Purgatory煉獄

General Information 一般信息

In Roman Catholicism, purgatory (from the Latin purgare, "to cleanse") is the place or state after death where those who have died in a state of grace but not free from imperfection expiate their remaining sins before entering the visible presence of God and the saints; the damned, on the other hand, go directly to hell.在羅馬天主教,煉獄(從拉丁美洲purgare , “清洗” )是地方或國家死後那些死於誰的狀態寬限期,但沒有擺脫不完善贖其剩餘的罪孽才能進入明顯存在上帝和聖人;的該死,另一方面,直接進入地獄。

The living are encouraged to offer Masses, prayers, alms, and other acts of piety and devotion on behalf of those in purgatory.生活,鼓勵群眾提供,祈禱,施捨,和其他行為的虔誠和獻身精神的名義在煉獄。 The suffering of purgatory is less a concept of physical pain than one of postponement of the "beatific vision."痛苦的煉獄少的概念,身體疼痛不止一個推遲的“幸福的夢想。 ” Purgatory will end with the Last Judgment at the close of the world.煉獄將結束與最後的審判結束時的世界。

The official Roman Catholic teaching on purgatory was defined at the councils of Lyon (1274) and Ferrara-Florence (1438-45) and reaffirmed at Trent (1545-63). This doctrine was rejected by leaders of the Reformation who taught that persons are freed from sin through faith in Jesus Christ and go straight to heaven.官方天主教教學煉獄被界定在議會的里昂( 1274 )和費拉拉,佛羅倫薩( 1438年至1445年) ,並重申在特倫特( 1545年至1563年) 。 這一理論被否決領導人的改革是誰教的人擺脫罪惡通過信仰耶穌基督和直接進入天堂。 The Orthodox church also rejects the theology of purgatory, although it encourages prayers for the dead in some undefined intermediate state. 東正教教堂也拒絕神學煉獄,但是也鼓勵祈禱死者在一些不確定的中間狀態。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
Arendzen, John Peter, Purgatory and Heaven (1960); Le Goff, J., The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arendzen ,約翰彼得,煉獄和天堂( 1960年) ;勒高夫,學者,出生率的煉獄,轉。 by A. Goldhammer (1984; repr. 1986).由A. Goldhammer ( 1984年; repr 。 1986年) 。


Purgatory煉獄

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The teachings of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches set forth a place of temporal punishment in the intermediate realm known as purgatory, in which it is held that all those who die at peace with the church but who are not perfect must undergo penal and purifying suffering.的教誨,羅馬天主教和希臘東正教教堂,提出了時間地點的懲罰中間境界稱為煉獄,在它認為,所有這些誰死在和平與教會,但誰不是完美的必須進行刑法和淨化痛苦。 Only those believers who have attained a state of Christian perfection are said to go immediately to heaven.只有那些信徒誰已經達到的狀態是完美的基督教說立即去天堂。 All unbaptized adults and those who after baptism have committed mortal sin go immediately to hell.所有unbaptized成年人和那些誰洗禮後,已承諾彌天大罪立即去地獄。 The great mass of partially sanctified Christians dying in fellowship with the church but nevertheless encumbered with some degree of sin go to purgatory where, for a longer or shorter time, they suffer until all sin is purged away, after which they are translated to heaven.偉大的大規模部分聖潔基督徒死於獎學金與教會但擔保一定程度的罪孽去煉獄下,較長或較短的時間內,他們受苦,直到所有罪孽是清除了,隨後他們被翻譯天堂。

The sufferings vary greatly in intensity and duration, being proportioned in general to the guilt and impurity or impenitence of the sufferer.痛苦有很大的強度和持續時間,目前一般比例的內疚和雜質或impenitence的患者。 They are described as being in some cases comparatively mild, lasting perhaps only a few hours, while in other cases little if anything short of the torments of hell itself and lasting for thousands of years.他們被描述為在某些情況下,相對溫和,持久的也許只有幾個小時,而在其他情況下,如果沒有任何短期的痛苦地獄本身和持久的數千年之久。 But in any event they are to terminate with the last judgment.但無論如何他們是終止的最後判決。 Gifts or services rendered to the church, prayers by the priests, and Masses provided by relatives or friends in behalf of the deceased can shorten, alleviate, or eliminate the sojourn of the soul in purgatory.禮品或提供的服務的教堂,祈禱的神父,和群眾提供的親戚或朋友的名義死者可以縮短,減輕或消除逗留的靈魂在煉獄。

Protestantism rejects the doctrine since the evidence on which it is based is found not in the Bible but in the Apocrypha (II Macc. 12:39-45). 新教反對理論的證據,因為它是基於沒有發現在聖經中 ,但在偽經(二排雷協委會。 12:39-45 ) 。

L Boettner L伯特納
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (規矩福音字典)

Bibliography 目錄
AJ Mason, Purgatory; EH Plumptre, The Spirits in Prison; HW Luckock, After Death; B. Bartmann, Purgatory; H. Berkhof, Well-Founded Hope.歐塞爾梅森,煉獄;高血壓Plumptre ,神在監獄;老Luckock ,後死亡;灣Bartmann ,煉獄閣下; Berkhof ,小康的希望。


Purgatory煉獄

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The subject is treated under these heads:主題是根據這些治療元首:

I. Catholic Doctrine一,天主教教義

II.二。 Errors錯誤

III.三。 Proofs

IV.四。 Duration and Nature時間長短和性質

V. Succouring the Dead五, Succouring死亡

VI.六。 Indulgences

VII.七。 Invocation of Souls調用的靈魂

VIII.八。 Utility of Prayer for the Departed實用的祈禱的無間道

I. CATHOLIC DOCTRINE一,天主教教義

Purgatory (Lat., "purgare", to make clean, to purify) in accordance with Catholic teaching is a place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions. The faith of the Church concerning purgatory is clearly expressed in the Decree of Union drawn up by the Council of Florence (Mansi, t. XXXI, col. 1031), and in the decree of the Council of Trent which (Sess. XXV) defined:煉獄( Lat. , “ purgare ” ,使清潔,淨化)按照天主教教學是一個地方或狀況時懲罰那些誰,離開這個生活在天主的恩寵,而不能完全擺脫venial故障,或沒有完全付滿意由於其越軌。信仰的教會是關於煉獄中明確表示的法令聯盟制定了理事會的佛羅倫薩(曼西,噸三十一山口。 1031 ) ,並在法令安理會的遄其中( Sess.二十五)定義:

"Whereas the Catholic Church, instructed by the Holy Ghost, has from the Sacred Scriptures and the ancient tradition of the Fathers taught in Councils and very recently in this Ecumenical synod (Sess. VI, cap. XXX; Sess. XXII cap.ii, iii) that there is a purgatory, and that the souls therein are helped by the suffrages of the faithful, but principally by the acceptable Sacrifice of the Altar; the Holy Synod enjoins on the Bishops that they diligently endeavor to have the sound doctrine of the Fathers in Councils regarding purgatory everywhere taught and preached, held and believed by the faithful" (Denzinger, "Enchiridon", 983). “鑑於天主教,指示聖靈,從聖經的神聖和古老傳統的父親教理事會和最近在這個基督教主教( Sess.六,帽。三十; Sess 。二十二cap.ii ,三)有一個煉獄,而且靈魂都是得益於suffrages的教友,但主要由接受祭祀的祭壇;教廷主教會議責成的主教,他們勤奮努力有健全的理論父親在安理會關於煉獄到處鼓吹教和舉行,並相信的忠實“ ( Denzinger , ” Enchiridon “ , 983 ) 。

Further than this the definitions of the Church do not go, but the tradition of the Fathers and the Schoolmen must be consulted to explain the teachings of the councils, and to make clear the belief and the practices of the faithful.進一步比這個定義的教會不去,但傳統的父親和Schoolmen必須徵求解釋教義的理事會,並作出明確的信念和做法的忠誠。

