Rosh Hashanah猶太新年

General Information 一般信息

Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for "head of the year") is the Jewish New Year, commemorating the creation of the world.猶太新年(希伯來文的“頭一年” )是猶太新年,紀念創立世界。 It is celebrated in early fall, Tishri 1 by the Jewish calendar.這是慶祝秋初,提市黎月1猶太日曆。 Rosh Hashanah is a solemn occasion, the Day of Judgment, ushering in the penitential season that culminates ten days later on Yom Kippur.猶太新年是一個莊嚴的時刻,這一天的判決,引進悔罪賽季達到高潮十天以後贖罪日。

The distinctive feature of the synagogue service is the blowing of a ram's horn (Shofar).最顯著的特徵會堂服務是吹了內存的非洲之角( Shofar ) 。 The liturgy of the day stresses the sovereignty of God and the hope that all humans will at last recognize him as Father and King.禮儀當日強調上帝的主權,並希望所有的人最終將承認他的父親和國王。

The festival is celebrated for two days by the traditionally observant, whereas Reform Jews keep it for one day, in accord with biblical law.該節是慶祝活動為期兩天,由傳統的觀察力,而改革的猶太人保持一天,符合聖經的法律。 On the afternoon of the first day it is customary to go to a river or pond and recite tashlich, scriptural verses on repentance and forgiveness of sin.在第一天下午是習慣去河流或池塘和背誦tashlich ,聖經經文的懺悔和寬恕的罪惡。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
H Schauss, Jewish Festivals (1969). H Schauss ,猶太教節日( 1969年) 。


Rosh Hashanah猶太新年

General Information 一般信息

Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew, "beginning of the year") is the Jewish New Year, celebrated on the first and second days of the Jewish month of Tishri (falling in September or October) by Orthodox and Conservative Jews and on the first day alone by Reform Jews.猶太新年(希伯來文, “今年年初” )是猶太新年,慶祝第一屆和第二屆天猶太一個月的提市黎月(下降9月或10月)和保守的東正教猶太人的第一天就獨自一人改革猶太人。 It begins the observance of the Ten Penitential Days, a period ending with Yom Kippur that is the most solemn of the Jewish calendar. Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are known as the High Holy Days.它首先遵守的十大Penitential天,終了期間的贖罪日,這是最莊嚴的猶太日曆。猶太新年和贖罪日被稱為高級宗教節日。

In the Bible, Rosh Hashanah is mentioned only as a day of remembrance and of the sounding of the ram's horn.聖經中,猶太新年是只提到作為一個紀念日和探空的內存的號角。 These two characteristics of the day, interwoven with the theme of the proclamation of God's kingship, became the major components of the New Year's observance in later Judaism.這兩個特點的一天,交織在一起的主題宣布上帝的王位,成為主要組成部分的新年慶祝後來猶太教。 They are emphasized in the liturgy by the repetition of "verses of remembrance","verses that mention the ram's horn," and "sovereignty verses." The first of these is important because it represents the sense of continuing creation and development of the world that Judaism emphasizes on this anniversary of creation.他們強調了禮儀的重複“詩句的紀念” , “詩句中提到的RAM的非洲之角”和“主權的詩句。 ”首先,這些是重要的,因為它代表的意義上繼續建立和發展的世界猶太教強調說,關於這個週年創造。 Because good and evil actions greatly influence the future, it is emphasized that God "remembers," and mention is made of the meritorious acts of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to urge emulation of their holiness as the path to redemption.由於善惡的行動極大地影響未來,必須強調的是,上帝“記住” ,並提到了行為的有功希伯來始祖亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,敦促他們成聖仿真的路徑贖回。

Indeed, the most prominent scriptural passage in the Rosh Hashanah liturgy is that of the binding of Isaac (see Genesis 22), which forms the portion from the Torah designated for reading on that day. This passage leads into the theme of the ram's horn; in the service in the synagogue the shofar, a wind instrument made of ram's horn to represent the horn of the animal sacrificed in Isaac's stead, is blown.事實上,最突出的聖經通過在猶太新年禮儀是有約束力的艾薩克(見創22個) ,其中部分來自各種形式的律法指定的閱讀時間。此通道通往的主題內存的號角;在服務中的猶太教堂的shofar ,風力文書取得的RAM的非洲之角代表非洲之角動物犧牲艾薩克的而起的,是吹。 Early peoples often made noise at the New Year to drive away demons; the Jews transformed this practice into a blowing of the horn to prefigure the moment when God would destroy the evil in the world, "blow the ram's horn, and come with the whirlwinds."早期人民的噪音往往在新年驅趕惡魔;猶太人改變這一做法變成吹非洲之角到預想的時刻上帝將摧毀邪惡世界“ ,打擊的RAM的號角,並與龍捲風。 “ At that moment, it is held in the "sovereignty verses," God will be king over all the earth, as he is now king over those who accept him in a renewal of commitment on Rosh Hashanah.在那一刻,它是在舉行的“主權的詩句, ”上帝將國王的所有地球,因為他現在是國王的人誰在接受他的再次承諾對猶太新年。


