Sadducees撒都該人

General Information 一般信息

The Sadducees were a Jewish religious sect that flourished from about 200 BC until the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70.該撒都該人是一個猶太宗教節蓬勃發展了近200年,直到秋天耶路撒冷在公元70 。 A priestly and aristocratic group, the Sadducees owed their power to political alliance with the Romans, who ruled their land. They opposed the Pharisees' use of Oral Law and held only to the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament). They also differed with the Pharisees on many theological tenets: for example, they did not believe in resurrection and the immortality of the soul.阿祭司和貴族集團,撒都該人欠其權力範圍內的政治聯盟,羅馬人,誰統治他們的土地。 他們反對法利'使用口服法只舉行的五經(五本書的第一舊約) 。他們也各不相同的法利在許多神學原則:例如,他們不相信在復活和永生的靈魂。 According to the New Testament, the Sadducees played a leading role in the trial and condemnation of Jesus.根據新約聖經的撒都該人中發揮了主導作用的審判和譴責耶穌。

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Bibliography 參考書目
Buehler, William Wagner, The Pre-Herodian Civil War and Social Debate: Jewish Society in the Period 76-40 BC and the Social Factors Contributing to the Rise of the Pharisees and the Sadducees (1974); Manson, Thomas Walter, Sadducee and Pharisee--The Origin and Significance of the Name (1938).低速,威廉瓦格納,預審Herodian內戰和社會辯論:猶太社會時期76-40 BC和社會因素的興起法利和撒都該人( 1974年) ;曼森,托馬斯沃爾特, Sadducee和法利賽人-的起源和意義的名稱( 1938年) 。


Sadducees撒都該人

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Sadducees were an important Jewish group that flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first Christian century.該撒都該人是一個重要的猶太集團蓬勃發展的巴勒斯坦已故的公元前二世紀的第一個基督教世紀後期。

Sources來源

The most reliable information about the Sadducees is found in three bodies of ancient literature: the writings of Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War (written ca. AD 75), Antiquities of the Jews (ca. AD 94), and Life (ca. AD 101); the NT, particularly the Synoptic Gospels and Acts (ca. AD 65-90; Matt. 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38); and the rabbinic compilations (ca. AD 200 and later; Mishnah, Ber. 9:5; Erub. 6:2; Par. 3:3, 7; Nidd. 4:2; Yad. 4:6-8).最可靠的信息撒都該人中發現三具屍體的古代文學:著作弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫,猶太戰爭(書面的CA 。公元75 ) ,古物的猶太人(約公元94 ) ,生命(約公元101 ) ;新台幣,特別是天氣福音和行為(約公元65-90 ;馬特。 3時07分; 16:1-12 ; 22:23-34 ;馬克12:18-27 ;路加福音20:27 - 38 ) ;和拉比彙編(約公元200及更高版本;米示拿,小蘗鹼。 9時05分; Erub 。 6時零二;標準桿。 3點03分, 7個; Nidd 。 4點02分;亞德瓦。 4:6-8 ) 。 Two observations about these sources should be made.兩個觀察這些來源應。 First, with the possible exception of Josephus' War, all these sources are decidedly hostile towards the Sadducees.首先,可能的例外約瑟夫戰爭,所有這些來源果斷敵視的撒都該人。 Second, many of the rabbinic references, especially those found in the Talmud and later works, are of doubtful historical reliability.其次,許多拉比參考,尤其是那些被發現在塔木德和後來的作品,是歷史的可靠性令人懷疑。 Thus, our knowledge of the Sadducees is perforce severely limited and one-sided.因此,我們的知識撒都該人是必然極為有限的和片面的。