Temporal Punishment顳處罰

That temporal punishment is due to sin, even after the sin itself has been pardoned by God, is clearly the teaching of Scripture.這時空的懲罰是因為罪惡,甚至在自己的罪過已赦免了上帝,顯然是教學中的聖經。 God indeed brought man out of his first disobedience and gave him power to govern all things (Wisdom 10:2), but still condemned him "to eat his bread in the sweat of his brow" until he returned unto dust.上帝確實帶來了男子從他第一次反抗,並給了他力量治理一切事物(智慧10時02分) ,但仍譴責他“吃他的麵包在汗水的額頭, ”直到他回到你們灰塵。 God forgave the incredulity of Moses and Aaron, but in punishment kept them from the "land of promise" (Numbers 20:12).上帝原諒的懷疑摩西和亞倫,但在處罰讓他們從“土地的承諾” (數20:12 ) 。 The Lord took away the sin of David, but the life of the child was forfeited because David had made God's enemies blaspheme His Holy Name (2 Samuel 12:13-14).上帝帶走了罪惡的大衛,但生活的孩子是因為大衛沒收了真主的敵人的褻瀆他的聖名(撒母耳記下12:13-14 ) 。 In the New Testament as well as in the Old, almsgiving and fasting, and in general penitential acts are the real fruits of repentance (Matthew 3:8; Luke 17:3; 3:3).在新約,以及老,施捨和禁食,一般悔罪的行為是真正的水果悔改(馬太三點08分;盧克17:3 ; 3點03分) 。 The whole penitential system of the Church testifies that the voluntary assumption of penitential works has always been part of true repentance and the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, can. xi) reminds the faithful that God does not always remit the whole punishment due to sin together with the guilt.整個系統的悔罪教會證明,自願擔任悔罪的作品一直是真正的懺悔和理事會遄( Sess.第十四可以。十一)提醒信徒,上帝並不總是職權整個由於處罰罪孽與內疚。 God requires satisfaction, and will punish sin, and this doctrine involves as its necessary consequence a belief that the sinner failing to do penance in this life may be punished in another world, and so not be cast off eternally from God.上帝需要滿意,並且將懲罰罪惡,並涉及這一理論作為其必然後果相信失敗的罪人做懺悔在這生命可能受到懲罰了另一個世界,所以無法擺脫永遠來自上帝。

Venial Sins Venial罪

All sins are not equal before God, nor dare anyone assert that the daily faults of human frailty will be punished with the same severity that is meted out to serious violation of God's law.所有的罪孽不是上帝面前人人平等,任何人也不敢說斷言,每天斷層脆弱的人類將被處以同樣的嚴重性是判刑,以嚴重違反了上帝的法律。 On the other hand whosoever comes into God's presence must be perfectly pure for in the strictest sense His "eyes are too pure, to behold evil" (Habakkuk 1:13).另一方面,無論誰進入上帝的存在必須是完全純粹的最嚴格的意義他的“眼睛太單純,邪惡的外表” (哈巴谷1:13 ) 。 For unrepented venial faults for the payment of temporal punishment due to sin at time of death, the Church has always taught the doctrine of purgatory.對於unrepented venial故障的支付時間懲罰罪惡由於在死亡時,教會一直教的理論,煉獄。

So deep was this belief ingrained in our common humanity that it was accepted by the Jews, and in at least a shadowy way by the pagans, long before the coming of Christianity.因此,深為這種信念深深植根於我們共同的人性,這是接受了猶太人,並在至少有影子方式的異教徒,早在今後的基督教。 ("Aeneid," VI, 735 sq.; Sophocles, "Antigone," 450 sq.). ( “伊尼伊德, ”六, 735平方米;索福克勒斯, “安蒂岡妮” , 450平方米) 。

II.二。 ERRORS誤差

Epiphanius (Haer., lxxv, PG, XLII, col. 513) complains that Acrius (fourth century) taught that prayers for the dead were of no avail.埃皮法尼烏斯( Haer. , lxxv ,前列腺素,四十二山口。 513 )抱怨說, Acrius (第四世紀)告訴我們,祈禱死者是徒勞的。 In the Middle Ages, the doctrine of purgatory was rejected by the Albigenses, Waldenses, and Hussites.在中世紀,理論煉獄被否決的Albigenses , Waldenses ,並Hussites 。 St. Bernard (Serm. lxvi in Cantic., PL CLXXXIII, col. 1098) states that the so-called "Apostolici" denied purgatory and the utility of prayers for the departed.聖伯納德( Serm. lxvi在Cantic 。 ,特等CLXXXIII山口。 1098 )指出,所謂的“ Apostolici ” ,並否認煉獄的效用祈禱,離開了。 Much discussion has arisen over the position of the Greeks on the question of purgatory.許多討論所引起的爭論的立場希臘人問題的煉獄。 It would seem that the great difference of opinion was not concerning the existence of purgatory but concerning the nature of purgatorial fire; still St. Thomas proves the existence of purgatory in his dissertation against the errors of the Greeks, and the Council of Florence also thought necessary to affirm the belief of the Church on the subject (Bellarmine, "De Purgatorio," lib. I, cap. i).看來,偉大的意見分歧不是關於存在的煉獄,但有關的性質purgatorial火災;聖托馬斯仍然證明了存在的煉獄在他的論文對錯誤的希臘人,和安理會的佛羅倫薩也認為要申明的信念,教會就這個問題(貝拉明, “德Purgatorio , ”解放。一,帽。一) 。 The modern Orthodox Church denies purgatory, but is rather inconsistent in its way of putting forth its belief.現代東正教否認煉獄,而是在其不一致的方式把其信仰等等。

At the beginning of the Reformation there was some hesitation especially on Luther's part (Leipzig Disputation) as to whether the doctrine should be retained, but as the breach widened, the denial of purgatory by the Reformers became universal, and Calvin termed the Catholic position "exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit" (Institutiones, lib. III, cap. v, 6).在年初的改革有一些猶豫特別是對路德的部分(萊比錫爭議) ,是否學說應予以保留,但違背擴大,剝奪煉獄的改革者成為普遍的,和Calvin稱為天主教的立場“ exitiale commentum獄吏crucem基督evacuat 。 。 。獄吏fidem nostram labefacit等evertit “ ( Institutiones ,解放。三,帽。五,六日) 。 Modern Protestants, while they avoid the name purgatory, frequently teach the doctrine of "the middle state," and Martensen ("Christian Dogmatics," Edinburgh, 1890, p. 457) writes: "As no soul leaves this present existence in a fully complete and prepared state, we must suppose that there is an intermediate state, a realm of progressive development, (?) in which souls are prepared for the final judgment" (Farrar, "Mercy and Judgment," London, 1881, cap. iii).現代新教徒,雖然他們的名字避免煉獄,經常教的理論, “中間狀態” ,並馬敦生( “基督教教義學” ,愛丁堡, 1890年,第457頁)寫道: “由於沒有靈魂離開本生存在一個完全完成,並準備狀態,我們必須假設有一個中間狀態,一個領域的逐步發展, ( ? ) ,其中的靈魂是準備的最後判決“ (法拉, ”慈悲與判斷, “倫敦, 1881年,帽。 ㈢ ) 。

III.三。 PROOFS證據

The Catholic doctrine of purgatory supposes the fact that some die with smaller faults for which there was no true repentance, and also the fact that the temporal penalty due to sin is it times not wholly paid in this life.在天主教教義的煉獄假設的事實,一些較小的模具故障,並不存在真正的懺悔,也是事實,處罰的時間因罪孽是次不完全支付在此生活。 The proofs for the Catholic position, both in Scripture and in Tradition, are bound up also with the practice of praying for the dead.該證明,天主教的立場,無論是在聖經和傳統,約束也最多的慣例祈禱死者。 For why pray for the dead, if there be no belief in the power of prayer to afford solace to those who as yet are excluded from the sight of God?為什麼祈禱死了,如果有任何信仰的力量,祈禱負擔安慰那些誰尚未被排除在視線的上帝? So true is this position that prayers for the dead and the existence of a place of purgation are mentioned in conjunction in the oldest passages of the Fathers, who allege reasons for succouring departed souls.因此,這是真正的立場,祈禱死者的存在地點的下法中提到的結合中最古老的通道的父親,誰指控的原因succouring離去的靈魂。 Those who have opposed the doctrine of purgatory have confessed that prayers for the dead would be an unanswerable argument if the modern doctrine of a "particular judgment" had been received in the early ages.這些誰反對這一學說的煉獄已供認,祈禱死者將是一個無可辯駁的論據,如果現代理論的一個“特殊判決”已收到的早期年齡。 But one has only to read the testimonies hereinafter alleged to feel sure that the Fathers speak, in the same breath, of oblations for the dead and a place of purgation; and one has only to consult the evidence found in the catacombs to feel equally sure that the Christian faith there expressed embraced clearly a belief in judgment immediately after death.但是,只有閱讀的證詞稱據稱確信父親說話,在同呼吸,對oblations的死亡和一個地方的下法;和1只進行協商的證據發現的地下墓穴同樣的感覺肯定認為基督教信仰有明確表示擁護相信判決後立即死亡。 Wilpert ("Roma Sotteranea," I, 441) thus concludes chapter 21, "Che tale esaudimento", etc.: Wilpert ( “羅馬Sotteranea , ”我, 441 ) ,從而結束第21章, “車故事esaudimento ”等:

Intercession has been made for the soul of the dear one departed and God has heard the prayer, and the soul has passed into a place of light and refreshment." "Surely," Wilpert adds, "such intercession would have no place were there question not of the particular, but of the final judgment.調解已經取得了的靈魂,親愛的人離去的上帝聽到了祈禱,和靈魂已成為一個地方的輕型和茶點。 “ ”當然, “ Wilpert補充說: ”這種調解將不會在那裡發生的問題沒有特別,但最後的判斷。

Some stress too has been laid upon the objection that the ancient Christians had no clear conception of purgatory, and that they thought that the souls departed remained in uncertainty of salvation to the last day; and consequently they prayed that those who had gone before might in the final judgment escape even the everlasting torments of hell.有些壓力也已經奠定的反對,古代基督徒沒有明確的概念煉獄,他們認為,靈魂離開留在拯救的不確定性的最後一天,因此他們祈禱,這些誰已經收到可能最後判決甚至逃避永遠痛苦的地獄。 The earliest Christian traditions are clear as to the particular judgment, and clearer still concerning a sharp distinction between purgatory and hell.最早的基督教傳統很明確具體的判斷,仍然清晰的關於區分煉獄和地獄。 The passages alledged as referring to relief from hell cannot offset the evidence given below (Bellarmine, "De Purgatorio," lib. II, cap. v).所謂的通道,它是指從地獄救濟不能抵消的證據如下(貝拉明, “德Purgatorio , ”解放。二,帽。五) 。 Concerning the famous case of Trajan, which vexed the Doctors of the Middle Ages, see Bellarmine, loc.關於著名的特拉情況下,這令人煩惱的醫生中世紀,見貝拉明,同上。 cit., cap.前。 ,帽。 Viii.八。

Old Testament舊約

The tradition of the Jews is put forth with precision and clearness in 2 Maccabees.傳統的猶太人是提出的精確度和清晰馬加比2 。 Judas, the commander of the forces of Israel,猶大指揮官的部隊,以色列

making a gathering .一個聚會。 . . sent twelve thousand drachmas of silver to Jerusalem for sacrifice to be offered for the sins of the dead, thinking well and religiously concerning the resurrection (For if he had not hoped that they that were slain should rise again, it would have seemed superfluous and vain to pray for the dead).發送1.20萬德拉克馬銀耶路撒冷為犧牲來提供的罪孽死亡,以及思想和宗教有關的復活(因為如果他不希望他們被殺害應該再次上升,這似乎多餘的,徒勞的祈禱死者) 。 And because he considered that they who had fallen asleep with godliness, had great grace laid up for them.因為他認為他們誰已經睡著了的信仰,有很大的寬限期奠定了他們。 It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins.因此,這是一個神聖的,健康的思想,以祈求死者,他們可能會loosed從罪孽。 (2 Maccabees 12:43-46) ( 2馬加比12:43-46 )

At the time of the Maccabees the leaders of the people of God had no hesitation in asserting the efficacy of prayers offered for the dead, in order that those who had departed this life might find pardon for their sins and the hope of eternal resurrection.在時間的馬加比的領導人人民的上帝毫不遲疑地宣稱療效祈禱為死者,以便使那些已離開誰這輩子可能會發現赦免他們的罪過和希望的永恆的復活。

New Testament新約

There are several passages in the New Testament that point to a process of purification after death.有幾個段落在新約一點一個淨化過程後死亡。 Thus, Jesus Christ declares (Matthew 12:32): "And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come."因此,耶穌基督聲明(馬太12:32 ) : “和誰應談談對兒子的人,應原諒了他:但他認為應發言反對聖靈,但不得原諒了他,無論是在這個世界上,也不在未來世界的。 “ According to St. Isidore of Seville (Deord. creatur., c. xiv, n. 6) these words prove that in the next life "some sins will be forgiven and purged away by a certain purifying fire."據聖伊西多爾的塞維利亞( Deord. creatur 。角十四,注6 )這些話證明,在未來的生活“一些罪惡將得到寬恕,並清除了某種淨化火災。 ” St. Augustine also argues "that some sinners are not forgiven either in this world or in the next would not be truly said unless there were other [sinners] who, though not forgiven in this world, are forgiven in the world to come" (De Civ. Dei, XXI, xxiv).聖奧古斯丁還認為“有些罪人不原諒要么在這個世界上,或在未來將不會是真正表示,除非有其他[罪人]誰,但並不免除在這個世界上,是寬恕的世界來” (德文明。棣,二十一,二十四) 。 The same interpretation is given by Gregory the Great (Dial., IV, xxxix); St. Bede (commentary on this text); St. Bernard (Sermo lxvi in Cantic., n. 11) and other eminent theological writers.同樣的解釋是由格里高利大( Dial. ,四,三十九) ;聖比德(評這一案文) ;聖伯納德( Sermo lxvi在Cantic 。第11號)和其他傑出的神學作家。

A further argument is supplied by St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 3:11-15:另一種論點是由聖保祿在哥林多前書3:11-15 :

"For other foundation no man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ Jesus. Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay stubble: Every man's work shall be manifest; for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire; and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is. If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire." “至於其他的基礎沒有人可以打下,但其中規定;這是基督耶穌。現在,如果任何人利用此基礎上,金,銀,寶石,木材,乾草茬:每個人的工作應體現;的一天,上帝應宣布,因為它應顯示在火災;和消防應嘗試每個人的工作,什麼樣的。如果有任何人的工作遵守,他隨即上帝建造,他應獲得的報酬。如果任何人的工作燒傷,他將蒙受損失:但他本人應保存,但以火。 “

While this passage presents considerable difficulty, it is regarded by many of the Fathers and theologians as evidence for the existence of an intermediate state in which the dross of lighter transgressions will be burnt away, and the soul thus purified will be saved.雖然這一段提出了相當大的困難,這是許多人認為,在神父和神學作為證據存在的一種中間狀態,其中的糟粕越軌的打火機將被燒毀了,因此,靈魂淨化將被保存。 This, according to Bellarmine (De Purg., I, 5), is the interpretation commonly given by the Fathers and theologians; and he cites to this effect:這顯示,貝拉明(德Purg 。 ,我5人) ,是常見的解釋所給予的父輩和神學家,他引用這個效果:

St. Ambrose (commentary on the text, and Sermo xx in Ps. cxvii), St.聖劉漢銓(評注文字, Sermo第xx在PS 。 cxvii ) ,街 Jerome, (Comm. in Amos, c. iv), St.杰羅姆, ( Comm.在阿莫斯角四) ,聖 Augustine (Comm. in Ps. xxxvii), St.奧古斯丁( Comm.在PS 。三十七) ,街 Gregory (Dial., IV, xxxix), and Origen (Hom. vi in Exod.).格雷戈里( Dial. ,四, XXXIX )號,和奧利( Hom.六中Exod 。 ) 。

See also St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes,", IV, 91.又見聖托馬斯, “魂斗羅Gentes ” ,四, 91 。 For a discussion of the exegetical problem, see Atzberger, "Die christliche Eschatologie", p.對於討論訓詁問題,見Atzberger , “模具基督教Eschatologie ” ,第 275. 275 。