Rosh Ha-Shanah羅斯艾河Shanah

Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀信息

Eighth treatise of the order Mo'ed; it contains (1) the most important rules concerning the calendar year together with a description of the inauguration of the months by the nasi and ab bet din; (2) laws on the form and use of the shofar and on the service during the Rosh ha-Shanah feast.第八屆論文的命令Mo'ed ;它包含( 1 )最重要的規則歷年連同說明就職幾個月的椰漿和AB打賭標準; ( 2 )法律的形式和使用在shofar和服務在羅斯艾河Shanah盛宴。

Contents.目錄。

The old numerical Mishnah commences with an account of the four beginnings of the religious and the civil year (i. 1); it speaks of the four judgment-days of the pilgrim festivals and Rosh ha-Shanah (i. 2); of the six months in which the messengers of the Sanhedrin announce the month (i. 3); of the two months the beginnings of which witnesses announce to the Sanhedrin even on the Sabbath (i. 4), and even if the moon is visible to every one (i. 5); Gamaliel even sent on the Sabbath for forty pairs of witnesses from a distance (i. 6); when father and son (who as relatives may otherwise not witness together) behold the new moon they must set out for the bet din (i. 7), since they do not absolutely belong to those that are legally unfit for this purpose (i. 8).數值米示拿舊的帳戶開始的四個開始的宗教和民間一年(一1 ) ;它講的四個判斷天的朝聖者的節日和羅斯艾河Shanah (一2 ) ;的6個月,其中信使公會宣布下月(一3 ) ;在2個月的開端證人宣布公會甚至在安息日(島4 ) ,而且即使能看見月亮是每1 (一5 ) ;加馬利亞甚至在安息日的四十零雙證人從遠處(一6 ) ;時,父親和兒子(誰的親屬可能因其他原因而沒有一起見證)看哪新的月球,他們必須訂出的投注喧囂(一7 ) ,因為它們不完全屬於那些在法律上不適合這個目的(一8 ) 。 The weak and sick are borne on litters, and are protected against the attacks of the Sadducees; they must be provided with food, for witnesses are bound to journey even on the Sabbath (i. 9).弱者和病人承擔的窩,並受到保護,免遭攻擊的撒都該人;必須向他們提供食物,證人有義務旅程甚至在安息日(一9 ) 。 Others went along to identify the unknown (ii. 1).其他人一起,以確定身份不明(白介素1 ) 。 In olden times bonfire-signals on the mountains announced to all as far as Babylon that the month had been sanctified.古時候篝火信號的山區宣布所有至於巴比倫,該月已被認可。 The custom of having witnesses and messengers was introduced after the Sadducees had attempted to practise deception (ii. 2, 3, 4).自訂有證人和送信的介紹後,曾試圖撒都該人執業欺騙(白介素2 , 3 , 4 ) 。

The large court called "Bet Ya'azeḳ" was the assembly-place for the witnesses (ii. 5); bountiful repasts awaited them, and dispensations from the Law were granted to them (ii. 6); the first pair of witnesses was questioned separately concerning the appearance of the moon, and other witnesses cursorily (ii. 7).大法院所謂的“博彩Ya'azeḳ ”的大會,地點,證人(白介素5 ) ;豐富repasts等待,並特許由法給予他們(白介素6 ) ;第一次對證人質疑分別就出現在月球和其他證人cursorily (白介素7 ) 。 Then the ab bet din called out to a large assembly, "Sanctified!"然後抗體賭注標準要求,以一個大型集會, “神聖的! ” all the people crying out aloud after him (ii. 8).所有的人大聲呼喊後,他(白介素8 ) 。 Gamaliel II.加馬利亞二。 had representations of the moon which he showed to the witnesses.陳述了他在月球發現的證人。 Once there arose a dispute between him and Joshua regarding the Tishri moon; the latter, in obedience to the nasi, came on foot to Jamnia on the day which he had calculated to be the Day of Atonement, and the two scholars made peace (iii.).一旦發生爭執他和約書亞關於提市黎月月球;後者,在服從椰漿,來到步行詹姆尼當天他計算是贖罪日,兩國學者提出的和平(三。 ) 。 There were various obstacles to the sanctification of the months, as when time was lacking for the ceremony, or when there were no witnesses present before the bet din.有各種障礙,成聖的幾個月,因為當時缺乏時的儀式時,或有沒有證人在本投注喧囂。 In the first case the following day became the new moon; in the second case the bet din alone performed the sanctification.在第一種情況下翌日成為新的月球;在第二種情況下的賭注標準進行單獨的成聖。

The Shofar.該Shofar 。

The Mishnah treats also of the shofar (iii. 2); the horn of the cow may not be used (iii. 3); the form of the trumpet for Rosh ha-Shanah, the fast-day, and Yobel is determined (iii. 5); injuries to the shofar and the remedies are indicated (iii. 6); in times of danger the people that pray assemble in pits and caves (iii. 7); they pass the house of worship only on the outside while the trumpets sound (iii. 8); they are exhorted to be firm by being reminded of Moses' uplifted hands in the war with the Amalekites.該米示拿對待還shofar ( iii. 2 ) ;非洲之角奶牛不得使用( iii. 3 ) ;的形式小號的羅斯艾河Shanah ,快速一天, Yobel決心(三。 5 ) ;受傷shofar和補救指出( iii. 6 ) ;的時候,危險的人祈禱集會,坑和洞穴( iii. 7 ) ;他們通過內部的禮拜只在外面,而喇叭聲音( iii. 8 ) ;他們告誡要堅定被提醒摩西手中抬升的戰爭中與亞瑪力。 In such times the deaf-mutes, insane, and children are legally unfit for blowing the trumpets.在這種時代的聾啞,精神失常,和兒童的法律不適宜的吹小號。

