Rastafarians拉斯特法裡崇拜者

General Information 一般信息

Rastafarians are members of a Jamaican messianic movement dating back to the 1930s; in 1974 they were estimated to number 20,000 in Jamaica.拉斯特法裡崇拜者成員的牙買加彌賽亞運動可以追溯到20世紀30年代,在1974年他們估計人數20000在牙買加。 According to Rastafarian belief the only true God is the late Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (originally known as Ras Tafari ), and Ethiopia is the true Zion.據塔法裡教信徒信仰的唯一真正的上帝是已故的埃塞俄比亞皇帝海爾塞拉西(原名角Tafari )和埃塞俄比亞是真正的錫安。 Rastafarians claim that white Christian preachers and missionaries have perverted the Scriptures to conceal the fact that Adam and Jesus were black.拉斯特法裡崇拜者宣稱,白色的基督教傳教士和傳教士已經扭曲聖經來掩蓋事實,即亞當和耶穌是黑人。 Their rituals include the use of marijuana and the chanting of revivalist hymns.其儀式包括使用大麻和唱讚美詩的復興。 Reggae music is the popular music of the movement.雷鬼音樂是流行音樂的運動。 The Rastafarians, who stress black separatism, have exercised some political influence in Jamaica.該拉斯特法裡崇拜者,誰強調黑人的分裂主義,行使了一些政治影響力在牙買加。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
LE Barrett, The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance (1977); B Sparrow and T Nicholas, Rastafari: A Way of Life (1979).樂巴雷特的拉斯特法裡崇拜者:聲音的文化失調( 1977年) ;乙麻雀和T尼古拉斯,拉斯塔法裡教:一種生活方式( 1979年) 。


Haile Selassie海爾塞拉西

General Information 一般信息

Emperor of Ethiopia埃塞俄比亞皇帝

Haile Selassie was emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.海爾塞拉西皇帝的是埃塞俄比亞1930至74年。 A cousin of Emperor Menelik II, he was born Tafari Makonnen on July 23, 1892.堂兄弟的孟尼利克二世皇帝,他出生Tafari Makonnen關於1892年七月23日。 Menelik was succeeded in 1913 by his grandson Lij Yasu, a converted Muslim.孟尼利克是在1913年成功地由他的孫子Lij野洲,一輛經過改裝的穆斯林。 When Lij Yasu attempted to change the official religion of Ethiopia from Coptic Christianity to Islam, Tafari Makonnen drove him from the throne and installed (1916) his aunt as Empress Zauditu.當Lij野洲企圖改變我國的官方宗教埃塞俄比亞科普特基督教伊斯蘭教, Tafari Makonnen將他的王位和安裝( 1916年)作為他的姑母皇后Zauditu 。 Assuming the title Ras Tafari , he named himself regent and heir to the throne.假設標題的Ras Tafari ,他自己命名為攝政和王位繼承人。 He became de facto ruler of the country and was crowned king in 1928.他成為事實上的統治者的國家和國王加冕是在1928年。 Two years later, after the mysterious death of the empress, he became emperor as Haile Selassie I.兩年後,後神秘死亡的皇后,他成為皇帝海爾塞拉西作為一

Haile Selassie ruled as an absolute monarch, centralizing Ethiopia and instituting a number of reforms, including the abolition of slavery.海爾塞拉西統治的絕對君主,集中埃塞俄比亞和實行了一系列改革,包括廢除奴隸制。 In 1935, after the Italian Fascist troops of Benito Mussolini had invaded Ethiopia, Haile Selassie gained the admiration and sympathy of the world with his impassioned plea for aid from the League of Nations. 1935年後,意大利法西斯軍隊墨索里尼入侵埃塞俄比亞,海爾塞拉西贏得了敬佩和同情的世界與他慷慨激昂的請求援助的國家聯盟。 The league was powerless to act, however, and Mussolini consolidated his gains and officially annexed Ethiopia to Italy.該聯盟是無力的行為,然而,墨索里尼和他的綜合收益和所附埃塞俄比亞正式向意大利。 Haile Selassie was forced into exile. Ethiopia was liberated early in World War II, and Haile Selassie regained his throne in 1941.海爾塞拉西被迫流亡國外。埃塞俄比亞是解放初期在第二次世界大戰中,海爾塞拉西和恢復他的王位在1941年。

After the war he resumed his long-range plans to modernize Ethiopia.戰爭結束後,他恢復了長程計劃,以現代化的埃塞俄比亞。 He continued his autocratic rule, however, and opposition to him grew.他繼續自己的獨裁統治,但是,反對他長大。 Beginning in 1960 a series of coups d'etat were attempted, and in reaction his rule became increasingly despotic.在1960年開始了一系列的政變企圖是,在他統治的反應變得越來越專制。 Finally, in 1974 the army succeeded in seizing control.最後,在1974年軍隊成功地抓住控制。 Haile Selassie was stripped of his powers, and later that year he was removed from the throne and placed under house arrest.海爾塞拉西被剝奪他的權力,後來這一年,他被解除了王位,並受到軟禁。 He died in Addis Ababa on Aug. 27, 1975.他死在亞的斯亞貝巴8月27日, 1975年。

Bibliography 目錄
Clapham, Christopher S., Haile Selassie's Government (1969); Haile Selassie I, The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I, trans.克拉,克里斯托弗南,海爾塞拉西政府( 1969年) ;海爾塞拉西一,自傳海爾塞拉西皇帝一反。 by E. Ullendorff (1976); Kapuscinski, Ryszard, The Emperor, trans.由E. Ullendorff ( 1976年) ;卡布辛斯基,雷沙德雷,皇帝,反。 by WR Brand and K. Mroczkowska-Brand (1983); Legum, Colin, Ethiopia: The Fall of Haile Selassie's Empire (1975); Marcus, Harold G., Haile Selassie: The Formative Years (1986); Mosley, Leonard, Haile Selassie: The Conquering Lion (1964); Shwab, Peter, ed., Ethiopia and Haile Selassie (1972) and Haile Selassie I (1979).由水利品牌和K. Mroczkowska品牌( 1983年) ;專攻,科林,埃塞俄比亞:衰亡海爾塞拉西的帝國( 1975年) ;馬庫斯,哈羅德灣,海爾塞拉西:形成時期( 1986年) ;莫斯利,倫納德,海爾塞拉西:在征服獅子( 1964年) ; Shwab ,彼得,編輯。 ,埃塞俄比亞和海爾塞拉西( 1972年)和海爾塞拉西口( 1979年) 。


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