Tradition傳統

This doctrine that many who have died are still in a place of purification and that prayers avail to help the dead is part of the very earliest Christian tradition.這一理論,許多人死亡誰仍然在一個地方的淨化和利用的祈禱,以幫助死者是非常最早的基督教傳統。 Tertullian "De corona militis" mentions prayers for the dead as an Apostolic ordinance, and in "De Monogamia" (cap. x, PL, II, col. 912) he advises a widow "to pray for the soul of her husband, begging repose for him and participation in the first resurrection"; he commands her also "to make oblations for him on the anniversary of his demise," and charges her with infidelity if she neglect to succour his soul.良“德冠militis ”提到祈禱死者作為一個使徒條例,並在“德Monogamia ” (香港法例設特等,二,山口。 912 )他建議寡婦“祈禱的靈魂,她的丈夫,乞討休息對他和參加第一次復活“ ,他命令她還” ,使他oblations週年,他滅亡“ ,並指控她的不忠,如果她忽略救助他的靈魂。 This settled custom of the Church is clear from St. Cyprian, who (PL IV, col. 399) forbade the customary prayers for one who had violated the ecclesiastical law.這解決定制的教會是明確的從聖塞浦路斯,誰(特等四,山口。 399 )禁止習慣祈禱一個誰違反了教會法。 "Our predecessors prudently advised that no brother, departing this life, should nominate any churchman as his executor; and should he do it, that no oblation should be made for him, nor sacrifice offered for his repose." “我們的前輩慎重告知,沒有哥哥,離開這個生活,應提名任何牧師為他執行人;和他應該這樣做,沒有祭品應該為他的犧牲,也不為他的安息。 ” Long before Cyprian, Clement of Alexandria had puzzled over the question of the state or condition of the man who, reconciled to God on his death-bed, had no time for the fulfilment of penance due his transgression.早在塞浦路斯,克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞了困惑的問題的狀態或條件的人誰,核對了天主的逝世床,沒有時間履行自己的懺悔由於海侵。 His answer is: "the believer through discipline divests himself of his passions and passes to the mansion which is better than the former one, passes to the greatest torment, taking with him the characteristic of repentance for the faults he may have committed after baptism. He is tortured then still more, not yet attaining what he sees others have acquired. The greatest torments are assigned to the believer, for God's righteousness is good, and His goodness righteous, and though these punishments cease in the course of the expiation and purification of each one, "yet" etc. (PG IX, col. 332).他的回答是: “的信徒通過自己的紀律剝離他的激情和通行證的豪宅這是比前一個通行證,最大的折磨,同時他的特點悔改的故障,他可能犯下後的洗禮。他是折磨然後更沒有達到他所認為其他人收購。最大的折磨分配給信徒,在上帝的正義是好的,他的善良正直的,儘管這些懲罰停火過程中的補償和純化每一個“ ,但是”等等(中央社九,山口。 332 ) 。

In Origen the doctrine of purgatory is very clear.在俄利根的理論,煉獄是很清楚的。 If a man departs this life with lighter faults, he is condemned to fire which burns away the lighter materials, and prepares the soul for the kingdom of God, where nothing defiled may enter.如果一個人離開這個生活的輕故障,他是注定要大火燒傷了較輕的材料,並編寫的靈魂為上帝的王國,那裡沒有任何污損,可輸入。 "For if on the foundation of Christ you have built not only gold and silver and precious stones (1 Corinthians 3); but also wood and hay and stubble, what do you expect when the soul shall be separated from the body? Would you enter into heaven with your wood and hay and stubble and thus defile the kingdom of God; or on account of these hindrances would you remain without and receive no reward for your gold and silver and precious stones? Neither is this just. It remains then that you be committed to the fire which will burn the light materials; for our God to those who can comprehend heavenly things is called a cleansing fire. But this fire consumes not the creature, but what the creature has himself built, wood and hay and stubble. It is manifest that the fire destroys the wood of our transgressions and then returns to us the reward of our great works." “對於如果的基礎上,基督你已經建立不僅黃金,白銀和寶石(哥林多前書3 ) ;而且木材和乾草和殘茬,你能指望什麼時,須靈魂脫離身體?請問您輸入到天堂與您的木材和乾草和秸稈,從而玷污上帝王國的;或到這些障礙,你仍然沒有接受任何報酬,您的黃金和白銀和寶石?無論是公正的。然後它仍然是你致力於火將燃燒輕質材料;為我們的上帝對那些誰可以理解的神聖的東西被稱為清洗火災。但這並不火災消耗的動物,但動物有自己建造,木材和乾草和秸稈。這是明顯的,火災破壞了木材的越軌,然後再返回給我們的回報我們偉大的工程。 “ (PG, XIII, col. 445, 448). (中央社,十三,山口。 445 , 448 ) 。

The Apostolic practice of praying for the dead which passed into the liturgy of the Church, is as clear in the fourth century as it is in the twentieth.使徒的做法祈禱死者的傳遞到禮儀的教會,顯然是在第四世紀,因為它是在二十。 St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Catechet. Mystog., V, 9, PG, XXXIII, col. 1116) describing the liturgy, writes: "Then we pray for the Holy Fathers and Bishops that are dead; and in short for all those who have departed this life in our communion; believing that the souls of those for whom prayers are offered receive very great relief, while this holy and tremendous victim lies upon the altar."聖西里爾耶路撒冷( Catechet. Mystog 。 ,五,九,前列腺素,三十三,山口。 1116 )描述了禮儀,寫道: “然後我們祈禱聖主教神父和正在死亡;並在短期所有這些誰離開這個生活在我們的共融;相信靈魂的人祈禱的人提供接受非常大的救濟,而這一神聖和巨大的謊言受害者的祭壇。 “ St. Gregory of Nyssa (PG, XLVI, col. 524, 525) states that man's weaknesses are purged in this life by prayer and wisdom, or are expiated in the next by a cleansing fire.聖格雷戈里的果樹(前列腺素,四十六,山口。 524 , 525 )指出,人的弱點是清除在此生活的祈禱和智慧,或expiated在未來的清洗火災。 "When he has quitted his body and the difference between virtue and vice is known he cannot approach God till the purging fire shall have cleansed the stains with which his soul was infested. That same fire in others will cancel the corruption of matter, and the propensity to evil." “當他離開他的身體和區別美德和副眾所周知,他不能辦法,直到上帝瀉火應清洗的污漬與他的靈魂是為患。同其他火災將取消的腐敗問題,以及邪惡的傾向。 “ About the same time the Apostolic Constitution gives us the formularies used in succouring the dead.大約在同一時間使徒憲法賦予我們formularies使用succouring死亡。 "Let us pray for our brethren who sleep in Christ, that God who in his love for men has received the soul of the departed one, may forgive him every fault, and in mercy and clemency receive him into the bosom of Abraham, with those who in this life have pleased God" (PG I, col. 1144). “讓我們祈禱我們的兄弟誰睡在基督,上帝誰在他的愛情的男子已收到的靈魂離開的,可原諒他的每一個故障,並在仁慈和寬大接待他的懷裡亞伯拉罕,與那些誰在此生活的高興上帝“ (指引我,山口。 1144 ) 。 Nor can we pass over the use of the diptychs where the names of the dead were inscribed; and this remembrance by name in the Sacred Mysteries--(a practice that was from the Apostles) was considered by Chrysostom as the best way of relieving the dead (In I Ad Cor., Hom. xli, n. 4, G., LXI, col. 361, 362).我們也不能越過的使用diptychs在那裡的名字被刻死;和紀念的名字在神聖的奧秘-(這種做法是從使徒)審議了金口的最佳途徑緩解死亡(廣告,我肺心病。 ,紅。四十一,北4 ,灣, LXI ,山口。 361 , 362 ) 。

The teaching of the Fathers, and the formularies used in the Liturgy of the Church, found expression in the early Christian monuments, particularly those contained in the catacombs.教學中的父親,並formularies用於聖禮的教會,表現在早期基督教古蹟,尤其是那些載於地下墓穴。 On the tombs of the faithful were inscribed words of hope, words of petition for peace and for rest; and as the anniversaries came round the faithful gathered at the graves of the departed to make intercession for those who had gone before.在墓葬的忠實刻有希望的話,話的和平請願和休息;和作為過來週年忠實聚集在墓地的離開,使調解這些誰已經收到。 At the bottom this is nothing else than the faith expressed by the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio"), and to this faith the inscriptions in the catacombs are surely witnesses. In the fourth century in the West, Ambrose insists in his commentary on St. Paul (1 Corinthians 3) on the existence of purgatory, and in his masterly funeral oration (De obitu Theodosii), thus prays for the soul of the departed emperor: "Give, O Lord, rest to Thy servant Theodosius, that rest Thou hast prepared for Thy saints. . . . I loved him, therefore will I follow him to the land of the living; I will not leave him till by my prayers and lamentations he shall be admitted unto the holy mount of the Lord, to which his deserts call him" (PL, XVI, col. 1397).在底部,這是比任何其他的信仰所表達的理事會遄( Sess.二十五, “德Purgatorio ” ) ,並以這種信念的題詞中的地下墓穴是肯定的證人。在第四世紀在西方,劉漢銓堅持在他的評注聖保羅(哥林多前書3 )對存在的煉獄,並在他的巧妙祭文(德obitu Theodosii ) ,從而祈禱的靈魂離開皇帝: “給主啊,你的其餘的僕人狄奧多,休息祢準備你的聖人。 。 。 。我愛他,因此我將跟隨他的土地的生活;我不會離開他到我的祈禱和悲嘆,他應承認祂神聖的山上帝,他的沙漠都叫他“ (特等,十六,山口。 1397 ) 。 St. Augustine is clearer even than his master.聖奧古斯丁是明確的甚至比他的主人。 He describes two conditions of men; "some there are who have departed this life, not so bad as to be deemed unworthy of mercy, nor so good as to be entitled to immediate happiness" etc., and in the resurrection he says there will be some who "have gone through these pains, to which the spirits of the dead are liable" (De Civ. Dei, XXI, 24).他形容兩個條件的男人“ ;一些有誰離開這個生命,而不是如此糟糕,以被視為不值得憐憫,也不那麼好,以有權立即幸福”等,並在復活他表示,將一些誰“都經歷了這些痛苦,而精神的死亡者” (德文明。棣, 21 , 24 ) 。 Thus at the close of the fourth century:因此,在密切的第四世紀:

not only were prayers for the dead found in all the Liturgies, but the Fathers asserted that such practice was from the Apostles themselves;不僅祈禱死者中發現的所有Liturgies ,但父親斷言,這種做法是從自己的門徒;

those who were helped by the prayers of the faithful and by the celebration of the Holy Mysteries were in a place of purgation;這些誰幫助了祈禱的教友和慶祝活動的神聖之謎是在一個地方的下法;

from which when purified they "were admitted unto the Holy Mount of the Lord".從純化時,他們“被接納祂神聖山主” 。

So clear is this patristic Tradition that those who do not believe in purgatory have been unable to bring any serious difficulties from the writings of the Fathers.因此,明確這是教父的傳統,這些誰不相信煉獄一直未能帶來任何嚴重的困難從著作的父親。 The passages cited to the contrary either do not touch the question at all, or are so lacking in clearness that they cannot offset the perfectly open expression of the doctrine as found in the very Fathers who are quoted as holding contrary opinions (Bellarmine "De Purg.", lib. I, cap. xiii).引用的段落與此相反要么不碰的問題,或者是如此缺乏清晰,他們不能完全抵消了公開表達的學說中發現的父親是誰引述舉行相反的意見(貝拉明“德Purg 。 “解放。一,帽。十三) 。

IV.四。 DURATION AND NATURE時間長短和性質

Duration時間

The very reasons assigned for the existence of purgatory make for its passing character.原因非常分配存在的煉獄作出的傳遞性質。 We pray, we offer sacrifice for souls therein detained that "God in mercy may forgive every fault and receive them into the bosom of Abraham" (Const. Apost., PG, I col. 1144); and Augustine (De Civ. Dei, lib. XXI, cap.xiii and xvi) declares that the punishment of purgatory is temporary and will cease, at least with the Last Judgment.我們祈禱,我們為犧牲的靈魂被拘留的有“上帝慈悲原諒每一個可能故障和接收到的懷裡亞伯拉罕” ( Const. Apost 。素,我山口。 1144年) ;和奧古斯丁(德文明。棣,解放。二十一, cap.xiii和十六)宣布,該處罰的煉獄是暫時的,將停止,至少是在最後的審判。 "But temporary punishments are suffered by some in this life only, by others after death, by others both now and then; but all of them before that last and strictest judgment." “但是,暫時的懲罰是受到一些在此生活的唯一,後由他人死亡,其他人都已經開始,但所有這些在此之前,去年和嚴格的判斷。 ”

Nature of Punishment大自然的懲罰

It is clear from the Liturgies and the Fathers above cited that the souls for whose peace sacrifice was offered were shut out for the time being from the sight of God.顯然,從Liturgies和上面提到父親的靈魂為和平犧牲的,提供被關閉了暫時從視線的上帝。 They were "not so good as to be entitled to eternal happiness". Still, for them "death is the termination not of nature but of sin" (Ambrose, "De obitu Theodos."); and this inability to sin makes them secure of final happiness.他們是“不太好,以有權永恆的幸福。 ”儘管如此,他們“死亡是不會終止的性質,但罪惡” (劉漢銓, “德obitu Theodos 。 ” ) ; ,這無法使他們罪惡的安全最後的幸福。 This is the Catholic position proclaimed by Leo X in the Bull "Exurge Domine" which condemned the errors of Luther.這是天主教會的立場宣布里奧十世的公牛“ Exurge主” ,譴責錯誤路德。

Are the souls detained in purgatory conscious that their happiness is but deferred for a time, or may they still be in doubt concerning their ultimate salvation?是靈魂被關押在煉獄意識到,他們的幸福不過是推遲了一段時間,或可他們仍然受到懷疑其最終的救贖? The ancient Liturgies and the inscriptions of the catacombs speak of a "sleep of peace", which would be impossible if there was any doubt of ultimate salvation.古代Liturgies和題詞的地下墓穴談論“睡眠的和平” ,這是不可能的,如果有任何疑問的最終救贖。 Some of the Doctors of the Middle Ages thought uncertainty of salvation one of the severe punishments of purgatory.一些醫生中世紀思想的不確定性拯救一個嚴厲的懲罰的煉獄。 (Bellarmine, "De Purgat." lib. II, cap. iv); but this opinion finds no general credit among the theologians of the medieval period, nor is it possible in the light of the belief in the particular judgment. (貝拉明, “德Purgat 。 ”解放。二,帽。四) ,但這個意見沒有發現一般信用之間的神學的中世紀時期,它也不是盡可能根據的信念,尤其是判斷。 St. Bonaventure gives as the reason for this elimination of fear and of uncertainty the intimate conviction that they can no longer sin (lib. IV, dist. xx, p.1, a.1 q. iv): "Est evacuatio timoris propter confirniationem liberi arbitrii, qua deinceps scit se peccare non posse" (Fear is cast out because of the strengthening of the will by which the soul knows it can no longer sin), and St. Thomas (dist. xxi, q. i, a.1) says: "nisi scirent se esse liberandas suffragia non peterent" (unless they knew that they are to be delivered, they would not ask for prayers).聖文德給的理由是消除恐懼和不確定性親密的信念,即他們可以不再罪孽( lib.四區。 XX條,第1頁, 37.1問四) : “預測evacuatio timoris propter confirniationem liberi arbitrii ,條件deinceps工商及科技局局長本身非犯罪的波塞“ (恐懼,因為演員的加強將其中的靈魂知道,再也不能罪孽) ,和聖托馬斯( dist. 21 ,問:我,一個.1 )說: “暫準scirent本身存在liberandas suffragia非peterent ” (除非他們知道他們要交付,他們不會要求祈禱) 。

Merit獎金

In the Bull "Exurge Domine" Leo X condemns the proposition (n. 38) "Nec probatum est ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis ipsas esse extra statum merendi aut augendae caritatis" (There is no proof from reason or Scripture that they [the souls in purgatory] cannot merit or increase in charity).在公牛“ Exurge主”里奧十世譴責命題(注38 ) “壞死probatum東方ullis引渡rationibus引渡scripturis國際公共部門會計準則存在額外的statum merendi引渡augendae caritatis ” (沒有任何證據的理由或聖經,他們[的靈魂中煉獄]可以不值得或增加慈善) 。 For them "the night has come in which no man can labour", and Christian tradition has always considered that only in this life can man work unto the profit of his own soul. The Doctors of the Middle Ages while agreeing that this life is the time for merit and increase of grace, still some with St. Thomas seemed to question whether or not there might be some non-essential reward which the souls in purgatory might merit (IV, dist. xxi, q. i, a. 3).對於他們“夜間已經到來,沒有人能勞動” ,和基督教傳統一向認為,只有在此生活工作的人的利潤祂自己的靈魂。醫生中世紀雖然同意,這是生活時間價值和增加的寬限期,還有一些與聖托馬斯似乎問題有沒有可能有一些非必要的獎勵的靈魂在煉獄可能值得(四區。二十一,問:我,字母a. 3 ) 。 Bellarmine believes that in this matter St. Thomas changed his opinion and refers to a statement of St. Thomas ("De Malo", q. vii, a. 11).貝拉明認為,在這個問題上聖托馬斯改變了他的見解和指一份聲明中聖托馬斯( “德馬羅” ,問:七,字母a. 11 ) 。 Whatever may be the mind of the Angelic Doctor, theologians agree that no merit is possible in purgatory, and if objection be urged that the souls there merit by their prayers, Bellarmine says that such prayers avail with God because of merit already acquired "Solum impetrant ex meritis praeteritis quomodo nunc sancti orando) pro nobis impetrant licet non merendo" (They avail only in virtue of past merits as those who are now saints intercede for us not by merit but by prayer).無論心靈的天使醫生,神學家一致認為,沒有任何價值是可能的煉獄,如果反對將敦促靈魂有值得他們祈禱,貝拉明說,利用這種祈禱上帝,因為優點已經獲得“ Solum impetrant前meritis praeteritis quomodo孔培養聖orando )親諾比斯impetrant licet非merendo “ (他們利用只有在過去的美德值得那些現在誰是聖人,我們干預而不是優點,而是由祈禱) 。 (loc. cit. II, cap. iii). (如上。二,帽。三) 。