Even if the festival fell on the Sabbath, Johanan ben Zakkai had the trumpets blown at Jamnia, while at one time this was done only in the Temple and the surrounding places (iv. 1); he also fixed the lulab outside of the Temple for seven days, and forbade the eating of new grain on the second day of Passover (iv. 2); he extended the time for examining witnesses until the evening, and had them come to Jamnia even in the absence of the ab bet din (iv. 3).即使節日下跌的安息日, Johanan本Zakkai曾在詹姆尼吹小號,而在同一時間這樣做不僅在寺及周圍的地方( iv. 1 ) ;他還固定了lulab以外的寺為7天,並禁止新的糧食吃的第二天逾越節( iv. 2 ) ;他的時間延長審查證人,直到晚上,他們來到了詹姆尼即使是在缺席的情況下算賭喧囂(四。 3 ) 。 The Mishnah then treats of the order of the prayers (iv. 4), of the succession of the Malkuyot, Zikronot, and Shoferot, of the Bible sentences concerning the kingdom of God, Providence, and the trumpet-call of the future (iv. 5), and of the leader in prayer and his relation to the teki'ah (iv. 6); descriptions of the festival are given in reference to the shofar (iv. 7); then follows the order of the traditional trumpet-sounds (iv. 8); and remarks on the duties of the leader in prayer and of the congregation close the treatise (iv. 9).然後在米示拿對待秩序的祈禱( iv. 4 ) ,繼承的Malkuyot , Zikronot ,並Shoferot ,聖經句子關於神的國,普羅維登斯,和小號通話的未來(四。 5 ) ,並在祈禱中的領導者和他的有關teki'ah ( iv. 6 ) ;描述節中給出了參考shofar ( iv. 7 ) ;然後依次傳統喇叭聲音( iv. 8 ) ;和意見的職責領導人在祈禱和集會結束論文( iv. 9 ) 。

The Tosefta.該Tosefta 。

Curious as is the order of subjects followed in this treatise, in which several mishnaic sources have been combined, the Tosefta follows it, adding comments that form the basis of the Gemara in both Talmuds.令人好奇的是為了遵循這一主題的論文,其中一些mishnaic來源,已被合併,它的Tosefta如下補充意見的基礎上形成的革馬拉在Talmuds 。 The contents of the Mishnah with the corresponding sections of the Tosefta are as follows: General calendar for the year, i.的內容米示拿的相應部分的Tosefta如下:一般的日曆,今年一 1-4 = Tosef. 1-4 = Tosef 。 i.字母i. 1-13. 1月13日。 Regulations concerning the months' witnesses, i.條例關於個月的證人,一 5-ii. 5二。 1 (connecting with i. 4) = Tosef. 1 (連接島4 ) = Tosef 。 i.字母i. 15-ii. 15二。 1 (abbreviated). 1 (略) 。 Historical matter regarding fire-signals and messengers and their reception on the Sabbath, ii.歷史問題有關消防信號和送信員和他們的接待在安息日,二。 2-6 = Tosef. 2-6 = Tosef 。 ii. 2 (abbreviated).二。 2 (略) 。 The continuation of the laws of ii.繼續開展法律二。 1 concerning witnesses (ii. 7, 8), and the questioning of witnesses, and the sanctification of the months are entirely lacking in the Tosefta. Historical data concerning Gamaliel and the disputewith Joshua, ii. 8-9 = Tosef. 1關於證人(白介素7 , 8 ) ,並詢問證人,成聖的幾個月是完全缺乏Tosefta 。歷史數據加馬利亞和disputewith約書亞,二。 8-9 = Tosef 。 ii.二。 3 (a mere final sentence). 3 (只是最後一句) 。 Continuation of the laws of ii.繼續法律二。 7 concerning witnesses, iii. 7條關於證人,第三。 1 = Tosef. 1 = Tosef 。 iii.三。 1, 2. Regulations regarding the shofar and its use, iii. 1 , 2 。條例有關shofar和使用,三。 2-5 = Tosef. 2-5 = Tosef 。 iii. 3-6a.三。 3 - 6A條。 Haggadic sentence on devotion = Tosef. Haggadic判處奉獻= Tosef 。 iii.三。 6b. 6B型。 Final remarks on the shofar and on its obligations, iii.結束語對shofar和履行其義務,三。 6-end = Tosef. 6月底= Tosef 。 iv.四。 1. Ordinances of Johanan ben Zakkai concerning Rosh ha-Shanah and the Sabbath, and other matters = Tosef. 1 。條例的Johanan本Zakkai關於羅斯艾河Shanah和安息日,和其他事項= Tosef 。 iv.四。 2. 2 。 Order of worship, iv. 5-end = Tosef.為了禮拜四。 5月底= Tosef 。 iv.四。 4-end. 4月底。 Mishnah ii.米示拿二。 7 seems to have been transposed according to Tosef. 7似乎已經轉據Tosef 。 iv.四。 3, but it belongs there according to its contents. 3 ,但它屬於有根據其內容。

