tiglath - Pileser三732 。 In like manner the remaining Aramaic states succumbed.同樣,其餘阿拉姆國家屈從。 A new rebellion was suppressed by Sargon, and with this the rule of the Aramaeans in Syria ended.一種新的叛亂被抑制的薩爾貢,並與本規則的Aramaeans在敘利亞結束。 In the meanwhile, the Aramaean element in Mesopotamia was constantly growing stronger. At the beginning of the ninth century we hear of a number of small Aramaic states or Bedouin territories there.與此同時,在美索不達米亞Aramaean因素是不斷增長的強大。年初九世紀,我們聽到了一些小阿拉姆國家或地區有貝都因人。 They were subdued under Assurnasirpal (Asshur-nasir-pal) III (884-860), and the independence of their princes was destroyed by his successor Salmanasar (Shalmaneser) II.他們制服下Assurnasirpal ( Asshur -納西爾, PAL )的三( 884-860 ) ,以及獨立的王子被摧毀了他的繼任者Salmanasar (撒縵)二。 Nevertheless, the immigration continued.然而,移民繼續。 In the struggles of Assyria the Aramaeans of Mesopotamia always made common cause with its enemies and even under Assurbanipal they were allied with his opponents.在鬥爭的亞述的美索不達米亞的Aramaeans共同的事業總是與它的敵人,甚至根據阿蘇爾巴尼帕他們結盟的對手。 From this time we hear nothing more of them.從這個時候我們聽到的只是他們。 They were probably absorbed by the remaining population.他們可能吸收剩餘人口。

Their language alone, which the Arammans in consequence of their numerical superiority forced upon these countries, survived in the sphere of the North Semitic civilization, and was not obliterated until the Islam's conquest.他們的語言本身,而Arammans因此其數值優勢迫使這些國家中,存活領域中的北方主義的文明,並沒有抹去,直到伊斯蘭教的征服。 The potent Arabic displaced the Aramaic dialects with the exception of a few remnants.在強大的阿拉伯流離失所的阿拉姆語方言與除少數殘餘。 Since the second half of the eighth century the use of Aramaic as a language of intercourse can be proved in Assyria, and about the same time it certainly prevailed in Babylonia among the commercial classes of the population. In the West also their language extended in a southerly direction as far as Northern Arabia.下半年以來的第八次世紀使用阿拉姆語作為一種語言的交往可以證明在亞述,和大約在同一時間肯定在東風盛行的商業階層居民。在西方國家也延長他們的語言中偏南方向至於北沙特阿拉伯。 For Aramaic had become the general language of commerce, which the Semitic peoples of Western Asia found themselves compelled to adopt in their commercial, cultural, and political relations.對於阿拉姆已成為一般的商業語言,這是猶太人的人民西亞發現自己被迫採取在其商業,文化和政治關係。 The Aramaic elements of the population were absorbed by the other peoples of the existing civilized lands. They developed a distinct nationality in Damascus.要素的阿拉姆的人口所吸收其他民族的現有文明的土地。他們開發出一種獨特的國籍在大馬士革。 In Mesopotamia itself, in the neighbourhood of Edessa, Mardin, and Nisibis, Aramaic individuality was long preserved.在美索不達米亞本身,在附近的埃德薩,馬爾丁,並尼西比斯,阿拉姆個性長期保存。 But the culture of this country was afterwards strongly permeated by Hellenism.但是,這個國家的文化是事後強烈滲透希臘。 One of the last political formations of the Aramaeans is found in Palmyra, which in the first century BC became the centre of a flourishing state under Arabian princes.的最後一個政治編隊Aramaeans中發現帕爾邁拉,在公元前一世紀的中心,成為一個繁榮的國家的阿拉伯王子。 It flourished until the ambitious design of Odenathus and Zenobia to play the leading part in the East caused its destruction by the Romans.蓬勃發展,直到它的雄心勃勃的設計Odenathus和Zenobia發揮領導參加東方造成破壞的羅馬人。 A small fragment of Aramaic-speaking population may be still found in Ma'lula and two other villages of the Anti-Lebanon.一個小片段的阿拉姆語人口可能仍然發現Ma'lula和另外兩個村莊的反黎巴嫩。 So-called New Syrian dialects, descendants of the East Aramaic, are spoken in Tur'Abdin in Mesopotamia, to the east and north of Mosul, and in the neighbouring mountains of Kurdistan, as well as on the west shore of Lake Urmia.所謂的新的敘利亞方言,後裔東方阿拉姆語,講Tur'Abdin在美索不達米亞,向東部和北部的摩蘇爾,並在鄰近的山區的庫爾德,以及西方Urmia湖岸邊。 Of these Aramaic-speaking Christians a part lives on what was clearly ancient Aramaic territory; but for those on Lake Urmia we must assume a later immigration. Nestorian bishops of Urmia are mentioned as early as AD 1111.這些阿拉姆說基督徒生活的一部分內容顯然是古代亞拉姆領土;但對於那些在Urmia湖,我們必須承擔更高的移民。景教主教Urmia都提到,早在公元1111年。