Purgatorial Fire Purgatorial消防

At the Council of Florence, Bessarion argued against the existence of real purgatorial fire, and the Greeks were assured that the Roman Church had never issued any dogmatic decree on this subject.在理事會的佛羅倫薩,貝薩利昂反對存在的實際purgatorial火,希臘人得到保證,羅馬教會從來沒有發出任何教條主義的法令,關於這個問題的。 In the West the belief in the existence of real fire is common.在西方的信仰存在的真正的火災是常見的。 Augustine in Ps.奧古斯丁在PS 。 37 n. 37注 3, speaks of the pain which purgatorial fire causes as more severe than anything a man can suffer in this life, "gravior erit ignis quam quidquid potest homo pati in hac vita" (PL, col. 397). 3 ,談到痛苦purgatorial火災原因為更嚴厲的比任何一個人可以忍受這種生活, “ gravior erit ignis華富quidquid potest人帕蒂在醋酸的生活” (特等山口。 397 ) 。 Gregory the Great speaks of those who after this life "will expiate their faults by purgatorial flames," and he adds "that the pain be more intolerable than any one can suffer in this life" (Ps. 3 poenit., n. 1). Following in the footsteps of Gregory, St. Thomas teaches (IV, dist. xxi, q. i, a.1) that besides the separation of the soul from the sight of God, there is the other punishment from fire.格里高利大講誰的生活後,這“將贖其故障purgatorial火焰, ”他補充說“的疼痛更不能容忍比任何人可以忍受這種生活” (詩篇第3 poenit 。 ,注1 ) 。以下的足跡,格里高利聖托馬斯教授(四區。二十一,問:我, 37.1 ) ,除了離職的靈魂來自上帝的視線,還有其他懲罰火災。 "Una poena damni, in quantum scilicet retardantur a divina visione; alia sensus secundum quod ab igne punientur", and St. Bonaventure not only agrees with St. Thomas but adds (IV, dist. xx, p.1, a.1, q. ii) that this punishment by fire is more severe than any punishment which comes to men in this life; "Gravior est omni temporali poena. quam modo sustinet anima carni conjuncta". “烏納poena damni ,在量子換句話說retardantur一神聖觀點;特別感覺孔型獄吏從頭igne punientur ”和聖文德不僅同意聖托馬斯,但增加了(四區。 XX條,第1頁, 37.1 ,問:二) ,這一處罰火災更嚴重的是比任何懲罰來在這個男人的生活; “ Gravior東方全方位temporali poena 。華富modo sustinet靈魂卡爾尼conjuncta ” 。 How this fire affects the souls of the departed the Doctors do not know, and in such matters it is well to heed the warning of the Council of Trent when it commands the bishops "to exclude from their preaching difficult and subtle questions which tend not to edification', and from the discussion of which there is no increase either in piety or devotion" (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio").如何影響到這一火災的靈魂離開的醫生不知道,在這些問題以及它是聽從警告,安理會的遄達時的主教的命令“ ,以排除其鼓吹困難和微妙的問題,往往不教化' ,和這方面的討論沒有增加無論是在虔誠或奉獻“ ( Sess.二十五, ”德Purgatorio “ ) 。

V. SUCCOURING THE DEAD五, SUCCOURING死亡

Scripture and the Fathers command prayers and oblations for the departed, and the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio") in virtue of this tradition not only asserts the existence of purgatory, but adds "that the souls therein detained are aided by the suffrages of the faithful and principally by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar."聖經和祈禱父親的命令和oblations的離去,安理會的遄達( Sess.二十五, “德Purgatorio ” )憑藉在這一傳統不僅聲稱存在的煉獄,但補充說“這其中的靈魂是計算機輔助拘留由suffrages的忠實和主要由接受犧牲的祭壇。 “ That those on earth are still in communion with the souls in purgatory is the earliest Christian teaching, and that the living aid the dead by their prayers and works of satisfaction is clear from the tradition above alleged.那些在地球上仍處於共融與靈魂的煉獄是最早的基督教教學,以及生活援助死他們的祈禱和滿意的作品是從傳統的上述指控。 That the Holy Sacrifice was offered for the departed was received Catholic Tradition even in the days of Tertullian and Cyprian, and that the souls of the dead, were aided particularly "while the sacred victim lay upon the altar" is the expression of Cyril of Jerusalem quoted above.羅馬祭祀提供的離開天主教會獲得即使在傳統的日子良和塞浦路斯,而且靈魂的死亡,特別是資助“ ,而神聖的受害者奠定的祭壇”是表達西里爾耶路撒冷上面引述。 Augustine (Serm.. clxii, n. 2) says that the "prayers and alms of the faithful, the Holy Sacrifice of the altar aid the faithful departed and move the Lord to deal with them in mercy and kindness, and," he adds, "this is the practice of the universal Church handed down by the Fathers."奧古斯丁( Serm. 。 clxii ,注2 )說, “祈禱和施捨的忠實,羅馬祭祀的祭壇援助忠實離去,推動勳爵處理這些慈悲和善意,以及, ”他補充道, “這是實踐普世教會流傳的父親。 ” Whether our works of satisfaction performed on behalf of the dead avail purely out of God's benevolence and mercy, or whether God obliges himself in justice to accept our vicarious atonement, is not a settled question.我們的工作是否滿意的名義進行的死亡純粹是利用了上帝的仁慈和憐憫,還是上帝責成本人在司法接受我們的替代贖罪,這不是解決問題。 Francisco Suárez thinks that the acceptance is one of justice, and alleges the common practice of the Church which joins together the living and the dead without any discrimination (De poenit., disp. xlviii, 6, n. 4).弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯認為,接受是一個正義,聲稱共同實踐,教會一道一道的生活和死亡沒有任何歧視(德poenit 。 ,位移。四十八, 6 ,注4 ) 。

VI.六。 INDULGENCES

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXV) defined that indulgences are "most salutary for Christian people" and that their "use is to be retained in the Church".安理會的遄達( Sess. XXV )號決議確定, indulgences是“最有益的基督教人民” ,其“使用要保留在教會” 。 It is the common teaching of Catholic theologians that這是共同的教學天主教神學家認為

indulgences may be applied to the souls detained in purgatory; and that indulgences are available for them "by way of suffrage" (per modum suffragii). indulgences可以適用於被拘留的靈魂在煉獄;和indulgences可供他們“的方式普選” (每modum suffragii ) 。

(1) Augustine (De Civ. Dei, XX, ix) declares that the souls of the faithful departed are not separated from the Church, which is the kingdom of Christ, and for this reason the prayers and works of the living are helpful to the dead. ( 1 )奧古斯丁(德文明。棣,第二十條,九)宣稱的靈魂忠實地離開不脫離教會,這是基督的王國,並為此祈禱和作品的生活,有利於死者。 "If therefore", argues Bellarmine (De indulgentiis, xiv) "we can offer our prayers and our satisfactions in behalf of those detained in purgatory, because we are members of the great body of Christ, why may not the Vicar of Christ apply to the same souls the superabundant satisfaction of Christ and his saints--of which he is the dispenser?" “因此,如果” ,認為貝拉明(德indulgentiis ,十四) “我們可以提供我們的祈禱和我們滿意的代表那些被拘留在煉獄,因為我們是成員的偉大基督的奧體,為什麼可能不是牧師基督適用於同樣的靈魂滿意的過剩是耶穌和他的聖人-他是在配藥? “ This is the doctrine of St. Thomas (IV, Sent., dist. xlv, q. ii, a. 3, q. 2) who asserts that indulgences avail principally for the person who performs the work for which the indulgence is given, if they but secondarily may avail even for the dead, if the form in which the indulgence is granted be so worded as to be capable of such interpretation, and he adds "nor is there any reason why the Church may not dispose of its treasure of merits in favour of the dead, as it surely dispenses it in favour of the living".這是理論,聖托馬斯(四,寄件。區。第四十五,問:二A 3 ,問: 2 )誰主張indulgences主要利用的人誰執行工作的放縱,給出但如果他們可以利用其次即使是死了,如果形式的放縱被授予如此措辭能夠這樣解釋,他說“也不是什麼原因,教會可能不處置其財富值得贊成死了,因為它肯定免除它有利於生活“ 。