In quoting many of Gamaliel's ordinances the Mishnah emphasizes the authority of the patriarchal house by recounting the dispute between the patriarch and his deputy Joshua and showing how the latter was forced to yield.中引用的許多加馬利亞的條例的米示拿強調的權威重男輕女房子的敘述之間的爭端主教和他的副手約書亞和顯示如何後者被迫屈服。 The Tosefta omits the ordinances of Gamaliel and of Johanan ben Zakhai, and the dispute of the two leaders of the school-house, nor does it mention anything of the power of any tannaitic dignitary; the Tosefta is here a product of the time of the Amoraim.該Tosefta忽略了條例的加馬利亞和Johanan本Zakhai ,和爭端的兩國領導人的學校內部的,也沒有提及任何的權力,任何tannaitic人物;的Tosefta這裡是一個產品的時間, Amoraim 。 The dignity of the nasi is not emphasized, because acumen and scholarship prevailed in the schoolhouse, and there was no desire to let old precedences (see 'Eduyot) come to the fore again.的尊嚴椰漿不強調,因為睿智和獎學金中普遍存在的校舍,也沒有願望,讓老precedences (見' Eduyot )嶄露頭角了。 Even the Mishnah contains some additions from the time of the Amoraim (see, for example, iv. 2, where a gap must be filled from the Tosefta).即使是米示拿載有一些補充的時間Amoraim (例如,見四。 2 ,凡有差距必須填寫從Tosefta ) 。

Wilhelm Bacher, Ludwig A. Rosenthal威廉巴切爾,路德維希答:羅森塔爾
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Bibliography: M. Rawiez, Rosh Hashana (transl.), Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1886; JH Gummin, Rosh Hashana (Theologische Studien), pp.參考書目:先生Rawiez ,猶太新年( transl. ) ,法蘭克福式的主, 1886年;紅Gummin ,猶太新年(神Studien ) ,頁。 31-74, 179-200, Utrecht, 1890; Zuckermann, Materialien zum Entwurf der Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung, Breslau, 1882; Rosenthal, Ueber den Zusammenhang der Mischna, i. 31-74 , 179-200 ,烏得勒支, 1890年; Zuckermann , Materialien zum Entwurf之Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung ,布雷斯勞, 1882年;羅森塔爾論旦Zusammenhang之Mischna島 26-28, 70-71; Scheinin, Die Schule in Jamnia, Leipsic, 1879. 26-28 , 70-71 ;謝寧,模具學派在詹姆尼, Leipsic , 1879年。


New-Year新的一年

Jewish Viewpoint Information猶太觀信息

-Biblical Data:聖經資料:

In the earliest times the Hebrew year began in autumn with the opening of the economic year.在最早的時候希伯來今年秋季開始的開放的經濟一年。 There followed in regular succession the seasons of seed-sowing, growth and ripening of the corn under the influence of the former and the latter rains, harvest and ingathering of the fruits.隨後在繼承季節經常種子播種,生長和成熟的玉米的影響下,前者和後者下雨,收穫和ingathering的果實。 In harmony with this was the order of the great agricultural festivals, according to the oldest legislation, namely, the feast of unleavened bread at the beginning of the barley harvest, in the month of Abib; the feast of harvest, seven weeks later; and the feast of ingathering at the going out or turn of the year (; see Ex. xxiii. 14-17; xxxiv. 18, 22-23; Deut. xvi. 1-16). This system of dating the New-Year is that which was adopted by the Semites generally, while other peoples, as the Greeks and Persians, began the year in spring, both methods of reckoning being primarily agricultural and based on the seasons of seed-time and harvest.在和諧與秩序,這是偉大的農業節慶活動,根據最古老的立法,即除酵節開始的時候,大麥的收成,在一個月的Abib ;節收穫,七個星期後;和節ingathering在走出去或之交的一年(見惠。二十三。 14-17 ;三十四。 18日, 22日至23日; Deut 。十六。 1月16日) 。這個系統的測年新一年的這是通過一般的閃米特人,而其他國家的人民,因為希臘人和波斯人,開始了一年的春天,這兩種方法的計算主要是農業和基礎上賽季的種子時間和收穫。