ARABIC-ABYSSINIAN SEMITES阿拉伯語ABYSSINIAN閃米特

A. Arabs答:阿拉伯人

The most powerful branch of the Semitic group of peoples, are indigenous to Central and Northern Arabia, where even today the original character is most purely preserved.最強大的分支機構主義集團的民族,是土著人,以中部和北部國家,在那裡即使在今天,原來的性質是最純粹的維護。 At an early period they pressed forward into the neighbouring territories, partly to the North and partly to the South.在早期期間,他們按下著進入鄰國領土,部分北方和南方部分。 In accordance with linguistic differences they are divided into North and South Arabians.按照語言上的差異,他們被分成南北人。 Northern Arabia is composed partly of plains and deserts, and is, therefore, generally speaking, the home of wandering tribes of Bedouins.沙特阿拉伯北部組成部分的平原和沙漠,以及因此,一般來說,家庭的流浪部落的貝都因人。 The South, on the other hand, is fertile and suitable for a settled population.南部地區,另一方面,是肥沃的土壤和適合定居人口。 For this reason we find here at an early date political organizations, and the sites of ruins and inscriptions bear witness to the high culture which once prevailed.出於這個原因,我們在這裡找到早日政治組織,以及網站的遺址和碑文見證高文化一旦佔了上風。 The natural richness of the country and its favourable situation on the seacoast made the South Arabians at an early period an important commercial people.自然豐富的國家,其有利的局勢作出南方海岸阿拉伯人在早期時期一個重要的商業人士。 In the fertile lowlands of the South Arabian Djôf the Kingdom of Ma'in (Minaeans) flourished. It is generally dated as early as the middle of the second millennium before Christ, although for the present it is better to maintain a somewhat sceptical attitude as regards this hypothesis.在肥沃的低地南方阿拉伯Djôf王國Ma'in ( Minaeans )蓬勃發展。一般日期早在中東的第二個千年公元前,儘管目前最好是維持一個有點懷疑態度關於這一假說。 At all events, the Minaeans, at an early period, probably avoiding the desert by a journey along the eastern coast, emigrated from North-eastern Arabia.總之, Minaeans ,在早期階段,可能避免了沙漠之旅沿線的東海岸,移民從東北沙特阿拉伯。 To the south and south-east of the Minaeans were the Katabans and the Hadramotites, who were cognate in language and who stood in active commercial relations with Ma'in, under whose political protectorate they seem to have lived.在南部和東南部地區的Minaeans是Katabans和Hadramotites ,誰是同源的語言,誰站在積極的商業關係Ma'in ,根據其政治保護他們似乎生活。 The spirit of enterprise of this kingdom is shown by the foundation of a commercial colony in the north-western part of the peninsula in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Akabah, viz., Ma'in-Mussran (Mizraimitic, Egypt Ma'in).企業精神是這個王國的基礎,所表現出的商業殖民地西北部的半島附近的海灣Akabah ,即。 , Ma'in - Mussran ( Mizraimitic ,埃及Ma'in ) 。 The downfall of the Ma'in kingdom was, according to the usual assumption, connected with the rise of the Sabaean kingdom.倒台的Ma'in英國,根據通常的假設,與崛起Sabaean英國。 The Sabaeans had likewise emigrated from the North, and in constant struggles had gradually spread their dominion over almost all Southern Arabia.同樣的Sabaeans移民來自北方,並在不斷的鬥爭已逐漸蔓延的統治幾乎所有南部沙特阿拉伯。 Their capital was Ma'rib.他們的資本是馬里卜。 Their numerous monuments and inscriptions extend from about 700 BC until almost the time of Mohammed.眾多的古蹟和題詞延伸至約700至公元前時幾乎穆罕默德。 At the height of its power, Saba received a heavy blow by the loss of the monopoly of the carrying trade between India and the northern regions, when the Ptolemies entered into direct trade relations with India.高峰時電力,沙巴收到了沉重的打擊所損失的壟斷攜帶印度之間的貿易和北部地區,當托勒密進入直接貿易與印度的關係。 Still the Sabaean Kingdom maintained itself, with varying fortune, until about AD 300.仍然保持Sabaean英國本身,具有不同的財產,直到公元300 。 After its fall the once powerful Yeman was constantly under foreign domination, at last under Persian.在秋季的一次強大Yeman不斷處於外國統治下,最後根據波斯。 Ultimately, Southern Arabia was drawn into the circle of Islam.最終,南方國家是捲入循環伊斯蘭教。 Its characteristic language was replaced by the Northern Arabic, and in only a few localities of the southern coast are remnants of it to be found: the so-called Mahri in Mahraland and the Socotri on the Island of Socotra.其特點是語言所取代北阿拉伯語,並在只有少數地方的南部海岸的殘餘它是發現:所謂的Mahri在Mahraland和Socotri島上的索科特拉。