(2) St. Bonaventure (IV, Sent., dist. xx, p. 2, q. v) agrees with St. Thomas, but adds that such "relaxation cannot be after the manner of absolution as in the case of the living but only as suffrage (Haec non tenet modum judicii, sed potius suffragii). This opinion of St. Bonaventure, that the Church through its Supreme Pastor does not absolve juridically the souls in purgatory from the punishment due their sins, is the teaching of the Doctors. They point out (Gratian, 24 q. ii, 2, can.1) that in case of those who have departed this life, judgment is reserved to God; they allege the authority of Gelasius (Ep. ad Fausturn; Ep. ad. Episcopos Dardaniae) in support of their contention (Gratian ibid.), and they also insist that the Roman Pontiffs, when they grant indulgences that are applicable to the dead, add the restriction "per modum suffragii et deprecationis". This phrase is found in the Bull of Sixtus IV "Romani Pontificis provida diligentia", 27 Nov. 1447. ( 2 )聖文德(四,寄件。區。 XX條,第2頁,問:五)同意聖托馬斯,但補充說,這種“放鬆不能後的方式為赦免的情況下生活但只作為普選( Haec非modum judicii宗旨,基於potius suffragii ) 。這種意見的聖文德,即通過其教會牧師最高不免除法律的靈魂從煉獄中的懲罰由於他們的罪孽,是教學的醫生。他們指出(格拉提安, 24問:二, 2 , can.1 ) ,在這些情況下誰離開這個生活,判斷是保留給上帝,他們聲稱的權威格拉西( Ep.廣告Fausturn ;內啡肽。廣告。 Episcopos Dardaniae ) ,以支持他們的論點(格拉提安同上) 。 ,他們還堅持認為,羅馬Pontiffs ,當他們給予indulgences是適用於死,新增的限制“每modum suffragii等deprecationis 。 ”這句話是發現紅牛的西斯四“吉普賽Pontificis provida diligentia ” , 1447年11月27號。

The phrase "per modum suffragi et deprecationis" has been variously interpreted by theologians (Bellarmine, "De indulgentiis", p.137).這句話“每modum suffragi等deprecationis ”已不同的解釋,神學(貝拉明, “德indulgentiis ” ,臨137 ) 。 Bellarmine himself says: "The true opinion is that indulgences avail as suffrage, because they avail not after the fashion of a juridical absolution 'quia non prosunt per modum juridicae absolutionis'."貝拉明他說: “真正的看法是,作為indulgences利用普選,因為他們不利用後的時尚司法赦免' quia非prosunt每modum juridicae absolutionis ' 。 ” But according to the same author the suffrages of the faithful avail at times "per modum meriti congrui" (by way of merit), at times "per modum impetrationis" (by way of supplication) at times "per modum satisfactionis" (by way of satisfaction); but when there is question of applying an indulgence to one in purgatory it is only "per modum suffragii satisfactorii" and for this reason "the pope does not absolve the soul in purgatory from the punishment due his sin, but offers to God from the treasure of the Church whatever may be necessary for the cancelling of this punishment".但是,根據同一作者的suffrages的忠實有時利用“每modum迪梅congrui ” (的方式值得) ,有時是“每modum impetrationis ” (的方式祈求) ,有時“每modum satisfactionis ” (方式滿意) ; ,但如果有問題,申請一個放縱一個在煉獄,只有“每modum suffragii satisfactorii ”為此, “教皇並不解除的靈魂從煉獄中的懲罰由於他的罪過,但提供的上帝的財富,無論教會可能有必要取消這一處罰“ 。

If the question be further asked whether such satisfaction is accepted by God out of mercy and benevolence, or "ex justitia", theologians are not in accord - some holding one opinion, others the other.如果這一問題得到進一步詢問是否滿意等接受上帝的憐憫和仁慈,或“前正義” ,神學家不符合-一些持有一種意見認為,其他的其他。 Bellarmine after canvassing both sides (pp. 137, 138) does not dare to set aside "either opinion, but is inclined to think that the former is more reasonable while he pronounces the latter in harmony with piety ("admodum pia").貝拉明拉票後,雙方(第137 ,第138號)也不敢放棄“非此即彼的意見,但傾向於認為前者是更合理的同時,他宣布,後者在和諧與孝道( ” admodum軟“ ) 。

Condition條件

That an indulgence may avail for those in purgatory several conditions are required:一個寬容可以利用那些在煉獄幾個條件要求:

The indulgence must be granted by the pope. There must be a sufficient reason for granting the indulgence, and this reason must be something pertaining to the glory of God and the utility of the Church, not merely the utility accruing to the souls in purgatory. The pious work enjoined must be as in the case of indulgences for the living.寬容必須給予的教宗。必須有一個充分的理由給予寬容,並為此必須有相關的榮耀上帝和公用事業的教會,而不是僅僅產生的效用的靈魂在煉獄。在虔誠的工作必須責成如indulgences的生活。

If the state of grace be not among the required works, in all probability the person performing the work may gain the indulgence for the dead, even though he himself be not in friendship with God (Bellarmine, loc. cit., p. 139).如果國家的寬限期將不屬於必要的工程,在所有的概率表演的人的工作可能獲得的放縱的死亡,即使他本人不會在友誼與上帝(貝拉明,同上。前。 ,第139頁) 。 Francisco Suárez (De Poenit., disp. Iiii, s. 4, n. 5 and 6) puts this categorically when he says: "Status gratiae solum requiritur ad tollendum obicem indulgentiae" (the state of grace is required only to remove some hindrance to the indulgence), and in the case of the holy souls there can be no hindrance.弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯(德Poenit 。 ,位移。至三,第4 ,注5和6 )明確提出本時,他說: “地位gratiae solum requiritur廣告tollendum obicem indulgentiae ” (國家的寬限期是只需要刪除一些障礙到放縱) ,並在案件神聖的靈魂就不會有障礙。 This teaching is bound up with the doctrine of the Communion of Saints, and the monuments of the catacombs represent the saints and martyrs as interceding with God for the dead. The prayers too of the early liturgies speak of Mary and of the saints interceding for those who have passed from this life.這是必然的教學與理論共融的聖人,和紀念碑的地下墓穴代表聖人和烈士在同上帝的死亡。過多的祈禱早日liturgies發言瑪麗和聖人對這些調解誰已經過去了從這個生活。 Augustine believes that burial in a basilica dedicated to a holy martyr is of value to the dead, for those who recall the memory of him who has suffered will recommend to the martyr's prayers the soul of him who has departed this life (Bellarmine, lib. II, xv).奧古斯丁認為,埋葬在教堂致力於一個神聖的烈士是有價值的死,對於那些還記得誰的記憶中他誰遭受了將建議烈士祈禱的靈魂,他誰離開這個生活(貝拉明,解放。二, XV )號決議。 In the same place Bellarmine accuses Dominicus A Soto of rashness, because he denied this doctrine.在同一地點貝拉明指責Dominicus阿德索托的魯莽,因為他否認了這一理論。