Name and Nature名與實

Historically, the question of the derivation and meaning of the name "Sadducees" has been closely tied to the issue of the nature of the group.從歷史上看,問題的推導和意義上的名稱為“撒都該人”已經緊密聯繫在一起的問題的性質集團。 Ever since Abraham Geiger argued that the Sadducees were the priestly aristocracy, the majority of scholars have held that their name was derived from "Zadok," the name of the high priest during Solomon's reign (I Kings 2:35; cf. Ezek. 44:15; 48:11). Thus the Sadducees are thought to have been the party of the Zadokite priestly elite.自從亞伯拉罕蓋格說,撒都該人是祭司貴族,大多數學者都認為,他們的名字來源於“扎多克”的名稱大祭司在所羅門的統治(王二時35分;比照。結。 44 : 15 ; 48:11 ) 。因此,撒都該人被認為已被黨的Zadokite晉精英。 There are problems with this construct, however.有問題這一概念,但是。 The "Zadok" etymology does not explain the doubling of the "d".在“扎多克”詞源不解釋翻一番的“ D ” 。 Moreover, when the Sadducees appeared on the scene, the ruling priests were Hasmoneans, not Zadokites.此外,當撒都該人出現在現場,執政的神職人員遭到哈斯摩年王朝,而不是Zadokites 。 It is unlikely that the Hasmoneans would have allied themselves with a rival priestly group whose very name called into question the legitimacy of the Hasmonean high priesthood.這是不可能的哈斯摩年王朝將聯合自己的競爭對手祭司組,其名稱本身提出質疑的合法性Hasmonean高鐸。

More recently, many scholars have argued that the Sadducees were essentially a loose confederation of wealthy and powerful men (this would include members of the priestly aristocracy) who took a secular-pragmatic, rather than a religious-ideological, stance with regard to the nation and its laws.最近,許多學者都認為,撒都該人基本上是一個鬆散的邦聯的富裕和強大的男人(這將包括成員祭司貴族)誰在一個世俗的,務實的,而不是一個宗教的思想,立場關於國家和它的法律。 Along with this view, new etymologies for "Sadducees" have been offered.伴隨著這一觀點,新etymologies為“撒都該人”已提供。 TW Manson proposed that behind the name stood the Greek title syndikoi, meaning "fiscal officials."荃灣莉曼森建議背後的名稱為標題syndikoi希臘,意思是“財政官員。 ” R. North suggested that the Sadducees saw themselves as administrators of justice and that their name was derived from an otherwise unattested Piel adjective sadduq ("just").河北建議,撒都該人把自己作為管理者的正義,他們的名字是源於其他unattested掌上形容詞sadduq ( “公正” ) 。 These and other etymologies solve some problems, but raise new ones; at bottom, they all remain speculative.這些和其他etymologies解決一些問題,但新的提高;底部,它們都保持投機。 In light of the total absence of Sadducean sources, it would seem wise to admit that both the precise nature of the Sadducees and the derivation of their name remain uncertain.鑑於完全沒有Sadducean來源,看來明智的承認,雙方的確切性質撒都該人和推導他們的名字仍然是個未知數。

History歷史

Equally uncertain are the details of Sadducean history.同樣是不確定的細節Sadducean歷史。 The meager evidence suggests the following outline.恐慌的證據表明下列大綱。 The Sadducees solidified as a group soon after the Maccabean revolt (167-160 BC). They were heirs to a persistent tendency within the Jewish aristocracy to see Judaism as a temple-centered religion rather than a law-centered way of life. Because they supported the Hasmonean policy of military and economic expansion, they gradually came to exercise tremendous influence in John Hyrcanus's court (134-104 BC).因為他們支持Hasmonean政策的軍事和經濟擴張,他們逐漸行使重大影響力的約翰Hyrcanus法院( 134-104年) 。 Their influence predominated until the end of Alexander Jannaeus's reign (76 BC). Under Queen Alexandra (76-67 BC) the Sadducees lost their power, and their numbers were greatly reduced.他們的影響力為主年底前亞歷山大Jannaeus的統治地位( 76年) 。根據亞歷山德拉皇后( 76-67年)的撒都該人失去了他們的權力,他們的人數大為減少。 They fared little better under Herod the Great (37-4 BC), who deeply mistrusted the native Jewish aristocracy.他們的表現更好一點下大希律王(公元前37-4 ) ,誰深感懷疑本地猶太貴族。 With the imposition of direct Roman rule (AD 6), Sadducean fortunes revived.隨著實行直接羅馬的統治(公元6 ) , Sadducean運氣恢復。 Between AD 6 and 66 the Sadducees not only became a major power within the Sanhedrin, but, for many years, they were able to control the high priesthood as well.從公元6和66的撒都該人不僅成為一個大國的公會,但是,多年來,他們能夠控制的高司鐸以及。 The revolt of 66-70 spelled the end for the Sadducees.反感66-70拼寫年底的撒都該人。 Although they had sought to forestall the revolt, the Romans had no use for a failed aristocracy. With the destruction of the temple and the dissolution of the nation, the Sadducees faded into oblivion.雖然他們曾試圖阻止叛亂,羅馬人並沒有使用的一個失敗的貴族。銷毀寺廟和解散國家,撒都該人逐漸被遺忘。