The Regnal Year.該Regnal年。

The regnal year was evidently reckoned in the same way as late as the end of the seventh century BC This is evident from the account of the eighteenth year of King Josiah, in which only by such a reckoning can sufficient time be allowed for the events of that year which precede the celebration of the Passover, assuming, of course, that the Passover was celebrated at the usual time in the spring (II Kings xxii. 3, xxiii. 21-23).今年的regnal顯然忽視以同樣的方式才結束公元前7世紀,這是顯而易見的帳戶第十八一年的國王約書亞,只有通過這樣的計算可以有足夠的時間允許的事件這一年之前,慶祝逾越節,假設,當然,這是逾越節慶祝在通常時間在春季(二國王二十二。 3 ,二十三。 21-23 ) 。 Only in the same way can the fourth year of Jehoiakim be made to synchronize with the twenty-first year of Nabopolassar, in which the battle of Carchemish was fought, and also with the first year of Nebuchadrezzar, the Babylonian year having been reckoned from the spring (Jer. xxv. 1, xlvi. 2).只有在以同樣的方式可以第四年Jehoiakim同步作出的第二十一一年Nabopolassar ,其中戰役Carchemish被打,還與第一年Nebuchadrezzar ,巴比倫年被忽視的春季( Jer.二十五。 1 ,四十六。 2 ) 。 The second half of the Hebrew year would thus correspond to the first half of the Babylonian year.下半年的一年將因此希伯來語對應上半年的巴比倫一年。 In Ezek.在結。 xl.儀。 1 the prophet has his vision at the beginning of the year, apparently in the month of Tishri. 1先知了他的遠見在今年年初,顯然是在上月的提市黎月。 The Levitical law places the beginning of the Sabbatical year in the autumn, on the tenth day of the seventh month, according to the later reckoning (Lev. xxv. 9).法律的Levitical地方開始休假一年秋天,在第十天的第7個月,據後來推算( Lev.二十五。 9 ) 。 It has been pointed out also that the story of the Flood places the beginning of the deluge on the seventeenth day of the second month, which would, on an autumn reckoning, coincide with the beginning of the rainy season (Gen. vii. 11; Josephus, "Ant." i. 3, § 3).有人指出還講述了洪水的地方開始氾濫的17日的第2個月,這將在秋天的推算,配合在雨季開始(將軍七。 11 ;約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。島3 ,第3條) 。

Possibly Two Modes of Reckoning.可能兩項模式推算。

There is much difference of opinion as to whether or not there was in preexilic times a second mode of reckoning from the vernal equinox. This inference has been drawn from such passages as II Sam.有很多不同的意見,以是否有時間在第二preexilic模式推算從春分。這一推斷已得出這樣的段落作為二山姆。 xi.十一。 1, I Kings xx. 1 ,我國王二十。 22, 26, and II Chron. 22日, 26日,和二專欄。 xxxvi.三十六。 10. 10 。 The expression used here, "at the return of the year," is, however, sufficiently explained as "the time when kings go out"; that is to say, the usual time for opening a military campaign.這裡所使用的表達“ ,在返回的一年, ”不過,充分的解釋為“國王的時候,走出去” ,也就是說,通常的時間打開一個軍事行動。 Of course if the law of the Passover (Ex. xii. 1; Lev. xxiii. 5; Num. ix. 1-5, xxviii. 16-17) is pre-exilic, the question admits of no further argument.當然,如果法律逾越節(例如十二。 1 ;列夫。二十三。 5 ;序號。九。 1月5日,二十八。 16-17日)是前放逐,承認這個問題的任何進一步的論點。 It seems, however, to be now very generally accepted that this law in its present form is not earlier than the sixth century and that it represents post-exilic practise.但是,到現在非常普遍認為,這部法律在其目前的形式是不早於公元6世紀,它標誌著後放逐練習。 According to this legislation, which henceforth prevailed, the month Abib, or Nisan (March-April), became the first of the year.根據這一法律,今後佔了上風,本月Abib ,或尼散月( 3-4月) ,成為第一個年度。 It is possible that this change was due, in part at least, to the influence of the Babylonian sacred year, which likewise began with the month Nisan.可能是這一變化的原因,至少是部分,的影響,巴比倫神聖的一年,這同樣始於本月尼桑。 It appears, however, that the festival of the New-Year continued to be observed in the autumn, perhaps originally on the tenth, and later on the first day of the seventh month, Tishri.不過,該電影節新一年繼續觀察秋季,也許原來的十分之一,以及後來的第一天,第7個月,提市黎月。 Josephus asserts (lci 3, § 3) that while Moses appointed Nisan to be the first month for the sacred festivals and other solemnities, he preserved the original order of the months for buying and selling and for the transaction of other business.約瑟夫斷言(次年3 ,第3條) ,雖然摩西尼被任命的第一個月的神聖節日和其他solemnities ,他保留了原有的秩序內進行買賣和交易的其他業務。 The Seleucidan calendar, from 312 BC, placed the beginning of the year in the autumn; but it appears that the Palestinian Jews still reckoned from the spring and dated the Seleucidan era according to that reckoning (see Schürer, "The Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ," 2d ed., Eng. transl., I. i 36-46, on the dates in the Books of Maccabees; comp. Esth. iii. 7).該Seleucidan日曆,從公元前312 ,把今年年初在秋季;但現在看來,巴勒斯坦的猶太人仍然認為從春季和註明日期的Seleucidan時代根據這一推算(見Schürer , “猶太人民在時間耶穌基督“的2D版。 ,楊永強。譯。 ,一字母i 36-46 ,日期在帳簿馬加比;補償。 Esth 。三。 7 ) 。