VII.七。 INVOCATION OF SOULS援引靈魂

Do the souls in purgatory pray for us?這樣做在煉獄的靈魂祈禱嗎? May we call upon them in our needs? 5月我們呼籲他們在我們的需要? There is no decision of the Church on this subject, nor have the theologians pronounced with definiteness concerning the invocation of the souls in purgatory and their intercession for the living.沒有決定,教會就這個問題,也沒有明顯的神學與定性有關援引靈魂的煉獄和調解的生活。 In the ancient liturgies there are no prayers of the Church directed to those who are still in purgatory.在古代liturgies沒有祈禱的教會向那些誰仍然在煉獄。 On the tombs of the early Christians nothing is more common than a prayer or a supplication asking the departed to intercede with God for surviving friends, but these inscriptions seem always to suppose that the departed one is already with God. St.在墓葬早期的基督教徒沒有更多的共同點比祈禱或祈求要求出發,以調解與上帝的倖存的朋友,但這些銘文似乎總是假定離開一個已經與上帝。街 Thomas (II-II:83:11) denies that the souls in purgatory pray for the living, and states they are not in a position to pray for us, rather we must make intercession for them.托馬斯(二二: 83:11 )否認在煉獄的靈魂祈禱生活,並指出他們是不能夠為我們祈禱,而我們必須為他們調解。 Despite the authority of St. Thomas, many renowned theologians hold that the souls in purgatory really pray for us, and that we may invoke their aid.儘管權威的聖托馬斯,許多著名的神學家認為,在煉獄的靈魂祈禱真的對我們來說,我們可以援引他們的援助。 Bellarmine (De Purgatorio, lib. II, xv,) says the reason alleged by St. Thomas is not at all convincing, and holds that in virtue of their greater love of God and their union with Him their prayers may have great intercessory power, for they are really superior to us in love of God, and in intimacy of union with Him.貝拉明(德Purgatorio ,解放。二,十五)表示,所指控的原因聖托馬斯是完全不具說服力,並認為,在憑藉其更大的上帝的愛和工會向他提供了他們的祈禱可能有很大的intercessory權力,因為他們是真正優於我們在上帝的愛,和親密的同盟了他。 Francisco Suárez (De poenit., disp. xlvii, s. 2, n. 9) goes farther and asserts "that the souls in purgatory are holy, are dear to God, love us with a true love and are mindful of our wants; that they know in a general way our necessities and our dangers, and how great is our need of divine help and divine grace".弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯(德poenit 。 ,位移。四十七,第2 ,注9 )不用更遠,人稱“說,在煉獄的靈魂是神聖的,是親愛的上帝,愛我們提供了一個真正的愛情,並銘記我們的希望;他們知道在一般的方式我們需要和我們的危險,多麼偉大的是我們需要神的幫助和神聖的恩典“ 。

When there is question of invoking the prayers of those in purgatory, Bellarmine (loc. cit.) says it is superfluous, ordinarily speaking, for they are ignorant of our circumstances and condition.當有問題援引禱告者的煉獄,貝拉明(如上。 )說,這是多餘的,通常來講,因為他們是不了解我們的情況和條件。 This is at variance with the opinion of Francisco Suárez, who admits knowledge at least in a general way, also with the opinions of many modern theologians who point to the practice now common with almost all the faithful of addressing their prayers and petitions for help to those who are still in a place of purgation.這是不符合的意見舊金山蘇亞雷斯,誰承認知識至少在一般的方式,也有意見許多現代神學誰點的做法與現在幾乎所有的信徒解決他們的祈禱和請求幫助這些誰仍然在一個地方的下法。 Scavini (Theol. Moral., XI, n. l74) sees no reason why the souls detained in purgatory may not pray for us, even as we pray for one another. Scavini ( Theol.道德。 ,十一,北l74 )認為,沒有理由被拘留的靈魂在煉獄可能不會為我們祈禱,即使我們祈禱彼此。 He asserts that this practice has become common at Rome, and that it has the great name of St. Alphonsus in its favour.他聲稱,這一做法已成為共同在羅馬,而且它具有巨大的名稱聖阿方贊成票。 St. Alphonsus in his work the "Great Means of Salvation", chap.聖阿方在工作中“偉大的救國方法” ,第三章。 I, III, 2, after quoting Sylvius, Gotti, Lessius, and Medina as favourable to his opinion, concludes: "so the souls in purgatory, being beloved by God and confirmed in grace, have absolutely no impediment to prevent them from praying for us. Still the Church does not invoke them or implore their intercession, because ordinarily they have no cognizance of our prayers. But we may piously believe that God makes our prayers known to them".一,三,二,引用導水管後,戈蒂, Lessius ,和麥一樣有利於他的意見,得出結論: “因此,在煉獄的靈魂,是敬愛的上帝,並確認在寬限期,絕對沒有障礙,以防止他們祈禱我們。儘管如此,教會沒有援引懇求他們或他們的調解,因為通常他們沒有認識到我們的祈禱。但是,我們可能會虔誠地相信上帝讓我們祈禱他們知道。 “ He alleges also the authority of St. Catharine of Bologna who "whenever she desired any favour had recourse to the souls in purgatory, and was immediately heard".他還聲稱權威的聖凱瑟琳博洛尼亞誰“每當她想要的任何有利於求助於在煉獄的靈魂,並立即被聽到” 。

VIII.八。 UTILITY OF PRAYER FOR THE DEPARTED實用的祈禱的離去

It is the traditional faith of Catholics that the souls in purgatory are not separated from the Church, and that the love which is the bond of union between the Church's members should embrace those who have departed this life in God's grace.這是傳統信仰的天主教徒認為在煉獄的靈魂沒有脫離教會,而且這是愛的紐帶,工會之間的教會的成員應包括那些誰離開這個生活在上帝的恩典。 Hence, since our prayers and our sacrifices can help those who are still waiting in purgatory, the saints have not hesitated to warn us that we have a real duty toward those who are still in purgatorial expiation.因此,因為我們的祈禱和犧牲,我們可以幫助那些誰仍在等待在煉獄,聖人毫不遲疑地告誡我們,我們有真正的責任誰對那些仍然在purgatorial贖罪。 Holy Church through the Congregation of Indulgences, 18 December 1885, has bestowed a special blessing on the so-called "heroic act" in virtue of which "a member of the Church militant offers to God for the souls in purgatory all the satisfactory works which he will perform during his lifetime, and also all the suffrages which may accrue to him after his death" (Heroic Act, vol. VII, 292). The practice of devotion to the dead is also consoling to humanity and eminently worthy of a religion which seconds all the purest feelings of the human heart. "Sweet", says Cardinal Wiseman (lecture XI), "is the consolation of the dying man, who, conscious of imperfection, believes that there are others to make intercession for him, when his own time for merit has expired; soothing to the afflicted survivors the thought that they possess powerful means of relieving their friend. In the first moments of grief, this sentiment will often overpower religious prejudice, cast down the unbeliever on his knees beside the remains of his friend and snatch from him an unconscious prayer for rest; it is an impulse of nature which for the moment, aided by the analogies of revealed truth, seizes at once upon this consoling belief. But it is only a flitting and melancholy light, while the Catholic feeling, cheering though with solemn dimness, resembles the unfailing lamp, which the piety of the ancients is said to have hung before the sepulchres of their dead."羅馬教會通過教會的Indulgences 12月18日, 1885年,賦予一個特別的祝福所謂的“英勇行為”中憑藉這一“成員的武裝分子提供了教會對上帝的靈魂在煉獄所有令人滿意的作品他將履行在他的一生,也是所有suffrages這可能會產生他去世後“ (英雄法,第二卷。第七章, 292條) 。實踐奉獻死者也是對人類的安慰和非常值得的宗教其中秒所有的純潔感情的人類心臟。 “甜” ,懷斯曼說,樞機主教(講座十一) “ ,是安慰的垂死的人,誰,有意識的缺陷,認為有其他人,使他調解時,他自己的時間價值已經過期;撫慰受災的倖存者認為,他們擁有強大的手段,減輕他們的朋友。第一悲痛的時刻,這種情緒往往會壓倒宗教偏見,垂下的異教徒放在膝蓋旁邊的遺骸他的朋友和他的抓舉從昏迷祈禱休息;這是一個衝動的性質,就目前而言,資助的類比的揭示真理,抓住一次在這個安慰的信仰。但是,這只是一個琥珀和憂鬱的光線,而天主教的感覺,歡呼聲雖然莊嚴dimness ,類似的不懈燈,而虔誠的古人據說掛前sepulchres他們死了。 “

Publication information Written by Edward J. Hanna.出版信息撰稿愛德華漢娜。 Transcribed by William G. Bilton, Ph.D..轉錄由威廉G Bilton ,博士。 In memory of Father George P. O'Neill - Former pastor of St. John the Baptist Church, Buffalo, NY The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.在記憶的父親喬治P奧尼爾-前牧師聖約翰浸信會教堂,布法羅,紐約州的天主教百科全書,卷十二。 Published 1911. 1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat , 1911年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York認可。 +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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