Northern Arabia had in the meanwhile followed its own path.曾在沙特阿拉伯北部的同時遵循自己的道路。 To the east of Mussran to far into the Syrian desert we hear of the activity of the Aribi (at first in the ninth century BC), from whom the entire peninsula finally received its name.以東Mussran遠到了敘利亞沙漠地區,我們聽到的活動阿里比(在第一次在公元前9世紀) ,從他們的整個半島終於獲得它的名字。 Assurbanibal, especially, boasts of important victories over them in his struggles with them for the mastery of Edom, Moab, and the Hauran (c. 650). Assurbanibal ,特別是擁有重要的勝利,他們在他的鬥爭,與他們掌握以東,莫阿布,和Hauran (角650 ) 。 Some of the tribes possessed the germs of political organization, as is shown in their government by kings and even queens.一些部落擁有病菌的政治組織,這是顯示在其政府的國王,甚至皇后。 While these ancient Aribi for the most part constituted nomadic tribes, certain of their descendants became settled and achieved a high culture.雖然這些古老的阿里比大部分構成游牧部落,他們的後代某些成為解決和實現了高文化。 Thus, about BC 200 we hear of the realm of the Nabataeans in the former territory of the Edomites.因此,約公元前200我們聽到的境界, Nabataeans前領土Edomites 。 From their cliff-town of Petra they gradually spread their dominion over North-western Arabia, Moab, the Hauran, and temporarily even over Damascus.從他們的懸崖佩特拉城逐漸蔓延的統治西北部,阿拉伯莫阿布的Hauran ,並暫時甚至超過大馬士革。 Their prosperity was chiefly due to their carrying trade between Southern Arabia and Mediterranean lands.他們的繁榮主要是由於其執行之間的貿易南部阿拉伯和地中海地區。 The language of their inscriptions and coins is Aramaic, but the names inscribed upon them are Arabic.他們的語言題詞和硬幣是阿拉姆語,但他們的名字刻有阿拉伯文。 In AD 106 the Nabataean Kingdom became a Roman province.在公元106 Nabataean英國成為羅馬省。 Its annexation caused the prosperity of the above-mentioned Palmyra, whose aristocracy and dynasty were likewise descended from the Aribi.兼併的繁榮造成上述帕爾邁拉,其貴族和王朝的後裔同樣的阿里比。 Subsequent to these many other small Arabian principalities developed on the boundary between civilized lands and the desert; but they were for the most part of short duration.隨後這些許多其他小阿拉伯公發達的文明之間的邊界土地和沙漠,但他們大部分是期限短。 Of greatest importance were two which stood respectively under the protection of the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Kingdom as buffer states of those great powers against the sons of the desert: the realm of the Ghassanites in the Hauran, and that of the Lahmites, the centre of which was Hira, to the south of Babylon.最重要的有兩個,分別是站在保護下的拜占庭帝國和波斯王國的緩衝國對大國的兒子沙漠:境界的Ghassanites在Hauran ,而且也是Lahmites ,該中心是平川,南部的巴比倫。