How Celebrated.如何慶祝。

It is altogether probable that the beginning of the year was celebrated from ancient times in some special way, like the New Moon festival.這是完全可能是今年年初慶祝自古以來在一些特殊的方式,如新的中秋節。 The earliest reference, however, to such a custom is, probably, in the account of the vision of Ezekiel (Ezek. xl. 1) which, as stated above, took place at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month (Tishri ?).最早的提法,但是,這樣的習俗是,也許,在帳戶的眼光厄澤克爾( Ezek.儀。 1 ) ,如上面所說,發生在今年年初,在第十天的本月(提市黎月? ) 。 On the same day the beginning of the year of jubilee was to be proclaimed by the blowing of trumpets (Lev. xxv. 9).同一天,今年年初的大慶將被宣布了吹小號( Lev.二十五。 9 ) 。 According to the Septuagint rendering of Ezek.根據七十渲染的結。 xlv.第四十五。 20, special sacrifices were to be offered on the first day of the seventh month as well as on the first day of the first month. 20 ,特別的犧牲是所提供的第一天,第7個月,以及在第一天的第一個月。 This first day of the seventh month was appointed by the Law to be "a day of blowing of trumpets" ().這第一天的第7個月被任命為法律,是“天吹小號” ( ) 。 There was to be a holy convocation; no servile work was to be done; and special sacrifices were to be offered (Lev. xxiii. 23-25; Num. xxix. 1-6; comp. ib. x. 1-10).有將是一個神聖的召開;沒有奴性的工作要做;和特殊犧牲要提供( Lev.二十三。 23-25 ;序號。二十九。 1-6 ;補償。國際文憑。十, 1月10日) 。 This day was not expressly called New-Year's Day, but it was evidently so regarded by the Jews at a very early period (see RH i. 1).這一天沒有明確要求新元旦,但它顯然是這樣認為的猶太人在很早時期(見濕度一1 ) 。

Bibliography: Hastings, Dict.參考書目:黑斯廷斯,快譯通。 Bibl. Bibl 。 sv Time; Cheyne and Black, Encyc.西沃特時間;進益和黑色, Encyc 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 sv Year and New Year; Benzinger, Arch.; Dillmann, Monatsberichte, Societas Regia Scientiarum, Berlin, 1881.SJF McL.西沃特年新年; Benzinger ,拱橋。 ; Dillmann , Monatsberichte ,學會核桃Scientiarum ,柏林, 1881.SJF McL 。

-In Rabbinical Literature: ,在猶太教文學:

The Rabbis recognize four beginnings of the year from different standpoints: (1) the 1st of Nisan for regnal dating; it was based on the Exodus (comp. I Kings vi. 1); (2) the 1st of Tishri, as, agricultural New-Year the beginning of the harvest (Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22); (3) the 1st of Elul for reckoning tithes of cattle (R. Eleazer, however, would reckon these from the 1st of Tishri); and (4) the 1st, or, according to Bet Hillel, the 15th of Shebaṭ, the New-Year for Trees.四年的拉比承認今年開始從不同的角度: ( 1 ) 1日尼的regnal約會;它依據的是出埃及記( comp.王六。 1 ) ; ( 2 )提市黎月1日,因為,農業新的一年的開始收割(例如二十三。 16日,三十四。 22 ) ; ( 3 ) 1日Elul的推算什一稅牛(河Eleazer不過,看這些從第一的提市黎月) ;和( 4 )第一,或根據投注希勒爾, 15 Shebaṭ ,新一年的樹木。

According to the Talmud, servants were formally freed on the 1st of Tishri, but were allowed to remain on the homesteads of their former masters and to enjoy themselves for ten days, until Yom Kippur, when the trumpet was blown (Lev. xxv. 9) as a signal for their departure, and for the restoration of the fields to their original owners (RH 8b).據塔爾穆德,公務員被正式釋放的提市黎月1日,但被允許繼續留在家園的前美國名人賽和享受自己的十天,直到贖罪日,當小號被炸毀( Lev.二十五。 9 )作為一個信號,他們的離去,以及為恢復其原來的領域業主(相對濕度8B條) 。 This is cited to explain the passage in Ezek.這是引用來解釋通行結。 xl.儀。 1; "the beginning of the year in the tenth day of the month," which refers to the jubilee year that occurred on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Exile ('Ar. 12a). 1 , “今年初在第十一個月的第一天起, ”指的是銀禧今年發生的25週年的流亡( '氬。 12A條) 。