Beliefs信仰

The Sadducees are said to have rejected all Jewish observances not explicitly taught in the pentateuchal law.該撒都該人據說已經拒絕了所有猶太人的紀念活動沒有明確講授pentateuchal法律。 In their legal debates, the Sadducees consistently pushed for a strict and narrow application of the law.在其法律辯論,撒都該人始終把嚴格和狹隘的適用法律。 They repudiated the notions of resurrection and rewards and punishments after death.他們否定的概念復活和獎懲後死亡。 According to Josephus, they even denied the immortality of the soul.據約瑟夫,他們甚至剝奪了不朽的靈魂。 The Sadducees tended to diassociate God from human affairs.該撒都該人往往diassociate上帝從人類事務。 For this reason, they maintained that human choices and actions were totally free, unrestrained by divine interference.為此,他們堅持認為,人的選擇和行動是完全自由的,無限制的神聖干涉。 Consistent with this emphasis on human autonomy, the Sadducees denied the existence of angels and preterhuman spirits.符合本強調人力自主權,撒都該人否認存在天使和preterhuman精神。

Most scholars have held that these beliefs mark off the Sadducees as conservatives who stubbornly resisted the innovations of the Pharisees and others.大多數學者都認為,這些信念劃為保守派的撒都該人誰頑固地抵制了創新的法利等。 It should be noted, on the other hand, that these beliefs could just as easily describe hellenized aristocrats who wanted to minimize as much as possible the claims of their ancestral religion on their daily lives.應當指出,在另一方面,這些信仰可以很容易描述hellenized貴族誰希望盡量減少盡可能多的要求其祖先宗教對他們的日常生活。

Sadducees and the NT撒都該人和NT

Unlike the Pharisees, the Sadducees are consistently painted in a bad light by the NT writers.不同的是法利,一貫的撒都該人畫在光線不好的新台幣作家。 Their opposition to Jesus and the early church is presented as monolithic and constant. Reasons for the hostility are not hard to imagine.他們反對耶穌和早期教會是作為整體和常數。原因敵意是不難想像的。 To the Sadducees, Jesus and his early followers would have appeared as destabilizing forces in delicate balance between limited Jewish freedom and totalitarian Roman rule.到撒都該人,耶穌和他的早期追隨者將出現不穩定的勢力之間的微妙平衡有限的猶太人自由和極權羅馬的統治。 But just as significantly, the Sadducees could not have had anything but contempt for a movement that proclaimed the present reality of the resurrection and the unconditional necessity of repentance.但同樣重要的是,撒都該人不能有什麼,但蔑視的運動,宣布目前的現實的復活和無條件必須悔改。

S Taylor縣泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
Josephus, The Jewish War 2.8.2, 14; Antiquities of the Jews 13.5.9, 13.10.6, 18.1.4, 20.9.1; and Life 10; A Geiger, Sadducaer und Pharisaer; GH Box, "Who Were the Sadducees?"約瑟夫,猶太戰爭2.8.2 ,第14條;古物猶太人13.5.9 , 13.10.6 , 18.1.4 , 20.9.1 ;和生活10 ;蓋格, Sadducaer與Pharisaer ;生長激素框, “他們是撒都該人? “ Exp 15:19-38; TW Manson, "Sadducees and Pharisees, The Origin and Significance of the Names," BJRL 22:144-59; R. North, "The Qumran Sadducees," CBQ 17:164-88; J. Le Moyne, Les Sadduceens; WW Buehler, Pre-Herodian Civil War and Social Debate; HD Mantel, "The Sadducees and the Pharisees," in The World History of the Jewish People, VIII, 99-123; JM Baumgarten, "The Pharisaic-Sadducean Controversies about Purity and the Qumran Text," JJS 31:157-70.進出口15:19-38 ;荃灣曼森, “撒都該人和法利賽人的起源及意義的名字, ” BJRL 22:144-59 ;河北“的庫姆蘭撒都該人” CBQ 17:164-88 ;學者樂莫恩,法國Sadduceens ;二戰低速,預Herodian內戰和社會辯論;高清曼特爾說: “撒都該人和法利賽, ”在世界歷史的猶太人民,八, 99-123 ; JM鮑姆嘉通說: “ Pharisaic - Sadducean爭議純度和庫姆蘭文字, “ JJS 31:157-70 。


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