In the second half of the sixth century AD, when Southern Arabia had outlived its political existence, Northern Arabia had not yet found a way to political union, and the entire peninsula threatened to become a battle-ground of Persian and Byzantine interests.下半年公元六世紀時,南方國家已經失去其政治存在,北沙特阿拉伯尚未發現了一種政治聯盟,整個半島的威脅成為戰爭理由的波斯和拜占庭的利益。 In one district alone, the centre of which was Mecca, did pure Arabism maintain an independent position.僅在一個地區,該中心是麥加,沒有純粹的阿拉伯保持一個獨立的立場。 In this City, AD 570, Mohammed was born, the man who was destined to put into motion the last and most permanent of the movements which issued from Arabia.在這個城市,公元570 ,穆罕默德出生,該名男子誰注定要付諸實施的最後和最永久的運動發出的沙特阿拉伯。 And so in the seventh century another evolution of Semitism took place, which in the victorious power of its attack and in its mighty expansion surpassed all that had gone before; the offshoots of which pressed forward to the Atlantic Ocean and into Europe itself.因此,在7世紀的另一個進化主義發生,而這勝利的力量攻擊和在其強大的擴張超過了所有已收到的分支,其中壓著大西洋到歐洲本身。

B. Abyssinians灣Abyssinians

At an early epoch South Arabian tribes emigrated to the opposite African coast, where Sabaean trade colonies had probably existed for a long time.在早期時代南方阿拉伯部落移居到非洲海岸的對面,在那裡Sabaean貿易殖民地可能存在了很長時間。 As early as the first century AD we find in the north of the Abyssinian mountain - lands the Semitic realm of Aksum.早在公元一世紀,我們發現在北部山區的阿比西尼亞-土地的猶太人的阿克蘇姆王國。 The conquerors brought with them South Arabian letters and language, which in their new home gradually attained an individual character.征服者帶來了南方阿拉伯字母和語言,這在他們的新家園逐步實現個人的性質。 From this language, the Ge'ez, wrongly called Ethiopian, two daughter-languages are descended, Tigré and Tigriña.從這個語言, Ge'ez ,錯誤地呼籲埃塞俄比亞,兩個女兒,語言下降,老虎和蛇。 The confusion of this kingdom with Ethiopia probably owes its origin to the fact that the Semite emigrants adopted this name from the Graeco-Egyptian sailors, at a time when the Kingdom of Meroë was still in some repute.的混亂,這可能與埃塞俄比亞王國歸功於其原產地為這樣一個事實,即閃米特移民通過這個名字來自希臘埃及士兵,在這個時候王國Meroë仍然在一些聲望。 And so they called their kingdom Yteyopeya.因此,他們要求自己的王國Yteyopeya 。 From Aksum as a base they gradually extended their dominion over all Abyssinia, the northern population of which today shows a purer Semitic type, while the southern is strongly mixed with Hamitic elements.從阿克蘇姆為基地,逐步擴大自己的統治所有阿比西尼亞,北部人口今天顯示了純猶太人的類型,而南部地區的強烈混合含米特要素。 At an early date the south must have been settled by Semites, who spoke a language related to Ge'ez, which was afterwards to a great extent influenced by the languages of the native population, particularly by the Agau dialects.早日南方必須得到解決的閃米特人,誰以語言有關Ge'ez ,這是後來在很大程度上影響了語言的本土人口,尤其是Agau方言。 A descendant of this language is the Amharic, the present language of intercourse in Abyssinia itself and far beyond its boundaries.子孫,這種語言是阿姆哈拉語,目前的語言交往中的阿比西尼亞本身遠遠超出其國界。

Publication information Written by F. Schühlein.出版信息作者:樓Schühlein 。 Transcribed by Jeffrey L. Anderson. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.轉錄杰弗裡安德森。天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat , 1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,日,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利紅衣主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

See the articles on the separate titles treated above; also MASPERO, Histoire ancienne, des peuples de l'Orient classique (1895); MEYER, Gesch.看到文章的標題分別處理以上;還麥斯皮羅,古代歷史,萬國人民法國東方古典( 1895年) ;邁耶Gesch 。 des Altertums, I (1909), extending to the sixteenth century BC; BARTON, Sketch of Semitic Origins (New York, 1902).萬國Altertums ,我( 1909年) ,延伸至公元前16世紀;巴頓示意圖主義起源(紐約, 1902年) 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-聖訓從圖書1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-聖訓從圖書2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-聖訓從圖書3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-聖訓從圖書10布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短的祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書20布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝覲(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書26布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書52布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS ,獨特性的真主( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書93布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 愷阿白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德人
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 伊達艾沙
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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