Rosh ha-Shanah.羅斯艾河Shanah 。

The observance of the 1st of Tishri as Rosh ha-Shanah, the most solemn day next to Yom Kippur, is based principally on the traditional law to which the mention of "Zikkaron" (= "memorial day"; Lev. xxiii. 24) and the reference of Ezra to the day as one "holy to the Lord" (Neh. viii. 9) seem to point.遵守提市黎月1日作為羅斯艾河Shanah ,最莊嚴的一天旁邊的贖罪日,是主要基於傳統的法律,其中提到“ Zikkaron ” ( = “陣亡將士紀念日” ;列夫。二十三。 24 )和參考以斯拉有一天作為一個“神聖的上帝” ( Neh.八。 9 )似乎指向。 The passage in Psalms (lxxxi. 5) referring to the solemn feast which is held on New Moon Day, when the shofar is sounded, as a day of "mishpaṭ" (judgment) of "the God of Jacob" is taken to indicate the character of Rosh ha-Shanah.通過在詩篇( lxxxi. 5 )指的是這是莊嚴的節日,舉行新的月球日,當shofar是聽起來,作為一天的“ mishpaṭ ” (判決)的“上帝的雅各”是說明性質羅斯艾河Shanah 。 Rosh ha-Shanah is the most important judgment-day, on which all the inhabitants of the world pass for judgment before the Creator, as sheep pass for examination before the shepherd (RH i. 2; See Day of Judgment).羅斯艾河Shanah是最重要的判斷一天,所有的居民,世界傳遞的判決之前,創作,因為綿羊通過審查之前,牧羊人(相對濕度島2 ;見審判日) 。 Three books of account are opened on Rosh ha-Shanah wherein the fate of the wicked, the righteous, and those of an intermediate class (not utterly wicked) are recorded.三本書的帳戶開立在羅斯艾河Shanah其中命運的邪惡,正義的,而中間級(不完全邪惡)的記錄。 The names of the righteous are immediately inscribed, and they are sealed "to live."姓名正義立即登記,它們是密封的“生活。 ” The middle class are allowed a respite of ten days till Yom Kippur, to repent and become righteous (RH 16b); the wicked are "blotted out of the book of the living" (Ps. lxix. 28).中產階級可以休養生息的十天到贖罪日,懺悔,並成為正義的(相對濕度16B款) ;惡人是“剝離出書的生活” ( Ps. lxix 。 28 ) 。

The zodiac sign of the balance for Tishri is claimed to indicate the scales of judgment, balancing the meritorious against the wicked acts of the person judged.在十二生肖的餘額為提市黎月聲稱表明尺度的判斷,平衡立功行為對邪惡的人的判斷。 The taking of an annual inventory of accounts on Rosh ha-Shanah is adduced by R. Naḥman b.採取年度清單賬目的羅斯艾河Shanah是舉出河Naḥman灣 Isaac from the passage in Deut.艾薩克從通行Deut 。 xi.十一。 12, which says that the care of God is directed from "the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year" (RH 8a). 12 ,其中說,上帝的照顧是針對由“今年年初甚至給今年年底” (相對濕度8A條) 。 The 1st of Tishri was considered by the best authorities as the beginning of Creation; eg, by R. Eliezer, against the opinion of R. Joshua, however, who held the 1st of Nisan as the first day of Creation (RH 11a; Targ. Jonathan on Gen. vii. 11, counts the second month as Marḥeshwan).提市黎月1日審議了最佳當局開始創作;如河埃利澤,反對的意見,河光,但是,誰1日舉行的尼作為第一天的創作(相對濕度第11A ; Targ 。喬納森的將軍七。 11日,數月的第二個Marḥeshwan ) 。 On Rosh ha-Shanah the means of sustenance of every person are apportioned for the ensuing year (BB 10a); so also are his destined losses.在羅斯艾河Shanah生存的手段是每個人分攤隨後的一年( BB心跳10A條) ;所以也注定是他的損失。 The indications of the weather prognostications, according to R. Zebid, may likewise be ascertained on Rosh ha-Shanah: If the day be warm, it indicates a warm year; if cold, it foretells generally a cold year (ib. 147a).有跡象表明天氣預言,根據河Zebid ,也可確定對羅斯艾河Shanah :如果當天是溫暖,是溫暖的一年表明,如果冷,它預示一般冷年( ib. 147A條) 。

Omens of Good Luck.預兆的好運氣。

As an omen of good luck for the New-Year, Abaye said one should eat on Rosh ha-Shanah pumpkins, fenugreeks, leeks, beets, and dates (Hor. 12a), because they all grow quickly and because, it is declared, their names in Aramaic mean "plentiful" or "forgiveness." Ezra told the people on Rosh ha-Shanah (the first of the seventh month) to "eat the fat, and drink the sweet" (Neh. viii. 10).作為一個預兆好運新一年Abaye說,應該吃的羅斯艾河Shanah南瓜, fenugreeks ,韭菜,甜菜,和日期( Hor. 12A號) ,因為它們都快速增長,因為,這是宣布,他們的名字在阿拉姆意味著“大量”或“寬恕” 。埃茲拉告訴人民羅斯艾河Shanah (第一個7個月) ,以“吃脂肪,喝甜” ( Neh.八。 10 ) 。 The prevailing custom was to partake of some specially palatable meal on New-Year's eve.普遍的習俗是要參加一些特別可口餐新一年的前夕。 "In France in the twelfth century the custom was to supply the table with red apples; in Provence, with grapes, figs, and a calf's head, or anything new, easily digested, and tasty, as an omen of good luck to all Israel" (Maḥzor Vitry, p. 362). “在法國12世紀的習俗是供應表的紅色蘋果;在普羅旺斯,葡萄,無花果,和小腿的頭,或任何新的東西,很容易消化,又好吃,作為一個預兆好運所有以色列“ ( Maḥzor維特里,第362 ) 。 R. Jacob Mölln (14th cent.) in his "Maharil" mentions the custom of eating apples with honey and a deer's head in remembrance of the 'Aḳedah incident.河雅各布Mölln (第14次左右。 )在他的“ Maharil ”中提到的習俗吃蘋果蜂蜜和鹿的頭在紀念' Aḳedah事件。 Another reason for eating an animal's head is to presage that the consumer will be "ahead" and not backward in his undertakings during the ensuing year.另一個原因是吃動物的頭是預示著消費者的將是“未來” ,而不是落後於他的事業在隨後的一年。 But one may not eat nuts on Rosh ha-Shanah, as the numerical value of the letters in the Hebrew term for nut, , is equivalent to that of the letters = "sin" ("ḥet, minus the vowel = 17), and also for the more plausible reason that nuts stimulate saliva and consequently distract one's mind from his prayers on the solemn day.但有可能不會吃堅果對羅斯艾河Shanah ,作為數值中的字母希伯來語任期螺母,是相當於字母= “罪惡” ( “雜,減去元音= 17 ) ,和也為更合理的理由,堅果刺激唾液和因此分散一個人的心,他的祈禱的莊嚴一天。

In modern times the table is served with grapes, other fruits, and honey.在現代社會的表是葡萄,其他水果和蜂蜜。 After the benediction of "Ha-Moẓeh" the bread is dipped in the honey, when the following benediction is recited: "May it please the Lord our God and God of our fathers to renew for us a good and sweet year."在祝福的“哈Moẓeh ”的麵包蘸蜂蜜,當下面的祝福是念: “請耶和華我們的神和上帝,我們的父親再次對我們一個很好的和甜一年。 ” The feasting is in anticipation that the prayers will be acceptable, and in reliance on the goodness of God.在慶祝活動是在預計的祈禱將是可以接受的,並依靠善良的上帝。 In ancient times the Jews on Rosh ha-Shanah were dressed in white.在遠古時代的猶太人羅斯艾河Shanah身著白色。 "Unlike the accused who is dressed in black before the tribunal, the Jews are dressed in white on the Day of Judgment" (Yer. RH i. 3). The idea of a good omen probably introduced the custom in the Middle Ages of greeting one another on New-Year's eve with "Le shanah ṭobah tikkateb" = "Mayest thou be inscribed for a good year," with reference to the book of life of the righteous. “不同的是被告誰是身穿黑色在法庭上,猶太人是穿著白色的當天判決” ( Yer.生殖健康島3 ) 。這個想法的一個好兆頭大概介紹了自定義在中世紀的問候一個新的,今年除夕的“樂shanah ṭobah tikkateb ” = “ Mayest你登記一個好年, ”關於這本書的生活正義。

The Second Day.第二天。

Only the 1st of Tishri was celebrated as New-Year's Day in Palestine prior to the time of R. Johanan b.只提市黎月1日為慶祝新元旦之前,在巴勒斯坦的時候河Johanan灣 Zakkai; but ever since, Palestine, like other countries, observes Rosh ha-Shanah for two days (see Palestine, Laws Relating to). Zakkai ;但自那時以來,巴勒斯坦同其他國家一樣,遵守羅斯艾河Shanah兩天(見巴勒斯坦,有關的法律) 。 The Zohar lays stress on the universal observance of two days, and claims that the two passages in Job (i. 6 and ii. 1), "when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord," refer to the first and second days of Rosh ha-Shanah, observed by the Heavenly Court before the Almighty (Zohar, Pineḥas, p. 231a).在佐哈爾注重普遍遵守二天,並聲稱,這兩個通道的工作(一6和二。 1 ) , “當上帝的兒子來到面前展示自己的上帝, ”是指第一和第二天羅斯艾河Shanah ,觀察到天上法院全能前(佐哈爾, Pineḥas ,第231a ) 。

For the services on Rosh ha-Shanah, see Prayer; for the ceremony and significance of the shofar-calls, see Shofar; and for the ceremony of "tashlik" on the first day of Rosh ha-Shanah, see Tashlik; see, also, Day of Judgment; Greeting, Forms of; Month; Seliḥot.為服務羅斯艾河Shanah見祈禱;的儀式和意義shofar -呼籲,見Shofar ;和儀式“ tashlik ”的第一天羅斯艾河Shanah見Tashlik ;見,還,日的判決;問候形式;一個月; Seliḥot 。

Isidore Singer, JF McLaughlin, Wilhelm Bacher, Judah David Eisenstein伊西多爾歌手,怡富麥克勞克林,威廉巴切爾,猶太大衛艾森斯坦
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 581-603; Carl Rehfuss, Sermon for Rosh ha-Shanah, 1839, in Kayserling, Bibliothek Jüdischer Kanzelredner, pp. Shulḥan ' Aruk , Oraḥ Ḥayyim , 581-603 ;卡爾Rehfuss ,講道的羅斯艾河Shanah , 1839年,在Kayserling ,圖書館Jüdischer Kanzelredner ,頁。 359-368, Addresses to Young Children, xxii. 359-368 ,地址幼兒,二十二。 202-212, London, 1858; Schwab, Contribution to the History of Reform of the Jewish Ritual, i., St. Joseph, Mo., 1904; idem, in Jewish Messenger, Oct. 3, 10, 1902; Some New Year's Cards, in Jew. 202-212 ,倫敦, 1858年;施瓦布的貢獻史的改革猶太教儀式島,聖若瑟,密蘇里州, 1904年;同上,在猶太Messenger時, 10月3日, 10日, 1902年;一些新年卡,在猶太人。 Chron.專欄。 Sept. 18, 1903. 9月18日, 1903年。


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